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Life, Works, and Writings of Dr. Jose Rizal (Midterm)

Prepared by: Mr. Rosbert A. Serona Jr.
History or kasaysayan has two important components: salaysay (a narrative or narration
of details) and saysay (a scrutiny or an in-depth analysis on the value of these details).

For example:
Rizal studied in Ateneo de Municipal, a premiere academic institution during the
19thcentury Spanish-Philippine time. (salaysay)
Rizals opportunity to study in Ateneo proves that their family belonged to the
middle class or to the aristocrats. Hence, it showed how education was limited
to those who were wealthy. This limited education policy made the bigger
population ignorant of the ills of the society and such delayed the development
of nationhood and revolution. (saysay)
Without both, you cannot have true history. Ambeth Ocampo (2013)
Reference: Meaning and History: The Rizal Lectures, Ambeth Ocampo, 2013
The concept of nationhood started from the presence of numerous uprisings
against the Spaniards. These uprisings were unsuccessful in putting a unified
entity because the concept of nation was absent. In other words, they did not
see each other as similarly Filipinos but rather different people coming from
different socio-economicclasses.
There were hindrances to the development of nationhood:
1.Lack of communication facilities
2.Limited educational opportunities
3.Suppressing the spread of liberalism
The first Filipinos were the Espaoles-Filipinos or creoles. These were the
Spaniards born in the Philippines. They alone were called Filipinos.
During this particular time:
Your ex-girlfriend/ex-boyfriend in Spanish era: Who are the Filipinos? You (with a
broken heart): Only the Espaoles-Filipinos!
Ex: But why?

You: Because we are wealthy, educated and inclined to Spanish

culture. These are the components of becoming a Filipino. (SpanishPhilippines era)
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NOTE: Thus, in the beginning, the term Filipino had an elitist (being wealthy)
and racialconnotation (speaking only of a particular race, in this case only

Chinese mestizos and urbanized natives
indios or the common tao

With the economic progress of the 18 th and 19th centuries, Chinese mestizos
natives eventually
new principalia and considered to be Filipinos because of wealth and Hispanic
cultural inclinations.
Because of the economic progress, these early Filipinos (creoles, Chinese
mestizos and urbanized natives) have to protect their economic base. The
growth of their economic base was delayed and controlled through the
imposition of restrictive colonial policies. These people noticed this because of
their exposure to liberal ideasgained from the Age of Enlightenment or Reason
and French Revolution.

Liberalism is political doctrine that takes protecting and enhancing the

freedom of theindividual to be the central problem of politics. Liberals
typically believe thatgovernment is necessary to protect individuals from being
harmed by others; but they also recognize that government itself can pose a
threat to liberty. (http://www.britannica.com/topic/liberalism)
Liberalism, as far as the spectrum is concerned, advocates reforms in a
peaceful manner.
Lastly, the grievances of the masses and the self-interests of the rising classes
therefore became the ingredients in the development of a new consciousness of
interests distinct and separate from those of Spain. Until the term Filipino
infused the entire people who are inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago
regardless of education, race, culture, and wealth.

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Reference: A Past Revisted, Renato Constantino

1. Change of Leadership
In 1870, the Provisional Republic of Spain ended and monarchy was restored.
The King was Amadeo Savoy (1871-1873).
Republic: a form of government where officials are elected in office and act as
representative of the people/ known as representative democracy

Monarchy: a form of government where there is only one rulerthe monarch

who is not elected but succession applies only to the same family.



Gov. Gen. Carlos dela Torre

Gov. Gen. Rafael de Izquierdo

Since 1740, soldiers enjoyed certain privilegesexemption from polo/forced

labor and tribute. However, Izquierdo has drawn back these privileges resulting
to the Cavite Mutiny.
Cavite Mutiny
-January 20, 1872
-200 soldiers led by Sergeant Fernando La Madrid
It failed because:
1.There is no reinforcement from Manila
In the absence of reinforcement, it appeared to be suicidal. Logic-wise,200 cannot
be enough because Spain was admittedly a superpower before (the military was
so powerful because the Spain can provide for its weapons though the resources
exhausted from colonies). So, in order to defeat Spain, there should have been a
bigger number of people.
2.The Cavite Mutiny had an overwhelming emotion that it failed to think well.
Izquierdo considered this as a separatist movement or a declaration of a revolution in
order to justify the persecution of patriots who advocated reforms. However, it was
only a local expression of protest against Izquierdos policy of abolishing the
Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora were advocates of secularization. Secularization is
the distribution of parishes to the Filipino priests from Spanish friars. Because this
campaign was distasteful to the friars, they linked the mutiny to the three fathermartyrs. Francisco Salduamade a false statement, after being bribed by the
government, against the three priests. Burgos name was allegedly associated to the
mutineers while

Zamora was a victim of wrong evidence. According to Xiao Chua in his PTV
segment, Xiao Time, Noong ni-raid ang bahay ni Zamora, may nakita silang
sulat at nakasaad sa sulat na kailanganniyang magdala ng bala at
pulbura. Nguni ito pala ay code nilang magkakaibigan sa sugalang bala at
pulbura ay nangangahulugang pera.(Non- verbatim)
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Jose Burgos
Jacinto Zamora
Manila Cathedral
Spaniard born in the Spaniard born in the
Sequence of Death 2nd (next to Saldua) Last/ 4th
Cried; 35 yrs old
Upon hearing the
Lost his mind
accustomed to the 7
idea of death
because he was 72 brilliant among the
yrs. old
Age at death
Complete Name
Parish Priest of

Mariano Gomez
Native of Cavite


Feb. 15, 1872- the court-martial found them guilty of treason (corresponding
penalty: death)
Feb. 16, 1872- the order of judgment was read to them and the next day was
the execution day
The trial of GOMBURZA (injustices)
1. Their lawyers were not the lawyers of their own choice but the choice of the
government who was trying to incriminate them
Example: One of them was Jose Arrieta, a vindictive enemy of Burgos
2.Their lawyers made no effort to acquit them.
3.Their lawyers claimed that the priests confessed to him regarding their guilt but
they didnt
On February 17, 1872, in Bagumbayan, the three priests were executed publicly
through strangulation/garroteit is done through abruptly breaking ones neck.


There was an estimate of 40, 000

men surrounding the platform

where the priests will be executed

Rizal to Ponce: Burgos should have shown the same courage Gomez showed.

Burgos: I am innocent.
Fr. Benito Corominas: So was Jesus Christ.
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Spains colonial policy was unilateralit was only the colonizer who benefited
from the resources of the latter which even contributed to the development of
nationalism, propaganda and revolution.


The Propaganda Movement (1872-1896)

-A peaceful crusade of reforms
-Movement by means of pen and tongue to expose the defects of Spanish rule
Reforms desired by the Propaganda Movement:
1.Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law;
2.Assimilation of the Philippines as a regular province of Spain;
3.Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes;
4.Filipinization of parishes and expulsion of friars; and
5.Human rights for Filipinos
The propagandists
-People who participated in the movement

-The people who came from good families, they were highly intelligent, educated,
patriotic, and courageous.
1.Marcelo H. del Pilar

2.Graciano Lopez Jaena

Lawyer and journalist; he used simple
powerful Tagalog to defend the poor
against the Spanish friars; his audience
the people from cockpits, tienda, and
plaza of Bulakan;
Parodies of:
Our Father
Hail Mary
Apostles Creed
Ten Commandments
(Dasalan at Tocsohan)
He flee the country in 1880.
Greatest orator of the Propaganda
Movement; he wrote the Fray Botod in
manuscript which depicted the abuses
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3. Jose Rizal
4. Mariano Ponce
5. Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo
6. Dr. Pedro A. Paterno
7. Antonio Luna
8. Jose Ma. Panganiban
9. Jose Alejandrino
10. Isabelo delos Reyes

and vices of the friars

Wrote the Noli Me Tangere and El
Medical student and biographical writer
Masters of brush (art/ painting)
Lawyer and man of letters
Pharmacist and essayist
Linguist and essayist
Engineer and political writer
Folklorist, newspaperman, and scholar

Three Groups:
2.Young Men/ Illustrado
1. Circulo Hispano Filipino (September
- Founded by Don Juan Atayde in
Madrid (liberal Spaniard)
- It is a civic association which aided

1. El Eco Filipino (1872)
- Periodical magazine published in
Spain which first aired the demands
for reforms of the Filipinos

the Filipino propagandists

- It was a short-lived organization
because of (1) lack of funds (2)
of trust to the leadership of Atayde
2. Asociacion Hispano-Filipino (Jan. 12,
Spanish-dominated civic
- Founded by Miguel Morayta; Rizals
professor in Central University of
- Successful in the passage of the
Maura Law- compulsory
of Spanish language
- Campaigned for judicial reforms
and Phil. Representation to the
- Did not succeed because of lack of
support from Rizal and del Pilar
3. La Solidaridad
Purely Filipino organization
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2. Revista del Circulo Hispano-Filipino

- The newspaper was organized by
the Circulo Hispano-Filipino

3. La Solidaridad
- It was apolitical propaganda paper
with a liberal reformist orientation

-Dec. 13, 1888

P: Galiciano Apacible (Rizals cousin)
VP: Graciano Lopez Jaena Trea: Mariano Ponce Honorary President: Jose Rizal
N.B. The La Solidaridad and Moraytas
Asociacion Hispano Filipino had their joint ventures in lobbying to the Ministry of
1.Philippine representation in Spanish Cortes
2.Abolition of censorship of the press
3.Prohibition of deportation of citizens only through administrative orders

dedicated to the task of fighting reactionaries in all forms

- Feb. 15, 1889 to Nov. 15. 1895
They demanded for:
1.Freedom of press, of speech and of assembly
2.Equality before the law
3.Participation in the Spanish govt
4.Social and political freedom
5.Reforms in the three branches of government
6.Promotion of education
7.Discontinuance of the abuses of the Guardia Civil
8.End to subjective deportation of citizens
First editor: Graciano Lopez Jaena Second editor: M.H. del Pilar (Dec. 15, 1889Nov. 15, 1895)
The contributors of the La Solidaridadwere mostly Filipinos, such as
1.Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel)
2.Dr. Jose Rizal (Laon Laan)
3.Mariano Ponce (Naning, Kalipulo, Tigbalang)
4.Antonio Luna (Taga Ilog)
5.Jose Ma. Panganiban (Jomapa)
6.Dr. Pedro Paterno
7.Antonio Ma. Regidor
8.Isabelo delos Reyes
9.Eduardo de Lete
10.Jose Alejandrino
Some friends of the Propaganda Movement also contributed notably Professor
Blumentritt (Austrian ethnologist) and Dr. Morayta (Spanish Historian, university
professor and statesman).
In the last issue of La Solidaridad(November 15, 1895), M.H. del Pilar wrote his
farewell editorial saying :

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We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation
that is oppressed by slavery.

Certainly an important factor limiting the influence of the propagandists was the
fact that they wrote in Spanish, a language virtually unknown to the masses.
Furthermore, censorship seriously limited the inflow of such reading matter and
made possession of it very risky.
4. La Liga Filipina
At this juncture, Rizal stepped into the picture and proposed the founding of
another civic society. He had prepared a constitution for this society while
atHongkong and now he thought that the time has come for concrete action.
On the night of July 3, 1892, at a house in Tondo, Rizal founded and
inaugurated La Liga Filipina. Elected were Ambrosio Salvador, President; Agustin
de la Rosa, Fiscal; Bonifacio Arevalo, Treasurer; and Deodato Arellano, Secretary.
As listed in the constitution Rizal prepared, the Liga's aims were:
1.To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous
2.Mutual protection in every want and necessity;
3.Defense against all violence and injustice;
4.Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce; and
5.Study and application of reforms.
As Rizal envisioned it, the league was to be a sort of mutual aid and selfhelpsociety dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and
setting up cooperatives. These were innocent, even naive objectives that could
hardly alleviate the social ills of those times, but
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the Spanish authorities were so alarmed that they arrested Rizal on

July 6, 1892.
The Split
At first the Liga was quite active. Bonifacio in particular exerted great efforts to
organize chapters in various districts of Manila. A few months later, however,
the Supreme Council of the Liga dissolved the society. The reformist leaders
found out that most of the popular councils which Bonifacio had organized were
no longer willing to send funds to the Madrid propagandists because, like
Bonifacio, they had become convinced that peaceful agitation for reforms was
futile. Afraid that the more radical rank and file members might capture the
organization and unwilling to involve themselves in an enterprise which would
surely invite reprisals from the authorities, the leaders of the Liga opted for
dissolution. The Liga membership split into two groups: the conservatives
formed the Cuerpo de Compromisarios which pledged to continue supporting

the La Solidaridad while the radicals led by Bonifacio devoted themselves to a

new and secret society, the Katipunan, which Bonifacio had organized on the
very day Rizal was deported to Dapitan.
1.The Philippines: A Past Revisted, Renato Constantino
2.Meaning and History: The Rizal Lectures, Ambeth Ocampo, 2013
3.The Philippines: A Unique Nation. Dr. Sonia M. Zaide
4.History of the Filipino People. Teodoro A. Agoncillo
To value your education; is to value our parents. 03-26-16
Good luck!

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