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lg/f]lkt e"ldsf k"/f ePdf dfq ;\u7gsf] cf}lrTo k'li6 x'G5 .
t/ ;Q/L k|ltzt ;j{;fwf/0fx? -hf] ;fj{hlgs lgsfosf ;]jfu|fxL x'g\_ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g
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k|zf;gsf ;Dk"0f{ lqmofsnfkx? lglZrt p2]Zo k|fKtLdf cu|;/ u/fO{ k|zf;g ;~rfng ug]{
kl/kf6L g} glthfd'ns k|zf;g xf] . ;\u7g nIo k|flKtsf nflu g} :yflkt xG5 t/ o;sf x/]s
lqmofsnfkx?n] :yflkt nIonfO{ k|i6tM ;+jf]wg u/]sf] x'g'kb{5, clgdfq ;xh ?kdf nIo k|fKt
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glthfd'ns k|zf;g x'G5 . ;\u7gn] ;Lldt ;fwg ;|f]tsf] cTo'Qd pkof]u dfkm{t df}lb|s d"No
;fy{stf -Value for money_ k'li6 ug'{ kb{5 . clgdfq ;\u7g / o;sf lqmofsnfksf] cf}lrTo
k'li6 x'G5 eGg] dfGotf glthfd"ns k|zf;gsf] /xG5 . csf]{ cy{df of] pknAwL s]Gb|Lt k|zf;g
-Performance oriented Administration_ xf] .
glthfd"ns k|zf;g -Joj:yfkg_ nfO{ sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL Joj:yfkg klg eGg] ul/G5 . Joj:yfkgljb
Andre de Waal sf cg';f/ of] nIo k|flKtsf] /0fgLlts / l;nl;n]jf/ k|lqmof xf] hxfF lqmofsnfkx?
lglZrt nIo z[\vnfdf cfj4 x'G5g\ -the process where steering of the organization take place
through the systematic definition of mission, strategies and objectives of the organization,
making these measurable through critical success factors and key performance indicators, in
order to be able to take corrective actions to keep the organization on track : Wall :2007_ .
glthfd"ns k|zf;g k/Dk/fut ?kdf /fd|f] dflgPsf] hfGg] k|zf;g-knowing administration_ af6
clxn]sf] dfucg'?k ug]{ k|zf;g-Doing administration_ df k'Ug] af6f] xf] . To;}n] of] k/Dk/fut
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf gjLg cled'vLs/0f xf] .

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;fy glbP;Dd glthf k|fKt ug{ ;lsb}g . jf:tjdf k|zf;g leqsf] Joj:yfkg cled'vLs/0fn]
g} k|zf;gnfO{ glthfk/s agfpg ;Qm5 . To;}n] k|zf;g hfg]/ xf]Og, u/]/ g} glthfd'vL x'G5
-not knowing, but doing_ eGg] cjwf/0ffn] dxTj kfPsf] xf] . lgs of]\usf cg';f/ glthfpGd'v
Joj:yfkgn] ;\u7gsf] uGtJosf] kl/efiff / lqmofsnfksf] lglb{i6tf dfkm{t :yflkt nIo k|flKtnfO{
;xof]u k'ofpFb5 -Result oriented management helps define your direction to achieve your goal
and the route you take_ . of] Pp6f k|lqmofsf ?kdf /xG5 h;n] ;\u7gsf lqmofsnfknfO{ lgof]lht
vfsfdf ultzLn agfpg] ub{5 . /fi6;\3Lo ;d"xn] ;\u7gsf ;j} e"ldsf lgjf{xstf{nfO{ :yflkt
nIo k|flKtsf nflu /0fgLlts k|lqmofdf k|ToIf jf k/f]If ;+nUg u/fpg] / pknAwL k|flKtdf ;xof]u
k'ofpg] jftfj/0f agfpg] Joj:yfkg /0fgLltsf ?kdf lnPsf] kfOG5 -Result based management
is a management strategy by which all actors on the grounds, contributing directly or indirectly
to achieving a set of development results, ensure their process, product and services contribute
to the achievement of desire results (output, outcome and goal) .
glthfd'vL k|zf;g -Joj:yfkg_ sf] cjwf/0ff k|zf;gnfO{ pQ/bfoL / hgd'vL agfpg] cleofgsf
?kdf cfPsf] xf] . k|zf;gn] cfkm\gf ;]jfu|fxLsf cfjZostfnfO{ cg'e"t txdf ;+jf]wg gu/]sf] /
p;nfO{ ;'lDkPsf] ;|f]t ;fwg / zlQmk|lt ;+j]bgzLn gePsf]n] p;n] s] ug{'kg]{ lyof] / ;f] s;/L
k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ljifodf Jojl:yt k|of; ug{ glthfd'vL k|zf;g cfjZos dflgPsf] xf] .
k|zf;gnfO{ ;'lDkPsf] ;|f]t ;fwg / zlQm glthfsf nflu xf] / To;k|lt hjfkmb]xL x'g' -Result
accountability_ k|zf;gsf] klxnf] bfloTj xf] . To;}n] glthfd'vL Joj:yfkg eGg' :yflkt p2]Zosf
;fk]Iodf ;\u7gsf lqmofsnfk lgwf{l/t Pj+ lgb]{lzt ug]{ k|lqmof xf] -Result based management
rests on clearly defined accountability for results and requires monitoring and self assessment
of progress towards results, including reporting on performance :UNDG: 2010_ .
k|zf;gnfO{ p2]Zod'vL / ljsf;k/s agfpg] k|of;;fy glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff ljsf;
ePsf] xf] . ;g\ !(%) sf] bzsaf6 p2]Zod'vL Joj:yfkg -Management by objectives_ sf] k|fl1s
cjwf/0ff cfof] . o;n] Joj:yfkgsf] sfd g} p2]Zo cg'?ksf] pknAwL xfl;n ug'{ xf] eGg] dfGotf
:yflkt uof], h;nfO{ ;fj{hlgs If]q ;'wf/sf] tTsfnLg /0fgLltsf] ?kdf :jLsfl/of] . To;}u/L
;f7Lsf] bzsdf z'? ePsf] gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g -ljsf; k|zf;g_ sf] cjwf/0ffn] ljsf;
k|zf;gsf] kl/efiff -nIod'vLsfo{d'vL k|zf;g_ u/L ljsf;sf] k|zf;g ug{ k|zf;gsf] Ifdtf
ljsf; ul/g' kb{5 eGg] csf]{ /0fgLlt cl3 ;fl/of] . ljsf; ;fem]bf/ / /fi6;+3Lo Ph]G;Lx?n]
t];|f] ljZjsf] ljsf;sf nflu ljsf; Joj:yfkg ;'wf/ ug{ gLlt, Joj:yfkg / sfo{k|lqmof ;'wf/
ug{] sfo{;"rL cl3 ;f/] . To;kl5 cfPsf cGo cjwf/0ffx? / gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgjfb,

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pknAwLd'vL, hjfkmb]xL, u|fxsd'vL / d"Nos]Gb|Lt agfpg ;xof]u k'ofpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . oL
cleofgx? cjwf/0ffdf s'g} g s'g} ?kdf glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf cleofg x'g\ . h;n] k|zf;lgs
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;fwg / kl/0ffdaLr :ki6 ;DaGw sfod u/fpg of]ubfg k'ofpFb} cfPsf 5g\ .

k|zf;g lsg glthfd'vL ePg <


lghL If]qsf] k|zf;gdf h:tf] ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] k|zf;g ;lhn} b]Vg ;lsg] xF'b}g . o;sf] cfEofGtl/s
rl/q / sfo{ ljz]iftfsf sf/0f of] ;lhn} glthfpGd'v aGg ;Qm}g . ;fj{hlgs If]q Joj:yfkg
cfkm}df hl6n sfo{ xf] . o;leq p2]Zodf /xg] ax'ntf / ciki6tf, hjfkmb]lxtfsf] 3'dfp/f]kg /
sfo{;Dkfbg ;DaGw Pj+ pknAwL d"Nof\sgsf] hl6ntfsf sf/0f lghLIf]qsf] h;/L ;lhn} glthf
pTkfbg ug{ ;lsb}g . t/ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gk|lt cfd;j{;fwf/0fsf] ck]Iff eg] c;Lldt x'g] ub{5 .
;fdfGotM ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g glthfd'vL gb]lvg'df o;leq l5k]/ /x]sf oL ljz]iftfx? k|d'v ?kdf
lhDd]jf/ b]lvG5g\ M
k|zf;gsf] sfo{z}nL sd{rf/LtGqLo -Bureaucratic_ 5 . Role Distribution, Authority
Concentration / Formalism sf] rl/qn] k|zf;gsf] sfo{z}nL sfo{;Dkfbgd'vLglthfd'vL
ge} sd{rf/LtGqLo x'g uof] .
k/Dk/fut k|zf;gn] pknAwL -Performance_ df eGbf OdfGbfl/tf -Probity_df Wofg
lbof] . k|zf;lgs kbflwsf/Ln] lg/f]lkt e"ldsf lgjf{x ubf{ jf ;|f]t ;fwg k|of]u ubf{
OdfGbfl/tf gb]lvPdf sfjf{xL x'G5 t/ glthf k|fKt gx'Fbf sfjf{xL x'Fb}g . o; k/Dk/fn] ubf{
k|zf;gdf Performance eGbf Probity df Wofg lbg] k|j[QL b]vf kof] .
k|zf;gsf] csf]{ rl/q cfkm\g} ;]jfdf /dfpg] -Self-serving_ x'g' klg xf] . o;n] Putting
the people last u/fof] . h;sf] nflu kbflwsf/Lx? sfo{ u5{g, pgLx?k|lt ;dk{0fefj
/fVgdf eGbf cfk\m\g} p2]Zo / rfvk|lt lqmofzLn x'g], ;'ljwfdf /dfpg] t/ sfddf nhfpg]
-Action shy, Comfort loving_ sf] k|j[lQ df b]lvP .
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] cfwf/e"t rl/q g} ;fdflhs Gofo ljt/0f -Equity distribution_ ug]{
xf], sfo{s'zntf -Efficiency_ b]vfpg]eGbf klg . To;}n] k|zf;gsf] sfo{s'zntf ;xh /
k|i6 b]lvb}g .
sltko cj:yfdf k|zf;gsf] ;kmntf cg'e"ltdf /xG5, kl/df0fdf xf]Og . cg'e"lt
kl/df0fdf vf]lhg] / ;lhn} dfkg ug{ ;lsg] ljifo klg xf]Og . k|zf;gsf ;]jfu|fxL
ljleGg :t/sf x'g] ePsfn] o;nfO{ dfkgsf] ;femf dfkb08 :yfkgf ug{ klg ;lsb}g .

k|zf;sLo k|0ffnLleq Jofj;flos bIftf / k]zfut g}ltstfsf s'/fx? ;lhn} leq\ofpg


klg ;lsb}g . lsgsL ;dfg cj;/, ;sf/fTds lje]b, cf/If0f h:tf cjwf/0ffsf] k|of]u
/ dfgj ;fwg ljsf; Pj+ cfr/0f ;'wf/sf sfo{df k'ofpg kg]{ sfg"gL k|lqmof pknAwL
Joj:yfkgdf csf]{ cj/f]w b]lvG5 .
k|zf;gsf] k/Dk/fut rl/q 3'dfp/f] / ciki6 hjfkmb]lxtf ;DaGw -Blurred Accountability
Relation_ df /xg' klg xf] . h;sf sf/0f k|zf;lgs kbflwsf/L ;|f]t ;fwg / zlQmk|lt
l;wf hjfkmb]xL x'gdf afwf k'U5 . lghLIf]qdf of] :ki6 / /]vLo -Linear_ x'G5 .
t/ olt x'Fbf x'Fb}klg ;j{;fwf/0f a9\bf] dfu ;fdYo{ / cfGtl/s Pj+ jfXo kl/j]zsf r'gf}tLsf sf/0f
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdfly k|lt:kwf{Tdstf ljsf; / glthf Joj:yfkgdf lg/Gt/ rfk kb}{ cfPsf]
5 . kl/0ffdtM ;j} d'n'ssf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g cj /0fgLlts ;f]rsf ;fy glthfd"ns Joj:yfkg
cjnDjgdf nfluk/]sf 5g\ .

glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf dfu ;h{s kIfx?


;fj{hlgs If]qnfO{ hgd'vL tyf nfutk|efjL agfO{ kl/jlt{t cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ g}
glthfd'vL Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff cEof;df cfPsf] xf] . ;fj{hlgs ;|f]t ;fwg / ;j{;fwf/0fsf]
k|fyldstfaLr k|ToIf cfj4 u/fpg' ;fj{hlgs If]q ;'wf/sf] k|d'v /0fgLlt xf] . glthfd'vL k|zf;g
oxL /0fgLltsf] Pp6f efusf ?kdf cfPsf] xf] . ;fj{hlgs If]qnfO{ glthfd'vL agfpg oL sf/s
kIfn] dfu tyf bjfj l;h{gf u/]sf] xf] eGg ;lsG5 M
hgr]tgf
cGt/fli6o sfo{;"rL
;j{;fwf/0f / gLlt lgdf{tfsf] k|zf;gk|ltsf] c;Gt'li6
k|fl1s vf]h tyf cg';Gwfg
ljZjJofkLs/0f
sfo{;+:s[lt kl/jt{g
;f\u7lgs k'gjf]{w
;|f]t ;fwgsf] Go"gtf

k|ToIf pQ/bfloTj
ljsf; ;fem]bf/sf gLlt zt{x?
k|lt:kwf{Tds jftfj/0f .

glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf dfGotfx?


k/Dk/fut k|zf;g / glthfd'vL k|zf;g aLrsf] leGgtf g} Ps csf{n] /fVg] dfGotfaLrsf] leGgtf
xf] . glthfd'vL k|zf;g k|zf;lgs ;+/rgf, sfo{;+:s[lt / Jojxf/nfO{ sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL agfpg
lglb{i6 x'G5 . of] k/Dk/fut dfGotf / ;f]raf6 dfly p7]/ sfo{d'vLnIod'vL x'G5 . of] gf}nf]
ljifoa:t' geP/ k|zf;gnfO{ ;]jfd'vLsfo{d'vL agfpg] 9fFrf dfq xf] . ;\u7gsf] nIo x'G5 t/
Tof] nIo / k|zf;gsf sfdaLr af:tljs cfj4tf ePg eg] k|zf;g cfnf]lrt x'g] dfq xf]Og,
;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx?sf] cf}lrTo dfly g} k|Zg p7\g] ub{5 . To;}n] glthfd'vL k|zf;gn] s]xL dfGotf
:yfkgf u/L k|zf;lgs sfo{Jojxf/nfO{ :yflkt nIo;Fu lglb{i6 ug]{ ub{5 .

k|zf;lgs sfo{nfO{ /0fgLlts vfsf -Strategic orientation_ df x]l/g' kb{5 . ;\u7gn] s]


ug'{kg]{ xf], To;sf] sfo{ljj/0f, ;do;Ldf ;|f]tsf] :ki6tfsf;fy sfo{kl/efiff ul/g' kb{5 .

k|zf;lgs lqmofsnfksf] glthf ;"rs -Performance indicators_ lgwf{/0f ul/g' kb{5 tf


ls ul/g'kg]{ sfo{, ug{ vf]lhPsf] sfo{ / ul/Psf] sfo{aLr :ki6 t'ngf ug{ ;lsof];\ . ;fy}
ul/g'kg]{ sfo{ / ul/Psf] sfo{aLr ljifofGt/ ePdf To;nfO{ ;'wfg{ ;lsof];\ .

k|zf;lgs sfo{ glthfnfO{ dfkg ul/Psf] x'g'kb{5 . glthfdf dfkg ul/Pg eg] ;kmntf
/ c;kmntf 5'6\ofpg ;lsb}g . -if you don't measure results, you can't tell success from
failure_.

;kmntfnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ul/g' kb{5 . ;kmntfnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ul/Pg eg] ljkmntfn] dfGotf
kfPsf] x'g;S5 . -if you can't reward success, you are probably reward failure_ .

;kmntfaf6 l;Sg] afgL j;fNg' k5{, cGoyf k|0ffnL ;'wfg{ ;lsb}g . -if you can't see
success, you can't learn from it_ .

sdhf]/L ;'wf/ k|lqmof yfngL x'gk' b{5 . sdhf]/L lrGg ;lsPg eg] ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsb}g .
-If you can't recognize failure, you can't correct it_

pknAwLsf] k|bz{gaf6 ;dy{g lng'kb{5 . ;kmntfsf] hfgsf/L ePdf dfq ;]jfu|fxL /


;j{;fwf/0f k|zf;gsf] sfddf ;dy{g ug{ ;S5g\ -If you can demonstrate results, you
can win public support_ .

k|zf;gsf ;Dk"0f{ k|of; glthf s]Gb|Lt -Output focused_ x'g'kb{5 .

oL dfGotfsf cfwf/df klg xfdL s] eGg ;S5f}+ eg] glthfd'vL k|zf;g k|zf;lgs ;+oGqsf]
cled'vLs/0fnfO{ sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL k|lqmofdf n}hfg] cleofg / lg/Gt/ cu|;/tf xf] . ;f7Lsf]
bzs cl3 k|zf;g lgoGq0fd'vL -Command Based_ lyof], ;f7Laf6 o;dfly nIo cled'vLs/0f
-Goal Orientation_df nluof] . ;Q/Lsf] cGtdf lghLIf]qsf] sfo{z}nL -Businesslike_ nfO{ hf]8
lbOof] . h;n] k|lt:kwf{TdstfnfO{ lgs} dxTj lbg yfn]sf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf oL k|j[lQut
kl/jt{gn] sfo{;Dkfbg Joj:yfkgnfO{ /0fgLlts k|lqmofdf lnPsf] :ki6 b]Vg ;lsG5 . kljq
;/sf/ -Probity Management_ eGbf b]lvg] / cg'e"t ug{ ;lsg] ;/sf/ -Visible government_
sf] dfu glthfd'ns k|zf;gn] ug]{ x'gfn] o;sf ;Dk"0f{ lqmofsnfk leq s] slt, sxFf s;/L
eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/ vf]Hg s]Gb|Lt x'G5 . pNn]lvt dfGotfx? klg k|Zff;gnfO{ s;/L sfo{d'vL eGg]
;Gbe{df s]Gb|Lt 5g\ .

glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf k"j{zt{x?

(Pre condition of Result oriented administration)

lglZrt cfwf/zLnf :yfkgf gu/L glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf] sNkgf;Dd ug{ ;lsb}g . of] Pp6f
36gfd"ns sfo{ -Event based_ ge} lg/Gt/tfsf] z[\vnf -Continuous process_ xf] h;df lgDg
k"j{zt{ -cfwf/lznf_ x? /xg' kb{5, cGoyf k|zf;g glthfd"ns x'g ;Qm}g M
:ki6 nIo lgwf{/0f -Clear Goal_
cfwf/ tYof\s -Baseline Data_
;]jfsfo{ dfkb08 lgwf{/0f -Service Standard_
kl/0ffdd'vL ;f]r / sfo{;+:s[lt -Output Orientation_
;/f]sf/L ;d"xsf] ;xefuLtf ;'lglZrt ug]{ k|0ffnL -stakeholders Participation_
t'ngf / ahf/ k/LIf0f -Market testing_
nIof]Gd'vL ah]6 -Programme Budgeting_
lqmofsnfkut nfut lgwf{/0f -Activity Based Costing_

Joj:yfkg :jtGqtf -Management Autonomy_


k|ToIf pQ/bfloTj -Direct Accountability_
sfo{;Dkfbg ;"rgf k|0ffnL -Performance Based Information System_
glthf / k|lt:kwf{TdstfnfO{ k|f]T;fxg -reward for result_

glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf l;nl;n]jf/ sfo{


glthfd'vL k|zf;g o:tf] Joj:yfkg kl/kf6L xf] hxfF ljleGg lqmofsnfkx? lgwf{l/t l;nl;nfdf
/xG5g\ h;n] ;Dkfbg ug{ vf]lhPsf] sfdsf nflu e/kbf]{ cfwf/ v8f ub{5 . of] k|fl1s sfo{
xf]Og, Jofj;flos lqmofsnfk xf] h;n] ;\u7gsfo{qmdsf] nIob]lv lqmofsnfk / o;sf nflu
cfjZos ;fwg;|f]taLr tfls{s ;DaGw :yfkgf ub{5 . ;fdfGotM lqmofsnfkut z[\vnfleq lgDg
sfo{x? ;d]l6g' kb{5 M
/0fgLlts nIfsf] :yfkgf -Strategic vision setting_ M s'g} ;\u7g jf sfo{qmdsf] vf;
k|sf/sf] p2]Zo x'G5 . To;nfO{ ljz]ifLs[t ul/g' kb{5 . c:ki6 p2]Zo jf p2]Zo ljgfsf
sfo{;Dkfbg glthfd'vL x'b}g . ;Dej ePdf p2]Zo ;doj4 x'g' kb{5 .
lqmofsnfk lgwf{/0f -Activities setting_ M ;\u7g jf sfo{qmdsf] p2]Zo k|flKtsf nflu tL
p2]ZonfO{ k|ToIf ;Djf]wg x'g]u/L lqmofsnfk lgwf{/0f ul/g' kb{5 .
u'0f:t/ lgwf{/0f;"rs lgwf{/0f -Output indicators_ M lqmofsnfkaf6 s] k|fKt ug{
vf]lhPsf] ;f] :ki6 kfg{ glthf -jf sfo{;Dkfbg_ ;"rs lgwf{/0f ul/g' kb{5 tf ls
;Dkflbt sfdnfO{ ;xL ?kdf dfkg ug{ ;lsof];\ . oL ;"rsx? ljleGg k|sf/sf x'g
;Qm5g\ / ;j} lgsfonfO{ ;dfg ?kdf nfu" gx'g klg ;Sb5g\ h:tf] ls M
P glthfc;/ ;"rs -Output-outcome indicators_
P sfo{s'zntfk|efjsfl/tf ;"rs -Efficiency Effectiveness Indicators_
P ;dGofo ;"rs -Equity Indicators_
P sfo{qmd lbuf]kgf ;"rs -Sustainability Indicators_
P pkef]Qmf ;Gt'li6 ;"rs -Client satisfaction survey_
P :sf]/ sf8{ -Balanced score card-business like entity_

ah]6 lgwf{/0f -Budget allocation to output deliver_ M nIo, lqmofsnfk / ck]lIft glthf
lgwf{/0f ul/;s]kl5 To;nfO{ k|ToIf ;dy{g ug]{ ah]6 lgwf{/0f ul/G5 h;n] vf; ;do;Ldf
leq lqmofsnfkx? ;Dkfbg ug{ ;3fp k'uf];\ .
lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTj lgwf{/0f -Setting responsibility_ M sf] JolQm s'g lqmofsnfkk|lt
lhDd]jf/ 5 ;f]sf] lgwf{/0f geP;Dd glthf k|fKt ug{ ;ljFmb}g . To;}n] ;\u7gleq
lhDd]jf/Lsf] :ki6 kl/efiff ul/g' cfjZos 5 . lhDd]jf/Lsf] kl/efiff ul/;s]kl5
sfo{;Dkfbg :jfoQtf csf]{ k"j{ zt{ xf] . o;n] sfdk|lt JolQmsf] :jfefljs :jfldTj klg
:yfkgf ub{5 .
glthfpknAwL d"Nof\sg k|0ffnL -Performance evaluation and reporting system_ M
sfo{;Dkfbg glthf k|fKt ug{ ;lsof] ;lsPg, ;lsPsf] eP s'g :t/df / slt eof]
eGg] dfkg ;doj4 ?kdf ul/g' kb{5 . jf:tljs ?kdf k|zf;g glthfd'vL eof] ePg
eg]/ x]l/g] r/0f oxL xf] . k/Dk/fut k|zf;sLo ;\u7gleqsf] ;d:of s] klg xf] eg]
sfo{;Dkfbgsf] cg'udg, d"Nof\sg ul/b}g, ul/P klg Tof] lgs} ;Lldt / cf}krfl/s x'g]
ub{5 .
glthfdf cfwfl/t k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL -Reward on the basis of result_ M ;Dkflbt sfdaf6
pNn]Vo glthf k|fKt ePdf ;f] k|lqmofdf ;+nUg JolQmnfO{ k|f]T;fxg dfkm{t k|0ffnLsf]
lbuf]kgf ;'lglZrt ul/G5 . o; r/0fnfO{ yk k|lt:kwf{ ljsf;sf] r/0fsf ?kdf lng]
ul/G5 .
lg/Gt/ ;'wf/ k|0ffnL Ifdtf ljsf; -Continuous reform & capacity development_M
k|zf;gn] sfd ug]{ kl/j]z ultzLn 5 / k|zf;gsf ;]jfu|fxLx?sf] rfxgf / rfv klg
lg/Gt/ ?kdf ultzLn 5g\ . cfhsf] k|zf;gn] ef]ln ToxL ?kdf ;kmntf xfl;n u5{
eGg ;lsFb}g . k|zf;gsf] g}lts lhDd]jf/L s] klg xf] eg] cfheGbf ef]ln p emg} ;Ifd
x'g' kb{5 . o;y{ lg/Gt/ ;'wf/sf nflu Ifdtf ljsf;, k|0ffnL ;zQmLs/0f / cu|;/tf
ljsf; ul/g' kb{5 .
glthfd"ns ;+:s[lt lgdf{0f -Designing performance culture_ M -sfo{k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL,
;dembf/L ljsf;, k|jl[ Q lgdf{0f_ M ;+/rgfut kl/jt{gn] dfq k|zf;g sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL
x'b}g . o;sf nflu sfo{;+:s[lt, Jojxf/ / cfgLjfgL kl/jt{g ug'{ kb{5 . t/ of] sfo{ lgs}
hl6n / nuftf/sf] k|lqmofdf /xG5 .

Culture change for Result Oriented Administration


Project Driven
Policy Driven
Process orientation
Result Orientation
Low Level specialized expertise
Clear competency profile
Low knowledge based capacity
Innovative and information technology
Risk aversion
networked capacity
Inverted, sceptical of partnership
Risk taking
Cumbersome decision making
Outward looking, Partnership oriented
Bureaucratic culture
Real time decision making
Weak management accountability
Merit rewarding and initiative driven
culture
Responsive management

glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf pks/0fx?


;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ glthfd'vL agfpg ljleGGf cjwf/0ff tyf pks/0fsf] k|of]u xF'b} cfPsf] 5 .
;f7Lsf] bzsdf cl3 ;fl/Psf] gofF ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g -ljsf; k|zf;g_, p2]Zod'vL Joj:yfkg
-Management by objective_, gofF ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ffn] k|zf;gnfO{ hgd'vL /
sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL agfpg] clek|fo /fv]sf] lyof] . gJj]sf] bzssf] ;'zf;g / ;/sf/sf] k'gjf]{wsf]
cjwf/0ffn] ;]jfu|fxLsf cfjZostfnfO{ k|ToIf ;+jf]wg ug]{ clek|fo /fVg k'Uof] . of]hgfj4 ljsf;sf
k|of;x?n] ;|f]t ;fwgnfO{ Jojl:yt k|of]u dfkm{t df}lb|s d"No ;fy{stf -Value for money_ sf]
cf}lrTo k"/f ug]{ dfGotfnfO{ ljleGg pks/0fx? dfkm{t cjnDjg ug{ k'Uof] . clxn] glthfd'vL
k|zf;gnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ oL pks/0f tyf k|ljlwx? pkof]udf NofOg] ul/G5 M
/0fgLlts of]hgf Joj:yfkg -Strategic plan/Management_
sfo{qmdd"ns ah]6 k|0ffnL -Progamme Budgeting_
If]qut Jofj;flos of]hgf -Sectoral Business Plan_
Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnL -Performance Management System_
sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog of]hgf -Action plan_
sfo{;Dkfbg ;"rsx? -Output Indicators_
sfo{qmd cg'udg, k'g/fjnf]sg tyf d"Nof\sg k|0ffnL
evaluation system_

10

-Feedback, follow up and

glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf s]xL 9fFrfx?


UNDP Model

Setting Strategic Goals


Aligning Results
Aligning Funding
Aligning Human Resources
Monitoring for Results
Adjustment and Learning
Thai Practice

The effective use of strategy and planning


Performance management systems: formulating key performance
indicators
Inter-institutional integration and coordination
Catalytic and action-harmonizing mechanisms
The performance management and coordination
Capacity building and learning processes
Role of the people: voice and governance
Linking individual motivation to the overall RBM system
Sustainability of RBM and recognition of early successes

g]kfndf glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf nflu ePsf Joj:yf


g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ glthfd"ns agfpg ljleGg k|of;x? x'Fb} cfPsf 5g\ . ljutsf
k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf k|ltj]bgx?n] lbPsf ;'emfjx? k|zf;lgs sfo{ljlwsf] ;/nLs/0f, sd{rf/L
dgf]jn / Ifdtf ljsf; / ;]jf k|jfxsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf ;Gbe{df s]Gb|Lt ePsf] b]lvG5 . o;sf]
cy{ s'g} g s'g} ?kdf k|zf;gnfO{ glthfd'vL agfpg tL ;'emfjx? s]Gb|Lt lyP eGg ;lsG5 .
sd{rf/L Ifdtf ljsf;sf nflu tfnLd gLlt tyf tfnLd s]Gb|x?sf] Joj:yfkg / k|zf;lgs
Jofj;flostfsf nflu cl3 ;fl/Psf ;]jf ljefhg, j[lQ ljsf;, txut k|0ffnL, kb juL{s/0f
of]hgf, ljz]if1 kbsf] Joj:yfn] klg lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ glthf cled'vLs/0f ug{ k|ToIfk/f]If

11

of]ubfg k'ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 . xfn k|rngdf /x]sf] lghfdtL ;]jf P]g tyf lgodfjnLn] u/]sf oL
Joj:yfx? klg glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf cleGg c\usf ?kdf /x]sf 5g\ .
sfo{ ljj/0f -bkmf %_ M k|To]s kbn] ug'{kg]{ sfd, st{Jo, pQ/bfloTj, clwsf/, of]Uotf
cflbsf] ls6fgL .
kb:yfkg ubf{ sfo{ljj/0f / ;f]sf] d"Nof\sgsf] ;"rsf\s ;d]t lgwf{/0f ug]{ Joj:yf .
sd{rf/Lsf] ;?jf lghsf] tfnLd, of]Uotf / cg'ejsf cfwf/df ug]{ Joj:yf -!%=!_ .
Tff]lsPsf] kbdf sfo{ljj/0fsf] clwgdf /xL sfo{;Dkfbg ;Demf}tf ug{;Sg] Joj:yf -!%=#_ .
pQ/flwsf/L of]hgf nfu" u/L skill transfer ug]{ cjwf/0ff cjnDjg -!%=$_ . ;fy} /fd|f]
sfo{ Ifdtf k|bz{g ug]{ Nofst ePsf sd{rf/Lsf] g]t[Tj ljsf; / d"Nof+sgsf] Joj:yf .
sfo{Ifdtfdf tfnLdnfO{ lglZrt ef/ lbg] Joj:yf lbOPsf] -@$_ .
sfo{;Dkfbg sf]ifsf] Joj:yf -@* s_ .
ljleGg k|zf;sLo lgsfodf ePsf sfdx?sf] Joj:yfkg k/LIf0fsf] Joj:yf -&@ s_
h;af6 k|zf;gnfO{ glthfd'vL agfpg cfGtl/s ?kdf cu|;/tf ldNg;S5 .
pTs[i6 sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lsf nflu u|]8j[l4 tyf k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf .
sfo{;Dkfbg glthf k|lt k|ToIf pQ/bfoL agfpg 5flgPsf sfof{nodf sfo{;Dkfbg
;"rssf] ;Lldt k|of]u, h;nfO{ sfo{;Dkfbg k|f]T;fxgsf ;Gbe{df pkof]u ul/Psf] 5 .
lzsfot Joj:yfkgsf nflu Nodal Person sf] Joj:yf . ;fj{hlgs lgsfoaf6 k|jflxt
;]jfdf ;]jfu|fxLsf] u'gf;f] Joj:yfkgsf nflu gf]8n clws[t nufot ljleGg ljifo If]qdf
k|ToIf ;Dks{sf nflu ;Dks{ JolQm -Focal point_ sf] Joj:yf .
;]jf k|bfos lgsfoaf6 k|bfg ul/g] ;]jfdf ;fj{hlgs k[i7kf]if0f -Public Feedback_ sf]
Joj:yf . ;]jf k|jfxdf ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ -;]jf k|jfx lgb]{lzsf_ .
dftxtsf lgsfoaf6 ;~rfng x'g] lqmofsnfksf] glthf ;xhLs/0fsf nflu Joj:yfkg
lgoGq0f / ;'kl/j]If0f k|0ffnL .
jflif{s ljsf; sfo{qmd tof/ kfbf{ k|d'v lqmofsnfk, To;af6 k|fKt x'g] k|d'v k|ltkmnx?
/ To;sf nflu vr{ ul/g] ;|f]t ;fwgsf] ljj/0fnfO{ pNn]v ul/G5 . ;fy} jfli{fs ljsf;
sfo{qmd / If]qut sfo{qmdaLr cfj4tf sfod ug{ /0fgLlts of]hgf -Business Plan_,
ljsf; k|ltkmnsf nflu Joj:yfkg -Managing for Development Result: MfDR_sf]
dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft ul/Fb} nluPsf] 5 . aflif{s ljsf; sfo{qmdsf] nIo cg'?k lqmofsnfk
;~rfng eP gePsf] lg/Gt/ cg'udgsf nflu glthfd'ns cg'udg d"Nof\sgsf] gLlt
;+oGq ljsf; ul/Psf] 5 .

12

@)^) df tTsfnLg dlGqkl/ifbaf6 pTs[i6 sfof{no 5gf}6sf nflu cjnDjg ul/Psf]


cfwf/
s_ ;fdfGo sfo{;Dkfbg M
sfof{no Joj:yfkg
ljQLo Joj:yfkg
gjk|jt{g / cu|;/tf

%) c+sef/
!% c+s
@) c+s
!% c+s

v_ ljlzi7Ls[t sfo{;Dkfbg M
ah]6 sfo{qmd th{'df / :jLs[lt
:jLs[t sfo{of]hgf cg';f/ sfo{;Dkfbg
nIo cg';f/ ef}lts k|ult u/]sf]
kl/of]hgfdf hg;xefuLtf
cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg
hg;Dks{ / Jojxf/
;+:yfut clen]v
;/f]sf/jfnf;Fu cGt/;DaGw
sfof{Gjog k|lqmofdf kf/blz{tf
kl/of]hgfdf gjLg cu|;/tf
u'gf;f] ;'g'jfO{

%) c+s ef/
# c+s
$ c+s
^ c+s
$ c+s
# c+s
$ c+s
# c+s
$ c+s
^ c+s
# c+s
$ c+s

sfof{nosf] sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sg ubf{ tf]lsPsf] c+sef/sf] clt pQd eP !))


k|ltzt, pQd jfkt &% k|ltzt, ;Gtf]ifhgs eP %) k|ltzt / Go"g eP @% k|ltzt
c+s lbg] ul/GYof] . o;nfO{ kl/dfh{g u/L JolQmut txdf lj:tf/ ul/g] ;+efjgf lyof] .
t/ clxn] o;nfO{ pkof]udf NofOPsf] 5}g .
g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;]jf k|efjsfl/tf j[l4sf nflu ljleGg ;dodf ;]jf k|jfx lgb]{lzsf hf/L ul/ ;f]sf
cfwf/df sfof{nosf] d"Nof\sg ug]{ kl/kf6L a;fn]sf] lyof] -h'g clxn] Tolt k|rngdf 5}g_ .
To:t} s]xL jif{ cl3b]lv g]kfn ;/sf/sf s]xL sfof{nox?df jflif{s sfo{;Dkfbg ;"rs nfu" u/L
To;}sf cfwf/df k|f]T;fxg ;'ljwfx? k|bfg ul/Fb} cfPsf] 5 . xfn} g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;lrjx?sf]
a}7sn] dGqfno;lrjfnox?n] jif{el/df ;Dkfbg ug{'kg]{ k|d'v sfdx?nfO{ kl/efiff u/L To;nfO{
lglZrt ef/sf] cfwf/df d"Nof\sg ug]{ sfo{k|lqmof cl3 a9fPsf] 5 . h;sf cfwf/df d'Vo

13

;lrjaf6 ;lrj / ;lrjaf6 dxfzfvf k|d'v / dxflgb]{zs;Dd sfo{;Dkfbg ;Demf}tf ug]{ cfwf/
lbG5 . of] g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf ;Gbe{df ul/Psf] pNn]Vo k|of; xf] .

g]kfndf glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf nflu ;'emfjx?


g]kfnsf] k|zf;gnfO{ glthfd'vL agfpg ljutdf w]/} k|of;x? ePtf klg tL k|of;x? TolQs}
x/fPsf 5g\ . sfo{ljj/0f, lgu/fgL, lgoGq0f / sfo{;Dkfbg ;"rs h:tf kIfx?nfO{ dfq Wofg
lbP/ k|zf;gsf] sfo{;Dkfbg :t/ a9fpg ;lsb}g . of] dfgjLo / Jojxf/hGo kIf;Fu klg plQs}
;/sf]sf/ /fVg] ljifo xf] . To;}n] glthfd'vL k|zf;gsf nflu ;+/rgfut kIf / Jojxf/ut
kIf b'j} pko'Qm x'g'k5{ . ;+/rgfut kIf -Architectural side_ h:tf] ls lhDd]jf/Lsf] kl/efiff,
sfo{ljj/0f, ;bfrf/, Joj:yfkg ;+/rgf cflbn] sfo{jftfj/0fsf] cfwf/ agfpFb5 eg] Jojxf/ut
kIf -Behavioral side_ h:tf] ls Joj:yfkg z}nL, hjfkmb]lxtf, sfo{cled'vLs/0f, cfGtl/s
;~rf/, ljZjf;, j'emfO{, ;d"xefjgf cflbn] To;nfO{ Jojxf/df ckgfpg] sfo{ ub{5 . To;}n]
pknAwL -glthf_ eg]sf] ;f\u7lgs / dfgjLo lqmofsnfksf] ;+o'Qm kl/0ffd -pkh_ xf] . g]kfnsf]
k|zf;g ;'wf/sf nflu xfn;Dd x'Fb} cfPsf k|of;x? ;+/rgf s]Gb|Lt x'Fb} cfPsfn] af:tljs ?kdf
k|zf;g glthfd'vL x'g ;s]g . o;y{ ePsf sfg"gL tyf ;+/rgfut k|of;sf cnfjf oL kIfdf
Wofg glbO{ k|zf;g glthfd'vL x'g ;Qm}g .
;8\u7gx?nfO{ sfo{dn"s 9fFrfdf Nofpg Joj:yfkg tyf ;8\u7g ;j]{If0f / value
engineering ug]{ . kl/eflift lhDd]jf/L lgjf{xsf nflu sfo{ :jofQtfsf] ;'lglZrttf lbg]
/ k|ToIf pQ/bfloTj lgjf{x u/fpg] .
sd{rf/Ldf sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL cled'vLs/0f cfjZos 5 . ;+:yfsf] cfGtl/s kl/kf6L,
;xeflutf, ljZjf;, cj;/sf] ;dGoflos ljt/0f cflb ljifodf z'? d} cled'vLs/0f /
;+:yfTds kl/kf6Ldf ;fdflhsLs/0f u/L nuftf/ tfnLd tyf ljsf;sf pks/0fx?sf]
k|of]u ug]{ .
xfnsf] sd{rf/L sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof\sgdf k|lqmof, nIo / pknAwL dfq ePsf]df k|efj
;d]t pNn]v ug]{ .
sd{rf/Lsf] cfwf/e"t tna kb;Fu ;dfg /fvL ;'ljwfnfO{ pknAwL;Fu cfj4 ug]{ .
aflif{s tnj :t/ a[l4 -u|]8_ klg sfo{;Dkfbg;Fu cfj4 ug]{ .
cfof]hgfsf] k|ult ;dLIffnfO{ nfut kIfdf s]Gb|Lt x'g] at{dfg kl/kf6L ;'wf/ u/L k|efj
;d]t pNn]v x'g] k|0ffnL j;fNg] .
sfo{qmd ah]6 / Joj:yfkg ah]6 nrstf cjwf/0ff cjnDjg ug]{ .
sd{rf/L ;]jf ;'/IffnfO{ sfo{;Dkfbgd'vL agfpg] .
sfo{;Dkfbg k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL cjnDjg ug]{ .

14

;]jf j8fkq -Service Charter_ sf] pkof]u ug]{ .


ljsf; cfof]hgfx?df ;fdflhs k/LIf0f-Social Audit /Award of excellence_ sf] kl/kf6L
j;fNg] .
;\u7gleqsf cj;/ ljt/0f ;dGoflos / kf/bzL{ ?kdf ug]{ . tfls o;n] pknAwL
;DaGw, :jR5 d"Nof\sg h:tf kIfnfO{ k|ToIf ;Djf]wg ug{ ;sf];\ .
sd{rf/L sfo{;+:s[lt ;'wf/sf nflu Joj:yfksLo cf}hf/sf] k|of]u ug]{ . ;xefuLtfd"ns
Joj:yfkg, lgoldt :6fkm a}7s / Senior Managment Team sf] pkof]u ug]{ .

lgisif{
oyfl:yltk|lt hlxn] klg hgtf c;Gt'li6 hgfpg] ub{5g\ . ;+u7g jf k|0ffnLn] lxhf]eGbf cfh /
cfheGbf ef]ln /fd|f] pknAwL lbg;Sg' k5{ . o;sf nflu krf;sf] bzsb]lv lg/Gt/ ?kdf k|zf;g
;'wf/sf ljleGg 9fFrfx? k|of]udf cfPsf 5g\ . ;'wf/sf z'?jftL lbgdf k|zf;gsf] ;+/rgfut
kIfdf Wofg lbOof]] t/ gLlt, sfg"g / ;\u7g h:tf kIfdf ;'wf/ u/]/ dfq k|zf;gsf] sfo{
-Delivery_ ;'wf/ ug{ ;ljFmb}g . dflg; ;+j]bgzLn k|f0fL ePsfn] ;f\u7lgs Jojxf/, cfGtl/s
ljZjf;, ;~rf/ k|lqmof / ;dGoflos Jojxf/ h:tf kIfx?af6 dfq k|zf;gsf] sfdk|ltsf] nufj
a9fpg ;lsG5 . glthfd"ns k|zf;gsf] /0fgLlt ;+/rgf / Jojxf/ b'j} kIfnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ u/L
;+of]lht ?kaf6 cjnDjg ul/g' kb{5 . lsgsL cfGtl/s ;dy{g ljgf s'g}klg k|of;x? ;kmn
x'Fb}gg\ .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L
!
@
#
$
%
^

&

pd]zk|;fb d}gfnL -@)%*_, glthfd"ns k|zf;g, l;4fGt / Jojxf/sf] s;Ldf, sfdfb


c+s *, sf7df8f}+ .
uf]kLgfy d}gfnL -@)^&_ /fHo ;~rfngsf cfwf/x? -bf];|f] ;+:s/0f_, ;f]kfg dfl;s,
sf7df8f}+ .
uf]kLgfy d}gfnL -@)^(_, k|zf;g / ;'zf;g, ;f]kfg dfl;s, sf7df8f}+ .
Andre de Waal (2007), Strategic Performance Management, a managerial and
behavioural approach, Palgrave Macmillan, New York
Result Based Management Handbook (2011), United Nation Development Group
Cedric Saldanha (2002), Promoting result Based Management in the Public Sectors
of Developping Countries, Asian Development Bank/The World Bank, Washington
DC
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$(, sfg"g lstfj Joj:yfkg ;ldlt, sf7df8f}+ .

15

k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] cjwf/0ff /


g]kfndf o;sf] cEof;

Zofds'df/ e/fO{*

;f/f+z
zlQm k[ysLs/0fsf] l;4fGtn] klg /fHosf k|d'v c+usf] sfo{ ljefhg ub}{ sfg"g lgdf{0fsf]
lhDd]jf/L ljwflosfsf] sfo{If]q leq /fv]sf] kfOG5 . ljwflosL clwsf/sf] k|of]u hgtfaf6
clVtof/ k|fKt k|ltlglwx?f/f ul/g'kb{5 elgG5 . h;sf] pQ/bfloTj hgtfk|lt g} /x]sf]
x'G5 . t/ Jojxf/df sfo{kflnsf / o; cGtu{tsf lgsfon] ljwflosL / Goflos sfo{
;d]t ul//x]sf] kfOG5 . k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/ / cw{ Goflos lgsfosf] k|aGw
o;sf b]lvg] pbfx/0fx? x'g\ . kl5Nnf] ;dodf cfP/ k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clws lj:tf/
ePsf] 5 . o;nfO{ cTofjZos v/faL (necessary evil) eGg] k'/fgf] dfGotfdf kl/jt{g
eO{ of] ;dosf] cfjZostf (requirement of the day) ePsf] 5 . aL;f}+ ztflAbkl5 t
k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] lj:tf/ olt b|"tQ/ ?kdf eof] ls ljZjsf s'g} klg sfg"g k|0ffnL
o;af6 c5'tf] /x]gg\ . g]kfndf ;+j}wflgs ljsf;qmd ;u} sfg"gsf ljleGg ?kx?sf]
cEof;nfO{ Jojl:yt tj/n] k|of]u ug{ yflnPsf] kfOG5 . sltko cj:yfdf ;+ljwfg cfkm}n]
klg cwLg:y ljwfog tof/ ug]{ clVtof/L k|bfg u/]sf] klg kfOG5 . oBlk w]/}h;f]
cwLg:y ljwfogx? Joj:yflksf jf ;+;b\ lgld{t P]gn] lbPsf] clVtof/Lsf cfwf/df ag]sf]
kfOG5 . k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/nfO{ Goflos lgoGq0f, ;+;bLo lgoGq0f / cGo
pkfox?f/f lgoGq0fsf] k|aGw ul/Psf] x'G5 . g]kfndf Goflos lgoGq0fsf] cEof; a9L
k|efjsf/L ePsf] cj:yf b]lvG5 . ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] tLg bh{geGbf a9L cwLg:y ljwfogsf
k|fjwfgx? Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] qmddf cdfGo / ab/ ul/;s]sf] tYof+saf6 ;d]t Goflos
lgoGq0fsf] cEof; k|efjsf/L ePsf] eGg ;lsG5 .
kl/ro
ljwfog jf Joj:yfkg sfg"gsf] k|fylds ;|f]t xf] . ljwfog cGtu{t ;Dk"0f{ sfg"g kl/jf/ (Family
of law) nfO{ /fVg] ul/G5 . /fHosf c+ux?sf] juL{s/0f / sfo{ljefhgaf6 sfg"g lgdf{0f ug]{
lhDd]jf/L Joj:yflksfsf] xf] . Joj:yflksfn] Joj:yfkg ljlwsf] cjnDag u/L P]g lgdf{0f ub{5 .
t/ ;a} k|fjwfgx? P]gdf pNn]v ug{ ;Dej x'Fb}g . To;}n] Joj:yflksfn] ;f/e"t ljifox? ;d]6]/
* ;x ;lrj, g]kfn Gofo ;]jf

16

P]g lgdf{0f ub{5 / ;f] P]gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu lgod, ljlgod, agfpg] clwsf/
;DalGwt sfo{sf/L lgsfonfO{ k|bfg ub{5 . To;/L P]gf/f ljwflosfn] k|bfg u/]sf] clVtof/Lsf
cwLgdf /xL tf]lsPsf] c+u jf lgsfon] lgdf{0f ug]{ sfg"gnfO{ k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg (Delegated
Legislation) elgG5 .1
k/Dk/fut ?kdf x]bf{ sfo{sf/L c+usf] sfd ljwflosf lgld{t sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog ug'{ xf] . zlQm
k[ysLs/0fsf] l;4fGtn] klg /fHosf k|d'v c+usf] sfo{ ljefhg ub}{ sfg"g lgdf{0fsf] lhDd]jf/L
ljwflosfsf] sfo{If]q leq /fv]sf] kfOG5 . ljwflosL clwsf/sf] k|of]u hgtfaf6 clVtof/ k|fKt
k|ltlglwx?f/f ul/g'kb{5 elgG5 . h;sf] pQ/bfloTj hgtf;Fu g} /x]sf] x'G5 .2 t/ Jojxf/df
sfo{kflnsf / o;cGtu{tsf lgsfon] ljwflosL / Goflos sfo{;d]t ul//x]sf] kfOG5 . k|Tofof]lht
Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/ / cw{ Goflos lgsfosf] k|aGw o;sf b]lvg] pbfx/0fx? x'g\ . oyfy{df
sfo{sf/L lgsfon] sfo{kflnsLo sfo{ ;Fu;Fu} ljwflosL / Goflos sfo{ ;d]t ul//x]sf] x'G5 .
sfo{kflnsLo c+unfO{ To;/L ljwflosL / Goflos sfo{ ug]{ lhDd]jf/L eg] d'n'ssf] ;+ljwfg tyf
ljwflosf lgld{t sfg"gn] g} k|bfg u/]sf] x'G5 . ;+ljwfg / sfg"gn] tf]s]sf] ;Ldfleq /xL pQm
clwsf/sf] k|of]u ul/G5 .
k|l;4 sfg"gljb\ ;fnd08n] ljwfognfO{ ;jf]{Rr ljwfog / cwLg:y ljwfog u/L b'O{ lsl;dn]
juL{s/0f u/]sf 5g\ . ;jf]{Rr ljwfog /fHosf] ;jf]{Rr Joj:yflksf tyf ;Dk|e"af6 lgM;[t x'g]
ljwfog xf] . ;jf]{Rr Joj:yflksfn] cfgf] ljwflosL zlQm dWo] s]xL zlQm cGo lgsfo jf
;+:yfnfO{ k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;S5, To;/L k|Tofof]hg ul/Psf] zlQmsf] cwLgdf /xL To:tf lgsfo jf
;+:yfn] hf/L u/]sf sfg"gnfO{ cwLg:y ljwfog elgG5 .3

k|fylds ljwfog / k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] aLrsf] leGgtf


lgdf{0fsf] clVtof/L, lgdf{0f k|lqmof, ;d]l6g] ljifoj:t', ;|f]t / zlQm ;d]tsf ljleGg cfwf/df
cwLg:y ljwfog k|fylds jf df}lns ljwfogeGbf km/s /x]sf] x'G5 . o;sf] kl/efiffn] g} of]
kIfnfO{ :ki6?kdf phfu/ u/]sf] kfOG5 .4 oL b'O{sf] leGgtfnfO{ o;k|sf/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M

When the function of legislation is entrusted to organs other than the legislature by the legistature itself, the legislation made
by such organs is called delegated legislation.
Legislative power must be exercised exclusively by the legislators who are directly responsible to the electorate.

o'j/fh ;+u|f}nf, sfg"g zf:q tyf sfg"gsf l;4fGt, k}/jL k|sfzg, sf7df8f}+, @)^# k[= $(%)

An Act of Parliament creates the framework of a particular law and tends only to contain an outline of the purpose of the Act.
By Parliament giving authority for legislation to be delegated it enables other persons or bodies to provide more detail to an Act
of Parliament. Parliament thereby, through primary legislation (i.e. an Act of Parliament), permit others to make law and rules
through delegated legislation. The legislation created by delegated legislation must be made in accordance with the purposes laid
down in the Act. http://legalservicesindia.com/article/article/doctrine-of-permissible-limits-under-delegated-legislation-497-1.
html

17

!= k|fylds ljwfogf/f P]g lgdf{0f ul/G5 . ;+ljwfg tyf P]gn] lbPsf] clVtof/Lsf cfwf/df
agfOg] lgod, ljlgod, lgb]{lzsf / hf/L ul/g] ;"rgfx? k|Tofof]lht ljwfogcGtu{t aGb5g\ .
@= k|fylds ljwfog Joj:yflksff/f lgdf{0f ul/G5 . k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg sfo{sf/L lgsfo
nufot ljleGg k|zf;sLo c+u / lgsfox?n] lgdf{0f ub{5g\ .
#= k|fylds ljwfogsf] cfwf/ / ;|f]t sfg"g lgdf{0f ug]{ ljwflosL clwsf/ xf] . k|Tofof]lht
ljwfogsf] cfwf/ k|fylds ljwfog xf] .
$= ;+ljwfg;Fu gaflemg] u/L k|fylds ljwfogsf] th'{df ug{ ;lsG5 .5 k|Tofof]lht clVtof/Lsf]
;Ldfdf /xL k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] th'{df ug'{ kb{5 .
%= ;+ljwfg tyf ;+j}wflgs sfg"gf/f lgwf{l/t Joj:yfkg ljlwsf] kfngf u/L P]g cyf{t\ k|fylds
ljwfog th'{df ul/G5 t/ k|zf;sLo lg0f{osf] k|lqmofaf6 k|Tofof]lht ljwfog tof/ ul/G5 .
^= ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] cfwf/df dfq k|fylds ljwfognfO{ Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] bfo/fdf
Nofpg ;lsG5 . ;+ljwfgsf cltl/Qm hGdbft[ P]g (Parant Act) ;Fu aflemPsf] eGg] cfwf/df
k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgnfO{ r'gf}tL lbg ;lsG5 . To;}n] elgG5 every subordinate legislation
must yield to the plenary legislation.6

k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] lj:tf/sf sf/0fx?


kl5Nnf] ;dodf cfP/ k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clws lj:tf/ ePsf] 5 . o;nfO{ cTofjZos v/faL
(necessary evil) eGg] k'/fgf] dfGotfdf kl/jt{g eO{ of] ;dosf] cfjZostf (requirement of
the day) ePsf] 5 . aL;f}+ ztflAbkl5 t k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] lj:tf/ olt b|"tQ/ ?kdf eof]
ls ljZjsf s'g} klg sfg"g k|0ffnL o;af6 c5'tf] /x]gg\ . o;/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] lj:tf/
x'g'sf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ / lhDd]jf/ sf/0fx? 5g\ . /fHosf] k/Dk/fut e"ldsfdf kl/jt{g eO{
nf]ssNof0fsf/L cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; ePkl5 sfg"gL kl/kf6Ldf klg o;sf] k|efj kof] . /fHosf]
e"ldsf a9\of] . kmntM k|Tofof]lht ljwfog zf;g Joj:yf ;~rfng / Joj:yfkgsf] ckl/xfo{
cfjZostfdf ?kfGt/0f eof] .
/fHosf lqmofsnfkx? olt w]/} lj:tf/ eP ls tL ljifonfO{ Joj:yflksf lgld{t sfg"gn] lgodg
ug{sf nflu Joj:yflksf;Fu ;do g} gk'Ug] cj:yf /x\of] . kmntM Joj:yflksfn] ;f/jfg / gLltut
ljifox? k|fylds ljwfogdf pNn]v u/L afFsL sfo{ k|Tofof]lht ljwfogf/f ul/g] egL clwsf/
5

;+;bLo ;jf]{Rrtf ePsf] cj:yfdf t P]g lgdf{0f ug]{ clwsf/ ;LdfxLg ?kdf ;+;b\df lglxt /x]sf] x'G5 /
;+;b\ lgld{t sfg"gsf] Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg ;d]t ug{ ;ls+b}g .

6 Indian Express Newspapers V. Union of India (1985) I SCC 641 AIR 1986 SC 515

18

lbg yfn] . Joj:yflksfsf] sfo{af]em 36fpg / ;do art ug{sf nflu o;f] ug'{ clgjfo{ g} eof] .
Joj:yflksfn] lgdf{0f u/]sf] ;fdfGo gLlt / vfsfsf] cwLgdf /xL To;nfO{ hLjGt / lqmofzLn
agfpg] lhDdf sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] k|rng lj:tf/ eof] . o;} k|;+udf Sir Cecil Carr sf
zAbx? oxfF pNn]v ug{' ;fGble{s b]lvG5 pgn] k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] sfo{If]qsf af/]df l6Kk0fL
ub}{ pNn]v u/]sf 5g\M delegated legislation is a "growing child" called upon to relieve the parent
of the minor matters, while the parent manage the main business.7
csf]{ klg s] ts{ lbg] ul/Psf] 5 eg] ljwflosfn] :jOR5f jf /x/n] jf rfxgfn] sfg"g agfpg]
clVtof/L k|Tofof]lht u/]sf] xf]Og . cfd hgtfn] ck]Iff u/]adf]lhdsf] u'0f:t/Lo ljwfog lbg
c;kmn ePsf] sf/0fn] dfq Joj:yflksfn] of] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft u/]sf] xf] . Pp6f k|ltj]bgdf
elgPsf] 5 The truth is that if Parliament were not willing to delegate law making power,
Parliament would be unable to pass the kind and quality of legislation which modern public
opinion requires.8
ljifoj:t'sf] hl6ntf cyjf k|fljlwstf (Technicality) k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] lj:tf/sf] csf]{
sf/0f xf] . lgtfGt k|fljlws ljifoj:t' ;dfj]z ePsf ljifodf P]g agfpg ljwfosx?nfO{ lgSs}
ufx|f] x'g] dfq xf]Og c;Dej k|foM klg x'G5 . sltko ljifoj:t'df lgtfGt k|fljlw1sf] ;+nUgtf
cfjZos kb{5 . ;fdfGo /fhgLlts JolQmTjaf6 k|fljlws ljifoj:t' ;dfj]z ePsf P]g lgdf{0f ug{
g;Sg] cj:yf cfpFb5 . Joj:yflksf ;b:ox? c;n /fhgLlt1 x'g ;S5g\ t/ ltgLx? lgtfGt
k|fljlws ljifoj:t' hf] k|fljlws 1fg ;Lk / bIftf ePsf lj1x?af6 ;~rfng ul/G5g\ To:tf]
ljifo kf/ nufpg ;Ifd gx'g ;S5g\ . o:tf] cj:yfdf ljifoj:t'sf] gLltut Joj:yf / a[xt vfsf
dfq P]gf/f sf]/]/ afFsL sfo{ ;DalGwt ljifosf hfgsf/ lj1x?af6 x'g] u/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf
cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft ug'{kg]{ afWotf cfOkb{5 .
s'g} klg ljifodf ;d:of cfpg ;Sg] ;DefjgfnfO{ dWogh/ /fvL To:tf ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{sf
nflu sfo{sf/LnfO{ clwsf/ k|bfg ug{ / nrstfk"0f{ sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu klg k|Tofof]lht
ljwfogsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . lgZro g} ljwflosL k|lqmof lgSs} g} hl6n
/ ;do nfUg] vfnsf] x'G5 . s'g} s'g} o:tf ;d:of x'G5g\ ls tTsfn l56f] To:tf ;d:ofx?
sfo{sf/Ln] ;Daf]wg ug{ g;s]df To;n] zf;g Joj:yf ;~rfngsf s'g} kIfdf cj/f]w Nofpg
;Sg] cj:yf /xG5 . slxn]sfxLF ck]Iff g} gu/]sf] ;d:of cfO kg{ ;S5 ;a} ;d:ofx? k"jf{g'dfg
ug{ g;lsPsf] klg x'g ;S5 . To;}n] tTsfn cfOkg]{ ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;Sg] u/L
sfo{sf/LnfO{ clVtof/L lbgsf nflu klg k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] cjwf/0ff Jojxfl/s dflgPsf] xf] .
7
8

Sir cecil Carr, Delegated Legislation (1921) P.2 cited by C.K. Takwani, P. 67
Report of Committee on Ministers Powers (1932) P.23

19

xfdL x]g{ ;S5f}+ afwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/ k|foM sfo{sf/LnfO{ g} k|Tofof]hg ul/Psf] x'G5 .
h;af6 cgk]lIft ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;xh?kdf ;Daf]wg ug{ ;lsof];\ .
cg'ejaf6 k|fKt 1fg ;Lk / bIftfsf cfwf/df s'g} klg ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{sf nflu klg
k|Tofof]lht ljwfogf/f sfo{sf/LnfO{ clVtof/L k|bfg ul/G5 . s'g} klg ljifodf To;sf] c;/ /
k|efj x]/L cg'ejsf cfwf/df cfjZos kl/dfh{g, ;+zf]wg / km]/abn ug{sf nflu sfo{sf/LnfO{
clVtof/Lsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . ;f]xL cfjZostfsf] kl/k"lt{sf nflu k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf]
cjwf/0ffnfO{ Jojxf/df cfTd;ft ul/G5 .
Joj:yflksf ;+;b\sf] clwj]zg cfjlws x'G5 / P]g sfg"gL lgdf{0f tyf ;+zf]wgsf] nflu lgSs}
nfdf] / hl6n k|lqmof cjnDag ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . sltko cj:yfdf t Joj:yflksf lj36g ePsf] jf
kbfjlw ;dfKt eO{ Joj:yflksf ljxLg cj:yf klg /xG5 . To;}u/L ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfdf sfg"g /
Joj:yf sfod /fVgsf nflu sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|z:t clwsf/sf] cfjZostf kg{ ;Sb5 . ;+s6sfnLg
cj:yfdf l56f] 5l/tf] jf tTsfn} s'g} sfg"gL k|aGw u/L ;d:ofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf /xG5 .
o;sf nflu k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg Ps dfq pkfosf] ?kdf /xg] x'Fbf o;sf] cEof; qmdzM a9\b}
/ lj:tfl/t x'Fb} uPsf] xf] . o'4, afx\o cfqmd0f, /fli6o ;+s6sfn, sfg"g / Joj:yf e+u ePsf]
cj:yf, x8\tfn aGb h:tf cj:yfnfO{ lgoldt ug{sf nflu k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clVtof/L
sfo{sf/L lgsfonfO{ k|bfg ul/G5 .
To;}u/L cfw'lgs k|zf;g Joj:yfsf] hl6ntf / /fHosf] sfd sf/jfxLdf ePsf] lj:tf/sf sf/0f
d'n'ssf] cfly{s ;fdflhs Jojxf/nfO{ lgodg ug{sf nflu /fHosf ljleGg c+unfO{ clVtof/L,
lbgsf nflu klg k|Tofof]lht ljwfog cfjZos k/]sf] xf] . k/Dk/fut tj/n] ;a} sfg"gL k|aGw
ljwflosfaf6} ug]{ xf] eg] d'n'ssf ;a} kIfnfO{ ;xh ?kdf lgodg / lgoGq0f ug{ ;ls+b}g . To:tf]
cj:yfdf lglxt :jfy{ ePsfx?n] kmfObf lng ;Sg] / ;/sf/sf] lgoGq0fsf/L e"ldsf sdhf]/
x'g ;Sg] cj:yfnfO{ b[li6ut u/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clVtof/Lf/f /fHosf ljleGg c+u /
lgsfox?nfO{ cfcfgf] sfo{If]q lgodg / lgoGq0f ug]{ clVtof/L k|bfg ug{ yflnPsf] x'Fbf o;sf]
If]q lj:tfl/t ePsf] xf] .
plNnlvt cfwf/ / sf/0faf6 kl5Nnf] ;dodf k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] cjwf/0ffsf] a[xt k|of]u ug{
yflnPsf] kfOG5 . jt{dfg cj:yfdf t of] cjwf/0ff cfw'lgs k|zf;lgs o'usf] cleGg c+usf]
?kdf :yflkt eO;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . o;sf] cf}lrTo bzf{pFb} Pp6f d'2fdf ef/tLo cbfntn]
eg]sf] 5 The practice of empowering the executive to make subordinate legislation within
the prescribed sphere has evolved out of practical necessity and pragmatic needs of the modern
welfare state.9
9

20

AJay Kumar Banerjee v. Union of India (1984) 3 SCC 127: AIR 1984 SC 1130

k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf :j?kx?


k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg o;sf] k|s[ltsf cfwf/df ljleGg ?kdf /x]sf] kfOG5 . d"ntM ljfgx?n]
b]xfosf juL{s/0fnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/Psf] kfOG5 .

!= zLif{sdf cfwfl/t juL{s/0f M


o:tf] juL{s/0f lgod, ljlgod, ;"rgf, cfb]z, cWofb]z nufotsf k|Tofof]lht ljwfgsf k|s[lt /
ltgn] cfTd;ft ug]{ zLif{ssf cfwf/df ul/G5 .

@= :jljj]sLo clwsf/sf] cfwf/df juL{s/0f M


k|zf;sLo jf sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] :jljj]ssf] cj:yfsf cfwf/df of] juL{s/0f ul/Psf]
xf] . ljz]if u/L P]g nfu" ug{sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ k"j{zt{ k"/f ug]{ lhDd]jf/L sfo{sf/LnfO{ lbPsf]
cj:yf o;df cfslif{t x'G5 . o:tf] ljwfognfO{ ;t{o'Qm (conditional) / e}k/L (contingent)
ljwfog klg eGg] ul/G5 .

#= k|Tofof]hgdf cfwfl/t juL{s/0f M


ljwfogn] k|Tofof]hg u/]sf] clVtof/Lsf] k|of]hgsf cfwf/df ul/g] juL{s/0f of] ju{df kb{5 .
sltko ljwfogn] sfg"g s'g ldltb]lv nfu" x'g], s'g s'g If]qdf nfu" x'g], s'g s'g bkmf slxn] b]lv
nfu" x'g], s'g s'g ljifodf nfu" x'g] egL lgwf{/0f ug]{ clwsf/ sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] cj:yfnfO{
o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .

$= clVtof/Lsf cfwf/df juL{s/0f M


ljwfogn] sfo{sf/LnfO{ cfkm" dftxtsf jf cGo lgsfo tyf kbflwsf/LnfO{ clVtof/L lbg kfpg]
Joj:yf eP gePsf] cfwf/df klg k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] juL{s/0f ug]{ ul/G5 . o:tf] clVtof/L
k|fKt ePdf To;nfO{ Sub-delegation elgG5 . o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf cflbjf;L hghflt
pTyfg k|lti7fg P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !( nfO{ lng ;lsG5 .10

bkmf !(=clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg M -!_ kl/ifb\n] of] P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf] lgodx jf ljlgod adf]lhd
cfkm"nfO{ k|fKt clwsf/dWo] ;a} jf s]xL clwsf/ kl/ifb\n] tf]s]sf] zt{df ;ldlt jf ;ldltsf] cWoIf jf
;ldltsf] ;b:o;lrjn] k|of]u ug{ kfpg] u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-@_ ;ldltn] o; P]g jf o; P]g cGtu{t ag]sf lgodx adf]lhd cfkm"nfO{ k|fKt clwsf/dWo] ;a} jf s]xL clwsf/
;ldltsf s'g} ;b:o jf ;b:o;lrj jf s'g} clws[t sd{rf/LnfO{ k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .

10

21

ljleGg b]zdf k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] k|of]u


a]nfot
;+;bLo ;jf]{Rrtfsf] cjwf/0ff c+uLsf/ u/]sf] a]nfotdf k/Dk/fut ?kdf k|Tofof]lht ljwfognfO{
v/faL (evil) sf] ?kdf x]l/GYof] . ToxfF w]/}kl5;Dd klg k|zf;sLo sfg"gnfO{ ;fj{hlgs sfg"gsf]
zfvfsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] klg lyPg . t/ kl5Nnf] ;dodf cfP/ ;+;bn] ;a} sfg"g agfpg]
dfGotfdf kl/jt{g cfof] . cGo b]zdf ePsf] lj:tf/ h:t} a]nfotdf klg k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf]
cjwf/0ffnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/of] . ;+;b\;Fu /fHo Joj:yf ;~rfngsf ;a} ljifo lgoldt / lgolGqt
ug]{ ;do ePg . ljifoj:t'sf] uDeL/tf hl6ntf / k|fljlwskgsf sf/0f klg ;+;b\n] k|Tofof]lht
ljwfogsf] dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft ug'{ kof] . la;f}+ ztfAbLdf cfP/ ;+;b\n] sfg"g agfpg] clwsf/
;/sf/nfO{ k|Tofof]hg ug{ yfNof] . o;sf] lj?4df k|z:t gsf/fTds l6sfl6Kk0fL / cfnf]rgf
eP . of] ljifo ;Daf]wg ug{sf nflu ;g\ !(@( df Pp6f ;ldlt g} u7g ul/of] Donoughmore
Committee gfdn] kl/lrt ;f] sld6LnfO{ Committee on Ministers powers gfd lbOof] . pQm
;ldltn] ;g\ !(#@ df k|ltj]bg lb+b} k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] kIfdf cfgf] dt hfx]/ uof] . ;f]
;ldltsf] k|ltj]bgdf elgPsf] lyof]
The system of delegated legislation is both legitemate by permissible and constitutionally
desirable for certain purpose, with certain limits, and under certain safeguards.11
To;kl5 k|Tofof]lht ljwfgsf] b|"tQ/ ljsf; eof] . ljz]if u/L bf];|f] ljZjo'4 kl5sf] cj:yfdf of]
klg cem tLa| eof] .

cd]l/sf
l;4fGttM cd]l/sfdf k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ :jLsf/ ul/+b}g . ljz]if u/L o;nfO{
;+ljwfgn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] zlQm k[ysLs/0fsf] bfo/f eGbf aflx/sf] elgG5 . To:t} hgtfnfO{ cfgf
k|ltlglwnfO{ k|Tofof]hg u/]sf] sfg"g agfpg] clwsf/ k'gM k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;ls+b}g eGg] dfGotf
klg o;sf] lj?4df /x]sf] 5 . (Delegatus non potest delegare cyf{t\ A delegated power cannot
further delegate.) t/ oL ;}4flGts cfwf/df k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft gug]{
dfGotf Jojxfl/s ePg . ;/sf/sf] sfo{If]qsf] lj:tf/ o;/L eof] ls ;a} sfg"gx? s+u|];n] dfq
agfpg kb{5 eGg] dfGotf Jojxf/df ;+ej g} ePg . k|f/Desf jif{x?df cd]l/sL ;jf]{Rr cbfntn]
/fi6kltnfO{ k|Tofof]hg ul/Psf] sfg"g lgdf{0f ug]{ ;/xsf] clVtof/LnfO{ cdfGo / ab/ 3f]lift
11 Reports of Committer on Ministers power (1932) P. 51

22

u/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] ljkIfdf cfkm"nfO{ pEofPsf] lyof] .12 t/ kl5Nnf] ;dodf cbfnt klg
oyfy{tfeGbf aflx/ hfg ;s]g / k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] dfGotfnfO{ j}wtf k|bfg ug{ nfUof] .13

ef/t
ef/tdf k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] cEof; ToxfFsf] ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f x'g' eGbf cufl8b]lv g} ePsf]
kfOG5 . R. v. Burah nfO{ of] ljifosf] g]t[TjbfoL d'2fsf] ?kdf lnOG5 . ;g\ !*^( sf] XXII
P]gsf] bkmf ( f/f n]l6g]G6 ue{g/nfO{ lbOPsf] Goflos clwsf/nfO{ snstfsf] pRr cbfntn]
cdfGo ub}{ eg]sf] lyof] a]nfotL ;+;b\af6 k|Tofof]lht ePsf] clwsf/ k'gM ef/tLo ;+;b\n]
k|Tofof]hg (Sub delegation) ug{ kfpFb}g .14 t/ ;f] cfb]z pk/ k/]sf] clknsf] ;'g'jfO{sf] qmddf
lk|eL sfplG;nn] snstf pRr cbfntsf] lg0f{o pN6fO lbof] . ;f] cfb]zdf elgPsf] lyof] Indian
legislature was not an agent or delegate of the Imperial parliament and it had plenary powers of
legislation as those of the Imperial parliament itself.15 To;}u/L lht]Gb|gfy u'Ktf / ;/bf/ OGb/
l;+xsf] d'2fdf ePsf JofVof klg o; k|;+udf ;fGble{s /x]sf 5g\ .16
To;}u/L ;+ljwfg hf/L ePkl5sf] ef/tLo k|zf;sLo sfg"gsf] ljsf;df k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf]
dfGotfn] lgSs} dxTjk"0f{ :yfg k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . Delhi Laws Act, 1912 n] ;/sf/nfO{ lbPsf]
clVtof/Lsf lj?4 k/]sf] d'2fdf ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] k|Tofof]lht ljwfog / o;sf] ;Ldfsf]
af/]df a[xt JofVof u/]sf] 5 . of] d'2fdf elgPsf] 5M Joj:yflksfn] ;a} ljifo ;d]6]/ sfg"g
agfpg ;Sb}g, To;}n] k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] cjwf/0ff cfTd;ft ug'{ kb{5 t/ To:tf] k|Tofof]hg
ubf{ cfjZos ;Ldfsf] klg Vofn ug'{kg]{ x'G5 .17
To;}u/L Harishankar Bagla sf] d'2fdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] eg]sf] 5 olb P]gsf] Joj:yflksLo gLlt
lgwf{/0f u/]sf] 5 eg] To;sf] ;Ldf / kl/lwleq /xL ul/Psf] k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] Joj:yfnfO{
;Ldf gf3L ul/Psf] eGg ldNb}g .18 t/ Hamdard Dawakhana sf] d'2fdf ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] The
Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954 f/f ul/Psf] k|Tofof]lht
o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf Panama Refining co.v. Ryan (1934) 293 us 386, Schechter Poultry Corpn. Us u.s. (1935) 295 us
495: 79 LED 1570 nfO{ lng ;lsG5 .
13 o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf National Broadcasting Co.v. U.S. (1943) 319 US 190, Yakus v. U.S. (1944) 321 US414
12

14 Express V. Burah & Book Singh, ILR 3 Cal 64: I CLR 161 (FB)
15 C.K. Takwany P.76
16 Jitendranath Gupta v. Province of Bihar, AIR 1949 FC 175. 1949 FCR 595, Sardar Inder Singh v. State of Rajasthan, AIR
1957 SC 510: 1957 SCR 605
17 Delhi law Act, 1912 In Rei AIR 1951 SC 332: 1951 SCR 747
18 Harishankar Bagla V. State of M.P., AIR 1954 SC 465: (1955) 1 SCR 380

23

ljwfogsf] Joj:yfnfO{ bfo/f gf3L ul/Psf] k|Tofof]hg (excessive delegation) egL cdfGo /
ab/ u/]sf] lyof] .19 To;}u/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] ljleGg kIfdf ljZn]if0f ug]{ ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr
cbfntn] c? w]/} d'2fx? lsgf/f u/]sf] kfOG5 .20

k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgf/f k|bfg ug{ ;lsg] clwsf/x?


Joj:yflksfn] lgdf{0f ul/lbPsf] a[xt gLltut vfsfleq /xL k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgn] b]xfosf
clwsf/x? k|bfg ug{ ;Sb5 M
!=

P]g nfu" ug]{ (Commencement) M k|foM h;f] P]gx? ;DalGwt P]gf/f g} nfu" x'g] ldlt tf]lsP/
hf/L ePsf x'G5g\ . t/ sltko P]gx? nfu" x'g'k"j{ lglZrt cfwf/ / zt{ k"/f ePsf] x'g' kg]{
cj:yf cfjZos x'G5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf s'g e"efudf s'g ldltb]lv s'g s'g k|fjwfg nfu"
x'g] egL lg0f{o ug]{ lhDdf ljwflosf afx]ssf] lgsfo -OG:6'd]G6flnl6h_ nfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf]
x'G5 . dfnkf]t P]g, @)#$ sf] bkmf !-#_ n] ;f] P]g g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf
k|sflzt u/L tf]s]sf] lhNnfdf tf]s]sf] ldltb]lv k|f/De x'g]5 egL ul/Psf] Joj:yfnfO{ o;sf]
pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .

@=

lj:t[t cfwf/ tof/ ug]{ (Supplying details) M ljwflosff/f lgld{t P]gn] s'g} klg ljifonfO{
;Daf]wg ug{sf nflu cfjZos vfsf lgdf{0f u/L To;nfO{ k"0f{tf k|bfg ug]{ k|aGw ug{ cGo
lgsfonfO{ lhDdf lbOPsf] cj:yf /xG5 . o;sf] pbfx/0fsf nlu lgjf{rg cfof]u P]g, @)^#
sf] bkmf $$,$%,/ $^ nfO{ lng ;lsG5 .21

#=

s'g} ljifo ;dfj]z ug]{

(Inclusion)

M sltko P]g kfl/t ePkl5 To;n] s]xL ljifo ;d]6\g] t/

19 Hamdarda Dawakhana V. union of India AIR (960 Sc 554: (1960) 2 SCR 67


20 lj:t[t hfgsf/L nflu x]g{ ;lsG5 M Gwalior Rayon Silk wfg. Co Ltd. V. CST (1974)4 SCC 98: AIR 1974 SC 1660, B.
Shama Rao V. union Territory of Pandicherry, AIR 1967 SC 1480: (1967) 2 SCR 650, Brij Sunder Kapoor V. Ist ADJ, (1989)
1 SCC 561: AIR 1989 SC 572, Hansraj V. Bar Council of Maharashtra (1996) 3 SCC 342: AIR 1996 SC 1708, Kiran Gupta N.
State of UP (2002) 7 SCC 719: AIR 2000 SC 3299 ect.
21 bkmf $$= lgod agfpg ;Sg] M o; P]gsf] p2]Zo sfof{Gjog ug{ cfof]un] cfjZos lgodx? agfpg ;Sg]5 .

bkmf $%= cfb]z hf/L ug]{ M -!_ cfof]un] ;+ljwfg tyf k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd lgjf{rgsf] ;~rfng, /]vb]v,
lgb]{zg / lgoGq0f ug]{ k|of]hgsf nflu cfjZos cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5 / To:tf] cfb]z g]kfn /fhkqdf
k|sfzg ul/g]5 .===
-#_ o; bkmf adf]lhd cfof]un] hf/L u/]sf] cfb]z pNn+3g ug]{ /fhg}lts bn, pDd]bjf/ tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf
lgsfo, ;+:yf, ;7g jf JolQmnfO{ cfof]un] Ps nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/afgf ug{ ;Sg]5 .
bkmf $^= lgb]{lzsf agfpg ;Sg] M cfof]un] cfgf] sfd ;'rf? ?kn] ;~rfng ug]{ u/fpg] k|of]hgsf nflu
lgb]{lzsfx? agfO{ nfu" u/fpg ;Sg]5 / To:tf] lgb]{lzsfsf] kfngf ug'{ ;DalGwt ;a}sf] st{Jo x'g]5 .

24

cGo ljifo ;dfj]z ug]{ clwsf/ cGo lgsfox?nfO{ lbg] clVtof/L k|bfg ul/G5 . P]gn]
;d]6]sf] s'g} ;"rLdf yk ljj/0f ;"rLs[t ug]{ u/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clVtof/L k|bfg
ul/G5 . o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf ljz]if cbfnt P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf # / $ nfO{ lng
;lsG5 .22
$= s'g} ljifo afx]s ug]{ (Exclusion) M s'g} P]gn] s'g} ljifonfO{ afx]s ug]{ jf P]g nfu" gx'g] cj:yf
tf]Sg] clVtof/L k|bfg ug{ ;Sb5 . ljz]iftM sfo{sf/LnfO{ ;fj{hlgs lxtsf] ;+/If0fsf vflt/
cfjZos aGbf]a:t ug{ ;xof]u k'ofpg o:tf] clVtof/L k|bfg ul/G5 .
%= s'g} ljifo lgnDag ug{ (Suspension) M s'g} ;do jf kl/j]zdf s'g} P]gsf] s'g} k|fjwfg nfu"
gx'g] u/L 3f]if0ff ug]{ clVtof/L sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] x'G5 .
^= cGo /fHodf nfu" ePsf] sfg"g nfu" ug]{ (Application of existing laws) M s'g} /fHodf nfu" ePsf]
s'g} sfg"gL Joj:yfnfO{ cfjZos ;fgf] dl;gf] kl/jt{g u/L csf]{ /fHodf nfu" ug{ ;Sg] u/L
P]gn] clVtof/L lbPsf] cj:yf /xG5 . ljz]iftM ;+3Lo /fHo Joj:yfdf o:tf] cj:yf cfpg
;Sb5 .
&_ cfjZos kl/jt{g ug]{ (Modi!cation) M s'g} s'g} P]gn] cfjZos ;+zf]wg jf kl/jt{gsf nflu
sfo{sf/LnfO{ clVtof/L lbPsf] x'G5 . :yfgLo cj:yfnfO{ ;+af]wg ug{sf] nflu sfo{sf/LnfO{
o:tf] clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg ug]{ nrstf sfod ul/G5 . t/ o:tf] clwsf/ lb+bf o;sf] gLltut
kIf :ki6 ePsf] x'g'kb{5 .
*= ;hfo k|:tfj ug]{
22

(Prescribing Punishments)

M b08fTds Joj:yf ug{sf nflu s'g} P]gn]

bkmf #= ljz]if cbfntsf] u7g M -!_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L vf; lsl;dsf d'2fsf]
sf/afxL / lsgf/f l56f], 5l/tf] tyf k|efjsf/L 9n] u/fpg Gofo kl/ifb\sf] k/fdz{df cfjZos ;b:o /x]sf]
ljz]if cbfntsf] u7g ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-!s_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ljz]if cbfnt u7g ubf{ tLgeGbf a9L ;b:o /x]sf] ljz]if cbfnt u7g ul/Psf]df
k|To]s Ohnf;df tLg ;b:o /xg] u/L Ohnf; sfod ul/g]5 .
-@_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd u7g ePsf] ljz]if cbfntsf] cWoIf / ;b:odf g]kfn ;/sf/n] Gofo kl/ifb\sf]
k/fdz{df k'g/fj]bg cbfntsf GofofwLzx dWo]af6 tf]Sg]5 .
-#_ pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhd ljz]if cbfntsf] u7g ubf{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] To:tf] ljz]if cbfntsf] k|fb]lzs
If]qflwsf/ / d'sfd ;d]t tf]Sg' kg]{5 .
-$_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L ljz]if cbfntsf] d'sfd /x]sf] 7fpF afx]s cGo 7fpFdf
klg ;f]xL ;"rgfdf tf]lsPsf] cjlwsf] nflu Ohnfz sfod ug]{ u/L d'sfd tf]Sg ;Sg]5 .
bkmf $= d'2f yk36 ug{ ;Sg] M g]kfn ;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg u/L bkmf # adf]lhd ul7t ljz]if
cbfntnfO{ ;'lDkPsf d'2fxdf yk36 ug{ ;Sg]5 .

25

sfo{sf/LnfO{ clVtof/L lbPsf] cj:yf klg x'G5 . s'g} ljifo s;"/sf] bfo/fdf kg]{ gkg]{
ljifosf] ;"rLs/0f ug{sf nflu klg P]gn] clwsf/ lbPsf] cj:yf /xG5 .23
(=

lgod agfpg] (Framing Rules) M P]gn] lgod agfpg], ljlgod agfpg], lgb]{lzsf agfpg]
h:tf clwsf/ k|bfg ug{;S5 . of] Joj:yf k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] cfwf/ xf] . s'g} klg
lgod ljlgod lgb]{lzsf tof/ ubf{ k|f/Dedf g} To:tf] sfg"g agfpg kfpg] clVtof/L /x]sf]
b]vfpg' kb{5 .24

!)= afwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] (Removal of Dif!culties) M sltko cj:yfdf afwf c8\sfp km'sfpgsf
nflu lglZrt clVtof/L sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|bfg ul/G5 .25 s'g} klg P]gsf] sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf
ck]Iff g} gu/]sf] sl7gfO{ cfpg ;S5 . o:tf] cj:yf ;w}+ Joj:yflksfn] kl/sNkgf ug{
;Sb}g . To;}n] sl7gfO{ lg?k0f ug{sf nflu sfo{sf/LnfO{ clVtof/L k|bfg ul/G5 . h;nfO{
Henry VIII Clause klg eGg] ul/G5 .

k|Tofof]hg ug{ g;lsg] sfo{x?


k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] Pp6f lglZrt ;Ldf x'G5, Tof] ;Ldf eg]sf] P]gn] lglZrt u/]sf] ljifodf
dfq ;Lldt x'g'kg]{, P]gsf] efjgfljk/Lt x'g gx'g] / P]g df}g /x]sf] ;f/e"t ljifodf lgodf/f
Joj:yf ug{ gx'g] cyf{t\ sfo{ljlwut jf k|lqmofut s'/fdf dfq lgod ;Lldt x'g'kg]{ eGg] g}
xf] .26 k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf klg s]xL lglZrt ;Ldfx? x'G5g\ . b]xfosf sfo{x? k|Tofof]lht
ljwfogf/f ug{ kfO{b}g M
!= cfwf/e"t Joj:yflksLo sfo{x? (Essential legislative functions) M Joj:yflksfn] lglZrt
gLltut vfsfsf] cwLgdf /xL ;fdfGotof k|lqmofut s'/fx? dfq k|Tofof]lht ljwfognfO{
23 In some cases the legislature delegates to the executive the power to take punitive action e.g., under section 37 of the
electricity act,1910, the electricity board is empowered to prescribe punishment for breach of the provision of the act subject
to the maximum punishment laid down in the act. By section 59(7) of the Damodar Valley Act, 1948, the power to prescribe
punishment is delegated to a statutory authority without any maximum limit fixed by the parent act. http://legalservicesindia.
com/article/article/doctrine-of-permissible-limits-under-delegated-legislation-497-1.html
24 pbfx/0fsf nflu :yfgLo lgsfo -cfly{s k|zf;g_ lgodfjnL, @)%^ sf] k|:tfjgfdf :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g

P]g, @)%% sf] bkmf @^% n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L g]kfn ;/sf/n] b]xfosf lgodx? agfPsf] s'/f pNn]v
ePsf] b]lvG5 .
25 o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf Gofo k|zf;g P]g, @)$* sf] bkmf #@ nfO{ lng ;lsG5 .;f] bkmfdf elgPsf] 5 M of]
P]g sfof{Gjog ug{ s'g} afwf c8sfp k/]df ;jf]{Rr cbfnt] Gofo kl/ifb;Fu k/fdz{ u/L ;f] afwf c8sfp
km'sfpgsf nflu g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L cfjZos cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5 .
26 k'ikf Gof}kfg] lj?4 Joj:yflksf ;+;b ;d]t, g]=sf=k= @)^& c+s !) lg=g+= *$&! k[i7 !^@%

26

;'lDkg ;Sb5 . k|Tofof]hgsf] gfddf csf]{ ;dfgfGt/ Joj:yflksf l;h{gf ug{ ;Sb}g . (The
legislature cannot create a parallel legislature).
@= sfg"g vf/]h ug]{ (Repeal of law) M k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clVtof/Ln] s'g} klg sfg"g vf/]h
ug{ ;ls+bg} .
#= ;LdfljxLg ;+zf]wg ug]{ (Modification without any limitation) M s'g} sfg"gdf cfjZos
;+zf]wg / kl/jt{g ug]{ clVtof/L Joj:yflksfsf] clVtof/Lsf] ljifo xf] . ;LdfljxLg ?kdf
s'g} P]g kl/jt{g ug]{ clVtof/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;ls+b}g .
$= 5'6 lbg] (Exemption) M Joj:yflksfn] s'g} zt{, d"No / gLlt jf lgb]{zgsf] cwLgdf /xL k|bfg
ug]{ clVtof/L afx]s sfo{sf/Ln] sfg"gL Joj:yfdf 5'6 lbg] jf pGd'lQm lbg] clwsf/ k|fKt ug{
;Sb}g .
%= afwf c8\sfp km'sfpg] clwsf/ (Removal of difficulties) M s'g}] klg ljifodf afwf c8\sfp
km'sfpg] gfddf ljwfognfO{ g} k|efj kfg]{ u/L sfo{ ug]{ clVtof/L sfo{sf/LnfO{ k|bfg ug{
;ls+bg} .
^= kZrftbzL{ ?kdf nfu" ug]{ (Retrospective operation) M sfg"g agfpg] exclusive clwsf/
Joj:yflksfsf] xf] . p;n] eljiobzL{ jf kZrftbzL{ h'g;'s} ?kdf P]g lgdf{0f ug{ ;Sb5 t/
k|Tofof]lht clVtof/Lsf cfwf/df s'g} klg P]g lgodn] kZrftbzL{ c;/ kg]{ u/L nfu" ug{
kfO{b}+g .
&= s/ nufpg] (Imposing of tax) M s/ nufpg] clVtof/L k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgaf6 k|of]u ug]{
u/L clwsf/ lbg' x'Fb}g .
*= cbfntsf] clwsf/If]q afx]s ug]{ (Ouster of jurisdiction of courts) M s'g} klg cbfntsf]
clwsf/If]q s6f}tL ug]{ jf s'g} klg ljifonfO{ cbfntsf clVtof/L eGbf aflx/ /fVg] u/L
k|Tofof]lht ljwfogf/f clwsf/ k|bfg ug{ ;ls+b}g .
(= s;"/ tyf ;hfo lgwf{/0f ug]{ (Offences and penalty) M s;"/ kl/eflift ug]{ / b08 lgwf{/0f
ug]{ clwsf/ Joj:yflksfsf] cGt/lglxt sfo{ xf] . of] sfd k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;ls+b}g . t/
ljwflosfn] s'g} l;4fGt jf dfkb08 lgwf{/0f u/]sf] cj:yf 5 eg] ;f] sf] ;Ldf leq /xL o:tf]
sfo{ ug{ ;lsG5 .

27

k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg pk/sf] lgoGq0f


k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/ k|bfg gu/L klg sfg"gL Joj:yf ;~rfng ug{ g;lsg] cj:yf
Psflt/ b]lvG5 eg] csf]{lt/ To:tf] clwsf/sf] b'?kof]u x'g ;Sg] ;Defjgf klg plQs} /xG5 .
o:tf] b'?kof]u lgoGq0fsf nflu ljleGg k|aGwx? ul/Psf] kfOG5 . d'VotM b]xfosf tLg pkfox?
o; ;Gbe{df a9L k|of]udf cfPsf 5g\ M
!_ k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg pk/sf] Goflos lgoGq0f
@_ k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg pk/sf] ;+;bLo jf ljwflosL lgoGq0f
#_ cGo pkfox?

Goflos lgoGq0fsf pkfox?


Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] clwsf/f/f k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/cGtu{t ag]sf sfg"gsf]
a}wtf k/LIf0f ul/G5 .27 csf]{ zAbdf Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgf/f k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg pk/ Goflos
lgoGq0f ul/G5 . cbfntn] o;/L Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg ubf{ Principle of ultra vires cjnDag
ul/G5 . h;cGtu{t Substantive ultra vires / procedural ultra vires sf cfwf/df ul/G5 .
Principle of Ultra vires n] clwsf/If]q gf3]/ u/]sf] jf clwsf/} gePsf] ljifodf ;fj{hlgs
clwsf/Lx?n] u/]sf lg0f{o / sfd sf/jfxLx? ab/ 3f]if0ff ul/G5 . ;+ljwfg ljk/Lt x'g] u/L
Joj:yflksfaf6 P]g lgdf{0f ePsf] jf k|Tofof]lht gu/]sf] ljifodf jf k|bfg u/]sf] eGbf a9L
clVtof/L k|of]u u/L k|Tofof]lht ljwfog tof/ ePdf ;f/jfg ultra vires ePsf] dflgG5 .28 ha
cwLg:y ljwfogn] dft[ P]gn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] k|lqmof / kl/lwsf] kl/kfngf u/]sf] cj:yf x'Fb}g
To:tf] cj:yfnfO{ sfo{ljlwut ultra vires sf] cj:yf elgG5 .29
;fdfGotof b]xfosf] cj:yfdf cwLg:y ljwfognfO{ substantive ultra vires sf] cfwf/df cdfGo
27 It is true that the courts have some control over improperly made delegated legislation, but their power is limited to matters
such as whether the instrument is within the power delegated, whether there are inconsistencies with other acts, and whether
prescribed procedures have been followed. The courts have no control over many of the potentially objectionable features of
such legislation. In any case, legal remedies tend to be expensive and long delayed, and it would surely be better to ensure
that the legislation is properly made in the first place. http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Senate/Research_and_
Education/hamer/chap09
28 Substantive ultra vires means that the delegated legislation goes beyond the scope of the authority conferred on it by the parent
statute or by the constitution. C.K. Takwani P- 112
29 When a subordinate legislation fails to comply with procedural requirements prescribed by the parent Act or by a general law, it
is known as procedural ultra vires. C.K. Takwani,- P. 143

28

3f]if0ff ul/G5 M
;+ljwfg;Fu s'g} dft[ P]g g} aflemPsf] cj:yfdf,
dft[ P]gn] k|d'v ljwflosL sfo{ g} k|Tofof]hg u/]sf] cj:yfdf,
cwLg:y ljwfog dft[ P]g;Fu aflemPsf] cj:yfdf,
cwLg:y ljwfog cGo ;fdfGo sfg"g ljk/Lt ePdf,
cwLg:y ljwfog ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] cj:yfdf,
cwLg:y ljwfog ljj]s;+ut gePdf,
b'/f;oo'Qm ePsf] cj:yfdf,
k|Tofof]lht ljwfogn] k'gM clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg u/]df,
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgeGbf aflx/ /fv]sf] cj:yfdf,
kZrftbzL{ k|efj kg]{ u/L cwLg:y ljwfog agfPsf] cj:yfdf .
To;}u/L cwLg:y ljwfogn] ckgfpg' kg]{ ljlw / k|lqmof tyf k|sfzg / k/fdz{nfO{ k|lqmofut
ultra vires k/LIf0fsf] cfwf/sf] ?kdf lng] ul/G5 .

k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkg pk/ ljwflosL lgoGq0f


ljwflosfn] lbPsf] clwsf/sf] ;Ldfleq /xL k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] lgdf{0f ul/G5 . To:tf] clwsf/sf]
b'?kof]u lgoGq0fsf nflu ljwflosL lgoGq0fsf] ;d]t Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'G5 .30 k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf]
clVtof/LnfO{ Jojl:yt ?kdf k|of]u u/fpg Goflos lgoGq0f dfq k|efjsf/L x'g g;Sg] cj:yfnfO{
b[li6ut u/L /fhgLlts lgoGq0fsf] ?kdf ljwflosL lgoGq0fsf] k|aGw ul/Psf] xf] . ;fwf/0ftof
ljwflosL lgoGq0fsf b'O{ k|d'v pkfox? /x]sf 5g\
30 There are two common ways by which parliament can control delegated legislation. It can require the delegated legislation to be
laid before parliament and that it not come into effect until parliament approves it-either by an affirmative resolution or by the
lapse of a specific period without the legislation having been disallowed. Alternatively, the delegated legislation may come into
immediate effect, but may be disallowed by the parliament within a specified time.
http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Senate/Research_and_Education/hamer/chap09

29

!= cwLg:y ljwfog ;+;b\df 6]a'n ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf,31


@= ;+;bLo ;ldltsf] dfWodf/f lgoGq0f ug]{ Joj:yf .

cGo pkfox?
Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg h:tf] Goflos lgoGq0f / plNnlvt cfwf/sf] ljwflosL lgoGq0fsf cltl/Qm
cGo s]xL pkfox? klg cwLg:y ljwfog pk/ lgoGq0f ug{ cjnDag ul/G5 . h:t} clGtd :jLs[lt
csf]{ lgsfoaf6 k|fKt ug{' kg]{ u/L sltko P]gn] k|Tofof]lht ljwfogsf] clVtof/LnfO{ lgoGq0f
ul//x]sf] xfdLnfO{ hfgsf/L g} 5 . o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf sfg"g Joj;foL kl/ifb\ lgodfjnL
agfpg] clVtof/LnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . sfg"g Joj;foL kl/ifb\ P]gn] lgod agfpg] clwsf/ ;f] kl/ifb\
nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 t/ To:tf] lgod nfu" x'g' k"j{ ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] cg'dlt:jLs[lt k|fKt x'g
cfjZos 5 .32 sltko :jfoQ ;+:yfnfO{ ljlgdo agfpg] clwsf/ P]gn] k|bfg u/]sf] x'G5 t/
To:tf] ljlgod ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t ePkl5 dfq nfu" x'g ;Sg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'G5 .

g]kfndf k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] cEof;


g]kfndf ;+j}wflgs ljsf;qmd ;Fu} sfg"gsf ljleGg ?kx?sf] cEof;nfO{ Jojl:yt tj/n] k|of]u
ug{ yflnPsf] kfOG5 . sltko cj:yfdf ;+ljwfg cfkm}n] klg cwLg:y ljwfog tof/ ug]{ clVtof/L
k|bfg u/]sf] klg kfOG5 .33 oBlk w]/}h;f] cwLg:y ljwfogx? Joj:yflksf jf ;+;b\ lgld{t P]gn]
lbPsf] clVtof/Lsf cfwf/df ag]sf] kfOG5 . ;fdfGotof b]xfosf kfFrj6f lgsfox?n] k|Tofof]lht
ljwfogsf] clVtof/L cEof; ug]{ u/]sf] b]lvG5 .
s_ sfo{kflnsff/f M w]/}h;f] k|Tofof]lht ljwfogx? ;+ljwfg jf dft[ P]gn] lbPsf] clVtof/Lsf
cfwf/df sfo{kflnsff/f g} agfOG5 .
v_ ljwflosff/f M ljwflosf cfkm} ljwflosL clwsf/sf] ;|f]t xf] . oBlk ljwflosfn] klg ;+ljwfg
tyf P]gn] lbPsf] clVtof/Lsf cfwf/df cwLg:y ljwfogsf] th'{df ub{5 . ;+ljwfg ;ef
Joj:yflksf ;+;b_ sfo{ ;~rfng lgodfjnL, @)^% nfO{ o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng
;lsG5 .
ljz]if cbfnt P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf !( n] g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;f] P]g cGtu{t k|sfzg u/]sf] ;"rgf Joj:yflksf
;+;bdf 6]jn ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] s'/fnfO{ o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .
32 g]kfn sfg"g Joj;foL kl/ifb P]g, @)%) sf] lgod @&
33 g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f $#-@_ df g]kfn ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t lgodfjnL adf]lhd g]kfn ;/sf/sf]
sfo{ljefhg / sfo{ ;Dkfbg x'g]5 eGg] Joj:yfnfO{ o;sf] pbfx/0fsf]?kdf lng ;lsG5 .
31

30

u_ Gofokflnsff/f M cbfntsf] ;~rflnt / Joj:yfkg;DaGwL k|lqmofut k|aGw ug{sf nflu


Gofo k|zf;g;DaGwL P]gf/f GofokflnsfnfO{ klg cwLg:y ljwfog agfpg] clVtof/L k|bfg
ul/Psf] x'G5 . ;jf]{Rr cbfnt lgodfjnL, k'g/fj]bg cbfnt lgodfjnL, lhNnf cbfnt
lgodfjnL, dWo:ytf cbfntL sfo{ljlw lgodfjnLnfO{ o;sf] pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .
3_ ;+j}wflgs lgsfox?f/f M ;+:yfut :jfoQtf k|bfg ug{ / cfjZos Joj:yfkg ug{sf nflu
ljleGg ;+j}wflgs lgsfox?nfO{ klg cwLg:y ljwfog agfpg] clwsf/ k|bfg ul/Psf]
x'G5 . nf]s ;]jf cfof]u lgodfjnL, clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u lgodfjnLnfO{ o;sf]
pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .
_ :jfoQ lgsfox?f/f M cwLg:y ljwfog lgdf{0f ug{ kfpg] lgsfox? leq :jfoQ lgsfox?
klg kb{5g\ . ljz]ift M P]gf/f :yflkt :jfoQ lgsfox? / :yfgLo lgsfox? o;cGtu{t
kb{5g\ . sfg"Gff/f :yflkt :jzfl;t / :jfoQ lgsfox?n] lgod ljlgod agfpg] cEof; xfd|f]
;Gbe{df klg e}/x]sf] kfOG5 .
g]kfndf k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] clwsf/sf] b'?kof]u lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu Goflos tyf ljwflosL
lgoGq0fsf] k|aGw ul/Psf] kfOG5 . Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgsf] clwsf/f/f ;jf]{Rr cbfntn] cwLg:y
ljwfogsf ljleGg efux? cdfGo / ab/ u/]sf] k|z:t pbfx/0f /x]sf] kfOG5 . ;+VofTds cfwf/df
x]bf{ ljwflosL k|lqmofaf6 eGbf Goflos k'g/fjnf]sgf/f k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf] lgoGq0f
k|efjsf/L ePsf] cj:yf b]lvG5 . o; cltl/Qm sltko cj:yfdf cwLg:y ljwfognfO{ lgoGq0fsf
cGo pkfox?sf] k|of]u u/L lgoGq0f ug]{ k|aGw ul/Psf] klg kfOG5 . k|Tofof]lht Joj:yfkgsf]
cf}lrTo / cfjZostf /x]sf] tYodf s'g} ljjfb ul//xg' kg]{ cj:yf geP klg o;sf] lgdf{0f
k|lqmof / o;n] ;d]6\g] ljifoj:t'sf] af/]df lgdf{0f ug{] lgsfo lgSs} g} ;hu x'g' kg]{ cfjZostf
b]lvPsf] 5 . s'g} klg axfgfdf sfg"gn] tf]s]sf] clwsf/If]q gf3]/ :j]R5frf/L?kdf sfo{ ug]{
clVtof/L sfg"gsf] zf;gsf] dfGotf cg's"n x'g ;Sb}g . xfd|f] ;Gbe{ klg of] ljifonfO{ dgg\ ug'{
kg]{ cfjZostf /x]sf] 5 .

31

;'zf;g / g]kfndf o;sf] cj:yf


uDeL/ axfb'/ xf8f*

;f/f+z
;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff ;g\ !(*) sf] bzssf] pQ/fw{df b]lvPsf] /fHosf] cfw'lgsLs/0f ;DaGwL
ljZjJofkL cfu|x;u ;DalGwt 5 . ;'zf;g zAb ;g\ !(() sf] bzskl5 crfgs k|of]udf
NofOPsf] xf] . of] zAb Jofks ?kn] k|of]udf ;g\ !(() kl5 cfPtf klg of] zAbfjnL gof
eg] xf]Og . ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff /fHo ;+rfng Oltxf; hlQs} k'/fgf] dflgPsf] 5 . ;'zf;gsf]
cjwf/0ff klZrdL b]z tyf bft[;+:yfx?f/f t]>f] ljZjsf b]zx?sf] zf;g Joj:yfdf ;'wf/
Nofpg] k|of]hgsf nflu ;xfotf ;t{sf] ?kdf cl3 ;fl/Psf] xf] . ljZj a}+sn] ;'zf;gsf] ;DaGwdf
cl3 ;f/]sf Joj:yfx?df eljioblz{, v'Nnf / lzIffk|b gLltlgdf{0f, Jofj;flos sd{rf/LtGqsf]
ljsf;, kf/bzL{ / hgpQ/bfoL ;/sf/, ;zQm / ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t gful/s ;dfh / sfg"gsf]
zf;g d'Vo x'g\ . ;'zf;gsf nflu /fhgLlts Joj:yf, ;+j}wflgs ;+/rgfn] k"jf{wf/sf] ?kdf sfo{
u/]sf x'G5g\ . /fHosf] p2]Zo / gLltx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu k|zf;lso Ifdtfn] ;'zf;gsf]
Joj:yfksLo cfofdnfO{ a'emfp5 . ;'zf;gsf cfofdx?df /fhgLlts cfofd, Joj:yfksLo cfofd,
g}lts cfofd, o; cGtu{t cfpg] ub{5g\ . zf;g jf ;/sf/sf] j}wtf, hjfkmb]lxtf, kf/blz{tf
;'zf;gsf cfwf/e"t tTjx? x'g\ . o; n]vdf ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff, cfofd / g]kfndf o;sf]
cj:yfaf/] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf] 5 .

c;n zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff


;Q/Lsf] bzssf] dWoaf6 ha ljZjdf k|hftGqsf] nx/ k|f/De eof] . To;} a]nfb]lv ;'zf;gsf]
cjwf/0ffn] nf]slk|otf kfpg yfn]sf] xf] . ;"rgf qmflGtn] Psflt/ dfgjsf] ;fdflhs cl:tTjnfO{
lrGtgwf/fsf] s]Gb|ljGb'df Nofof] eg] csf]{lt/ k|ltlglwd"ns k|hftGqsf ;Ldfx? klg k|i6 kfl/lbof] .
jf:tjdf k|ltlglwd"ns elgPsf] kl/kf6Ln] /fHo / ;dfhsf] tNnf] tx t[0fd"n tx (Grassroot level)
sf hgtfsf aLrdf k|efjsf/L ;DaGw :yflkt ug{ ;s]g . kl/0ffd:j?k ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sx?df
k|ltlglwd"ns k|hftGq (Representative democracy) sf] 7fpF lj:tf/}lj:tf/} ;xeflutfd"ns
k|hftGq (Participatory democracy) n] lng yfNof] .
ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6x?df /fhgLlts ;+:yfx? ;+:yfs/0f eOg;s]sf] sf/0faf6 ;/sf/L ;+oGqx?,
sd{rf/LtGq, Joj:yflksf, sfo{kflnsf, cbfnt cflb lgsfox? ;De|fGt JolQms/0f (Highly
personalized) / j+zf0f'ut ;j{;Qfjfb (Heridity authorizationism) sf] lzsf/ ePsf 5g\ .
* ;xk|fWofks, cy{zf:q eQmk'/ ax'd'vL SofDk;

32

zf;sx? lgjf{lrt x'g' cl3 7"nf7"nf jfrf ub{5g\, k|lta4tf hfx]/ ub{5g\ t/ lht]/ ;/sf/df
uPkl5 cfgf] /fhgLlts zlQmnfO JolQmut :jfy{df b'?kof]u u5{g\ . r'gfj lhltG5, ;/sf/ aG5,
k|ltkIf aG5, ah]6 aG5, ;+;b rN5, t/ oL ;a} sfd s'/f lg/Gt/ ?kn] lgoldt rln/xFbf klg
hgtfsf rfxgf / ljsf;sf sfo{;"lrx? plrt 7fpFAff6 ;Daf]wg ul/Fb}gg\ . k|hftGqn] hgtfnfO{
alnof] agfpg'kg]{, zlQmzfnL agfpg'kg]{, ;zlQms/0f ug'{kg]{ t/ Jojxf/df emg\emg\ sdhf]/
aGb}hfg], lg/Lx aGb} hfg] k|lqmof ;'? eof] . o;} ult/f]w tf]8\g ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff ljsf; eof] .
;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cem k|i6 ?kdf a'em\gsf nflu ljleGg ljfgsf ljrf/nfO{ pNn]v ug'{
/ ljsf; k|of;df ;+nUg cGt/f{li6o ;+:yfx?sf] ljrf/nfO{ pNn]v ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . Psy/L
ljfg\x?n] ahf/;+oGqf/f lj:yflkt ul/Psf] k'/fgf] cjwf/0ffsf ?kdf ljZn]if0f u5{g\ . csf]{y/L
ljfg\ o;nfO{ ;/sf/L / u}/;/sf/L Pj+ cGo gful/s ;dfhaLrsf cGt/lqmofnfO{ Joj:yfkg
ug]{ snf;Dd :jLsfb{5g\ . t/ ljsf;zLn d'n'ssf ;d:ofx?;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] sltko ljfg
;fj{hlgs j:t' / ;]jfsf] lg/Gt/tfsf nflu ;'zf;g h?/L 5 eGg] dfGb5g\ .
;'zf;g c;n ;/sf/;u ;DalGwt 5 o; cjwf/0ff cg';f/ ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] ;dli6ut sfo{Ifdtf
tyf k|efjsfl/tf clea[l4 u/L d'n'ssf] cy{Joj:yfnfO{ ;an k'ofpg' o;sf] d'n p2]Zo /xG5 .
zf;g zAbn] ;fdfGotof rf/ s'/fx?nfO{ af]w u/fp5 . h:t} M -!_ zf;g ;~rfng ug{ ckgfOg]
tf}/tl/sfx? -@_ zf;g ;~rfng ug]{ lgsfo, zf;g ;~rfng ug]{ sfo{x?, zf;g ;~rfng
ug]{ Ifdtf -#_ Joj:yfkgsf tl/sfx? lgoldt ug]{ k4lt -$_ /xg;xg, Jojxf/ tyf cfr/0fsf
tf}/tl/sf . ;'zf;g eg]sf] k"jf{g'dfg ug{ ;lsg], v'Nnf tyf af}l4s tj/n] gLlt lgdf{0f ug'{,
hgtfsf] lxt, sfg"gsf] zf;g tyf kf/blz{ k|lqmofsf] clea[l4sf nflu sfo{/t Joj;flos u'0fn]
kl/k"0f{ sd{rf/LtGq tyf ;fj{hlgs rf;f]sf ljifox?df ;xefuL x'g] a9Lof gful/s ;dfhsf]
;du|tf xf] . ;'zf;gsf nflu /fhgLlts Joj:yf, ;+j}wflgs ;+/rgfn] k"jf{wf/sf] ?kdf sfo{
u/]sf x'G5g\ . /fHosf] p2]Zo / gLltx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu k|zf;lso Ifdtfn] ;'zf;gsf]
Joj:yfksLo cfofdnfO{ a'emfp5 . ;'zf;gsf cfofdx?df /fhgLlts cfofd, Joj:yfksLo
cfofd, g}lts cfofd, o; cGtu{t cfpg] ub{5g\ .
/fHo Joj:yfsf] z'?jft g} sNof0fsf/L Joj:yfsf nflu ePsf] xf] . k|frLg Clifd'gLxn] klg
cfkm\gf] lrGtgsf] Pp6f kIf s;/L k|hfhgnfO{ ;'vL /fVg ;lsG5 eGg]df s]lGb|t u/fPsf lyP .
;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ vf;u/L jflNdsLo /fdfo0f, dxfef/tsf] zflGtkj{, z'qmgLlt tyf cGo
u|Gyxdf pNn]v u/]sf] kfOG5 . /fhgLltzf:qsf k|sf08 ljfg sf}l6Non] hgtfsf] v'zL g} /fhfsf]
v'zL tyf hglxt g} /fhxLt eg]sf 5g\ . c+u|]hL efiffdf ;j{k|yd Good governance sf] k|of]u
;g\ !^@* df ePsf] lyof] . of] Term nfO{ The action or manner of governance. elgPsf] 5 .
ljs;Lt d'n'sxn] bf]>f] ljZjo'4 kl5 zLto'4sf] ;dodf t]>f] ljZjsf ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zxnfO{
lbOg] j}b]lzs ljsf; ;xfotfsf nflu ;'zf;gsf] gLlt lng yfn]sf] kfOG5 . ;g\ !((* sf] ljZj

33

a}+ssf] clk|msL ;j ;xf/g ;DaGwL Document df ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ klxnf]kN6 k|sfz


kfl/Psf] 5, h; cg';f/ ;'zf;gsf lgDg rf/ ;"rsx kQf nufOPsf lyP M
-s_ ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] Joj:yfkg
-v_ hjfkmb]lxtf
-u_ ljsf;sf nflu sfg"gL 9frf
-3_ ;"rgf tyf kf/bzL{tf
o;}u/L ;f]xL k|ltj]bgdf Governance sf] af/]df Governance is defined as the manner in
which power is exercised in the management of a country's economic and social resources
for development tyf Good governance sf] af/]df "Good governance is central to creating
and sustaining an environment that fosters strong and equitable development and is essential
compliment to sound economic policies" elgPsf] 5 .
o;}u/L OECD b]zxn] cfly{s ;xfotf k|fKt ug{sf nflu Governance sf lgDg rf/j6f tTjx
x'g'kg]{ elgPsf] 5 M
-s_ ;/sf/sf] j}wflgstf
-v_ /fhgLlts tyf ;/sf/L lgsfosf] hjfkmb]lxtf
-u_ ;/sf/sf] gLlt lgdf{0f tyf ;]jf k|bfos ;Ifdtf
-3_ dfgj clwsf/ tyf sfg"gsf] zf;g k|lt cfb/
zf;g eGg] lalQs} sNof0fsf/L zf;g Joj:yf ;Demg' k5{ . zf;gdf x'g' kg]{ u'0fx ePdf
To;af6 /fi6 tyf hgtfn] k|fKt ug]{ ;]jf tyf ;'ljwf / /fi6f]Gglt x'g] ePsfn] ;'zf;g elg/xg
cfjZos lyPg t/ clxn]sf] lj1fg tyf k|ljlwsf] xf]8jfhLn] ubf{ b'Mzf;gsf] k|j[lQ a9\b} uPsf]
x'bf zf;g zAbnfO{ k|rngdf NofOPsf] xf] ls h:tf] b]lvG5 . ;g\ !((^ df ePsf] UN conference
on Human settlement n] klg Good governance nfO{ hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . Toxf s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/n]
dfq} hgtfnfO{ ;]jfx k'ofpg g;Sg] ePsfn] ;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ o;/L pNn]v ul/Psf]
5 . (The core concept of good governance is that in the development process the support
and involvement of all agencies like central Government, constitutional bodies, Corporations,
Local governments, International Non- governmental organization and finally the allied civic
societies is a must)
-;|f]t M zfvf clws[t k|f/lDes k/LIff bk{0f, k'?iff]Qd l3ld/], uf]kfn clwsf/L, sf]dn k|= wdnf,
s[i0f k|=bfxfn, c/ljdf a'S; P08 :6];gz{, k|=;+= @)%* efb|_

34

;'zf;g (Good Governane) eg]sf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ c;n agfpg] k|of; dfq xf]Og, oBlk
w]/}n] ;'zf;gnfO{ o;} cg'k a'em\b5g\ . ;'zf;gsf rf/j6f pkfox 5g\ . /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs,
Joj:yfksLo / g}lts ljsf;f]Gd"v /fi6x?sf] ;jf{lu+0f ljsf; ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L /
lghL If]q tyf gful/s ;dfh ;d]tsf] ;xeflutfsf] dfWodaf6 dfq ;'zf;g sfod ug{ ;lsG5
eGg] s'/fdf hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 .
ljleGg bft[ /fi6 ;+:yfxn] ;'zf;g ;DaGwdf cfkm\gfcfkm\gf wf/0ffx cl3 ;f/]sf 5g\ .
ljZj a}+s (World Bank) n] ;'zf;g ;DaGwdf cl3 ;f/]sf wf/0ffxdf -!_ eljiobzL{, v'Nnf Pj+
lzIffk|b gLlt lgdf{0f -@_ Jofj;flos sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsf; -#_ kf/bzL{ / hg pQ/bfoL ;/sf/
-$_ ;zQm / ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t gful/s ;dfh -%_ sfg"gsf] zf;g d'Vo x'g\ .
;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ k|i6\ofpgsf nflu ljleGg ljfg\ / ljsf; k|of;df ;+nUg cGt/f{li6o
;+:yfx?sf] ljrf/nfO{ k|:t't ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . x'g t Psy/L ljfg\ zf;gnfO{ k'/fgf] wf/0ff dfGb5g\
/ o;nfO{ ahf/ ;+oGqn] lj:yflkt u/]sf 7fG5g\ . csf{y/L ljfg\ o;nfO{ ;/sf/ / u}/;/sf/L Pj+
cGo gful/s ;dfhaLrsf cGt/lqmofnfO{ Joj:yfkg ug]{ snf;Dd :jLsf5{g\ . t/ ljsf;zLn
d'n'ssf ;d:ofx?;Fu cjut ePsf sltko ljfg\ ;fj{hlgs j:t' / ;]jfsf] lg/Gt/tfsf nflu
klg ;'zf;g h?/L 5 eGg] dfGb5g\ .
;'zf;gsf] cjwf/0ff klZrdL b]z tyf bft[ ;+:yfx?af6 t];|f] ljZjsf b]zx?sf] zf;g Joj:yfdf
;'wf/ Nofpg] k|of]hgsf nflu ;xfos ;t{ (Aid condo nationality) sf] ?kdf cl3 ;fl/Psf]
b]lvG5 . oL bft[;+:yfn] z'?df j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] k|of]usf] zt{ v'nf k|lt:kwL{ Pj+ ahf/d"vL
cy{ Joj:yfsf] k|aGw ug{ zf;g Joj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg ;xof]u ug{sf nflu of] cjwf/0ff cl3
;fl/Psf] xf] . To;kl5 u}/;/sf/L, gLlhIf]q tyf gful/s ;dfh ;d]tsf] ;xeflutfaf6 dfq
ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6sf] ;jf{L0f ljsf; ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] cjwf/0ffsf] ?kdf ;'zf;gnfO{ rrf{ ul/of] .
;'zf;gdf ;/sf/sf cltl/Qm lghL, u}/;/sf/L If]q, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf gful/s ;dfhn]
;a}sf] ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ub{5 . o;/L ljsf;sf] s]Gb|ljGb' dflgPsf] hgtf :jo+sf] k|ltlglwTj
zf;g u/fpFbf ljsf; k|efjsfl/tf x'G5 . ;'zf;gn] Jofks hg;xeflutfdf hf]8 lbG5 . ljlwsf]
zf;g, hjfkmb]xL sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ hf]8 lbg] ePsf]n] u|fdL0f ljsf;df k|efj kfb{5 . hgtfk|lt
pQ/bflo ;/sf/ x'g] ePsfn] hgtfsf rfxgf, cfjZostfsf] ;Daf]wg x'G5 . ;'zf;gn] n}ls
;dfgtf / hg ;zlQms/0fdf hf]8 lbg] ePsf]n] ;fdflhs lje]bsf] cGTo x'G5 . ;"rgf tyf
cleJolQm lbg] ePsfn] hgtfx? ;";"lrt x'g kfpF5g\, o;n] u|fdL0f ljsf;df kfg]{ k|efjnfO{
lgDgfg';f/ b]vfpg ;lsG5 M
;/sf/sf tLg csf aLrdf ;f}xfb{ xflb{s ;DaGw :yflkt u/]/

35

cfly{s l:y/tf sfod u/]/


dfgj clwsf/, dlxnf, afn clwsf/, n}ls lje]b, ;fdflhs lje]bsf] cGTo ub}{
qmflGtsf/L kl/jt{g Nofpg ;xof]u u/]/
e|i6frf/ d'Qm sd{rf/LtGq lgdf{0f u/]/
cfwf/e"t dfgjclwsf/, :jtGqtf, clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt u/]/
;lqmo / pQ/bflo ;/sf/ lgdf{0f ug{ ;xof]u u/]/
gful/snfO{ /fd|f cj;/x? pknAw u/]/
G, Wj+; Go"lgs/0f u/]/
clVtof/ b'?kof]unfO{ xtf]T;fxL u/]/ ul/aL lgjf/0f / a]/f]huf/L ;d:ofdf hfgdf
of]ubfg k'ofP/
hgtfsf] hLjg:t/ ;'wfg{df ;xof]u u/]/
k|fb]zLs k|zf;g oGq sfod u/]/
;fj{hlgs ;]jf ;'ljwf pknAw u/fP/
g]kfnsf] k|zf;lgs ;+oGqdf s]xL ;do cl3 dfq k|of]udf NofOPsf] ;'zf;g zAbsf] Oltxf; Tolt nfdf]
5}g . ;'zf;g (Good Governance) c;n ;/sf/ (Good Government) sf] kl/dflh{t kdf b]vfk/]sf]
gjLgtd wf/0ff xf] . ;'zf;gsf] wf/0ffsf] tLj| ultdf ljsf; x'g'sf k5fl8 o;sf] s]xL k[i7e"ld /x]sf]
5 . ;g\ &) sf] bzsdf ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3sf] dxf;efn] ljsf;sf] d'Vo s]Gb|ljGb'sf] kdf dfgjnfO{
dfgL hg;xeflutfd"ns zf;g k4ltdf hf]8 lbg yfn]kl5 ;'zf;gsf] hu a:g k'u]sf] lyof] . To;kl5
;g\ !(*) sf] bzsdf ljZj a}+ssf] nufgLdf clk|msL b]zxdf ;+rflnt cfof]hgfxn] cfzfltt
k|ult xfl;n ug{ g;s]sf] tkm{ d"Nof+sg ub}{ ;/sf/L ;+oGqsf] c;kmntfnfO{ cf}NofOPsf] lyof] . oxL
bzsdf ljsf; ug{ kfpg] clwsf/nfO{ dfgj clwsf/sf] kdf :jLsf/ ul/of] . !(() sf] z'?jft;+u}
;'zf;gnfO{ j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] k"j{ zt{sf] kdf /fVg yflnof] . To;}n] Poor governance af6 pTkGg
gsf/fTds c;/nfO{ Go"lgs/0f ug{sf] nflu g} Good Governance zAbnfO{ k|rngdf NofOPsf] xf] .
jf:tjdf s'zf;g lj?4 zf;sLo ;'wf/ ug]{ d"n nIo lnP/ b]vf k/]sf] cfkm}df /fd|f] zAb ;'zf;gn]
ljZjJofkL dfGotf k|fKt ul//x]sf] 5 . -;|f]tM lji0f' ;'j]bL, k|zf;g, Joj:yfkg / ljsf;sf d"ne"t
kIfx? c6n Ps]8]dL ;]G6/, sf7df08f}, k|yd ;+:s/0f @)^!, k]h g+= !*)_
g]kfnL a[xt zAbsf]ifn] ;'zf;g zAbnfO{ pQd lsl;dsf] zf;g / c;n /fHo Joj:yf egL JofVof
u/]sf] 5 . k|zf;gljb\xsf b[li6df k|zf;lgs clwsf/sf] ;d'lrt k|of]u elg kl/eflift u/]sf]
kfOG5 . To;f] t Gofoljbxn] Goflos clwsf/sf] ;d'lrt k|of]u u/L dfgj clwsf/sf] ;'/IffnfO{

36

;'zf;gsf] cy{df lng] u/]sf 5g\ eg] cy{ljb\xn] eg] kf/bzL{ 7]Ssfkf Pj+ n]vf >]:tf k|0ffnLnfO{
;'zf;gsf] cGtj{:t'sf] kdf x]g]{ u/]sf 5g\ . To;}u/L /fhgLlts If]qdf hg pQ/bfoL zf;g
Joj:yf Pj+ :jR5 / hgd'vL ;/sf/ :yfkgf ug'{ ;'zf;g x'g ;S5 eg] Joj:yfkgljbxn] l56f]
5l/tf], r':t, b'?:t / kf/bzL{ k|zf;lgs ;+oGqsf] Joj:yfkg ug'{nfO{ ;'zf;gsf] ;+1f lbPsf 5g\ .
To:t} ;dfhzf:qLxsf] wf/0ffdf g}lts d"No, dfGotfnfO{ k|j4{g u/L e|i6frf/ljlxg, kf/bzL{ /
:jR5 k|zf;gnfO{ ;'zf;g egL cy{ ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 .
;'zf;gsf] If]q l;df / kl/efiffn] s] slt bfo/f ;d]6\g ;Sb5 eGg] s'/f b]z, sfn,
kl/l:ylt, ljsf;sf] :t/, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, z}lIfs cj:yf / r]tgfsf] :t/df e/ kb{5 . ljsl;t
b]zxsf] ;Gbe{df lghLs/0f / ahf/ cy{tGqnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ / ;f] sf] nflu ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfnfO{
Go"g kf/L lghL If]qsf] e"ldsf clea[l4 ug]{ ;Ddsf] bfo/f ;'zf;gn] ;d]6\g ;Sb5 . o;sf]
ljk/Lt ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zxsf] ;Gbe{df eg] lghL / ;/sf/L If]qsf] ;xofqfdf cfly{s, ;fdflhs
s[ofsnfkx ;~rfng u/L lk5l8Psf ju{ / ;d'bfosf] pTyfg tkm{ zf;sLo ;'wf/ ug{df g}
o;sf] bfo/f l;ldt x'g k'Ub5 . -;|f]t M P]hg P]hg k]h g+= !*!_
;'zf;gsf ljz]iftfx
;'zf;gsf] kl/efiff / cjwf/0ffsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ ;'zf;gsf k|d'v ljz]iftfx o; k|sf/ x'g ;Sg]
b]lvG5 .
zf;gdf hgtfsf] clwstd ;xeflutf,

:jtGq, :jR5 / lgikIf lgjf{rg k|0ffnLnfO{ a9fjf,

ljlw;Ddt zf;g k|0ffnLsf] ;~rfng,

gful/s ;dfh / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+3 ;+:yfgxsf] k|j4{g,

hgsNof0fsf/L ;fj{hlgs gLltxsf] th'{df / sfof{Gjog,

k|hftflGqs zf;g Joj:yf,

k|zf;lgs / /fhg}lts hjfkmb]lxtf,


:jtGq Gofokflnsfsf] :yfkgf,
cfwf/e"t dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt,

cfly{s sf/f]af/ / lg0f{odf kf/blz{tf,

OdfGbfl/tf / g}ltstfsf] k|j4{g,

37

e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f,

cfly{s, /fhg}lts / Joj:yfksLo clwsf/xsf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f Pj+ lgIf]k0f,

pbf/ cfly{s gLltnfO{ a9fjf,

k|zf;g / zf;sLo ;'wf/sf] lg/Gt/tf,

;fj{hlgs ;]jfxsf] ljt/0fdf k|efjsf/Ltf,

Gofo ;Dkfbgdf ;/ntf, :jR5tf, zL3|tf / lgikIftf cflb . -;|f]t M P]hg, P]hg k]h g+=
!*! / !*@_

;'zf;gsf cfofdx
;'zf;gnfO{ j:t'k/skdf kl/eflift ug{ lgDg lnlvt tLgj6f cfofdxsf cfwf/df ljZn]if0f
ul/g' pko'Qm x'g] b]lvG5, hf] o; k|sf/ 5g\ M
!=

/fhgLlts cfofdM ;'zf;gnfO{ /fhgLlts kl/j]zdf lgofNbf cToflws hg;xeflutf,


ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / ax'ntfjfb g} k|d'v tTjsf kdf b]vf kb{5g\ . o;sf] cnfjf ;'zf;gsf]
/fhg}lts cfofdleq cfwf/e"t dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt vf]lhG5 eg] sfg"gL /fHosf]
:yfkgf csf]{ lg0ff{os tTjsf kdf b]lvG5 . o;} u/L Goflos If]qsf] lgikIftf / kqsfl/tf
If]qsf] :jfoQtf o;sf] k|f0fsf] kdf cg'e"t x'G5 . ;du|tfdf ;'zf;gsf] /fhg}lts cfofdn]
;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj jxg ug]{ Ifdtfdf pRr k|ult xfl;n ub}{ gful/s ;dfhsf] :yfkgf
/ To;sf] ck]lIft kl/rfngsf] cfjZostfnfO{ cg'df]bg ub{5 .

@= Joj:yfksLo cfofdM ;'zf;gsf] Joj:yfksLo cfofdleq 5l/tf] t/ ;Ifd ;/sf/sf] efjgf


d'vl/t ePsf] x'G5 . o;sf] lgldQ sfo{bIftf k|d'v tTjsf kdf b[li6uf]r/ x'G5 . oL kl/j]zdf
cfly{s pbf/Ls/0f / lghLs/0f pko'Qm / ;zQm dfWod 7xl/g ;Qm5g\ . o;y{ ;'zf;gsf]
Joj:yfksLo cfofdleq Joj:yfksLo 7]Ssf h:tf sfo{ljlwn] pRr dxTj /fVb5g\ . o;sf]
cnfjf hg;+Vof Joj:yfkg / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f u/L u'0f:t/Lo sfo{Ifdtf k|bz{gsf] ck]Iff
o;df ul/G5 . oL ;a} sfo{sf lgldQ ;"rgf Joj:yfkgsf] cxd\ e"ldsf /x]sf] s'/f ;d]t la;{g
;lsb}g .
#= g}lts cfofdM ;'zf;gsf] g}lts cfofdleq kf/blz{tf / :jR5 k|zf;gsf] efjgf n's]sf]
x'G5 . pkef]Qmfsf] ;Gt'li6 nfO{ k|zf;gn] cfkm\gf] ;kmntfsf] dfks 7fGb5 . h;sf] lgldQ
hgtfk|ltsf] rf;f] . (Responsiveness) nfO{ pRr k|fyldstf k|bfg ul/G5 . /fi6 / hgtfsf]
;]jfk|lt cleJoQm k|lta4tf, zkyu|x0f_ cg'k sfo{ ;Dkfbg ubf{ e|i6frf//lxt k|zf;gsf]

38

cg'e"lt cfd hgtfdf k|bfg ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . -;|f]t M s[i0fxl/ jf:sf]6f, g]kfnsf] kl/k|]Iodf
;'zf;gM r'gf}tL / ;Defjgfx, hgk|zf;g SofDk;, @)%&, kmfNu'0f_ k]h @
$ k|zf;lgs cfofdM k|zf;g ;+oGq t6:y , lgZkIf Pj+ ;]jfu|fxL pGd'v x'g' kb{5 . gLlt lgodsf]
kl/kfngdf hf]8, ;]jfsf] ;Gt'li6 k|Tofe"lt pGd"v k|zf;g x'g' kb{5 . /fhgLltsld{sf] unt
lg0f{o lj?4 ;r]t /xg'kb{5 . /fggLlt1x?nfO{ ;Nnfx lbFbf P]g , sfg"g / ;fdflhs Gofodf
cfwfl/t x'g'kb{5 . ei6frf/ d'Qm k|zf;g gful/ssf] ck]Iff xf] .
% ;fdflhs cfofdM ;dfhsf] rfxgf, x]/fO{ ;fdflhs d"No dfGotfnfO{ klg c;n zf;gsf]
?k/]vf lgdf{0fdf dxTjk"0f{ cfwf/ dflgG5 . zf;ssf g/fd|f lqmofsnfk ,e|i6 rl/q, cg}lts
Jojxf/ h:tf ljifodf alx:sf/ jfbL cfGbf]ng, e]befj ljlxg ;dfh, ;fdflhs ;lxi0f'tf,
;f}xfb{tf, ;dfgtf / ;Dj[l4 ;fdflhs cfofdsf ljifoj:t'x? x'g . t;y{ ;dfh kl/jt{g ,
/fHosf] ;';+:s[lt ljsf;df ;fdflhs k4ltn] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 .
^ cGt/fli6o cfofdM ;'rgf k|ljlwsf] ljsf; ;+u} ljZj Ps ePsf] 5 . think globally act
locally sf] cjwf/0f;Fu} /fHosf ultljlw ljZjJoflk tyf :yflgo ;|f]t ;fwgsf] ;d"lrt
Joj:yfkg k|d'v r'gf}lt jg]sf] 5 . /fHosf] ;xeflutf ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3 , To;sf ljlzi7s[t
cu+,If]qLo ;+u7gdf ;d]t ;lqmotf /x]sf] kl/k]|Iodf lt lgsfox?sf ultljlw klg /fHosf
;femf Ph]G8f jg]sf 5g . cGt/fli6o :t/df dfGo k4lt, ;xdlt ;femf sfo{qmdnfO{
sfo{?k lbg' cfh /fHosf] k|yfldstf k"0f{ bfloTj xf] .
ljZj j}sn] zf;g klxrfg u/]sf dxTjk"0f{ cfofdx?
public sector management
Accountbility
Legal framework for development and transparency and information . (source : Govinda
khanal, ;'zf;g ;DjGwL ;}4flGts tyf sfg"gL kIfx?)

;'zf;g sfod ug{ ;/sf/L gLltsf] dxTj


gLltnfO{ v's'nf]l;t k|of]u ubf{ lgod, k|yf / lg0f{o;Fu cndlng] 8/ x'G5 . lgodn] s] ug'{ x'G5
s] ug'{ x'Fbg} eGg] atfpF5, To; cy{df of] lgb]{zs xf] t/ gLltsf] ljk/Lt of] lglb{i6 / s7f]/ x'G5 .
k|yf eg]sf] pxL 9+un] rNg] afgL ag]sf] af6f] xf] . t/ k|yf :jtM ljsl;t x'G5 eg] gLlt hfgfhfg
ul/g] s[To xf] . lg0f{o k|foM gLltsf] bfo/fleq /x]/ ul/g] sfo{ xf] . cyf{t\ gLlt;Fu lg0f{ox?sf]
>[\vnf g} hf]l8Psf] x'G5, gLltnfO{ kl/eflift ub}{ 6]/L eGb5g\ gLlt eg]sf] sfdsf] df}lvs,
lnlvt jf k/f]If cfwf/e"t lgb]{z xf] h'g ls k|aGwsf/f ckgfOPsf] / cg';/0f ul/Psf] x'G5 .

39

l8df]ssf cg';f/, ;fj{hlgs gLlt eg]sf] ;r]t ?kdf c+uLsf/ ul/Psf] cfr/0fsf] lgod xf] h;n]
k|zf;sLo lg0f{onfO{ lgb]{z u5{ .
jf:tjdf ;/sf/n] lgwf{/0f ug]{ gLlt g} ;fj{hlgs gLlt sxnfpF5 . gLltnfO{ Psflt/ nIoaf6
cnu /fv]/ x]g'{k5{ eg] csf]{lt/ sfo{;~rfngsf] r/0faf6 klg cnu /fVg'k5{ . t;y{ k|To]s
b]zjf;LnfO{ lzlIft agfpg' nIo xf] eg] clgjfo{ k|fylds lzIff Tof] nIo k|fKt ug]{ gLlt xf] . /
ljBfno :yfkgf Pj+ lzIfs tflnd rflx+ Tof] gLltnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ r/0f xf] .
hgk|zf;gsf] k/Dk/fjfbL :s"n ;fj{hlgs gLlt / k|zf;gaLr b"/Tj (Dichotomy) sf] kIfkftL
5 . p8f] ljN;g ;fj{hlgs gLltlgdf{0fnfO{ /fhgLlts sfo{ / gLlt sfof{GjognfO{ k|zf;sLo
sfo{ dfGby] . pgsf] ljrf/df k|zf;g /fhgLltsf] bfo/feGbf aflx/ k5{ . u'8gfp (Goodnow),
lao8{ (Beard), ljnf]aL (Silloughby) / cGo k|f/lDes n]vs s] ;fljt ug{ lbnf]Hofgn] nfu]sf
lyP eg] hxfF /fhgLlt ;lsG5 ToxfF k|zf;g k|f/De x'G5 (Administration begins only where
politics ends) . To;}n] g t k|zf;sn] ;fj{hlgs gLltlgdf{0fdf x:tIf]k ug{ x'G5 g t /fhgLlt1n]
k|zf;gdf 6f c8\ofpg x'G5 eGg] pgLx?sf] dfGotf lyof] . l9n} eP klg of] dtsf] s6' cfnf]rgf
ePsf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs gLltnfO{ k|zf;gaf6 cnu /fVg] s'/fsf] k|yd cfnf]rs n'y/ u'lns x'g\ .
la:tf/} of] ;f]+rn] nf]slk|otf xfl;n ub}{ uof] / krf;sf] bzs cfOk'Ubf gk'Ub} o;n] csf]{ clt
(Extreme) sf] dfu{ ;dfTof] . kn PKknafO / hg u; (John Gaus) h:tf ljfg\ t s] bfaL
ug{ yfn] eg] k|zf;g eg]sf] k"/} /fhgLlt xf] . o;sf cg';f/ xfd|f] hgk|zf;gsf] l;4fGt eg]sf]
/fhgLltsf] l;4fGt klg xf] . lk6/ cf]8]uf8{n] t oxfF;Dd eg] ls gLlt / k|zf;g eg]sf /fhgLltsf
h'DNofxf aRrf x'g\ (Policy and administration are Siamese twins of politics) .
pk/f]Qm b'a} dt cltjfbL /f]un] kLl8t 5g\ To;}n] oL coyfy{jfbL dflgG5g\ . j:t'tM /fhgLlt /
k|zf;g b'j}df cGt/ t 5 . /fhgLltn] d'Vo ?kdf gLlt lgdf{0f;Fu ;DaGw /fV5 eg] k|zf;gn] gLlt
sfof{Gjog;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fV5 . t/ gLlt z"Godf th'{df x'Fb}g . of] ablnFbf] nIo, km]l/Fbf] jftfj/0f
/ ljleGg kl/l:yltdf th'{df ul/g] Ps ultzLn wf/0ff xf] . x8\;gsf] ljrf/df ;fj{hlgs gLlt
lgdf{0f eg]sf] k|lqmofsf] Ps If0f (Moment in a process) xf] To;y{ of] k|zf;lgs ;f]kfgsf] x/]s
txdf lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . csf]{lt/ gLlt sfof{Gjogsf] x/]s txdf gLlt lgwf{/0f x'G5 . xf], pRr
;f]kfg / lgDg ;f]kfgsf] aLr gLlt lgwf{/0fdf dfqfsf] eP klg cGt/ x'G5 . pRrtx lgDgtxsf]
t'ngfdf HofbfeGbf Hofbf gLlt lgdf{0fdf ;+nUg x'G5 . t/ o;sf] cy{ tNnf] txn] gLlt lgdf{0fdf
k|efj} kfb}{g eGg] 7fGg' x'Fb}g .
ljsf;zLn d'n'sx?sf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] ;d:of s] xf] eg] ToxfF ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] lgdf{0f t x'G5
t/ ltgsf] ;xL sfof{Gjog x'Fb}g . cem csf]{ zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] ToxfF of]hgfx? aG5g\, ltgsf]

40

sfof{Gjog klg x'G5 t/ nIo eg] k|fKt x'g ;Sb}g . of] s'/fnfO{ glhsaf6 x]l//x]sf bftf /fi6x? /
cGt/f{li6o ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] cg'ej u/] eg] Ps t ljsf;zLn d'n'sx?df /fhgLlts OR5fzlQmsf]
sdL 5 eg] csf]{, ToxfF k|zf;sLo lgsfo sfo{s'zn / k|efjsf/L 5}gg\ . ctM ;'zf;g Ps
lsl;dn] ;xof]usf] zt{ (Aid Conditionality) sf] ?kdf ;fd'Gg] cfof] . ltdL cfgf] zf;sLo ;'wf/
u/ clg ;xof]u kfpF5f}+ eGg] 9+un] of] dfGotf olta]nf ;fd'Gg] cfPsf] 5 .
;Q/Lsf] bzssf] dWoaf6 ha ljZjdf k|hftGqsf] t];|f] nx/ k|f/De eof] To;}a]nfb]lv ;'zf;gsf]
cjwf/0ffn] nf]slk|otf kfpg yfn]sf] xf] . ;"rgf qmflGtn] Psflt/ dfgjsf ;fdflhs cl:tTjnfO{
lrGtgwf/fsf] s]Gb|laGb'df Nofof] eg] csf]{lt/ k|ltlglwd"ns k|hftGqsf ;Ldfx? klg k|i6 kfl/lbof] .
jf:tjdf k|ltlglwd"ns k|hftGqn] s]lGb|s[t /fHo / t[0fd"n txsf hgtfaLr dWo:ysf] e"ldsf v]Ng
;s]g eg] ;Fu;Fu} Jofks hg;d'bfonfO{ ljsf;sf] k|lqmofdf ;fd]n u/fpg ;s]g . kl/0ffd:j?k
ljsf;zLn d'n'sx?df k|ltlglwd"ns k|hftGqsf] :yfg la:tf/}la:tf/} ;xeflutfd"ns k|hftGq
(Participatory Democracy) n] lng yfNof] .
s'g} Joj:yf ;'zf;g sxnfpgsf nflu To;sf zf;sx?df /fhgLlts lhDd]jf/Lsf] efjgf x'g'k5{ .
jf:tjdf zfl;tx?n] h'g xb;Dd zf;sx?dfly lgoGq0f :yflkt u5{g\ zf;sx? ToxL xb;Dd
lhDd]jf/ x'G5g\ . cfgf dtbftfsf efjgfsf] sb/ ug'{, pgLx?sf] x]/rfx ug'{ / pgLx?sf ljsf;
cfsf+Iffx? k'/f ug'{ zf;sx?sf] bfloTj xf] . /fhgLlts ;+:sf/sf] /fd|f];Fu ljsf; geO;s]sf]
;dfhdf zf;sx? lgjf{rg cl3 g/d / ;x[boL b]lvg] / lgjf{lrt eO;s]kl5 pQfpnf / s7f]/
x'g] u/]sf b]lvG5g\ . kb / clVtof/nfO{ lghL :jfy{sf nflu b'?kof]u ug]{ k|j[lQ klg b]lvG5 . oxL
u}/ lhDd]jf/kgfsf] Bf]ts xf] . t;y{ ;'zf;gsf] cy{ g} zf;sx?df lhDd]jf/Lsf] efjgf /xg'k5{
eGg] xf] .
/fhgLlts lhDd]jf/Lsf] efjgf ;Fu;Fu} zf;gsf] j}wflgstf klg plQs} dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . j}wflgstf
eg]sf] zf;ssf] zf;g ug{ kfpg] clVtof/ xf] . Joj:y}lkR5] zf;gsf] j}wflgstf ;'lglZrt ug]{
cfcfg} ljlw / z}nL x'G5 . cfhsf] b'lgofFdf zf;ssf] j}wflgstf ;'lglZrt ug]{ ;jf{lws k|rlnt
tl/sf eg]sf] cfjlws lgjf{rg xf] . jf:tjdf lgjf{rgsf dfWodaf6 hgtfn] cfkm";Fu /x]sf]
zf;gflwsf/ cfgf k|ltlglwsf] xftdf ;'DkG5g\ . oxfF Wofg lbg'kg]{ Pp6f s'/f s] 5 eg] lgjf{rg g}
zf;gsf] j}wflgstf ;'lglZrt ug]{ ;a}eGbf k|efjsf/L dfWod ePsfn] lgjf{rg k|0ffnLnfO{ :jR5,
lgikIf / wfFwnL/lxt agfpg h?/L 5 . k|fo s] b]lvG5 eg] ljsf;zLn d'n'sdf zf;sx?n] ;Qf,
wg / ;"rgfsf] b'?kof]u u/]/ lgjf{rgsf] :jR5tf / j}wtfnfO{ g} la6'NofOlbG5g\ . To:tf] eof] eg]
lgjf{rgsf] klg j}wtfsf] k|Tofe"lt ug{ ;Sb}g .
lxhf]cfh zf;ssf] j}wflgstfnfO{ p;sf] sfo{Ifdtf;Fu klg hf]l8G5 . o;nfO{ sfo{ ;Dkfbg

41

j}wflgstf (Performance legitimacy) eGb5g\ . lgjf{rgn] Joj:yfsf] j}wflgstfsf] gjLs/0f u5{


eg] zf;ssf] j}wflgstf p;sf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg Ifdtfn] lgwf{l/t u5{ . xfdL xfd|} d'n'sdf 5ofln;
;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngsf gfosx?sf] JolQmTj qmdzM afpGg] x'Fb} uPsf] kfpF5f}+ . pgLx? lxhf] hlt
cfb/sf kfq lyP cfh Tolt g} qmf]wsf kfq ag]sf 5g\ . cflv/ lsg < o;sf cGo sf/0fx?
klg xf]nfg\ . t/ Pp6f k|d'v sf/0frflxF pgLx?n] zf;g ubf{ b]vfpg ;Sg'kg]{ sfo{Ifdtf b]vfpg
;s]gg\ . hgtfsf] cfzf, cfsf+Iff / rfxgfdfly t'iff/fkft t eof] g} ;fydf d'n'ssf] sfofkn6 ug]{
pgLx?sf] afrf klg rsgfr"/ eof] . j}wflgstf eg]sf] zf;gflwsf/ t xf] t/ olb zf;sn] o;sf]
;Dos\ 9+un] / nf]slxtdf k|of]u u/]g eg] hgtfnfO{ To;sf] cj1f ug]{ ;d]t clwsf/ x'G5 . egfO
g} 5, ljb|f]x ug]{ Gofof]lrt clwsf/ xf] . ;'zf;gsf] ;Gbe{df a'em\g'kg]{ d'Vo s'/f g} s] xf] eg] o;df
j}wflgstfsf] k'6 x'g'k5{ . -;|f]tM xl/x/ l3ld/], ;fdflhs ;+:yf / k|lqmofx?sf] ljZn]if0f (Analysis
of Social Institutions and process), tn]h" k|sfzg, ef]6flx6L sf7df8f}+, jt{dfg ;+:s/0f @)^%_ .
cfly{s j[l4sf nflu ;/sf/, ;+:s[lt e"uf]n, jftfj/0f tyf k|fs[lts ;DkbfnfO{ cfwf/ :tDesf
?kdf x]l/Psf] x'G5 . cy{zf:qLx? ahf/ c;kmntf (market failure) sf sf/0f cy{tGqdf ;/sf/L
e"ldsfsf] cfjZostf pNn]v ub{5g\ . o;y{ cy{tGqdf ;/sf/L e"ldsf d"ntM lgDg sf/0fx?n]
cfjZos kb{5 M
-s_

;fj{hlgs j:t' (public goods) h:t} sfg"gL zf;g, k|efjsf/L lgodg / ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf]
k|aGw .

-v_

jfXotf (externalities) h:t} lzIff, :jf:Yo, cg';Gwfgdf ul/Psf] nufgLn] kfg]{ k|ToIf /
k/f]If ;sf/fTds k|efj tyf k|b'if0f cflbn] kfg]{ gsf/fTds k|efjsf] Joj:yfkg .

-u_

Psflwsf/jfbsf] lgoGq0f tyf lgodg, /

-3_

lghL If]qdf l;lh{t x'g ;Sg] k|efjsf/L ;dGjosf] cefjsf] Joj:yfkg .

kfFr bzs k"j{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, k|lt JolQm cfo / k|fs[lts ;Dkbfsf] pknAwtfsf b[li6sf]0fn]
cfkm\gf] l5d]sLx?;Fu ;dfg:t/df /x]sf ljZjsf sltko d'n'sx? ;/sf/L e"ldsfsf sf/0f cfly{s
ljsf;sf] If]qdf sfofkn6 ug{ ;dy{ ePsf 5g\ . ;/sf/L e"ldsfsf] k|efjsfl/tf / u'0ffTdstfaf6
cNk cjlwd} cfly{s ljsf;sf If]qdf dxTjk"0f{ k|ult xfl;n ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] pbfx/0f >Lnf,
jf]6\;jfgf, rLg / blIf0f clk|msf h:tf d'n'sx?n] k|:t't u/]sf 5g\ . UNDP sf] dfgj ljsf;
k|ltj]bg, @))# sf cg';f/ >Lnfn] ;g\ !($^ b]lv !(%# sf] cf7 jif]{ cjlwd} cfgf gful/sx?sf]
cf};t cfo' $^ jif{af6 %* jif{ k'ofPsf] lyof] eg] jf]6\;jfgfn] ;g\ !(&) b]lv !(*% sf] !% jif]{
cjlwd} k|fylds ljBfno egf{ b/nfO{ $^ k|ltztaf6 *( k|ltzt k'ofPsf] lyof] . ;g\ !(()
sf] Ps bzsd} rLgn] ul/aL b/ ## k|ltztaf6 36fP/ !* k|ltztdf emfg{ ;dy{ eof] eg] blIf0f
clk|msfn] ;g\ !((& b]lv @))! sf] cToGt 5f]6f] cjlwd} z'4 lkpg] kfgLsf] kx'Fr gePsf ! s/f]8

42

%) nfv hg;+VofnfO{ &) nfvdf cf]/fNg ;kmn ePsf] lyof] .


pko'{Qm ;}4flGts cfwf/ / pbfx/0fx?nfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ kl/jlt{t kl/l:yltdf pRr cfly{s j[l4b/
xfl;n ug{ cGo d'n'ssf] cg'ejaf6 ;d]t l;Sb} b"/bzL{ b[li6sf]0f (Vision) ;lxtsf] k|efjsf/L
/fHo ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug'{ g]kfnsf] klg cfjZostf xf] .
;|f]tM David N, Weil, Economic Growth (2005) tyf UNDP Human Development Report (2003)
g]kfndf ;'zf;g sfod ug{ ljleGg cfjlws of]hgfdf Aoa:yf ul/Psf ;/sf/L gLltx? sf] th'{df
sfof{Gjog / d"Nof\sg txdf b]lvPsf ;d:ofx?
;/sf/L gLltM
g]kfndf 5}7f} of]hgf -@)#&@)$@_ df jt{dfg k|zf;g oGqnfO{ cem dha't agfpg] p2]Zo k|flKtsf
nflu k|zf;sLo ;+u7g tyf sfo{ ljlwnfO{ ;'b[9Ls/0f tyf hg;]jL / pTkfbgzLntfsf] ;fy}
lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ cfsif{s / sfo{d"ns agfpg] h:tf gLltx /flvPsf] kfOG5 . To:t} ;ftf} of]hgf
-@)$@@)$&_ df k|zf;goGqnfO{ a9L hgd'vL / ljsf;d"ns agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] lyof] . o;sf]
;fy;fy} ljsf; k|zf;gnfO{ ;Ifd / ;'b[9 agfpg] k|zf;sLo OsfO{xsf] Ifdtf / k|efjsfl/tfdf
a[l4 u/L k|zf;gnfO{ a9L hgd'vL, pTkfbgzLn / ljsf;d"ns agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] kfOG5 .
cf7f}+ of]hgf -@)$(@)%$_ df abln+bf] kl/k|]Iodf a9\bf] ljsf; cfsf+IffnfO{ d"t{ k lbg
k|zf;goGqsf] ;+VofTds a[l4df sdL NofO{ Ifdtf / k|efjsf/Ltfdf a[l4 u/L k|zf;gnfO{ a9L
pTkfbgzLn ljsf;d"ns / ldtJooL agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] lyof] . gjf}+ of]hgf -@)%$@)%(_
df ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgnfO{ :jR5, 5l/tf], kf/bzL{, ldtJooL, k|lt:kwf{Tds, sfo{d"ns, ;Ifd,
pTkfbgzLn, ;]jfd"ns / pQ/bfoL agfpg], ;fj{hlgs ;|f]t ;fwgxsf] Joj:yfkgnfO{ plrt
/ k|efjsf/L agfpg] ljlw ;Ddt zf;g k|0ffnL / gful/s ;dfhsf] wf/0ffnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug]{
p2]Zox lnOPsf 5g\ . gjf}+ of]hgfdf k|zf;gnfO{ ;Ifd, hgd'vL / pTkfbgzLn agfpg hgzlQm
ljsf; / sfo{ ;/nLs/0fdf k|efjsfl/tf Nofpg], rfn" cfjlws of]hgfsf] gLltnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf
Nofpg] qmddf ;/sf/af6 pknAw u/fOg] ;]jf tyf ;'ljwfnfO{ k|efjsf/L t'Nofpg]] lgb]{lzsf @)%^
hf/L ePsf] 5 .
bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(@)^$_ df ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g k|efjsf/L ePaf6 ;fj{hlgs vr{sf] ;xL ;b'kof]u
eO{ pRrtxdf kmn k|fKt x'g], e|i6frf/, clVtof/ b'kof]u / /fh:j r'xfj6df lgoGq0f x'g],
ljsf; lgdf{0f / ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] k|jfxdf hgtfsf] :t/af6 lgu/fgL ug]{ k4ltsf] ljsf; ug]{ nIo
/flvPsf] 5 . hgtfnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] ;]jfxsf] ;~rfngdf ;/sf/L, gful/s ;dfh / lghL If]qsf]
k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtfsf] klxrfg ub}{ j:t' Pj+ ;]jfk|jfx ubf{ To:tf] Ifdtfsf] ;d'lrt kl/rfng

43

u/L ;/sf/L:t/af6 lbOg] ;]jf Pj+ j:t'xsf] u'0ffTds Pj+ kl/df0ffTds ;'wf/ ul/g]5 . lghfdtL
;]jfsf] ;du| sfo{Ifdtfdf clea[l4 ug]{ u/L sd{rf/Lxsf] lgo'lQmb]lv cjsfz aLr x'g] j[lQ
ljsf;sf] kf/bzL{ of]hgf tof/ ul/g]5 . lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutfnfO{ k|f]T;flxt
ul/g]5 . lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ r':t / 5l/tf] u/fpg plrt cfsf/df nlug]5 . lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
ljQLo s'zntfdf clea[l4 ul/g]5 . e|i6frf/ Pj+ clVtof/ b'kof]u lgoGq0fsf] sfo{df ;+nUg
lgsfoxsf] ;+:yfut Ifdtf clea[l4 ul/g] gLlt /flvPsf] 5 .
tLg jlif{o cGt/Ld of]hgf -@)^$@)^%)^^)^&_ df ;'zf;g ;DaGwL bL3{sfnLg ;f]r /fv]cg';f/
o; of]hgfdf ;fj{hlgs, GofoLs / ljsf; k|zf;g nfO{ cem a9L k|lt:kwL{, ;xeflutf d'ns,
kf/bzL{, ;]jfd'vL, kl/0ffdd"vL, pQ/bfoL, ;dfj]zL, ckf+u d}qL, n}ls ;dtf cled'v agfO{g]
gLlt /flvPs]f kfOG5 . o; of]hgfdf ;'zf;g ;DaGwL lgDg p2]Zo tyf /0fgLltx? /flvPsf 5g\ M
! ;fj{hlgs, GofoLs / ljsf; k|zf;g If]qnfO{ pQ/bfoL, hgtfsf cfjZostf / cfsf+Iff k|lt
;+j]bglzn /xL hgtfdf ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt u/fpb} lbuf] cfly{s / ;fdflhs ljsf; sfo{df
6]jf k'ofpg] .
@ sfg"gL /fHosf] d'No / dfGotf cg';f/ /fHo ;+oGqx?sf] ;'b[9Ls/0f u/L hg;xeflutf,
kf/blz{tf,hjfkmb]xLtf / e|i6frf/ d'Qm cj:yfsf] l;h{gff/f cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ;]jf
k|jfxdf kx'r a9fpg] .
# e|i6rf/ /lxt kf/bzL{, pQ/bfoL, ;xeflutfd'ns, ;]jfd"vL, glthfd'ns, ;dfj]zL k|zf;g
;+oGqsf] ljsf; / lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 u/L lg/f]wfTds / pkrf/fTds
ljlwf/f e|+i6frf/sf] k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ul/g] 5 .
$ ;sf/fTds lje]bsf] /0fgLlt cjnDjg u/L ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf kx'r gk'u]sf dlxnf, cfbLjf;L
hghftL, blnt, dw];L, d':nLd, ckf / ljkGg ju{x?nfO{ ;]jfdf ;dfj]z x'g k|f]T;fxg ul/g]
5.
% ;/sf/sf ;a} lgsfox?af6 k|bfg ul/g] ;]jfnfO{ ;dfj]zL agfpg] k|efjsf/L bIf tyf
u'0f:t/Lo ;]jf kfpg' ;]jf u|fxssf] df}lns clwsf/ eGg] s'/fsf] k|Tofe"lt ul/g] 5 .
^ ;'/Iff / Gofo k|zf;gnfO{ ;Ifd / k|efjsf/L agfO{ hgrfxgf / cfjZostf cg';f/ l56f]
5l/tf] ;]jf k|bfg ul/g] 5 .
jt{dfg lqjifL{o of]hgf -@)^&^*@)^(&)_ df ;'zf;gsf] Joj:yf

44

o; of]hgfdf ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfx ;d]tsf] ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] th'{df, sfof{Gjog / d"Nofgsf]
sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ :jR5, k|lt:kwL{, kf/bzL{, kl/0ffdd'vL, ;dfj]zL,
hgtfsf] cfjZostf / cfsf+Iffk|lt ;+j]bgzLn / cfgf] sfo{sf] lglDt pQ/bfoL, ;Ifd / ;+3Lotf
/ ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf cfwf/e"t d"No dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/]/ cg'zfl;t eO{ ljlw;Ddt 9+un] sfd
ug]{ :ki6 sfo{ lhDd]jf/L ePsf] If]q agfpg] p2]Zo /flvPsf] 5 .

/0fgLlt
!= /fhgLlts If]q / k|zf;lgs If]qaLrsf] ;DaGwnfO{ :ki6 ?kn] kl/eflift u/L k|zf;lgs
k|lqmof / sfo{nfO{ :jR5, ;/n, l56f], 5l/tf], kf/bzL{, ;xeflutfd"ns, :ki6 k"jf{g'dfg of]Uo
agfP/ hgtfn] ;'zf;gsf] cg'e"lt ug]{ cj:yfsf] l;h{gf ug{sf nflu cfjZos sfg"gL /
;+:yfut ;'wf/ ug]{ cfwf/ tof/ ug]{ .
@= sfuh/lxt ;/sf/sf] lgdf{0f / ;~rfng ug]{ bL3{sfnLg p2]Zo lnP/ k|zf;lgs lgsfox?sf]
sfdsf/afxLdf ljB'tLo zf;g k4ltsf k|lqmofx? qmdzM k|of]u ub}{ hfg] .
#= e|i6frf/ la?4sf] cGt/f{li6o dxf;lGw dfkm{t cGt/f{li6o ;d'bfon] JoQm u/]sf] k|lta4tf
cg'?k x'g] u/L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwL sfg"gL Joj:yf / k|zf;lgs ;+/rgfsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f
/ ;'wf/ ug]{ .
$= u'0f:t/Lo ;fj{hlgs ;]jf lgikIf, ;xh Pj+ ljlw;Ddt 9+un] ;dod} nlIft ;d'bfon] kfpg]
cj:yf ;'lglZrt x'g] u/L ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] k|jfxnfO{ :jR5, kf/bzL{ / k|efjsf/L agfpg] .
%= ;Dk"0f{ ju{ / ;d'bfosf of]Uo tyf OR5's JolQmx?nfO{ ;]jf k|j]zsf ;dfg cj;/x? pknAw
u/fpg] Joj:yf ldnfP/ ;fj{hlgs ;]jfnfO{ ;dfj]zL agfpg] .
g]kfndf ;'zf;g sfod ug{ Joj:yf ul/Psf ;/sf/L gLltx?sf] th'{df sfof{Gjog / d"Nof\sg txdf
b]lvPsf ;d:ofx?M
;'zf;g sfod ug'{kg]{ hgcfjfh / u'gf;f] al9/x]sf] ;Gbe{df ;/sf/sf lqmofsnfkx? hgpQ/bfoL
/ ;xeflutfd"ns agfpg'sf] ;fy} cGtl/d ;+ljwfg / cGtl/d ;/sf/sf] k|lta4tfnfO{ sfo{?k lbg
;'zf;gsf cjojx?nfO{ k"0f{ k|lta4tfsf ;fy ;Daf]wg ug'{ r'gf}ltk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . :yfgLo :jfoQ
zf;g P]gsf] sfof{Gjog / :yfgLo hgk|ltlglwd"ns ;+:yfx?sf] hjfkmb]lxtfdf cfPsf] clea[l4af6
:yfgLo lgsfox? k|efjsf/L x'Fb} uPsf] eP tfklg lt lgsfox?df lgjf{lrt hgk|ltlglwx?sf]
l/Qmtfaf6 :yfgLo:t/sf] ;]jfk|jfxdf gsf/fTds c;/ k/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf xfn;Dd b]vf k/]sf
;'zf;g ;DaGwL d'Vo ?kdf ;d:of / ca/f]wsf] ?kdf b]lvPsf lgDg lzif{sx?nfO{ ljefhg ug{
;lsG5 . h:t}M

45

gLlt th'{df ubf{ klxrfg ul/g] ljifosf] oyfy{tf / jf:tljstf k|dfl0ft ug{ cfjZos kg]{
;"rgf / 1fgsf] sdL
gLlt th'{df tyf ljZn]if0fsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ljz]if1tf, sfo{d"ns Ifdtf ;lxtsf]
;+:yfut ;+oGqsf] cefj
;Da4 kIfsf] ;s[o ;xeflutfsf] cefj
glthf / kl/0ffdsf] k|If]k0f / k"jf{g'dfg ug{ g;Sg'
;d:of / r'gf}ltsf] k"j{ cfFsng gul/g' .
;|f]t ;fwgsf] cefj / df}h'bf ;|f]t ;fwgsf] pko'Qm kl/rfng x'g g;Sg'
/fhgLlt / k|zf;lgs g]t[TjaLr ;dembf/L, ;dGjosf] cefj
gLltsf] k|s[lt cg'?ksf] th'{df k|s[of cjnDag gul/g'
clwsf/, lhDd]jf/L / pQ/bfloTjaLr ;Gt'ngsf] cefj ;fy} pQ/bfloTj kG5fpg] k|j[lQ
gLlt sfof{Gjog ug{ sfo{of]hgf, sfo{ljlw to gul/g' / sfo{x?sf] k|fyldsLs/0f gul/g'
gLlt ;Da4 JolQmx?sf] dgf]j}1flgs kIf sdhf]/ Pj+ gsf/fTds x'g'
/fhgLlts bfpk]r, 3ft, k|lt3ft / k|zf;gdf cToflws /fhgLlts x:tIf]k tyf e|i6frf/, /fi6
/ hgtfsf] lxtsf] ;+/If0f / clej[l4sf] /fhgLlt1x?sf] pbf;Lgtf, /fhgLlts k|lta4tfsf]
sdL
k'FhLsf] cefj, cj}1flgs / cJojxfl/s /sd lgsf;f k4lt tyf xr'jf ah]6 ljlgof]hg
k|0ffnL .
lkmtnf] sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nofg k4lt, sdhf]/ cg'udg Joj:yf tYof / ;"rgfsf] cefj .
lgo'QmL, ;?jf, a9'jf / kb:yfkg ;DaGwL lglZrt sfo{k|0ffnL jf l/ltsf] cefj . JolQmut
cfj]z / nx8sf cfwf/df kl/0ffdsf] k/LIf0f / ljZn]if0f ljgf ul/g] gLltut k|of]ux? . b08,
k'/:sf/sf] k|efjsf/L ;+oGqsf] cefj / lgikIftfsf] cefj . pRr dgf]an / k|ltj4tfsf]
cefj .
pTk|]/0ffsf] sdL, sdhf]/ / cljsl;t ;"rgf k|jfx k|0ffnL, 1fg / ;Lksf] cefj, lhDd]jf/L
kG5fpg] k|j[lQ / oyfl:ytLjfbL ;f]r,
sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ hLjg:t/sf nflu rflxg] tna / ;'ljwfsf] sdL,
sfof{Gjogsf] jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{,
;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ hfgsf/L Pj+ ;r]tgf ug]{ gLltnfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{ .

46

;+:yfut Joj:yf ug]{ M ;|f]t ;fwgsf] Joj:yf, hg;xeflutf / k|f]T;fxg Joj:yf ug]{, k|efjsf/L
cg'udg Joj:yf cg'udg ;+oGq / dfkg ;"rsf+s ;d:of ;dfwfg ug]{ / sfof{Gjogsf]
u'0f:t/ sfod ug]{ ;+oGqsf] Joj:yf ug]{ .
nfdf] ;dob]lv lgjf{lrt hgk|ltlglwsf] l/Qmtf,
:yfgLo lgsfox?sf] sdhf]/ ;+:yfut Ifdtf, :yfgLo:t/sf k"jf{wf/x? Gaf6 gi6 x'g' Pj+
;dodf k'glg{df{0f x'g g;Sg',
of]hgf ;~rfng ubf{ cg'udg x'g g;Sg', :yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gdf Joj:yf ePsf
k|fjwfgx?sf] k"0f{ sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sg' .
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g;Fu aflemPsf sltko cGo P]gx? ;+zf]wg x'g g;Sbf sfof{Gjogdf
cGof]n /xg', :yfgLo lgsfox?df r'xfj6 lgoGq0f tyf ljQLo cg'zf;g k"0f{ ?kdf nfu' x'g
g;Sg'
sfddf bf]xf]/f]kgf ;/sf/L lgsfo:yfgLo lgsfo tyf :yfgLo:yfgLo lgsfox? aLrsf]
sfddf, of]hgfx?df kof{Kt k|fljlws ;xof]u k'Ug g;Sbf ;dodf / u'0f:t/o'Qm tj/n] of]hgf
;DkGg x'g g;Sg', :yfgLo lgsfodf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx?sf] sfo{jf]em, ax'ljifos ljz]if1tfsf]
cfjZostf cg'?k Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ g;Sg' .

;'emfjx
g]kfndf xfn b]vf k/]sf] k|zf;lgs lj;+utLxnfO{ x6fP/ /fd|f] c;n zf;g sfod u/fpg lgDg
;'efjx k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 M

kb:yfkg, ;?jf, sfh, sfod d'sfod, c:yfoL Hofnfbf/L ;DaGwL sdL sdhf]/LxnfO{
x6fP/ P]g, lgoddf ePsf k|fjwfgxsf] s8fO{sf ;fy kfng ug'{, u/fpg' cfhsf] k|d'v
cfjZostf xf] . lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ z}lIfs eQf, cfjf;eQf, h:tf ck|ToIf ;'ljwfxdf
a[l4 ug]{ kl/kf6L a;fNg' k5{ .

xfn ljBdfg /x]sf ;]jf ;d"x, pk;d"x hyfefjL u7g ug]{ / x6fpg] kl/kf6L aGb u/L lglZrt
dfkb08sf cfwf/df ;]jf ;d"x, pk;d"xxsf] Joj:yf ug]{ tkm{ bL3{sfnLg gLlt aGg' k5{ / ;f]xL
cg'k P]gdf :ki6 k|fjwfg /flvg' cfjZos 5 .

sd{rf/Ln] ug'{kg]{ sfdsf] k|s[lt x]/L ;Dej ePkl5 s'g sfd slt lbg leq ul/;Sg' kg]{ xf] .
gLlt to u/L tbg';f/ eP gePsf] , u/] gu/]sf] x]g]{ , sfd sf/afxL pk/ lgu/fgL /fVg]
plrt Joj:yf ldnfOg' kb{5 .

;dfhnfO{ e|i6frf/af6 d'Qm ug{ e|i6frf/sf lj?4 hgdt tof/ ug{ ;fdflhs ;+:sf/sf]
hu]gf{ / ;+/If0f cTofjZos x'G5 .

47

s'g} j:t' v/Lb ubf{ hUuf v/Lb ubf{, 3/ agfpFbf nfut vr{sf] ;|f]t s] xf] < 5'6\ofpg
cfjZos x'G5 . v/Lb stf{n] v/Lb u/]sf] hUufdf nufgL u/]sf] k};f p;n] s'g ;|f]taf6
cfh{g u/]sf] xf] v'nfpg' kg]{ sfg"gL Joj:yf ePdf s'g} klg JolQm /ftf/ft s/f]8klt aGg
;Sb}g . To;}n] sfnf] wg / ;]tf] wg s] xf] :ki6 ug]{ u/L sfg"gL Joj:yf ldnfpg' kb{5 .

e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fdf b]zsf r]tgzLn ;r]t / a'l4hLjLxn] hg:t/df o;af/] k|rf/k|;f/


u/L e|i6frf/sf lj?4 alnof] hgdt tof/ ug{ ;Sb5g\ . ;dfhsf cGo If]qxdf ljleGg
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx ;+ul7t kdf lqmofzLn /x]sf 5g\ t/ o; If]qdf o:tf lsl;dsf
;+u7g, ;+:yfx lqmofzLn gx'g', hg:t/df s'g} bafa ;d"x u7g eO{ ;lqmo gx'g' ;d]t
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf nflu r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf 5g\ .

;'zf;gsf ;DaGwdf ePsf sdL sdhf]/Lx?sf] ;'wf/ af/]df cWoog cg';Gwfg gx'g' /
;'zf;g ;DaGwL pko'Qm gLlt / gLltsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog / cg'udg tyf d'Nof+sg
Joj:yf sdhf]/ /x]sf] 5 . zf;g Joj:yfnfO{ hgtfsf] lxtnfO{ cg's'n agfpg] b[9 OR5f
/ k|lta4tfsf] cefj /x]sf] b]lvg cfp5 . o:tf] ;d:ofnfO{ klg ;dod} ;dfwfg ul/g'
cfjZos 5 .

sfg"g pNn+3g ug]{ pk/ s8fO{sf ;fy sf/afxL gx'g', /fhgLlt e|i6 / gf/fd'vL x'g' / :jfyL{
k|zf;g x'g', e|i6frf/n] r/d ;Ldf gfg' cflb o:tf ;d:ofx?n] ubf{ ;'zf;g sfod u/fpg
sl7gfO{ kl//x]sf] 5 .

;'zf;gsf] ;kmn sfof{Gjogsf nflu pRr txaf6 k|zf;lgs k|ltj4tf hfx]/ u/L
OdfGbf/Ltfk"j{s kfng ug]{ / s'/fdf eGbf sfddf a9L hf]8 lbg' kb{5 . gLlt of]hgf /
cGo lqmofsnfksf] k|efjsf/L ?kn] cg'udg d"Nof+sg ug]{ k|0ffnL / ;+oGqsf] ljsf; ul/g'
cfjZos 5 . csf]{ s'/f e|i6frf/ /f]SgnfO{ k|efjsf/L sbd rflng' klg Tolts} cfjZos /xg
cfPsf] 5 .

k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{, bIf, ;Ifd Pj+ sfo{d"ns gLlt th'{df
;+oGqsf] lgdf{0f, ;xeflutf, ;r]tgf / ;+rf/ Joj:yfsf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkg, ;fj{hlgs
gLlt th'{df cfrf/;+lxtf th'{df, pQ/bfloTj k|lt ;r]t /xg' cfjZos 5 .

c;n zf;g sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfjZos sfo{gLlt, sfo{of]hgf, sfo{ljlw th'{df ug]{ /
Joj:yfkg / dfgjLo dgf]j}1flgs kIfx?sf] ;'k|aGw ldnfpg'sf] ;fy} ;a} lsl;dsf Resources
sf] Joj:yf, k|f]T;fxg, Advocacy, cg'udg ul/g' cfjZos 5 .

c;n zf;g sfod ug{sf] nflu sfg"gL Joj:yf ug]{ jf cfjZos sfg"g agfpg], /fhgLlts
txsf] ;xof]udf ;Da4 kIfsf] ;xof]u, ;xeflutf kl/rfng u/fpg'k5{ .

;'zf;g sfod ug{ ;+:yfut Ifdtf ljsf; / kl/rfng ug]{ / ;du|df gLltsf] k|efjsf/L,

48

bIftfk"0f{ 9+uaf6 sfof{Gjog ug'{sf] ;fy} gLlt th'{dfdf k|zf;gsf] e"ldsf /xg'k5{ .

c;n zf;g sfod ug{ k|zf;sLo 1fg, ;Lk Ifdtf, of]Uotf, cg'ej / ljlzi6tfsf] k|of]u
ug'{sf] ;fy} cfjZos ;"rgf / hfgsf/Lx?sf] ;+sng / ljZn]if0f ug'{ cfjZos 5 .

c;n zf;g sfod ug{ d:of}bf;+/rgf lgdf{0f / 5nkmnk/fdz{sf nflu k|:t't ul/g'k5{
/ gLltsf] k|efjsf af/]df ljZn]if0f ul/g' cfjZos 5 .

;/sf/L gLlt sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfjZos sfo{qmd lgdf{0f ug'{k5{ . :yfgLo:t/df u'0f:t/Lo
;]jf k|jfx / ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfo{df k|efjsf/Ltf Nofpg] / hg;xeflutf k|j4{g u/L
;fdflhs kl/rfngsf] sfo{qmd ;j} uflj;x?df k'ofpg'k5{ .

cg'udg tyf d"Nofg k|0ffnLnfO{ ;"rgf k|ljlw;Fu cfj4 ug'{sf] ;fy;fy} cg'udg tyf
d"Nofg k|0ffnLnfO ;'rgf k|ljlw;Fu cfj4 u/fpg'k5{ .

;fwg ;|f]tnfO{ Goflos 9+ujf6 nlIft ju{df k'ofpg tyf r'xfj6 /f]Sg'sf] ;fy} b'u{d If]qdf
sfo{ ug{ sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug'{ cfjZos 5 / :yfgLo ljsf; k|lzIf0f s]Gb|nfO{
Jofj;foL / glthfd'lv agfpg'k5{ .

lgisif{
k|zf;gaf6 hgtfn] kfpg] ;]jf lgoldt / u'0ffTds x'gsf] nflu k|zf;gdf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/L cfkm\gf]
kb cg'?ksf] sfo{ ug{ ;Sg] x'g'kb{5 . ha 7Ls kbdf 7Ls dflg; (Right Man Right Place) sf]
kb:yfkg x'G5 ta dfq hgtfn] k|zf;gaf6 kfpg] ;]jf 7Ls ;dodf k|fKt ub{5g\ / Tof] u'0f:t/Lo
x'G5 . csf]{tkm{ sfd ug{ ;Sg] dflg; dfq eP/ x'Fb}g p;sf] sfdk|ltsf] ;sf/fTds b[li6sf]0f klg
x'g'kb{5 . sd{rf/Ldf sfdk|ltsf] b[li6sf]0f To; a]nfdfq x'G5 ha p;n] kfpg] tna / ;'ljwfn]
p;sf] Go"gtd cfjZostfsf] k"lt{ x'G5 . t;y{ ;'zf;g sfod x'gsf] nflu ;j{k|yd j:t'ut ?kdf
Ifdtf hfr]/ dfq kb:yfkg, ;?jf, a9'jf ug'{kb{5 eg] csf]{tkm{ sd{rf/LnfO{ ;dfhdf a;]/ vfg
k'Ug] u/L tna / ;'ljwf lbg' kb{5 . To:tf] ug{ g;s]sf] v08df k|zf;gdf e|i6frf/ ;+:yfut x'g
k'Ub5 . sd{rf/Ldf cg'zf;glxgtf a9\b} uPsf]n] pgLx?af6 k|zf;gsf] txut >[+vnfdf /xL ug'{kg]{
pQ/bfloTj axg ePsf] gb]lvPsf]n] ;+u7gfTds pQ/bfloTjdf gsf/fTds c;/ kg{ uPsf] 5 .
a[xt ?kdf cfly{s cg'zf;g lxgtf, e|i6frf/ / clVtof/sf] b'?kof]u eO/x]sf tyf o;af6 ;du|
?kdf g} pQ/bfloTjdf c;/ kl//x]sf] b]lvg cfp5 . sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an / pTk|]/0ffsf] :t/
36\g uPsf]n] :jcfTdLo pQ/bfloTj / ;+u7gfTds pQ/bfloTjsf] :t/ klg 36\g uPsf] a'lemg
cfp5 . sfg"gsf] cIf/zM kfngf ug]{ cEof; b]zdf ha;Dd /xb}g ta;Dd k|hftGq ;kgfdf
dfq ;Lldt /xG5 . df}lns xs klg gfddfqsf] eO/xG5 . ;'zf;g / k|hftGqsf] /Iffsf] nflu
gful/s ;dfhsf] clt dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xG5 . ;fdflhs ;+3 ;+:yfx?nfO{ /fhgLlts / cfly{s
;+:yfx?;u ;xsfo{sf] k|lqmofnfO{ dha't agfpg gful/s ;dfhn] ;3fpg] ub{5 . ;dfhnfO{

49

ljljw kIfdf hgr]tgf hufO{ ;Ifd, ;';'lrt gful/ssf] hdftsf] ?kdf ljsf; ub}{ lnP/ ;Eo
;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ nIo ;fy ;+ul7t ePsf gful/s ;dfhsf cfkm\g} lhDd]jf/L klg 5g\ .
/fHosf] s7f]/ x:tIf]k / ahf/sf] cb[io xftaf6 pTkGg x'g] cfly{s ljR5[\vntfaf6 ;dfhnfO{
5'6sf/f lbg gful/s ;dfhn] ;fdflhs cy{tGqsf] j}slNks sfo{of]hgfsf] sfd ub{5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L
!= lg/Ghg pk|]tL, ljsf; / k|zf;g, sfi7d08k Ps]8]lds OG6/k|fOh]h k|f=ln=, sf7df8f}+ klxnf]
;+:s/0f @)%* .
@= gf/fo0f a]Njf;], k|sfzdgL zdf{, s]bf/ v8\sf, c;n zf;g ;|f]t ;+ufnf], k|f] klAns hglxt
;+/If0f d~r @)%*
#= xl/bQ kf08]o, k|zf;lgs pQ/bfloTj, g]kfn cGt{/fli6o kj{ lbj; @)^), jif{ #$ ;+o'Qmf @#
k"0ff{ !$&, @)^) c;f]h k';, >L % sf] ;/sf/, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefu,
sf7df8f} .
$= 8f= s[i0f k|;fb e/fO{, g]kfndf k|zf;g ;'wf/ / dgf]j[lQ kl/jt{g, k|zf;g, k"0ff{ (^, df3
@)^) jif{ #% c+s @ >L % sf] ;/sf/, ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno, nlntk'/ .
%= uDeL/ axfb'/ xf8f, ;'zf;g dfq Ps cfwf/, uf]/vfkq jif{ !)@, c+s #)&, @)%( ;fn,
r}q @,_
^

uDeL/ axfb'/ xf8f, g]kfndf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f / ;'zf;gsf] dxTj, g]kfn jf0fL, -/fli6o
;fKtflxs_ jif{ !&, c+s $!, @)%& h]i7 !( .

& uDeL/ axfb'/ xf8f, g]kfndf e|i6frf/sf] sf/0f ;d:of tyf ;'emfj, sfdfb (CAMAD),
@)^! a}zfv
* 8f=dw'lgwL ltjf/L, ljsf; k|zf;g l;4fGt / cjwf/0ff, /fhZj, jif{ @# @)%( kf}if, c+s #,
>L % sf] ;/sf/ cy{ dGqfno, /fhZj k|zf;g tflnd s]Gb|, xl/x/ ejg, k'Nrf]s, nlntk'/
( ;Dkfbs /fh]Gb| bfxfn, /fh]z l3ld/], g]kfndf kf/blz{tf / e|i6frf/, g]kfn jftfj/0f kqsf/
;d"x, sf7df8f}, ;g\ @))) .
!)= lji0f' ;'j]bL, k|zf;g Joj:yfkg / ljsf;sf d'ne"t kIfx?, c6n Ps]8]dLs ;]G6/, sf7df8f},
k|yd ;+:s/0f @)^! .
!!= ljb'/ s]=;L=, sd{rf/LtGqdf ;dofg's'n ;'wf/sf] vfFrf], g]kfn }dfl;s_, jif{ #(, c+s #, k"0ff{
!&!, @)^%, d+l;/kf}if, g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefu, ;~rf/u|fd
ltnu+uf, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn .

50

!@= lnnf/fh kf}8]n, d'n'ssf] ljBdfg k|zf;lgs kl/j]z / ;sf/fTds ;f]+rsf] cfjZostf, g]kfn
}dfl;s_, jif{ #(, c+s @, k"0ff{ @&), @)^%, c;f]h sflt{s, g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/
dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefu, ;~rf/u|fd ltnu+uf, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn .
!#= e]ifk|;fb e't]{n, lghfdtL ;]jf / /fHosf] k'g;{+/rgf, g]kfn -}dfl;s_, jif{ #(, c+s !, k"0ff{
!^(, @)^%, >fj0f ebf}, g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefu, ;~rf/u|fd
ltnu+uf, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn .
!$= xl/x/ zdf{, ljsf; k|zf;gsf ljljw kIfx?, g]kfn -}dfl;s_, jif{ #(, c+s $, k"0ff{ !&@,
@)^%, df3 kmfu'g, g]kfn ;/sf/, ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno, ;"rgf ljefu, ;~rf/u|fd
ltnu+uf, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn .
!%= k|sfz bfxfn, ljsf; k|zf;g, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / :yfgLo ;/sf/, lkgfsn klAns]zg k|f=ln=,
afuahf/, sf7df8f}+, k|yd ;+:s/0f, @)^% .
!^ 8f=/fds'df/ bfxfn, State, Government, Institution & Local Governance, lbIffGt k':ts
k|sfzg, sLlt{k'/, klxnf] ;+:s/0f @))^ .
!& ;'/h ;fpb, rl08sf k/fh'nL, ;/sf/, ;+:yfx? / :yfgLo u|fdL0f zf;g (Government,
Institution & Local Rural governance), xh'/sf] k|sfzg, k|bz{gLdfu{, sf7df8f}+, k|yd ;+:s/0f
@)^$ .
!* lq jifL{o of]hgf -@)^&^*@)^(&)_, g]kfn ;/sf/, /fli6o of]hgf cfof]u, l;+xb/af/,
sf7df8f}+, g]kfn, d+l;/ @)^& .
!( c;n zf;g (Good Governance), k|f]=klAnssf] dfl;s k|sfzg, jif{ @, c+s *, @)^! c;f/ .
@) cRo"t s'Os]n,dfgj clwsf/ / ;'zf;gsf s]lx kIfx? ,:dfl/sf @)^*, jif{ , *, c+s * ,df3
@)^*,clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u 6+ufn sf7df8f} .
@! z]/jxfb'/ 9"+ufgf, ;"zf;gsf] ;Gb{edf /fli6o ;t{stf s]Gb|, k|zf;lgs ;"wf/ dfl;s, @)^*
r}q, jif{ @ . c+s ^, dfgj clwsf/ tyf sfg"gL ldl8of u'|k sf7df8f} g]kfn ,
@@= tLgjifL{o cGtl/d of]hgf -@)^$^%@)^^^&_, g]kfn ;/sf/, /fli6o of]hgf cfof]u,
l;+xb/af/, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn, d+l;/ @)^$ .
@#= bzf}+ of]hgf -@)%(@)^$_, tTsflng >L % sf] ;/sf/, /fli6o of]hgf cfof]u, cfiff9 @)%( .

51

e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f M l;4fGt / Jojxf/

ufoqL k|;fb /]UdL*

;f/f+z
e|i6frf/ lgd"{n g} x'g] k|s[ltsf] ck/fw klg xf]Og . sfg"gsf] zf;g, e|i6frf/d'Qm / r'?:t /fHo
k|zf;g cfhsf] dfu / cfjZostf klg xf] . g]kfndf e|i6frf/ hl6n / r'gf}tLk"0f{ ;d:ofsf kdf
/x]sf] 5 . o;sf] lgoGq0f ug]{ k|of; ck]lIft kdf kmnbfoL x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ljBdfg sfg"gL
tyf ;+:yfut Joj:yfsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] cj:yf Psftkm{ 5 eg] csf{tkm{ e|i6frf/
lgoGq0fsf] k|of;df clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u PSnf] k|foM5. ;'zf;g, ul/aL 36fpg]
/ e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f Ps};fy n}hfg'kg]{ x'G5 . cfcfk\mgf] cfr/0f, Jojxf/, ;+:sf/, ;fdflhs
kl/j]z / k|j[lt cfbLdf ;'wf/ ug'{kb{5 . d'n'sdf b08ljlxg l:ylt 5 . cfh e|i6frf/ lj?4sf
;xsfo{df /fHosf ;a} csf ;fy x/ tx / tKsfs]f ;xof]u clt cfjZos /x]sf] 5 .

JolQmut kmfObfsf] nflu ul/g] ;fj{hlgs x}l;otsf] b'?kof]u g} e|i6frf/ xf] .


e|i6frf/ x/ o'udf eof], km/s dfqfsf] dfq xf] . cfh k|foM ljZje/L g} e|i6frf/ Ps dfgjLo
;d:of ag]sf] 5 . kf/bzL{tfsf] sf/0fn] dfq e|i6frf/sf] rrf{ a9L ePsf] xf]Og . o; ;d:ofsf]
lgjf/0f ug{ e|i6frf/sf] s;"/df s7f]/ eGbf s7f]/ b08 ;DaGwL sfg"gL Joj:yf ;d]t ePsf 5g\ .
t/ klg e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . e|i6frf/ lgd"{n g} x'g] k|s[ltsf] ck/fw klg xf]Og .
e|i6frf/sf] d'Vo zq'sf] ?kdf kf/blz{tf, pQ/bfloTj Pj+ hjfkmb]xLtfnfO{ dflgG5 . oL tTjx?sf]
k|efjsf/L cl:tTj ePdf e|i6frf/sf 36gfx?df :jtM sdL cfpFb5 . cToGt ljsl;t b]zdf
;d]t obfsbf e|i6frf/sf08 5fkfdf cfpF5g . xfd|f] b'ef{Uo of] 36\g'sf jbnf lbg b'O u'gf /ft
rf}u'gf sf b/n] j9\of] . sfg"gsf] zf;g, e|i6frf/d'Qm / r'?:t /fHo k|zf;g cfhsf] dfu /
* pk ;lrj, ;jf]{Rr cbfnt sf7df08f}+

52

cfjZostf klg xf] . nf]stflGqs /fhg}lts Joj:yfs]f d'Vo u'0f ;'zf;g xf] eg] o;sf] k|d'v tTj
eg]sf] e|i6frf/d'St ;dfh xf] . gful/s ;dfh, ;+rf/ If]q, u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? ;d]tsf] ;lqmo
;xof]u cfjZostf /xg hfg] x'G5 .e|i6frf/n] ;du| b]zsf] /fhg}lts,cfly{s, ;fdflhs nufotsf
ljljw If]qdf k|ToIf c;/ kfg]{ x'Fbf o;sf] lgoGq0f, /f]syfd / lgjf/0fsf nfuL ;/sf/sf] k|d'v
lhDd]jf/L /xG5 .

e|i6frf/ eg]sf] s] xf] <


e|i6frf/ / e|i6sf] ;fdfGo kof{ojfrL zAbfjnL, kltt, cg}lts, ;dfh lj?4sf] h3Go ck/fw,
3':ofxf x'g\ . o:tf] e|i6 lqmofsnfko'Qm cfr/0f e|i6frf/ / stf{ Pjd\ dltof/nfO{ e|i6frf/L
elgG5 . ;fdfGo cy{df e|i6frf/ eg]sf] lgod jf sfg"g lj?4 g}lts ktg x'g] sfd ul/ 3"; vfO{
kIfkftk"0f{ lg0f{o / Jojxf/ ug]{ sfd xf] .
e|i6frf/sf] kl/efiff u/]/ o;sf] lj:t[t ?k / bfo/fnfO{ ;+s'rg ug{ ljZjsf sltko b]z h:tf]
ef/t, blIf0f sf]l/ofn] rfx]sf 5}gg\ . sltko b]zdf o;sf] kl/efiff ePsf] klg b]lvG5 h:t}
yfOn}08sf] Organic Act on Counter Corruption 1999 sf] kl/efiff v08n] . g]kfn klg
e|i6frf/ zAbnfO{ kl/eflift ul/ ;+s'rg gug]{ k+lQmdf plePsf] 5 . ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 lgl0f{t
lzj k|;fb lj=>L % sf] ;/sf/ dGqLkl/ifb\;d]t -g]=sf=kf= @)$$ k[i7 %^!_ ePsf] d'2fdf elgPsf] 5 .
e|i6frf/ olt Jofks zAb 5 ls o;nfO{ kl/efiff ug'{ sl7g 5 . e|i6frf/ zAbnfO{ kl/efiff
u/L lglZrt l;df/]vfleq cfj4 ug]{ sfo{ hf]lvdk"0f{ 5 eGg] dx;'; u/]/ g} ljwflosfn] e|i6frf/
lgjf/0f P]g, @)!& df e|i6frf/sf] kl/efiff gu/]sf] dx;"; x'G5 . e|i6frf/sf ;DaGwdf g]kfnsf]
cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, ;fy} e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( n] :ki6 kl/efiff u/]sf] 5}g . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f
P]g @)%( sf] bkmf @-s_ n] e|i6frf/ eGgfn] kl/R5]b @ cGtu{t ;hfo x'g] s;'/ ;Demg' k5{
elg ljleGg sfo{x?nfO{ ;d]6\g vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 .

e|i6frf/sf sf/0fx?
e|i6frf/sf d'Vo sf/0fx? lgDg 5g\ M
-s_ wd{ Pj+ ;+:sf/sf] k|efjM jl9 ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f ug]{ JolQm lxGb' wd{f/f k|efljt 5g\ . b]jL
b]jtfnfO{ jnLf/f, e]6L r9fP/ ef]u lbP/ v'zL x'G5g eGg] wfld{s bz{gn] rfs8L, rfKn';L
u/]df h] ubf{ klg x'G5 eGg] wf/0ffdf s]xL j9fjf lbPsf] ljZjf; ul/G5 .

53

-v_ cfly{s sf/0f M /fhg}lts If]qdf, ;/sf/L ;]jfdf k|j]z ubf{ lgDg dWod ju{sf] ?kdf /xg]
g]kfnL cjsfz x'Fbf ;+e|fGt ju{sf] bhf{df pSng' .
-u_ /fhgLlts sf/0f M /fhgLltdf ck/fwLs/0fsf] ljBdfgtf, /fhg}lts g]t[Tjdf hjfkmb]xLtf /
kf/blz{tfsf] 68\sf/f] cefj .
-3_ ckgTjsf] cefjM /fhg]tf / k|zf;sx?df cfgf] kbk|lt nufj /x]sf] kfOb}g . pgLx? kbk|lt
c;Gt'i6 Pj+ lg/fz /x]sf] b]lvG5 . pgLx?df cfgf] hLjgsfn jf ;]jf cjlw kZrft cfgf]
;Gtlt o; If]qdf /xb}g eGg] wf/0ffn] ubf{ ;]jfdf /fd|f] efjgfsf] sdL b]lvG5 . cfh;Dd
b]zn] rdTsfl/s /fhg]tf -Charismatic leader_ jf k|zf;s kfpg ;s]sf] 5|}g .
-_ ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts sf/0f M st{Jolgi7 / OdfGbf/sf] abnf e|i6frf/Lsf] ;dfhdf ;Ddflgt
x'g] . wfld{s tyf g}lts d"Nodf x|f; cfpg' . ;fdflhs l/tLl/jfh / ;DaGw j9L t8s
e8sk"0f{ x'g' .
-r_ k|zf;lgs sf/0f M cfly{s nfe x'g] If]qdf ;?jf kb:yfkgf u/fpg] xf]8jfhL rNg' .
clVtof/jfnfdf e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug]{ hfu?stf gx'gsf ;fy} lgoGq0fsf nfuL bIftf /
l;ksf] cefj .
-5_ pRrtd k|ljlwsf] cefj M pRrtd k|ljlwsf] k|of]uaf6 ;+;f/sf] ;aeGbf sd e|i6frf/ x'g] b]z
Go'lhn}08, 8]gdfs{ tyf PlzofnL /fi6 l;+ufk'/df ;sf/fTds k|efj /x]s]f b]lvG5 . x/]stxsf]
nfesf kbdf jxfn /xg] JolQmsf] sfo{;Dkfbg Pjd\ cfly{s ultljwLnfO{ kf/bzL{ agfpg
;lsG5 . t/ xfd|f]df agfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g .
-h_ sdhf]/ sfg"gL Pj+ ;+:yfut Joj:yf M e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf nflu th'{df ul/Psf sfg"g /
:yflkt ;+:yfx? h:t} clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u, cbfnt, ;+;bLo ;ldltx?sf]
;+:yfut cj:yf sdhf]/ x'Fbf w]/} e|i6frf/Lx? pGd'Qm e} ljr/0f ug{ kfPsf b]lvG5 .
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fdf sfo{/t lgsfox?
clVtof/ b'?kf]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u
ljz]if cbfnt
Gofokl/ifb\
/fhZj cg';Gwfg ljefu

54

/fli6o ;t{stf s]Gb|


Joj:yflksf ;+;b / ;ldltx?
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u
clVtof/ b'?kof]u ePdf txlssft ug]{ u/fpg],
e|i6frf/df d'2f rnfpg],
cg'lrt sfo{df 5fgjLg cg';Gwfg u/L ;r]t, Wofgfsif{0f, ljefuLo sf/jfxL jf cGo
sf/jfxLsf] nfuL l;kmfl/; ug]{
;'emfj lbg]
hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{
;dfg p2]Zosf /fli6o / cGt/fli6o ;+:yfx?;Fu ;Dks{ / ;xof]u j[l4 ug]{ .

ljz]if cbfnt
vf; lsl;dsf d'2fx?sf] sf/jfxL / lsgf/f l56f] 5l/tf] ug{ ljz]if cbfntsf] u7g g]kfn ;/sf/n]
ug{ ;Sg] ljz]if cbfnt P]g @)%( df /x]sf] 5 . xfn ljz]if cbfnt sf7df08f}+df :yfkgf e}
e|i6frf/ d'2fsf] ;'g'jfO{ ug]{ If]qflwsf/ k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .

Gofokl/ifb
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !!# / Gofokl/ifb\ P]g, @)$& adf]lhd k'g/fj]bg cbfntsf
d'Vo Gofolwz / cGo GofowLz / lhNnf cbfntsf GofofwLzn] k|rlnt sfg"gadf]lhd e|i6frf/
7xg{] s'g} s;'/ u/]/ Gofokl/ifb\n] hfFra'em ;ldlt agfO hfFra'em u/L cf/f]ksf txlssft
cg';Gwfg u/L ;DjlGwt k'g/fj]bg cbfntdf d'2f rnfpg] sfg"gL Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . o; k|fjwfg
cg'?k zfxL zf;g sfndf Ko'7fg lhNnf cbfntsf lhNnf GofofwLz lj/]Gb|s'df/ s0f{nfO{ kl/ifb\n]
e|i6frf/df k'g/fj]bg cbfnt bf t'n;Lk'/df d'2f bfo/ u/]sf] lyof] . Gofokl/ifbn] sfo{Ifdtfsf]
cefjdf k'g/fj]bg cbfntsf GofofwLzx? xl/axfb'/ a:g]t / t]haxfb'/ sfsL{ pk/ sf/jfxL
rnfPsf]df xl/axfb'/ a:g]tn] /fhLgfdf lbPsf]df /fhLgfdf :jLs[t u/]sf] / csf{ GofofwLz pk/
cjsfz lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] b]lvG5 . To:t} v/fa cfr/0fsf] cfwf/df k'g/fj]bg cbfntsf] GofofwLz
cf]d ;'j]bLnfO{ ;]jfaf6 cjsfz lbPsf] b]lvG5 .

55

/fhZj cg';Gwfg ljefu


/fhZj r'xfj6 / cg';Gwfg tYo lgoGq0f P]g, @)%@ n] /fhZj r'xfj6nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf
/f]syfd ug{ / lgoGq0f ug]{ bfloTj /fhZj cg';Gwfg ljefunfO{ ;'Dk]sf] 5 .

/fli6o ;t{stf s]Gb|


of] e|i6frf/ d'2fsf] cg';Gwfg ug]{ lgsfo xf]Og . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf #& / #*
adf]lhd o; s]Gb|sf] d'Vo p2]Zo e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ug'{ / e|i6frf/
lj?4 hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug'{ xf] .

Joj:yflksf ;+;b / ;ldltx?


;jf]{Rr cbfntsf k|wfg GofofwLz / GofofwLzx?, ;+j}wflgs lgsfosf k|d'v / ;b:ox?n]
sfo{Ifdtfsf] cefj jf v/fj cfr/0f jf OdfGbf/Lk"j{s kbLo st{Jo kfngf gu/]sf] cj:yfdf
dxfcleof]usf] k|:tfj kf; u/L kbd'Qm ug]{ clwsf/ Joj:yflksf ;+;bnfO{ ;+ljwfgn] k|bfg u/]s]f
5 . ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf GofowLznfO{ dxfcleof]usf nflu cfPsf] k|:tfjdf tTsflng k|ltlglw
;efsf ;efd'v /fdrGb| kf}8]nn]] btf{ u/L 5nkmndf Nofpg c:jLsf/ u/]sf lyP . ;+;bsf
;fj{hlgs n]vf ;ldlt, /fHo Joj:yf ;ldlt, nufotsf ;+;bLo ;ldltx?n] ljifout ;ldltsf]
If]qleq kg]{ ljifodf 5nkmn ug]{, ;+;bLo ;'g'jfO{ u/L l;kmfl/; ug]{, cfjZostf cg';f/ g]kfn
;/sf/ jf cGo lgsfo jf ;+:yfnfO{ lgb]{zg ;'emfj / Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg] sfd ul/ cfPsf] lyof] .
jt{dfgdf ;+ljwfg;ef lj36g eO{ Joj:yflksf ;+;b ;d]t g/x]sf] kl/k|]Iodf ;f] af6 x'g] sfdx?
k|efljt ePsf 5g\ .

cGt/fli6o k|of;
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf nfuL cGt/fli6o :t/df ePsf ljlelGg k|of;x? dWo] xfn ;Ddsf] k|efjsf/L
?kdf ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3sf] k|of;df ePsf] e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] dxf;GwL -United Nations Convention
against Corruption UNCAC_ nfO{ lng' k5{ . ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3sf] dxf;eff/f 31 oct.2003
df kfl/t of] dxf;GwL 15 December.2005 b]lv nfu" ePsf] xf] . ;f] dxf;lGwnfO{ g]kfnn] 10
December 2003 df x:tfIf/ u/]tf klg xfn ;Dd cg'df]bg u/]sf] 5}g .
plNnlvt dxf;lGwsf] cnfjf klg e|i6frf/ lj?4df ljleGg cGt/fli6o Pj+ If]qLo :t/df ;lGw
Pj+ dxf;lGw lgdf{0f ePsf 5g . cGo cGt/fli6o dxf;GwLdf United Nation Declaration against

56

Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transaction, 1996, International Code of


Conduct for Public Officials, 1996,. The Inter American Convention against Corruption, 1997
cflb .

e|i6frf/;Fu ;DalGwt ljifox?


pRr vt/fsf] l;4fGt (High Risk Approach) / e|i6frf/
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf ljleGg pkfo dWo] pRr vt/fsf] l;4fGt klg Ps gjLgtd wf/0ff xf] . of]
wf/0ffsf] dfGotf s] 5 eg] e|i6frf/ ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] ljrf/ ljZn]if0f ul/ ul/g]
ck/fw xf] . o:tf] ck/fwdf ;+nUg kIfx?sf] cfk;L lxtsf/L :jfy{ lglxt /x]sf] x'G5 / o;sf]
hfgsf/L ;Dj4 JolQmsf jLrdf dfq l;ldt x'G5 . o;y{ e|i6frf/df ;+nUg kIfx?nfO{ pRr
vt/fdf /fVg ;s]df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf ;kmntf k|fKt x'g ;S5 .
pRrvt/fsf] jftfj/0f lgdf{0f ug]{ pkfosf] ?kdf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] ljleGg
bkmfx?n] u/]sf] b08fTds Joj:yfx?nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . h:tf] P]gsf] bkmf %$ cbfntaf6 s}b
kfPsf JolQmn] s}bdf j:g'kg]{, bkmf @$ n] dflyNnf] txsf ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lpk/ # jif{sf]
yk ;hfo x'g], bkmf %* df k'/:sf/, bkmf ^) ;'/fsLsf] uf]Kotf ;DaGwL Joj:yf / bkmf %% n]
;hfodf 5'6 ;DaGwL Joj:yf ;fy} ;DklQ ljj/0f k]z ug'{ kg]{ sfg"gL Joj:yfn] pRrvt/fsf]
l;4fGtnfO{ ;xof]u k'ofPsf] kfOG5 . t/ Jojxf/df P]gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gx'gfsf ;fy}
;+;bLo ;ldltx?sf ;fy} clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un] cg'lrt sfo{ u/]sf] 7x/ u/L
cfjZos sfg"gL sf/jfxL ug]{ lgb]{zg lbFbf klg ljefuLo sf/jfxL ug{ l;kmfl/z ul/Psf nfesf
kb wf/0f ug]{ JolQmx?nfO{ ;/sf/n] sf/jfxL gu/L pGd'lQm k|bfg ul/Paf6 st} pRr vt/fsf]
l;4fGtsf] k|of]u cGof]ndf k/]sf] t xf]Og eGg] cfef; ;d]t x'g uPsf] b]lvG5 .

c:jefljs / cldNbf] ;DklQ


e|i6frf/df k|df0f vf]h]/ kfOb}g, k|df0f eg]sf] lhDd]jf/ txdf a:g]sf] hLjg:t/df cfPsf] c:jefljs
kl/jt{g g} xf]
dflysf] sygaf6 ;fljs kmf}hbf/L Gofo k|0ffnL ljz]if u/L sdg n sf] k|df0fsf] ef/, z+sfsf]
;'ljwf, ck/flws bfloTj h:tf cfwf/e"t dfGotfx?n] ;fk]lIfs ?kdf ck/fw lgoGq0f x]t'
kl/dflh{t / kl/is[t ljwLzf:qLo :j?k u|x0f ug{ yfn]sf] cg'e"lt x'g hfG5 . e|i6frf/ ;l7t
ck/fwsf] o:tf] ?k xf] h;df lng] lbg], vfg] v'jfpg] / ldNg] ldnfpg] ;a}sf] :jfy{ lglxt

57

x'G5 . kl/0ffdtM k|df0fsf] k|fr'o{tf gx'g' e|i6frf/ ck/fwsf] ;fdfGo :jefj xf] . To;}n] e|i6frf/
ck/fwdf cg'dflgt s;"/sf] k|fjwfg k|o'Qm x'G5 . nfewf/L kbflwsf/Lsf] cfDbfgL;Fu gldNbf]
cfly{s x}l;ot b]lvPdf e|i6frf/sf] zfn] 3]l/G5 . o:tf zf tYout ?kdf lgjf/0f ug]{ k|df0fsf]
ef/ z+f:kb JolQmd} lglxt /xG5 . cfh ;DklQ cfh{gsf] >f]t k'li6 Pp6f clgjfo{ zt{ jGg
k'u]sf] 5 . o;sf] Joj:yfkg slt b]zn] ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Ldf l;ldt u/]sf 5g eg] sltn] d'2f
lgd{nLs/0f ;DaGwL sfg"gf/f Jofks bfo/f k|bfg u/]sf] b]lvG5 . cfo>f]t;Fu gldNg] c:jefljs
;DklQ e|i6frf/hlgt ck/fwhGo sfo{ x'g] egL sfg"gsf] s8fO{ ?kdf kfngf l5d]sL /fi6 ef/t,
rLgsf ;fy} l;+ufk'/, yfOn}08df klg ;kmntfsf ;fy} k|of]u ePsf] kfp5f} .
xfd|f] ;Gbe{df x]bf{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf]] bkmf @) -!_ n] ;fj{hlgs kbwf/0f u/]sf
JolQmn] k]z u/]sf] ;DklQ ljj/0f cldNbf] ePdf, dgfl;j sf/0f ljgf cldNbf] / c:jefljs pRr
hLjg:t/ ofkg / x}l;ot eGbf j9L bfg, bftJo, pkxf/, ;fk6L, rGbf jf js;nfO{ e|i6frf/hGo
ck/fw 3f]lift u/]sf] 5 . ;f] sfg"gL cfwf/df clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]uf/f ljz]if
cbfntdf d'2f ;d]t bfo/ ePsf]df s]xLdf jfbL kIfn] ;kmntf / j9Ldf c;kmntf xft kf/]sf] 5 .
lr/~hLjL jfUn] lj= g]kfn ;/sf/, /fdf1f rt'{j]bL lj= g]kfn ;/sf/sf d'2fx?df ;jf]{Rr cbfntn]
cs"[t ;DklQ sdfO{ e|i6frf/ u/]sf] 7x/ u/L km};nf ul/;s]sf] 5 .

Gofokflnsfsf] e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf e"ldsf


sfg"gn] ;fgf]nfO{ nf7f]n] v]b\5 / 7fn' b]v]kl5 cfkm} efUb5 eGg] a+ufnL sxfjt g]kfndf e|i6frf/
ck/fw hutdf a9L k|o'Qm / k|efjsf/L ePsf] eGg] egfO{ j]nfjvtdf p7\g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . l8=lj=
nfdf ;d]t lj?4 >L % sf] ;/sf/ ePsf] e|i6frf/ d'2fdf ePsf] dfkmL ldgfxf, /f]oN6L a9fO{ /fhZj
a[l4 u/]sf]n] ;bfrf/ 7x/ u/]sf] >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] lj= x]daxfb'/ dNnsf] d'2f / >L % sf] ;/sf/
lj=nf]sdfg l;+x sfsL{ ePsf] e|i6frf/ d'2fdf cbfnt s]xL g/d /x]sf] eGg] Psy/Lsf] egfO{ /x]sf]
5 . cs't ;DkQL sdfO{ e|i6frf/ d'2fx?df clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u lj?4 lr/l~hjL
jfUn] -g]=sf=k= @)^& lg=g+= *%!(,_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u lj?4 hok|sf; k|;fb
u'Ktf -@)^$CR)@#& km};nf ldlt @)^*.!!.(_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u lj?4
v'daxfb'/ v8\sf ;d]t -@)^#CR)$&* km};nf ldlt @)^(.$.#)_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]u lj?4 /fdf1f rt'{j]bL ;d]t -@)^@CR#^!& km};nf ldlt @)^*.%.@!_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]u lj?4 cfgGbk|;fb vgfn ;d]t -@)^@CR##!) km};nf ldlt @)^(.%.!@_ ePsf
d'2fx?df cf/f]lkt JolQmx?n] cs't ;DklQ sdfO e|i6rf/ u/]sf] 7x/ u/L km};nf u/]sf] 5 .
To:t} clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u lj?4 cRo'ts[i0f v/]n nufotsf xbDofbsf] sf/0f

58

b]vfO ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}Faf6 d'2f vf/]h ePsf]df k'gM lg0f{o ug{sf] nflu z'?df k7fpg] u/L
;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 km};nf ePsf]df k"j{ dGqL uf]ljGb/fh hf]zLsf] e|i6frf/ d'2fdf cleof]u 7x/
u/L ljz]if cbfntn] km};nf ;d]t u/]sf] b]lvG5 . ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;DjGwdf Gofokflnsfsf]
:yfg uf}0f dfGg ;lsFb}g .

e|i6frf/sf] lgoGq0fsf] nflu pkfox?


!=lg/f]wfTds pkfo (Preventive Technique)
;/sf/L sfd sf/jfxLnfO{ kf/bzL{ agfpg]
tna eQfsf] kof{Kt Joj:yf
b08 k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf s8f agfpg]
g}lts lzIffsf] k|rf/
g]tT[ j ju{df OdfGbfl/tf
;DklQ ljj/0fsf] cg'udg
lgu/fgL /fVg]
bafa ;d'xsf] l;h{gf
@=pkrf/fTds pkfo (Curetive Technique)
;DjlGwt lgsfosf k|d'vnfO{ lhDd]jf/ agfpg]
;fgf] e|i6frf/nfO{ klg g5f]8\g]
ef}lts lg/LIf0f / n]vfkl/If0faf6 b]lvPdf tTsfn sf/jfxL ug]{
/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg]
e|i6frf/sf] ;DjGwdf x'g] sf/jfxL k|efjsf/L agfpg]
#= ;DklQ ljj/0f
;DklQ ljj/0f cWofjlws u/fpg] . sf/jfxL To;sf] cfwf/df ug]{
cg'dflgt s;"/nfO{ cleof]hgsf] ?kdf lng]
;fdflhs alx:sf/

59

>f]tsf] vf]hL-x:tfGt/0fdf_
$=cGo
d2t ug]{nfO{ k'/:sf/gug]{nfO{ b08
;ts{tf s]Gb|nfO{ ;'ljwf ;DkGg agfpg]
ef/tsf] txNsf 86 sdaf6 l;Sg' kg]{
dfgl;s ?kdf tof/ x'g'kg]{ .
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf ;d:ofx
g]kfndf e|i6frf/ hl6n / r'gf}tLk"0f{ ;d:ofsf kdf /x]sf] 5 . ljBdfg sfg"gL tyf ;+:yfut
Joj:yfsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] cj:yf 5 . e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf ;d:ofx d"ntM
lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M
s_ gLltut ;d:of
v ;lhn} a]xf]g{ ;lsg] -sdhf]/_ b08 hl/jfgf,
v clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] clwsf/ tyf sfo{If]q ;fF3'/f],
cfof]un] :yfgLo :t/;Dd cfkm\gf] sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L kdf ;~rfng ug{ g;s]sf],

v e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] sfo{ ;/sf/sf] pRr k|fyldstfdf kg{ g;s]sf],


v clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u, ;fj{hlgs n]vf ;ldlt h:tf lgu/fgL / lgoGq0fsf]
lhDd]jf/Ldf vl6Psf lgsfoxsf] cfb]z lgb]{zg kfngf gug]{nfO{ s8f sf/afxL ug]{ Joj:yf
gePsf],
v cfof]udf 5'} ;]jf / ljz]if1tf ePsf sd{rf/Lx /fvL sfo{;~rfng ug]{ Joj:yf gePsf]
cflb .
v_ Joj:yfksLo ;d:ofx
v clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u nufot e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf ;+nUg lgsfosf sd{rf/L
Joj:yfkgdf ;/sf/s]f cgfjZos x:tIf]k ePsf],
v

60

cfof]u u7g ug]{ sfo{ l56f]5l/tf], :jR5 / lhDd]jf/k"0f{ x'g g;s]sf],

cg;'Gwfg Pj+ cleof]hgsf] sfo{ k||lqmof pGd'v, l9nf;':tL, cljZj;gLo x'g] u/]sf],

ljz]if cbfnt / clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u aLrsf] ;dGjo sdhf]/ ePsf],

lhDd]jf/, pTk|]/s / ;Ifd sdr{f/Lsf] sdL ePsf],

e|+i6frf/ lj?4sf] cg';Gwfgdf ;DalGwt lgsfoxsf] ;xof]usf] sdL ePsf],

cTofw'lgs k|ljlw / ;fwg ;|f]tsf] sdL ePsf] cflb .

u_ Jofjxfl/s ;d:ofx
v /fhgLlts g]t[Tj g} kmh'n vr{ / cfly{s clgoldttfdf ;+nUg x'g] u/]sf],
v /fhgLlts lgo'lQm, sd{rf/Lxsf] ;?jf / kb:yfkgfdf ;/sf/ tyf k|d'v /fhgLlts
bnxaf6 cg'zf;g, cfr/0f / :jR5tfsf pbfx/0fx b]vfpg g;Sg',
v b08xLgtfnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{] sfo{df ;/sf/ sdhf]/ x'g',
v k|zf;g tyf Joj:yfkgdf /fhgLlts x:tIf]k x'g',
v ;/sf/L lgsfoxaLr sdhf]/ ;dGjosf] cj:yf,
v lhDd]jf/L lgjf{x gug]{ JolQmnfO{ sf/afxL gug]{ ;+:sf/ sfod /xg',
v gful/s ;dfh / hgtfsf] ;xof]u k|fKt x'g g;s]sf] cflb .

;d:ofsf sf/0fx
v

/fhgLlts cl:y/tf,

/fhgLlts k|lta4tf, cg'zf;g / ;xof]usf] sdL,

b08xLgtfnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ grfxg] ;/sf/L sfo{z}nL,

k|zf;g tyf Joj:yfkgdf /fhgLlts x:tIf]k,

;xof]uL / hjfkmb]xLk"0f{ ;dGjog z}nL ljsf; gePsf],

61

lhDd]jf/L lgjf{x ug{] / gug{]aLr km/s gePsf] cj:yf sfod,

gful/s ;dfh / hgtfsf] ;xof]udf sdL cflb .

6fG;k/]G;L OG6/g]zgn / g]kfn


e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf ;xof]u k'ofpFb} cfPsf] e|i6frf/ lj/f]wL cGt{/fli6o ;+:yf 6fG;k/]G;L OG6/
g];gnn] ljZjsf b]zx?sf] ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ;j]{If0f u/L k|sflzt ;'rf+s cg';f/ g]kfn !%$cf}
:yfgdf ;g\ @)!! df /x]sf] b]lvG5 . 6fG;k/]G;L OG6/g]zgn] ;g\ @)!) df k|sflzt u/]sf]
k|ltj]bg cg';f/ e|i6frf/ cjwf/0ff ;"rsfdf g]kfn &-;ft jif{_ sf] l:ylt -;g\ @))$ b]lv ;g\
@)!) ;Dd_ tn k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .
jif{ -;g\_ -lj=;++_

@))$
-@)^!_

@))%
-@)^@_

@))^
-@)^#_

@))&
-@)^$_

@))*
-@)^%_

@))(
-@)^^_

@)!)
-@)^&_

k|fKt :sf]/s'n c
:yfgs'n b]z

@=*!)
()!$^

@=%!) @=%!) @=%!*) @=&!) @=#!) @=@!)


!!&!%( !@!!^# !#!!*) !@!!*) !$#!*) !$^!&*

pko'Qm tYof cg';f/ g]kfndf ;g\ @))$ df @=* c () cf}+ :yfgdf k/]sf]n] pQm jif{ tLg kf;
dfs{ /x]sf]df kf; dfs{sf] s]xL glhs k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . ;g\ @))%,@))^,@))& df @=% csf ;fy
qmdzM !!&, !@!, !#!, ;g\ @))* df @=& csf ;fy !@! cf}+ :yfgdf k/]sf] 5 eg] ;g\ @))(
df @=# c !$# cf}+ :yfgdf tyf ;g\ @)!) df @=@ c ;fy !$^ cf}+ :yfgdf k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
lj=;++ @)^! ;fndf s]xL ;'wf/sf] cj:yf xf] ls h:tf] b]lvG5 eg] lj=;+= @)^@, @)^# df lj=;++
@)^! ;fnsf] eGbf a9L e|i6frf/ ePsf] cj:yf kfOof] . lj=;++ @)^% ;fndf )=@ c ;'wf/sf]
l:ylt b]lvP klg lj=;+= @)^^ k'gM )=$ c e|i6frf/ a9]/ uPsf] / @)!) sf] jif{ klg )=! c
e|i6frf/ a9]/ uPsf] pQm cfFs8fn] b]vfpF5 . g]kfn ;g\ @)!@ df e|i6frf/ x'g] d'n'sdf !#( cf}+
:yfgdf k/]sf] 5 .

e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf nflu rflng' kg]{ ;'wf/sf sbdx?


e|i6frf/ lgd"n{sf nfuL lgod sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f ;+VofTds ?kdf j9L u/]/ dfq x'Fb}g . To;df
u'0ffTds, k|efjsfl/tf nfu" x'g] ;DefJotf x'g'kb{5 . e|i6frf/ lgd'{n kfg]{ s'/f Ps r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{
xf] . o;sf] lgjf/0fsf] nflu b]zsf] ;/sf/ :j+o bl/nf] x'g'kg]{ / e|i6frf/sf] lqmofsnfkdf k|ToIf
lgu/fgL /fVg] jftfj/0f tof/ ul/g'k5{ . @)!! cui6 dlxgfdf ef/tsf ;dfh;]jL cGgf xhf/]n]
lbNnLsf] /fdlnnf d}bfgdf e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] nflu hgnf]skfn ljw]os Nofpg ;/sf/nfO{
bafa lbg cfGbf]ng u/]sf]df ;f]lan nf]s;efaf6 kfl/t ePsf]df /fHo;efdf ;doefjsf] sf/0fn]

62

dtbfg x'g g;sL ylGsPsf] cj:yf b]lvG5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df klg e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] cleofgnfO{
a9fjf lbg ;fdflhs cleofGtfx?sf] vfFrf] dxz'z ul/Psf] 5 . xfnsf] Joj:yfdf ul/g] kg]{
;'wf/x? lgDg 5g\M
!_ dxfn]vf, clVtof/ / nf]s;]jf cfof]usf k|ltj]bgx? k9]/ clVtof/ b'?kof]u / e|i6frf/ ug]{
nfO{ sf/jfxL ug{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ dfq sfd tf]s]sf] :yfoL ;+oGq agfpg cfjZos 5 .
@_ jt{dfg e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( df e|i6frf/ u/]sf] k|f/lDes ?kdf b]lvP y'gfdf /fVg'
kg]{ sfg"g 5 . t/, w/f}6 e|i6frf/Lsf] xs h:tf] ePsf] 5 . tTsfnsf] nflu u/] lj/fPsf] b]lvP
k'k{Ifsf nfuL y'gfdf /fVg] ljBdfg d"l5{t sfg"gnfO{ xf];df Nofpg h?/L 5 .
#_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$* tyf ;f] sf] lgodfjnLdf cg'lrt sfo{sf
;DaGwdf ph'/ ug{ kfpg] k|fjwfgx? cToGt} cg'bf/ k|s[ltsf /x]sfn] pQm k|fjwfgx?nfO{
;+zf]wg u/L s'g} g]kfnL gful/sn] s;}n] cg'lrt sfo{ u/]sf] 5 eGg] yfxf kfPdf b]zleqsf]
h'g;'s} :yfgaf6 ph'/L ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf u/L ;gfvt ug'{kg]{ jfWotfaf6 d'Qm ul/g'k5{ .
$_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$* sf] bkmf !#-@_ df e|i6frf/ ;DaGwdf ;f]
sfo{ eP u/]sf ldltn] % jif{ leq cfof]un] sfd gu/]df s'g} sf/jfxL grnfpg] Joj:yfn]
:jljj]sLo clwsf/sf] b'?kof]u x'g uPsf] v08df jf ;f] k|fljlws q'6LnfO{ cfwf/dfgL
xbDofbsf sf/0faf6 d'2f grNg] / rn]sf]df klg cbfntn] ;kmfO{ lbg] u/L km};nf u/]sf]
kfO{Psf] 5 . o;af6 e|i6frf/Ln] pGd'QmL kfpg ;Sg] b]lvFbf pQm sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] vf/]hL jf
;+zf]wgsf nfuL ljrf/0fLo b]lvG5 .
%_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]udf nfdf] ;do;Dd kbflwsf/Lsf] lgo'QmL x'g g;Sg'n]
e|i6frf/sf] cg';Gwfgsf] sf/jfxLdf ;':ttf cfPsf]df ljjfb b]lv+b}g . kbflwsf/L l/Qm ePsf]
tLg dlxgf leq} lgo'QmL ul/g] Joj:yf cjnDjg ul/g' kb{5 .
^_ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf] tkm{af6 e|i6frf/df sf/jfxL ug]{ If]qLo / lhNnf:t/df
;+oGqsf] cefj /x]sf] / xfn ;f] clwsf/sf] k|of]u If]qLo k|zf;g sfof{no / lhNnf k|zf;g
sfof{noaf6 k|of]u eO{/x]sf]df jfl~5t pknJwL xfl;n x'g g;s]sf] oyfy{tf xfdL ;fd' 5 .
clVtof/sf] :yfoL ;+oGqsf] lgdf{0f x'g clt h?/L b]lvG5 .

63

lgisif{
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug]{ sfo{ ;a}sf] ;femf lhDd]jf/L xf] . clVtof/ jf cGo lgsfosf] dfq
pQ/bfloTj xf]Og, o;df sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf / Gofokflnsf ;d]tsf] ;lqmotf rflxG5 .
/fHosf] :ki6 b[li6sf]0f / k|ltjtfsf ;fy e|i6frf/ lj/f]wL sfo{sf] yfngL geP;Dd e|i6frf/
lgjf/0fsf] k|of; k|efjxLg jGg k'Ub5 . e|i6frf/sf] bfo/faf6 /fHosf] dxTjk"0f{ lx:;f lghL
If]qnfO{ ;d]6\g g;lsPsf] oyfy{tf xfdL ;fd" 5 . oxfF s;}nfO{ s;}sf] 8/ x'b}g . k};f ePdf h:tf]
;'s} ck/fwaf6 klg d'lQm kfOG5 eGg] ;+:sf/sf] ljsf; x'g yfn]sf] 5 . ;/sf/L / ;+j}wflgs
lgsfoaf6 ul/g] sfd sf/jfxLdf hgljZjf; 36]sf] 5 . e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug{ ;bfrf/L x'g' k5{ .
;bfrf/L Jojxf/sf] z'?jft gLltut txaf6 x'g'kb{5 . ;'zf;g, ul/aL 36fpg] / e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f
Ps};fy n}hfg'kg]{ x'G5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^#
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$* tyf lgodfjnL
6fG;k/]G;L OG6/g]zgn g]kfn, e|i6frf/ lj?4 k|lzIf0f k'l:tsf, sf7df08f}+ @)^#
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%(
g]kfn sfg"g klqsf, ljleGg c+sx?
sfg"g, ljleGg c+sx?
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]uf/f k|sflzt :dfl/sfsf ljleGg c+sx?
Transparency International (2011) Annual Report: Washington D.C.; Publish
by Transparency International Secretariat
www.un.org
www.wikipedia.org

64

/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|M lxhf], cfh / ef]ln


z]/jxfb'/ 9'\ufgf*

;f/f+z
h:sf] ;/sf/L ;|f]t ;fwgdf kx'r x'G5, p;}jf6 sfg"g adf]lhdsf sfdsf ;fy} sfg"gsf] hfdfleq
;/sf/L /sd / j:t' dfly nf]e j9L e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttfsf ultlalw x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 .
o;nfO{ sfg"gsf] bfo/fdf lnO{ sfg"g adf]lhd sf/jfxL ug{ tyf hgdfg;df ;sf/fTds 5fk kg]{
u/L e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] k|lt/f]wfTds / k|j4{gfTds sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L k'/f ug{ ;/sf/ dftxts}
lgsfodf /xg] ljZjAofkL k|rng /x] cg'?k e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf #& adf]lhd
e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ug{ tyf e|i6frf/ lj? hgr]tgf clej[l ug{
k|wfgdGqLsf] k|ToIf /]vb]v / lgoGq0fdf /xg] u/L /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf ul/g] k|fjwfg
cg';f/ lj=;+= @)%( ;fn >fj0f @& ut] o; /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gbsf] :yfkgf ePsf] k|:t't
n]vdf /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf, ;+u7g ;+/rgf, sfo{If]q, e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f
ug{ s]Gb|n] ;Grfng ul//x]sf lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

ljifo k|j]z
e|i6frf/ lj/f]wL laVoft ;fdflhs g]tf cGgf xhf/] -ls;gafa' xhf/, /fn]u0f l;l, dxf/fi6,
ef/t_ sf] g]t[Tjdf ef/tdf nf]skfn / hgnf]skfn ljw]os / Ifltk"lt{ ;lxtsf] gful/s a8fkqsf
;DaGwdf ef/t ;/sf/nfO{ bjfj lbO/x]sf], z]if b'lgofFsf] Wofg tflg;Qmf klg sltko dflg;x?nfO{
nfUbf] xf]nf, o:tf] cfGbf]ng g]kfndf lsg lelqPg < g]kfn k|zf;lgs k|lzIf0f k|lti7fgdf k|lzIffyL{
Ps ;/sf/L clwsf/Ln] eg]@)^@)^# ;fnsf] ;kmn hgcfGbf]ngkl5 cfzfjfbL jGb}, ;/sf/k|lt
;b\efj /fVb} cfGbf]ng grs]{sf] xf]nf, kl5 xf]nf elg nv sf6] .
cGgf xhf/] 6Ldsf ;b:o tyf ef/tsf k"j sd{rf/L c/laGb s]h/Ljfnn] ef/tdf e|i6frf/ la/f]wL
/fhgLlts bn vf]n]/ gful/s a8fkq, Ifltk"lt{ / ;"rgfsf] xsnfO{ cfwf/ dfGb} ef/t / ;+;f/
ysf{pg] e|i6frf/sf d'2fx? ;fj{hlgs ul//x]sf 5g\ . dGqLx?nfO{ cfgf sfd u/fO{, kfl/jfl/s
;DnUgtfdf ;~rflnt u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf ultlalwx?sf cfwf/df rf]vf] k|dfl0ft x'g xDd]xDd] k/L
;d:of kl//x]sf] ef/tLo cfd;~rf/ dfWodx?n] k|rf/k|;f/ ul//x]sf 5g\ .

e|i6frf/ lj/f]wL ;Tk|of;


-s_ ljZjM
* pk;lrj, g]kfn ;/sf/, /fli6o ;t{stf s]Gb|, l;+xb/af/ .

65

ljZjsf ;a}h;f] d'n'sxn] ;fj{hlgs Pjd\ lghL If]qdf x'g] e|i6frf/ / clgoldttf lgoGq0f
u/L ;'zf;g sfod ug{ sfg"gL, ;+:yfut, gLltut Pjd\ sfo{ut Joj:yf ldnfPsf] kfO{G5 .
ljZjdf klxnf] k6s ;g\ !*)( df :jLl8;\ ;+;bn] dsf{df k/]sf hgtfsf] ;'g'jfO{ ug{ Goflos
cDa'8\;Dofg (Ombudsman) sf] :yfkgf uof] . o;n] b'j} kIfnfO{ ;fy}/fvL ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{
dWo:ytf ubf]{ /x]5 . cGofodf ldnfk x'g g;s]kl5 of] ;/sf/L clwsf/Ln] of] of] ulNt u/]sf]
b]lvof] eg]/ ;DalGwt lgsfodf k7fpFbf klg To;n] ;dfhdf sl;nf] bafak|efj 5f8\bf] /x]5 .
;DalGwt lgsfon] sfg"gL sf/jfxL ug]{ :yflkt k|rng /x]5 .
To:t}, ;g\ !(!( df lkmgNof08, ;g\ !(%% df 8]gdfs{ / ;g\ !(^) df Go"lhNof08n] cDa'8\;Dofgsf]
:yfkgf u/] . oL d'n'sx?df e|i6frf/ / k|zf;lgs clgoldttf lj?4sf sfd sf/jfxLdf b]lvPsf]
;kmntfsf] kmn:j?k ;g\ !(() sf] b;s;Dd cfOk'Ubf ljZjsf clwsf+z d'n'sxn] ;fj{hlgs
lgsfosf] sfd sf/jfxLdf lgu/fgL ug{ :jtGq, lgikIf / lgeL{s cDj'8\;Dofg h:t} k|s[ltsf
lgsfoxsf] :yfkgf u/]] .
ljZjsf sltko d'n'sx?sf ;+ljwfgdf g} :jtGq ;+j}wflgs lgsfosf] kdf g]kfnsf] clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u h:t} lgsfo jf sfo{sf/L cGtu{t /fli6o ;ts{tf h:t} lgsfo jf b'a}
k|s[ltsf lgsfosf] :yfkgf ug]{ ;+j}wflgs k|fjwfg /flvPsf] kfOG5 .

-v_ g]kfnM
g]kfndf /fhf ;'/]Gb|sf] kfnfdf lj=;= !(!) df ag]sf] d'n'sL P]gdf xflsdsf] gfpFdf s/fpg]sf]
dxn cGtu{t xflsd jf sd{rf/Ln] 3'; vfof]=== eGg] ljifosf ph'/Lx btf{ ug]{, ckLn ;'Gg], nut
lemsfpg] / khgL hfx]/ ug]{ sfg"gL Aoj:yf lyof] . oxLaf6 g} g]kfndf e|i6frf/ lj?4 /fHon]
sfg"gL sf/jfxL ug]{ Joj:yfsf] ;'?jft ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .
lj=;+= @))& ;fndf k|hftGqsf] :yfkgf ePkl5 e|i6frf/ / cg'lrt sfo{sf] lgoGq0fsf nflu
e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @))( cg';f/ lj=;+= @)!) ;fndf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f ljefusf] :yfkgf
eof] . kl5 e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)!& adf]lhd ljz]if k|x/L ljefusf] :yfkgf eof] . g]kfnsf]
;+ljwfg, @)!( -bf]>f] ;+zf]wg, @)#@_ adf]lhd ;+j}wflgs csf] kdf clVtof/ b'?kof]u lgjf/0f
cfof]u, g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& / g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# adf]lhd clVtof/
b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u :yfkgf u/L e|i6frf/ la? cleofg hf/L /x]sf] 5 .

/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf


h:sf] ;/sf/L ;|f]t ;fwgdf kx'Fr x'G5, p;}jf6 sfg"g adf]lhdsf sfdsf ;fy} sfg"gsf] hfdfleq

66

;/sf/L /sd / j:t' dfly nf]e j9L e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttfsf ultlalw x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 .
o;nfO{ sfg"gsf] bfo/fdf lnO{ sfg"g adf]lhd sf/jfxL ug{ tyf hgdfg;df ;sf/fTds 5fk
kg]{ u/L e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] k|lt/f]wfTds / k|j4{gfTds sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L k'/f ug{ ;/sf/ dftxts}
lgsfodf /xg] ljZjJofkL k|rng /x] cg'?k e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf #& adf]lhd
e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ug{ tyf e|i6frf/ lj? hgr]tgf clej[l ug{
k|wfgdGqLsf] k|ToIf /]vb]v / lgoGq0fdf /xg] u/L /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf ul/g] k|fjwfg
cg';f/ lj=;+= @)%( ;fn >fj0f @& ut] o; /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gbsf] :yfkgf ePsf] /x]5 .
sltkon] o; s]Gb|nfO{ lj3l6t ljz]if k|x/L ljefusf] gofF ?k jf sltkon] t o;sf] gfpFsf]
cGTodf ;/sf/L s]Gb|Lo lgsfo a'emfpg] gfdsf] ;f s]Gb| ePsfn] u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf eGg klg kl5
gk/]s]f kfOPsf] 5 . lsgsL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf nflu clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u b]zdf
k"0f{ ?kdf :yflkt eO{ ;s]sf] 5 jf, sltn] t o;nfO{ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf]
zfvf klg eGg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . s;}sf] c8\snafhL jf cNk1fgsf kl5 nfUg' eGbf la=;+= @)%(
;fpg @& df :yflkt /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|n] ldlt @)^( ;fpg @^ ut] z's|af/ bz jif{ k"/f u/L
/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] bz jif{ -la=;+= @)%(.$.@& la=;+=@)^(.$.@^_1 ;fj{hlgs eO{;s]s]f 5 .
e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ug{ tyf e|i6frf/ lj? hgr]tgf clej[l ug{
o; bz jif{sf] cjlwdf w]/} lhNnfx?df kof{Kt lgsfox?sf clgodldttfsf ;"rgfx? ;\sng,
cg'udg, ;'emfj Pad\ lgb]{zg lbg], lgu/fgL, 58\s] hfFr tyf cGj]if0f ug]{, ;DklQ ljj/0f tyf
cfosf] cg'udg ug]{, ;ts{ u/fpg] gful/s a8fkq sfof{Gjog cg'udg, ljleGg lhNnfx?df
cg'udg, ;fj{hlgs of]hgfx?sf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f tyf sf/jfxLsf nflu clVtof/ b'?kof]u
cg';Gwfg cfof]u tyf ;DalGwt lgsfodf n]lv k7fPsf kof{Kt pbfx/0fx? 5g| . gful/s a8fkq
sfof{Gjog cg'udg, ljleGg lhNnfx?df cg'udg, ;fj{hlgs of]hgfx?sf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f u/L
gx'g' kg]{ sfdx? ePsfdf ;RofO lgoldt ug{ lgb]{zgx? lbO{Psf] 5 .

s]Gb|sf] ;+u7gfTds ;+/rgf tyf hgzlQm


;+u7g ;+/rgf
la=;+= @)%( >fj0f @& df :yflkt s]Gb|sf] k|d'vdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ljlzi6
>]0fLsf] clws[t /xg] Joj:yf 5 . o; s]Gb|sf] laBdfg ;f7lgs 9fFrfdf b'O{j6f dxfzfvfx
k|zf;g tyf cg'udg dxfzfvf / k|fljlws k/LIf0f dxfzfvf /x]sf 5g\ . k|zf;g tyf cg'udg
dxfzfvf cGt{ut sfg"g tyf gLlt lgdf{0f zfvf, clen]v tyf cg'udg zfvf, k|zf;g tyf of]hgf
1

>]i7, ;'/]zdfg tyf ;fyLx?, /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] bz jif{ -la=;+= @)%(.$.@& la=;+=@)^(.$.@^_

67

zfvf / k|fljlws k/LIf0f dxfzfvf cGt{ut k|fljlws k/LIf0f zfvf g+= ! / @, ;"rgf ;ng tyf
cGj]if0f zfvf g+= ! / @ /x]sf 5g\ .
s]Gb|sf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ ljBdfg ;+u7gfTds 9fFrfdf ;d;fdlos ;'wf/ ug{ cfjZos b]lvPsf]n]
cf=j= @)^&)^* df s]Gb|sf] cf] P08 Pd (O & M Survey) ;e]{If0fsf] sfo{ eO;s]sf] 5 .
k|ltj]bg ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnodf ljrf/fwLg /x]sf] cj:yf 5 .
s]Gbsf] sfo{ If]q leqsf ;fj{hlgs lgsfosf sfdsf/jfxL jf ;fj{hlgs ;DklQ ;DaGwL sfg"g
adf]lhd eP jf gePsf] ;DaGwdf b}lgs lnlvt, df}lvs, uf]Ko jf v'nf, cfd ;~rf/sf dfWodjf6
jf ;'/fsLsf cfwf/df h] h;/L klg s]Gb|df k|fKt x'g] h'g;'s} klg e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttfsf
;"rgf, ph'/L pk/ k|f/lDes 5fglagb]lv lgisif{df k'ofpg] k|of]hgsf] nflu, kfl/t ;f+u7lgs
;+/rgfeGbf km/s sfo{ ;/nLs/0fsf nflu @)^^ ;fpgb]lv s]Gb|df cGj]if0f tyf cg'udg zfvf
g+= !, @, #, $, %, ^ / & gfdf\sg u/L tL zfvfxjf6 cnucnu dGqfno tyf s]Gb|Lo lgsfo
;DaGwL ph'/L ;DaGwdf sf/jfxL x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . sd{rf/L k|zf;g tyf of]hgf / sfg"g tyf gLlt
lgdf{0f zfvfnfO{ ;d]t zfvf g+ ! tyf @ gfdfs/0f ul/ lhDd]jf/L lbOPsf] 5 . s]Gb| o;nfO{ sfo{
;/nLs/0fsf nflu cjnDag ul/Psf] cy{df lng rfxG5 .
cGj]if0f tyf cg'udg zfvf g+= !, @, #, $, % ;Dd lghfdtL pk;lrj zfvf k|d'v /x]sf 5g\
eg] zfvf g= ^,& / * k|x/L pk/LIfs zfvf k|d'vsf x}l;otdf sfo{/t /x]s]f cj:yf 5 . k|x/L
pk/LIfsx?jf6 k]z x'g] kmfOn sfuhftx? al/i7 k|x/L pk/LIfs clws[tdf k]z eO{ tyf lghfdtL
zfvf k|d'v pk;lrjx?jf6 sd{rf/L dxfzfvf k|d'v ;x;lrj ;dIf kmfO{n k]z x'g] tyf clGtd
lg0f{osf nflu s]Gb|sf k|d'v clws[t ;dIf k]z x'g] k|fjwfg k|rngdf /x]sf] 5 .

hgzlQm
o; s]Gb|df xfn %% hgf lghfdtL sd{rf/Lxsf] b/aGbL 5 . lghfdtL ;]jfsf] k|zf;gtkm{sf]
b/aGbLdf k|d'v clws[t -/f=k=ljlzi6 >]0fL_ !, ;x;lrj !, pk;lrj #, zfvf clws[t *, n]vf
clws[t !, gfoj;'Aaf !), n]vfkfn !, 6fOlki6 vl/bf/! u/L @^ hgf O{lGhlgol/ ;]jftkm{
;x;lrj -k|f=_ !, l;lgo/ l8lehgn Ol~hlglo/ #, O{lGhlgo/ *, ;aO{lGhlgo/ * u/L @) hgf
Gofo ;]jftkm{sf pk;lrj -sfg"g_ !, zfvf clws[t -sfg"g_ ! u/L @ hgf / ljljw ;]jftkm{sf
/f=k=t[=-k|f=_ jftfj/0fljb\ !, ;dfhzf:qL ! / sDKo'6 ck/]6/ % u/L & hgfsf] :jLs[t b/aGbL
/x]sf] 5 .
To:t}, ;'df s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf x'Fbf k|x/Ltkm{sf sd{rf/Lxsf] b/aGbLsf] Joj:yf gul/Psf] ePtfklg
g]kfn ;/sf/sf]] ldlt @)^@ h]i7 # ut]sf] lg0f{oaf6 la3l6t ljz]if k|x/L ljefusf u[x dGqfno

68

jf cGtu{tsf ljleGg lgsfodf ;dfof]hg ul/Psf tyf kmflhndf /x]sf k|x/Lx o; s]Gb|df
:yfgfGt/0f ul/Pkl5 s]Gb|df k|x/L ;]jftkm{sf sd{rf/Lx ;d]t sfo{/t /x]sf 5g\ . lgodfjnLsf]
lgod ^ cg';f/ k|x/L ;d"xsf l/Qm kb a9'jff/f dfq k"lt{ x'g] k|fjwfg /x]sf] 5 .
o;/L :yfgfGt/0f e} cfPsf sd{rf/L tyf b/aGbL ;DaGwdf Joj:yfkg ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] /fli6o
;ts{tf s]Gb| k|x/L ;d"x -u7g_ lgodfjnL, @)^$ nfu' u/]sf] 5 . ;f] lgodfjnL adf]lhd gofF
b/aGbL yk gx'g], a9'jfnfO{ c;/ gkg]{ u/L l/Qm x'Fb} uPsf kb :jtM vf/]h x'g] Joj:yf ul/Psf]n]
xfn k|=gf=d=lg=!, k|=j=p=!, k|=p=#, k|=gf=p=%, k|=lg=@@, k|=gf=lg=!$ / k|=;=lg=!* u/L hDdf
^$ k|x/L b/aGbL sfod /x] tfklg dfly a9'jf x'g], l/Qm kb vf/]h x'g] lgodfjnLsf] k|fjwfg
cg';f/ k|x/L sd{rf/Lsf] 36\bf] s|d $) hgfjf6 cf]/fnf] nflu;s]sf] 5 . k|x/Ltkm{ k|x/L gfoj
dxflg/LIfs;Dd kb ePsf] s]Gb|df xfn al/i7 k|x/L pk/LIfs;Ddsf k|x/L sd{rf/Lx? lghfdtL
kf]zfsdf sfo{/t /x]sf 5g\ .

sfo{If]q / sfg"gL Joj:yf


e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf #& / #* cGtu{t k|wfgdGqLsf] k|ToIf /]vb]v / lgoGq0fdf
/lx k|efjsf/L ?kdf e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug{ tyf e|i6frf/ lj? hgr]tgf clej[l ug{ :yflkt
/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|n] tf]lsPsf sfo{x? ;Dkfbg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .
s]Gb|sf sfd sf/jfxLx?nfO{ k|efjsf/L jgfpg e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf ;fy} /fli6o ;ts{tf
s]Gb| k|x/L ;d'x -u7g_ lgodfjnL, @)^$, /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^%,
e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf, @)^%, cGtu{tsf] lgsfout sfo{of]hgf, @)^&,
k|fljlws k/LIfssf] cfrf/ ;+lxtf, @)^& / /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ Joj:yfkg_ lgb]{lzsf,
@)^*, e|i6frf/ la?sf] PsfO{ -Sjfln6L ;s{n_ :yfkgf / ;~rfng ;DaGwL sfo{ljlw, @)^*
sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf 5g\ .
g]kfndf e|i6frf/ la? sfd ug{] lgsfox? ;DaGwL sfo{lalw, e|i6frf/la?sf] ;TotYo /
k|dfl0ft ;"rgf lbg]nfO{ jflif{s ?kdf k'/:s[t ug{] sfo{lalw / e|i6frf/ la?sf] ;fdu|L k|sflzt
ug]{ ;~rf/ dfWod / ;~rf/sdL{nfO{ k'/:s[t ug]{ ;DaGwL sfo{lalw u/L clGtd tof/Ldf /x]sf tLg
sfo{lalwn] logsf] :jLs[ltkl5 s]Gb|sf] sfddf yk k|efjsfl/tf cfpg] kSsf 5 g}
oL P]g, lgodfjnL, /0fgLlt, sfo{lalw nufotsf sfg"gL Joj:yf x]bf{ o; s]Gb|sf] sfo{If]q
af:tjd}+ w]/} 5 . ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL P]g, @)^$, gu/ ljsf; P]g, @)$% / ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg
tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$ eGbf ljzfn If]q ;d]6]sf] 5 o; s]Gb| ;DaGwL sfg"gL k|fjwfgn]

69

e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%(


g]kfnsf ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] ;'v zflGt / cfly{s lxtsf lglDt ;dfhdf ljBdfg cfly{s
cg'zf;g, g}ltstf / ;bfrf/ sfod /fVb} e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf] nflu lgdf{0f ePsf] e|i6frf/
lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] kl/R5]b $ df e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttfsf] lgu/fgL ;DaGwL Joj:yfsf
nflu /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . o; P]gsf] bkmf #& df /fli6o ;ts{tf
s]Gb|sf] ;DaGwdf b]xfosf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5
-s_ e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L kdf lgoGq0f ug{ tyf e|i6frf/ lj?4 hgr]tgf clej[l4
ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|wfgdGqLsf] k|ToIf /]vb]v / lgoGq0fdf /xg] u/L Ps /fli6o ;ts{tf
s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-v_ s]Gb|sf] k|d'vsf] kdf g]kfn ;/sf/n] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ljlzi6 >]0fLsf] s'g} clws[tnfO{ tf]Sg
;Sg]5 / ;f] s]Gb|df cfjZostfg';f/ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;]jfsf] sd{rf/Lx /xg]5g\ .
o; P]gsf] bkmf #* df s]Gb|sf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/sf ;DaGwdf o;k|sf/ Joj:yf ePsf] 5
g]kfn ;/sf/sf] dGqfno, ljefu, sfof{no / ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfaf6 ;Dkfbg x'g'kg]{
sfo{x lgoldt kdf eP gePsf] ljifodf ;"rgf ;ng ug]{,
g]kfn ;/sf/sf dGqfno, ljefu, sfof{no jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfaf6 lgoldt kdf x'g'kg]{
sfo{ ePsf] gkfOPdf To:tf lgsfonfO{ ;f] ljifodf ;ts{ ug]{,
;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd lbPsf] ;DklQ ljj/0f /
cfosf] cg'udg ug]{,
e|i6frf/ x'g ;Sg] :yfg jf sfddf lgoldt lgu/fgL /fVg], 58\s] hfFr / cGj]if0f ug{
cfjZos Joj:yf ldnfpg],
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf ckgfpg' kg]{ gLlt, /0fgLlt / tT;DaGwL sfg"gdf s'g} ;'wf/
ug'{kg]{ b]lvPdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ cfjZos ;'emfj lbg],
g]kfn ;/sf/sf dGqfnoljefusfof{no jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfdf ph'/L k]l6sf /fVg]
Joj:yf ldnfpg],
e|i6frf/sf] /f]syfd ug]{ p2]Zon] cfjZostfg';f/ ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ ;'emfj jf
lgb]{zg lbg],

70

e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL s;'/df cg';Gwfg ug]{ lgsfo jf kbflwsf/Laf6 e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL


cfjZos ljj/0f jf ;"rgf k|fKt u/L cBfjlw u/fO{ /fVg],
e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL k|fKt s'g} hfgsf/L ;DalGwt lgsfodf n]vL k7fpg],
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf cfOkg]{ cGo sfd ug]{ jf u/fpg] /,
g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] cGo sfo{ ug]{, u/fpg] .

/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^%


e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf ^$ n] lbPsf] clwsf/ k|of]u u/L g]kfn ;/sf/n] /fli6o
;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^% sf] nfu' u/]sf] 5 . o;} lgodfjnL cg';f/
s]Gb|sf] sfo{ ;~rfng lgoldt / Jojl:yt x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . o; lgodfjnLdf /x]sf Joj:yfxnfO{
s]nfpFbf s]Gb|n] d"ntM ;/sf/L sfof{no tyf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx / ltgdf sfo{/t kbflwsf/L Pjd\
sd{rf/Lxaf6 x'g] tyf x'g ;Sg] clgoldttf lgoGq0f nufotsf sfo{sf] nflu b]xfosf sfo{x
ug{] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5
;"rgf ;ng ug]{,
ph'/L tyf lgj]bgx lng],
k|f/lDes 5fgljg ug{],
;fj{hlgs lgsfoxsf] cg'udg ug]{,
;DalGwt lgsfoxnfO{ lgb]{zg, ;'emfj lbg] Pjd\ ;ts{ u/fpg] tyf clgoldttf u/]sf]
b]lvP clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u nufot ;Da lgsfoxdf sf/jfxLsf] nflu
n]vL k7fpg],
;DklQ ljj/0f tyf cfosf] cg'udg ug]{,
lgu/fgL tyf 58\s] hfFr ug]{, cGj]if0f ug]{,
s]Gb|Lo lgsfosf ?kdf k|fljlws k/LIf0f ug]{,
hgr]tgf clej[l4 ;DaGwL sfd ug]{,

71

e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] sfo{df cGo ;DalGwt lgsfo;Fu ;xsfo{ ug]{],


s]Gb|n] u/]sf sfd sf/jfxLsf] jflif{s ljj/0f ;lxtsf] k|ltj]bg k|To]s jif{ k|wfgdGqL
;dIf k]z ug]{,
s]Gb|n] ;Dkfbg u/]sf sfd sf/jfxLx sfg"g adf]lhd ;fj{hlgs ug{ afwf gkg]{
ljifox ljleGg ;~rf/ dfWodx dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs ug{] .

e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf, @)^%


;'zf;gsf dfWodaf6 e|i6frf/d'Qm zf;g k|0ffnL :yfkgf u/L ;';+:s[t tyf ;d[4 ;+3Lo u0ftflGqs
g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ kl/sNkgf;fy sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf,
@)^% sf] d'Vo p2]Zo ;/sf/L sfo{k|0ffnLdf ;/nLs/0f / cfr/0fut ;'wf/ u/L e|i6frf/hGo
lqmofsnfksf] lgoGq0ff/f g}ltsjfg / ;';+:s[t g]kfnL ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug'{ /x]sf] 5 .
e|i6frf/sf] /f]syfd tyf lgoGq0f ;DaGwdf ul/Psf cGt/f{li6o k|ltj4tfnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{
tyf e|i6frf/ lj?4sf k|of;nfO{ cem ;zQm agfpg o; sfo{of]hgfn] lhDd]jf/ lgsfosf] kdf
/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|nfO{ ;d]t tf]s]sf] 5 .
;fy}, o; sfo{of]hgf cGtu{tsf] lgsfout sfo{of]hgf, @)^& g]kfn ;/sf/af6 ldlt @)^&
d\;L/ * ut] kfl/t e} ;f]sf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{df cGo lgsfoxsf] cltl/Qm o; s]Gb|nfO{ klg
;/sf/n] lhDd]jf/ lgsfosf] kdf tf]s]sf] 5 .
o; lgsfout sfo{of]hgf cg';f/ e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] sfg"gsf] b[9tfk"j{s sfof{Gjog ug]{, e|i6frf/
;DaGwL vf]h tyf cg';Gwfg ug]{ lgsfosf] Ifdtf clea[l4 ug]{, e|i6frf/ lj?4sf ;"rgf k|fKt
x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg], e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] If]qdf sfo{/t hgzlQmsf] Ifdtf ljsf;sf] nflu
k|lzIf0f sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{, e|i6frf/ lj?4 sfo{/t ;+:yfxaLr ;"rgf ;~hfn lgdf{0f ug]{,
e|i6frf/ lj?4sf k|rf/k|;f/ ;fdu|L lgdf{0f u/L ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{, e|i6frf/ lj?4
hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug{ sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{, ;fj{hlgs ;~rf/sf dfWodnfO{ e|i6frf/ lj?4sf]
;xofqLsf] ?kdf lnO{ ltgnfO{ k|f]T;fxg / k'/:s[t ug]{ sfo{ s]Gb|sf] sfo{If]qdf kb{5g\ .
;fy}, s]Gb|sf sfdx?df e|i6frf/ x'g] :ynsf] klxrfg u/L ;"rs v6fpg], ;'/fsLsf] Joj:yf u/L
k|ltkmnsf] cfwf/df k'/:s[t ug]{, cg'lrt sfo{ tyf e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL ;"rgf lbg gful/sxnfO{
;fj{hlgs ;"rgf dfkm{t\ k|f]T;fxg ug]{, ;fj{hlgs hjfkmb]xLsf kbflwsf/LxnfO{ :jfy{sf] G
x6fpg cfjZos Joj:yf ug]{, s]Gb|Lo lgsfoxdf ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f cfrf/;+lxtf lgdf{0f u/L nfu"
ug{ nufpg], z+sf:kb 7]Ssfkfsf] thljhL clwsf/ k|of]u u/L 5fglag, cGj]if0f Pjd\ k/LIf0f

72

ug]{, e|i6frf/sf lx;fjn] ;Dj]bgzLn ljGb'sf] ?kdf klxrfg ePsf sfof{noxsf] sfd sf/jfxLdf
lgu/fgL /fVg], e|i6frf/ lj? gful/s ;j]{If0fsf] Aoj:yf ug]{ / ;Dklt ljj/0fsf] cg'udg ug]{
sfdx? kb{5g\ .

g]kfndf e|i6frf/ la/f]wL s8f sfg"gsf] k|efj


g]kfndf log} e|i6frf/ la/f]wL s8f sfg"gL k|fjwfg cg';f/ g]kfnsf k"j{ dGqL lr/~hLaLs'df/
jfUn]n] e|i6frf/sf] cleof]udf h]n ;hfo sf6L ;s]sf 5g\ . k"j{ dGqLx? hok|sfz u'Ktf /
v'daxfb'/ v8\sf e|i6frf/sf] cleof]udf h]n ;hfo ef]uL/x]sf 5g\ . k"j{ u[x ;lrj kbds'df/
kf]v|]n ;af]{Rr cbftntjf6 e|i6frf/sf] cf/f]kdf bf]ifL k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . k"j{ u[x
dGqL ;d]t /lx;s]sf uf]laGb/fh hf]zL e|i6rf/Lsf] cf/f]k v]kL /x]sf 5g\ . km};nf ;+3f/d} 5 .
laz]if cbfntsf cWoIf GofofwLz uf}/Laxfb'/ sfsL{ tyf ;b:oo cf]dk|sfz ld> / s]bf/k|;fb
rfln;]sf] Ohnf;n]] ldlt @)^( d+l;/ & ut] laxLaf/ k"j{ /Iff ;lrj rs|aGw' cof{nnfO{ e|i6rf/L
7x/ ub}{ 8]8 aif{ s}b, ^^ nfv hl/jfgf / Tolt g} lauf] c;'n pk/ x'g] km};nf u/]sf] 5 .2
;fy}, k"j /Iff ;lrj rs|aGw' cof{nnfO{ e|i6rf/L 7x/ u/]sf] ef]nLkN6} k"j ;x;lrj -k|fljlws_
c?0fs'df/ /l~htsf/nfO{ kbLo b'?kof]u u/L ;DklQ hf]8]s]f eGb} laz]if cbfntsf cWoIf GofofwLz
uf}/Laxfb'/ sfsL{ tyf ;b:oo GofofwLz cf]dk|sfz ld> / s]bf/k|;fb rfln;]sf] Ohnf;n]] ldlt
@)^( d+l;/ * ut] z'qmaf/ k"j{ ;x;lrj c?0fs'df/ /l~htsf/nfO{ e|i6rf/L 7x/ ub}{ $% nfv
$% xhf/ hl/jfgf u/L Tolt g} lauf] lt/fpg] / Ps jif{ s}b x'g] km};nf u/]s]f 5 . 3
@)@( a}zfv * df cl;i6]06 Ol~hgLo/sf ?kdf lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z u/L @)%* ebf} @%
df ;]jfjf6 lgj[Q c?0fs'df/ /l~htsf/n] u|fdL0f vfg]kfgL lgb]{zgfnosf] k|d'v, g]kfn vfg]kfgL
;+:yfgsf dxfk|aGws, d]nDrL vfg]kfgL cfo]hgfsf sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs, vfg]kfgL tyf 9n lgsf;
ljefusf dxflgb]{zs, :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefusf dxflgb]{Zfs tyf ef}lts
of]hgf, lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft dGqfnosf ;x;lrjsf] lhDd]jf/L ;Dxfln;s]sf lyP .
#) jif]{ lghfdtL ;]jf cjlwdf /l~htsf/sf] s"n ;DklQ % s/f]8 % nfv %& xhf/ dWo] #
s/f]8 !( nfv ^& xhf/ ?k}+ofsf] ;|f]t gv'n]sf] eGb} clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un] laz]if
cbfntdf bfo/ u/]sf] d'2f kbjf6 jflxl/Psf] Ps jif{leq d'2f bfo/ gePsf] ts{ lb+b} laz]if
cbftnn] ;kmfO{ lbPsf]df To; la? k'g/fj]bg uPsf] clVtof/ b'/kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf]
2 sflGtk'/ b}lgs, @)^( d+l;/ *, klxnf] kfgf
3 sflGtk'/ b}lgs, @)^( d+l;/ *, klxnf] kfgf

73

lgj]bg dfly @)^* kmfu'g #) ut] lgh c?0fs'df/ /l~htsf/dflysf] d'2f k'gM x]g'{ elg ;af]{Rr
cbfntn] pN6L km};nf u/]s]f lyof] .
e|i6frf/ lj? s8f sfg"gsf sf/0f k"j{ dGqL /aLGb|gfy zdf{ 1jfnLnfO{ d[To'kl5 klg e|i6frf/L
7x/ u/L sfg"g ljkl/t sdfPsf] ;Gtfg al;/x]s]f 3/, hUuf hkmt x'g] ;af]{Rr cbfntn] km};nf
u/]sf] 5 .

gful/s a8fkq sfof{Gjog cg'udg


g]kfndf ;/sf/L ;]jf k|efjsf/L jgfpg] lgb]{lzsf, @)%^ sf] Aoj:yf u/L gful/s a8fkqsf]
sfof{Gjog b]ze/df k|efjsf/L ?kdf nfu' eO/x]sf] 5 . lhNnfx?df /x]sf ;/sf/L sfof{nox?n]
lbg] ;]jfsf ;DaGwdf gful/s a8fkq agfO{ xfn clwstd lhNnfx?df PsLs[t ?kdf gful/s
a8fkq agfO{ 5kfO{ ljt/0f tyf k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] cj:yf 5 .
o;nfO{ P]gf/f cem Jojl:yt kfg{ ;'zf;g -Joa:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$ tyf ;'zf;g
-Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^% xfn sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf 5g\ .
d'n'ssf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ hgd'vL, hjfkmb]xL, kf/bzL{, ;dfj]zL tyf hg;xeflutfd"ns
jgfO{ To;sf] k|ltkmn ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ pknAw u/fpg, sfg"gsf] zf;g, e|i6frf/d'Qm / r':t
k|zf;g, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, cfly{s cg'zf;g tyf ;fj{hlgs sfo{ / ;|f]tsf] s'zn Joj:yfkgh:tf
c;n zf;gsf cfwf/e"t dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L ;j{;fwf/0fn] kfpg' kg{] ;]jf, l56f], 5l/tf]
tyf sd vlr{nf] 9\uaf6 kfpg] cj:yf ;[hgf ug{ NofOPsf] ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_
P]g, @)^$ sf] bkmf @% df ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ jf hg;Dks{ sfod ug]{ k|To]s ;/sf/L
sfof{non] ;a}n] b]Vg] 7fpFdf tf]lsP adf]lhd gful/s a8fkq /fVg' kg]{ / a8fkq adf]lhd sfo{
;Dkfbg geO{ ;]jfu|fxLn] ;]jf k|fKt ug{ g;sL ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ s'g} xflg gf]S;fgL x'g uPsf]df ;f]
xflg gf]S;fgL afktsf] Ifltk"lt{ ;DaGwL Aoj:yf tf]lsPadf]lhd x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .
;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^% sf] lgod !$ gful/s a8fkq ;DjGwL
Joj:yfdf, pklgod -%_ adf]lhd dsf{df kg]{jf6 kg{ cfPsf] lgj]bgsf] Aoxf]/f dgfl;a b]lvPdf
;]jfu|fxLnfO{ k'Ug uPsf] jf:tljs xfgL gf]S;fgLsf] kl/df0f ljrf/ u/L To:tf] ;]jf k'gM k|bfg
ubf{ lgz'Ns ?kdf lbg jf a9Ldf kfFrxhf/ ?k}ofF;Dd Ifltk"lt{ lbg ;DalGwt ;ldltn] ;DalGwt
lgsfosf kbflwsf/Lsf gfddf cfb]z lbg;Sg] k|fjwfg 5 .
s/f8f}+ AolQmx?sf cfzfsf s]Gb| cGgf xhf/] -ls;gafa'/fj xhf/]_ sf] ef/tdf rln/x]sf] e|i6frf/
la/f]wL cfGbf]ngdf p7]sf e|i6frf/ la/f]wL s8f sfg"g / Ifltk"lt{ ;lxtsf] gul/s a8fkq ;DaGwL
Aoj:yf g]kfndf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%(, clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)%(

74

/ ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$ sfof{Gjogdf /xL k|efjsf/L /x]sf] cj:yf 5 .
;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$, ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL,
@)^% df gful/s a8fkqsf] sfg"gL k|fjwfg / Ifltk"lt{sf] ;':ki6 k|fjwfg /x]sf] 5 . sdL 5 t
;kmn sfof{Gjogsf] o;nfO{ k"/f ug{, sfg"gL k|fjwfg ePsf] % jif{df g]kfn ;/sf/jf6 hf/L @
;o ! a'Fb] zf;sLo tyf cfly{s ;'wf/sf] tTsfnLg sfo{of]hgf, @)^( cg';f/ Ifltk"lt{ ;lxtsf]
gful/s a8fkqsf] sfof{Gjog k|fjwfg u/L o;sf] cg'udgsf] lhDdf /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|nfO{
lbPsf] 5 . Aoj:yf cg';f/ g]kfn ;/sf/n] Ifltk"lt{ ;lxtsf] gful/s a8fkqsf] sfo{s|d ;fj{hlgs
u/]kl5 sltkon] cGgf xhf/]sf] cfGbf]ngsf] k|efj g]kfndf lelqPsf] ;Dem] t sltkon] ca s]xL
x'g] cfzf af]s]sf] kfOPsf] 5
;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$ / ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL,
@)^% adf]lhd ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ jf hg;Dks{ sfod ug]{ k|To]s ;/sf/L sfof{non]
;a}n] b]Vg] 7fpFdf tf]lsP adf]lhd gful/s a8fkq /fVg' kb{5 . o; P]g tyf lgodfjnLdf gful/s
a8fkqdf pNn]v x'g' kg]{ ljifoj:t'x? pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
;DalGwt sfof{non] lbg] ;]jf / To;sf] k|s[lt, ;]jfu|fxLn] ;]jf k|fKt ug{ k"/f ug'{ kg]{ sfo{ljlw,
;]jf k|bfg ug{ nfUg] ;dofjlw, ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ kbflwsf/L / lghsf] sfo{sIfsf] ljj/0f, ;]jf k|fKt
ug{ b:t'//sd nfUg] eP ;f] sf] ljj/0f, ;]jf k|fKt ug{ ;]jfu|fxLn] k]z ug'{kg]{ sfuhft, u'gf;f]
;'Gg] kbflwsf/Lsf] kb / gfd, ;]jf lbg] lgsfosf] tfn's sfof{no / 6]lnkmf]g gDj/, ;]jf k|jfxsf]
k|fyldstf, Ifltk"lt{ k|fKt x'g] / gx'g] ;]jfx tyf tf]lsPsf cGo s'/fx gful/s a8fkqdf
pNn]v ug]{ k|fjwfg kl/kfng ug]{ ul/Psf] kfOPsf] 5 ;/sf/L sfof{non] tf]lsPsf s'/fx
pNn]v ePsf] gful/s j8fkq tof/ u/L /fVg' kg]{ / sfof{non] ;f]xL adf]lhd jfWofTds ?kdf
;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug'{kg]{ x'G5 .
sfg"gL Joj:yf cg';f/ gful/s a8fkqdf cGo s'/fxsf] cltl/Qm b]xfosf s'/fx clgjfo{
pNn]v ePsf] x'g'kb{5M

;DalGwt sfof{non] lbg] ;]jf / To;sf] k|s[lt


;]jfu|fxLn] ;]jf k|bfg ug{ k"/f ug'{kg]{ sfo{ljlw
;]jf k|bfg ug{ nfUg] ;dofjlw
;]jf k|bfg ug]{ kbflwsf/L / lghsf] sfo{sIfsf] ljj/0f
;]jf k|bfg ug{ s'g} b:t'/ tyf cGo /sd nfUg] eP ;f] sf] ljj/0f
;]jf k|fKt ug{ ;]jfu|fxLn] k]z ug'{kg]{ sfuhft
;]jfu|fxLn] ;]jf ;DaGwdf u/]sf u'gf;f] ;'Gg] clwsf/Lsf] kb / gfd

75

;]jf k|bfos lgsfosf] tfn's sfof{no / 6]lnkmf]g gDa/


;]jf k|jfxsf] k|fyldstf
Ifltk"lt{ k|fKt x'g] / gx'g] ;]jfx .
;'zf;g ;DaGwL o; P]g tyf lgodfjnL adf]lhd gful/s a8fkq /fv] g/fv]sf] / ;]jf k|jfx eP
gePsf] ;DaGwdf /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|n] @)^^ ;fnb]lv lgoldt ?kdf, cem k|efjsf/L ?kdf
gful/s a8fkq sfof{Gjog cg'udg sfo{s|dsf ?kdf /flv lgoldt cg'udgsf] sfo{ ub}{ cfPsf]
5.
s]Gb|n] tof/ kf/]sf ;]jfu|fxLnfO{ sfof{no kl/;/df ;]jf k|jfxsf ljifodf ;f]w]/ el/g] s kmf/d,
sfof{no k|d'v tyf ;DalGwt sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;d"xjf6 el/g] v kmf/d, gful/s a8fkq sfof{Gjog
cg'udg 6f]nLsf tkm{jf6 ;+of]hsn] eg]{ u kmf/d / ;fj{hlgs lgsfojf6 ;]jf lng] u/]sf]
h]fsf]xLjf6 ;"rgf lnO{ el/g] 3 kmf/d ;d]tsf cfwf/df ;TotYo ;"rgf to u/L cg'udg ul/Psf]
lhNnf ;b/d'sfddf Ps xKtf cg'udg u/L tof/ kfl/Psf] ljj/0f lhNnfdf sfo{/t /fhgLlts
bnsf k|d'v tyf kbflwsf/Lx?, ;/sf/L sfof{nosf k|d'vx?, Aofkf/L, u}/;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfsf k|d'v
tyf kbflwsf/L ;dIf k|:t't ul/+b} cfPsf] 5 . lhNnf txdf o; sfo{sf] ;+of]hg ug]{ sfd s]Gb|sf]
lnlvt cg'/f]wdf ;DalGwt lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{non] ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ .
cf=a= @)^*.)^( df s]xL lhNnfdf sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf cfPsf dWo] b]xfosf k|ltzt ;]jfu|fxLn]
cltl/Qm /sd -3';_ lbg'k/]sf] /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :ynut cg'udg k|ltj]bgn] b]vfPsf] 5 .4

4 >]i7, ;'/]zdfg, g]kfn ;/s/fsf ;lrj tyf ;fyLx?, /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] bz jif{, @)^({ -n]vs o;sf
;Dkfbs x'g\_ .

76

cf=a= @)^&.)^* df s]xL lhNnfdf sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf cfPsf dWo] b]xfosf k|ltzt ;]jfu|fxLn]
cltl/Qm /sd -3';_ lbg'k/]sf] /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :ynut cg'udg k|ltj]bgn] b]vfPsf] 5 .5

cf=a= @)^^.)^& df s]xL lhNnfdf sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf cfPsf dWo] b]xfosf k|ltzt ;]jfu|fxLn]
cltl/Qm /sd -3';_ lbg'k/]sf] /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :ynut cg'udg k|ltj]bgn] b]vfPsf] 5 .

77

-u_

s]Gb|sf] ;'b[9Ls/0fsf] nflu ul/Psf k|of;x

-!_

/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgf / ;~rfngsf nflu 5'} sfg"gL Joj:yf u/L o;nfO{
clwsf/;DkGg, ;Ifd / ljz]if1tfdf cfwfl/t t'Nofpg 5'} sfg"g lgdf{0f ug{ g]kfn sfg"g
;'wf/ cfof]udf sfo{bn u7g e} d:of}bf tof/ ug]{ sfo{df s]Gb|n] pQm cfof]u ;dIf /fli6o
;ts{tf s]Gb| cfof]u :yfkgfsf nflu cfjZos k/fdz{ tyf wf/0ff pknAw u/fO{ ;lsPsf]
5.

-@_

;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf x'g] e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttf;Fu ;DalGwt ;"rgfsf]
;\sng, ph'/L u|x0f / ;f] sf] Joj:yfkg, cg'udg, lg/LIf0f, cGj]if0f, k|fljlws k/LIf0f
nufotsf sfo{sf] ;Dkfbgdf Ps?ktf NofO{ lgoldt, Jojl:yt / kf/bzL{ agfO{ s]Gb|sf]
sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] p2]Zon] tof/ kf/]sf] /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ Joj:yfkg_
lgb]{lzsf, @)^* ljefuLo dGqLsf x}l;otdf k|wfgdGqL 8f= afa'/fd e/fO{jf6 :jLs[t
eO{ sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] 5 .

-#_

ljutdf l;+xb/jf/ kl/;/leq /x]sf] s]Gb|sf] sfof{no @)^% ;fnb]lv cgfdgu/l:yt


ef8fdf lnOPsf] ejgdf /x]sf] lyof] . k|wfgdGqLsf] k|ToIf /]vb]v / lgoGq0fdf /x]sf]
s]Gb| o;/L l;+xb/jf/ kl/;/aflx/ /xFbf sfo{:ynsf] ckof{Kttf, c;'/Iff tyf lgoldt
?kdf e}/xg] nf]8;]l8sf] sf/0fn] ck]lIft ?kdf sfo{ k|efjsf/Ltf cfpg g;s]sf]n]
g]kfn ;/sf/ -dlGqkl/ifb\_ sf] @)^& c;f]hsf] lg0f{oaf6 s]Gb|nfO{ l;+xb/jf/ kl/;/leq
;fg]{ lg0f{o eP cg'?k s]Gb| @)^( ;fpg !) ut]b]lv l;+xb/jf/ kl/;/sf] lzIff dGqfno
;'zf;g ejgdf ;l/;s]s]f 5 . s]Gb|sf] gofF ejg lgdf{0f sfo{sf] nflu cy{ dGqfnoaf6
k|f/lDes ?kdf /sdsf] ljlgof]hg ;d]t eO{ gSzf\sgsf] sfd eO{/x]sf] 5 .

-$_

s]Gb|n] ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs ;+3;+:yfaf6 lgdf{0f / ;~rfng ul/g] cfof]hgfxsf]


s]Gb|Lo lgsfosf ?kdf k|fljlws k/LIf0f (Technical Audit) ub{5 . o; sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L
?kdf ;Dkfbg ug]{ ;Gbe{df s]Gb|n] ug]{ o; ;DaGwL sfo{ / ut cf=j= df :jLs[t k|fljlws
k/LIfsxsf] cfrf/;+lxtfnfO{ tflnd, uf]i7L tyf k|rf/k|;f/sf] dfWodaf6 cfof]hgf
;Dj4 sd{rf/Lx ;dIf k'ofOPsf] 5 . ;r]tgf a9fpg] sfd ul//x]s]f cj:yf 5 .

-%_

;fj{hlgs lgsfodf x'g] e|i6frf/ Pjd\ clgoldttf ;DaGwdf ;"rgf ;\sng, k|f/lDes
5fglag, lgu/fgL, cGj]if0f, cg'udg tyf ph'/L Joj:yfkg sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf
;Dkfbg ug{ s]Gb|sf clws[t:t/sf sd{rf/LxnfO{ tLg lbg] tflnd pknAw u/fOPsf]
5 . o;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] sfo{s|d Aoj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .

78

s]Gb|n] ;Dkfbg ub}{ u/]sf sfo{x


-s_

;"rgf ;ng

o; s]Gb|n] e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf lgoGq0f ug{ tyf e|i6frf/ lj?4 hgr]tgf
clej[l4 ug{ ;/sf/L sfof{no jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfaf6 ;Dkfbg x'g] sfddf lgoldt ?kdf sfd
gePsf] eGg] ;DaGwdf s]Gb|df k|fKt lnlvt jf df}lvs ph'/L, s'g} kqklqsf, cg';GwfgfTds
n]v jf k|ltj]bgdf ;dfj]z ljj/0f jf ;"rgf, ;DalGwt lgsfodf ul/Psf] :ynut lg/LIf0f jf
cg'udgaf6 k|fKt k|ltj]bg, ljB'tLo ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 k|sflzt jf k|;fl/t ;dfrf/ jf ;"rgfsf]
dfWodaf6 ;"rgf ;\sng ug]{ ub{5 . ;f] k|of]hgsf] nflu s]Gb|n] b]xfo adf]lhdsf sfo{x u/]sf]
kfOG5
-!_

s]Gb|df x6nfOg 6]lnkmf]g -$@))$))_ / Od]n navic@nvc.gov.np sf] Joj:yf u/L


clgoldttf / e|i6frf/hGo lqmofsnfkxsf] ;"rgf ;\sng ul//x]s]f 5 .

-@_

s]Gb|df ofS;, ph'/Lk]l6sf tyf x'nfs dfkm{t\ ph'/Lx k|fKt x'g] u/]sf] . o; s]Gb|sf]
kl/;/ tyf l;+xb/jf/sf] k"j{ / blIf0f 9f]sfxdf ph'/L k]l6sfx /flvPsf 5g\ . sf7df8f}
k|j]zf/ gfu9'\uf / l;+xb/jf/sf] blIf0fLf/ glhs ;"rgfd"ns xf]l8{\ af]8{ /flvPsf] 5 .

-#_

ljleGg kqklqsfxdf k|sflzt e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL ;dfrf/, n]v / /rgfxdfkm{t\ ;"rgf


lng k|]; sfplG;naf6 e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttf ;DaGwL ;fdfu|Lxsf] k|]; lSnlk
;]jf b}lgs kdf lng] ul/Psf] . lSnlkaf6 k|fKt x'g] ;"rgfx ;DalGwt zfvfdf k7fO{
cfjZostfg';f/ 5fglag sfo{ cl3 a9fOg] ul/Psf] 5 .

-$_

;"rgf ;\sng k|of]hgsf] nflu e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttf ;DaGwL ;"rgfx s]Gb|nfO{
pknAw u/fO{ lbg ljleGg kqklqsf, /]l8of] tyf 6]lnlehgsf] dfWod dfkm{t\ cfd ;~rf/
dfkm{t ;j{;fwf/0fdf cg'/f]w ul/Psf] 5 .

-%_

;"rgf ;ng k|of]hgsf] nflu o; s]Gb|n] hgtf;Fu k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /fVg] pkTosf tyf
aflx/sf ljleGg lhNnf l:yt ;/sf/L sfof{no jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfxdf cg'udg tyf
lg/LIf0f, lgu/fgL tyf 58\s] hfFr, :ynut cWoog ug{ ljleGg 6f]nLx v6fO/x]s]f 5 .
o;sf] pNn]Vo k|efjsfl/tf kfOPsf] dx;'; ul/Psf] 5 .

-^_

;"rgf k|jfx s]Gb|sf] e/kbf]{ zlQm, ;fdYo{ / ;ts{tfsf nflu ;"rgf ;d]t ePsfn]
s]Gb|jf6 ;"rgf k|jfx ug{ s]Gb|sf ultljlwx? ;fj{hlgs ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 .

-&_ cf=j= @)^&)^* df ;"rgf ;\sngsf] nflu ;f] ;DaGwL Ps r]slni6 agfO{ lrtjg,

79

?kGb]xL, l;Gw'kfNrf]s, slknj:t' / bf lhNnfsf lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no, lhNnf ljsf;


;ldltsf] sfof{no, gu/kflnsf , lzIff, dfnkf]t, gfkL, hg:jf:Yo h:tf sfof{noxdf
df}lvs tyf lnlvt ;"rgf ;\sng, lgu/fgL, :ynut lg/LIf0fsf] nflu 6f]nLx? v6fOPsf]
lyof] . o;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 .

-v_

ph'/L Joj:yfkg

e|i6frf/hGo sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L kdf lgoGq0f ug'{kg]{ bfloTj /x]sf] o; s]Gb|df g]kfn ;/sf/sf
ljleGg ;fj{hlgs lgsfox? Pjd\ kbflwsf/Lxaf6 x'g nfu]sf / ePsf clgoldt / e|i6frf/hGo
lqmofsnfkx lj?4sf ph'/L tyf u'gf;f]x lnlvt tyf df}lvs ?kdf k|fKt x'g] ub{5 .
s]Gb|df k|fKt x'g] ph'/L / u'gf;f]xsf cltl/Qm s]Gb|n] lgoldt kdf lgu/fgL / cg'udg ;d]t
ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . clgoldttf / e|i6frf/hGo lqmofsnfkxsf] ;"rgf lbg s]Gb|df x6nfOg 6]lnkmf]g
g+= $@))$)), Od]n 7]ufgf navic@nvc.gov.np, ph'/Lk]l6sf nufotsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
e|i6frf/hGo lqmofsnfk, clgoldttfx, l9nf;':tLsf ljifodf cfd ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 k|sflzt
tyf k|;fl/t ul/g] n]v /rgf, ;dfrf/nfO{ ;d]t ;"rgfs} kdf lnO{ ph'/L u|x0f ul/Fb} cfPsf]
5 . ;fy}, ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 e|i6frf/ / clgoldttf ;DaGwL ljifodf k|sflzt ;dfrf/x sl6\
ug]{ tyf k|]; sfplG;naf6 lSnlk ;]jf lnO{ k|sflzt ;dfrf/ pk/ yk 5fglag ul/Fb} cfPsf]
/ sltko ljifoxdf ;DalGwt lgsfo / kbflwsf/Lx, dGqLx?nfO{ ;d]t Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg]
sfo{ ul/Fb} cfPsf] 5 .
;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfxaf6 k|bfg ul/g] ;]jf ;'ljwfxdf eP u/]sf clgoldttf /
e|i6frf/hGo lqmofsnfkx pk/ ph'/L lbg ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sflzt ug]{ ul/Pkl5 s]Gb|df
ph'/Lxsf] ;+Vofdf a[l4 ePsf] 5 . o;/L ljleGg dfWodaf6 k|fKt x'g cfPsf ph'/L ;DaGwdf
s]Gb|n] b]xfo adf]lhd sf/jfxL cufl8 a9fpg] ub{5
-!_

s]Gb|df k|fKt lnlvt tyf df}lvs ph'/L tyf ;"rgf, kqklqsf tyf ljB'tLo ;~rf/
dfWoddf k|sflzt / k|zfl/t ;dfrf/, n]v jf ;"rgf, s]Gb|af6 ul/Psf] lgu/fgL, lg/LIf0f
jf cg'udgaf6 k|fKt k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df ;"rgf tyf u'gf;f]nfO{ ph'/Lsf] ?kdf u|x0f
u/L btf{ ug]{ .

-@_

ph'/L pk/ cfjZos hfFra'em jf k|f/lDes 5fgljg ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfodf kqfrf/ u/L
ePsf] jf:tljstf / ;DalGwt sfuhftxsf] dfu ug]{ . To:t}, cfjZostf cg';f/ ph'/L
;DalGwt ljifodf hfFra'em ug{ lgu/fgL, cg'udg, 58\s] hfFr ug{ s]Gb|n] 6f]nL v6fpg],
;Ssn kmfon lemsfO{ cGj]if0f, cg';Gwfg ug]{ / ;DalGwt kbflwsf/LnfO{ s]Gb|df af]nfO{

80

5nkmn, lnlvt hfgsf/L dfu u/L jf:tljstf a'g] .


-#_

ph'/L pk/ ePsf] 5fgljgaf6 ;/sf/L sfof{no jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfaf6 ;Dkfbg x'g'kg]{
sfd lgoldt tl/sfn] ePsf] gb]lvPdf l56f], 5l/tf] / k|efjsf/L lsl;daf6 sfd ;Dkfbg
ug{ cfjZos ;'emfj jf lgb]{zg lbg] .

-$_

ph'/Lsf] 5fgljgaf6 s'g} ;/sf/L jf ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf clgoldttf x'g nfu]sf] kfOPdf
jf lgoldt ?kdf sfd gePsf] kfOPdf cfjZostf cg';f/ ;DalGwt lgsfosf k|d'v /
To:tf] sfddf k|ToIf ;+nUg kbflwsf/LnfO{ ;ts{ u/fpg], Wofgfsif{0f ug]{ tyf lgb]{zg
lbg] .

-%_

5fglagsf] qmddf s]Gb|n] lbPsf] ;'emfj tyf lgb]{zg sfof{Gjog gu/]sf], clgoldttf
ePsf] kfOPdf To:tf] ;+:yf jf sfof{nosf k|d'v jf ;DalGwt sd{rf/L pk/ k|rlnt
sfg"g adf]lhd sf/jfxL ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfodf n]vL k7fpg] .

-^_

5fglagaf6 s'g} ;/sf/L jf ;fj{hlgs lgsfosf] sfddf clgoldttf x'g nfu]sf] jf


lgoldt ?kdf sfd gePsf] ;Gbe{df s]Gb|af6 ;ts{ u/fOPsf] ljifo kfngf gu/]sf]
tyf sfddf ;'wf/ gu/]sf] kfOPdf To:tf sd{rf/Lsf] clen]v /fvL lgh pk/ cfjZos
ljefuLo sf/jfxLsf] nflu clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u ;dIf n]vL k7fpg] .

-&_

ph'/Lsf] 5fglagaf6 clgoldttf tyf e|i6frf/hGo lqmofsnfk ePsf] kfOPdf yk


5fglag tyf cfjZos sf/jfxLsf] nflu clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u nufotsf
;Da lgsfox?df n]vL k7fpg] .

-u_

:ynut cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f

o; s]Gb|n] ;/sf/L sfof{no tyf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfxaf6 ul/g] cfly{s, k|zf;lgs tyf k|fljlws
sfdsf] ;Dkfbg lgoldt ?kdf eP gePsf], hgtfnfO{ k'ofpg'kg]{ ;]jf sfg"g adf]lhd eP
gePsf], e|i6frf/sf lj?4df ;do ;dodf ;/sf/n] hf/L u/]sf /0fgLltsfo{gLltsfo{qmdsf]
sfof{Gjog eP gePsf], ;Dkfbg x'g] sfddf clgoldttfl9nf;':tL eP gePsf] tyf k|bQ ;]jf
;'ljwf ;DaGwL ljifoxdf ;\slnt ;"rgf tyf ph'/Lsf cfwf/df cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f ug]{
sfo{ ;d]t ub{5 . cf=j= @)^&)^* df ;\v'jf;ef, ;f]n'v'Da', df]/\, lrtjg, uf]/vf, sf:sL,
slknj:t', ka{t, DofUbL, afun', c3f{vfFrL, alb{of, h'Dnf, d'u', aemf, a}t8Lsf ! ;o @$
;fj{hlgs lgsfoxdf :ynut cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f ug]{ sfo{ ul/Psf] lyof] .
b]zsf] /fhwfgL sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf cf=j= @)^*)^( df $$ ;fj{hlgs lgsfoxdf :ynut
cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f ug]{ sfo{ ul/Psf] lyof] . ;fy}, k|fljlws k/LIfsxn] u/]sf sfo{xsf]

81

:ynut cg'udg ug{ wflb, lrtjg, gjnk/f;L, ?kGb]xL, slknj:t' nufotsf lhNnfxdf
cg'udg ug{ s]Gb|jf6 6f]nL v6fOPsf] lyof] .

-3_

;DklQ ljj/0f tyf cfosf] cg'udg

e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf %) tyf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$*
sf] bkmf #! adf]lhd k|To]s ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] cfgf] jf cfgf] kl/jf/sf] gfddf
/x]sf] ;DklQsf] ;|f]t jf lg:;f ;lxtsf] ;DklQsf] cBfjlws ljj/0f lgo'Qmdgf]gog ePsf
ldltn] ^) lbg / k|To]s cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] ldltn] ^) -;f7L_ lbgleq /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|n]
tf]ls lbPsf lgsfo ;dIf k]z ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 .
;f] Dofbleq ;DklQsf] ljj/0f k]z ug{ g;s]sf] JolQmn] sf/0f ;lxt pNn]v u/L Dofb yksf]
nflu cg'/f]w u/]df ;DalGwt lgsfo jf clwsf/Ln] a9Ldf tL; lbg;Ddsf] Dofb yk lbg ;Sg]
Joj:yf ;d]t P]gdf pNn]v 5 . ;dodf lgwf{l/t lgsfodf ;DklQ ljj/0f ga'emfpg] elg o;
s]Gb|n] pknAw u/fPs]f ljj/0fsf cfwf/df ut ljut jif{x?b]lv g} g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;lrjb]lv
sfof{no ;xof]uL ;d]t w]/} ;fj{hlgs kbdf /x]sfx?nfO{ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]ujf6
hl/jfgf ePsf] 5 . hl/jfgf ltg'{ k/]sfx?n] hl/jfgf lt/L ;f] s]f hfgsf/L o; s]Gb|df lbg] u/]sf],
;dfrf/x? ;fj{hlgs eO{/x]sf 5g\ .

-_

uf]i7L tyf cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd

-!_

e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f tyf e|i6frf/sf] lj?4df hgr]tgf clea[l4 ug]{ ;Gbe{df o; s]Gb|n]
ljleGg lhNnfx? ;b/d'sfdx?df e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f M xfd|f] ;femf bfloTj ljifos cGt/lqmof
uf]i7Lx? ;DkGg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f / /f]syfd ;DaGwdf o; s]Gb|sf]
sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ hfgsf/L u/fpg], gful/s a8fkq sfof{Gjog ;DaGwdf ul/Psf]
cg'udg k|ltj]bg k|:t't ug]{, ;DklQ ljj/0f ;DaGwdf cfjZos hfgsf/L pknAw u/fpg]
p2]Zon] ul/Psf pQm uf]i7Lxdf k|fKt ;'emfjx ;fGble{s ePsfn] oxfF pNn]v ul/Psf]
5.
r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd /fd|f 5g\ . ufpFgu/ tx;Dd r]tgf km}nfpg'k5{ .
e|i6frf/ /fli6o /f]u xf] .
e|i6frf/ s]Gb|df a9L x'g] u/]sf]n] ToxfF nlIft sfo{qmd ug{'kg]{ .
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu /fhg}lts k|ltj4tf h?/L .

82

e|i6frf/ ;DaGwL ;dfrf/ lbg]nfO{ k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf x'g'kg]{ .


sd{rf/Lsf] tnj sd eP/ e|i6frf/ ePsf] .
g]tfn] ef]6, sd{rf/Ln] gf]6 gdfu] e|i6frf/ x'Fb}g .
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu ;a}sf] k|of; h?/L .
7"nf g]tfn] g} ;DklQ ljj/0f lb+b}gg\ .
7]Ssfkfdf k};f afF8\g] sfd x'G5, u'08fubL{ x'G5 .
gful/s j8fkq gful/ssf] kx'Frdf k'ofpg'k5{ .
lhNnfdf ;a} ldnL ;+oGq agfP e|i6frf/ Go"gLs/0f x'G5 .
hgtf clzlIft 5g\, gful/s j8fkq k9\b}gg\ .
jg, dfnkf]t, gfkL, lh=lj=;= df e|i6frf/ x'G5 .
e|i6frf/LnfO{ dflyaf6 ;+/If0f x'G5, dflg; :jR5 x'g rfxFbf]/x]g5 .
j]/f]huf/Ln] e|i6frf/L a9fof] .
/fhgLlts bnnfO{ /fHon] /sd lbg'k5{, rGbf kf/bzL{ x'g'k5{ .
gful/s j8fkq af/] /]l8of]l6=le=, :yfgLo ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 k|rf/ k|;f/
ug'{k5{ .
o:tf sfo{qmdxnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg'kb{5 .
pk/f]Qm uf]i7Lxaf6 gful/s j8fkq sfof{Gjog / e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf ;DaGwdf
lhNnfsf ljleGg If]qdf sfo{/t JolQmx aLrsf] cGt/lqmofaf6 e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf
;xsfo{ ug]{ ;+Vof a[l4 e} o; sfo{df ;sf/fTds ;xof]u k'Ug] ck]Iff s]Gb|n] lnPsf] 5 .
-@_

ldlt @)^*.#.!$ df dWodf~rn If]qsf dsjfgk'/, af/f, k;f{, lrtjg, wg'iff, /f}tx6,
dxf]Q/L / ;nf{xL lhNnfsf ;/sf/L lgsfodf sfo{/t k|fljlws clws[tx?nfO{ k|fljlws
k/LIf0fsf] ljifodf hfgsf/L lbg], ljsf; cfof]hgfx?df u'0f:t/Lotf sfod u/fpg] tyf

83

sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf ;/ntf Nofpg] p2]Zon] dsjfgk'/ lhNnfsf] x]6fF}8fdf Ps lbg] k|fljlws
k/LIf0f cled'vLs/0f uf]i7L cfof]hgf ul/ ;+rfng ul/of] .

-r_

gful/s j8fkq sfof{Gjog cg'udg

;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$ / ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL,
@)^% n] u/]sf] sfg"gL Joj:yf adf]lhd ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ jf hg;Dks{ sfod ug]{
k|To]s
e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf, @)^% cGtu{tsf] lgsfout sfo{of]hgf, @)^& n]
gful/s j8fkq sfof{Gjogsf] cg'udgsf] sfo{ ug{ o; s]Gb|nfO{ tf]s]sf] 5 . /fli6o ;ts{tf
s]Gb|n] ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs lgsfoxdf ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;Gbe{df cl3Nnf jif{xdf em}+
cf=j= @)^&)^* df klg gful/s j8fkq sfof{Gjog cg'udgsf] sfo{nfO{ jflif{s sfo{qmdd} /fvL
;Dkfbg u/]sf] 5 . o; cf=j= df pkTosfl:yt ljleGg ;/sf/L sfof{no jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfxdf
cg'udg lg/LIf0f ug]{ ;Gbe{df ;fdfGo ?kdf / pkTosf aflx/sf !) lhNnfsf ljleGg lgsfoxdf
ljz]if ?kdf k|ZgfjnL ;d]t tof/ u/L gful/s a8fkqsf] sfof{Gjog cg'udg ul/of] .

-5_

hgr]tgf clea[l4 ;DaGwL sfo{qmd

/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|sf] :yfkgfsf] d'Vo p2]Zox dWo] b]zdf e|i6frf/ lj?4 hgr]tgfsf] clea[l4
ug'{ klg kb{5 . ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs lgsfodf clgoldttf, cg'lrt sfo{ / e|i6frf/ x'g glbg
jf Go"gLs/0f ug{ ;a} If]qsf hgtfxdf e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] r]tgf Nofpg' kg]{ x'G5 . ha;Dd
e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] hgr]tgf k|jn x'g ;Sb}g, ta;Dd e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug]{ sfo{ ;xh x'g ;Sb}g .
o; s]Gb|n] ljutdf em}+ cf=j= @)^*)^( df o; If]qdf ;DkGg u/]sf sfo{xnfO{ tn k|:t't
ul/Psf] 5
-!_ e|i6frf/ lj?4 hgr]tgf clea[l4 ug]{ ;Gbe{df o; s]Gb|af6 lgdf{0f ul/Psf hgr]tgfd"ns
!@ j6f >Jo ;Gb]zx / $ j6f lhnx @)^& r}q !* b]lv @)^* >fj0f @) ;Dd
k|zf/0f tflnsf cg';f/ k|fOd 6fOddf %)% k6s ;z'Ns / cGo ;dodf !$&) k6s lgz'Ns
?kdf sflGtk'/, Od]h, Onfd, kflye/f, /]l8of] 6'8], sf]aL, sflnsf, a'6jn, /]l8of] afu]Zj/L,
/]l8of] klZrdf~rn, :ju{f/L, cGgk"0f{, /]l8of] afh'/f, EjfO; ckm o'y Pkm Pd af6 k|zf/0f
ul/Psf] . To:t}, s]Gb|af6} pTkfbg ePsf hgr]tgfd"ns >Ao ;fdu|Lx ldlt @)^*.@.!@
b]lv @)^*.#.@@ ;Dd Od]h Pkm=Pd=af6 !$) k6s / EjfO; ckm o'y Pkm=Pd=af6 !#) k6s
k|zf/0f ul/Psf] .
o;af6 u|fdL0f :t/;Ddsf ;]jfu|fxLxnfO{ e|i6frf/ lj?4 r]tgf clea[l4 ug{df ;sf/fTds

84

;xof]u k'u]sf] dx;'; ul/Psf] 5 .


-@_ To:t}, s]Gb|af6 lgdf{0f ePsf !@ j6f hgr]tgfd"ns 5f]6f 5f]6f >Jo b[Zo ;Gb]zx tyf $
j6f lhn -uLlt ;Gb]z_ ldlt @)^&.!@.& b]lv @)^*.@.#) ut];Dd hDdf ^) k6s g]kfn
6]lnlehgaf6 k|zf/0f ul/Psf] .
-#_ ;bfrf/ / ;'zf;g ;DaGwL r]tgf clea[l4 ug]{ lsl;dsf] >Jo b[Zo ;fdu|L uLt @, lhn @
/ k|f]df] @ lgdf{0f ul/Psf] .
-$_ s]Gb|n] e|i6frf/ tyf clgoldttf ;DaGwdf s]Gb|nfO{ ;"rgfx pknAw u/fpg / ;'zf;g
k|j4{g ug]{ sfo{sf nflu ;d]t s]Gb|f/f tof/ ul/Psf % yl/sf ;"rgf ;fdu|Lx uf]/vfkq
b}lgs klqsfsf] sfFwdf x/]s xKtfsf] a'waf/ @% lbg k|sfzg u/L hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ sfo{
ul/Psf] .
-%_ s]Gb|n] ljBfno pd]/sf afnaflnsfxnfO{ ;d]t ;fd'bflos lzIff pknAw u/fO{ 3/ kl/jf/
/ ;dfhnfO{ klg e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] sfo{df ;xof]uL agfpg] p2]Zon] ;fd'bflos lzIfftkm{
;'v]{t, afFs], gjnk/f;L, kfNkf, wgs'6f, lrtjg, tgx'F, kj{t / ndh' lhNnfsf !!
ljBfnodf ;bfrf/ k|j4{g sfo{qmd ;DkGg u/]sf] .
-^_ hgr]tgf clea[l4s} nflu s]Gb|n] a|f];/, xft] k'l:tsf Pj+ e|i6frf/ lj?4sf kDkn]6, l:6s/x
5kfO{ u/L ljleGg lhNnfsf lgsfo tyf JolQmxnfO{ ljt/0f u/]sf] .
-h_ lgb]{zg, ;'emfj, ;ts{, Wofgfsif{0f / clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]udf n]vL k7fPsf
ljifox
/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|df lnlvt tyf df}lvs ph'/L, kqklqsf, :ynut lg/LIf0f jf cg'udgaf6
k|fKt ;"rgfx 5fglag u/L l56f], 5l/tf], k|efjsf/L / lgoldt lsl;daf6 sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug{sf]
nflu ljleGg lgsfodf lgb]{zg, ;'emfj, ;ts{, Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg n]lv k7fOPsf] 5 .

k|fljlws k/LIf0f
;fj{hlgs lgsfoaf6 lgdf{0f jf ;~rfng ul/g] cfof]hgfxsf] plrt u'0f:t/ sfod u/L tf]lsPsf]
nfut / ;dodf kf/bzL{ 9\un] ;DkGg ug{ tyf tL cfof]hgfxaf6 ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ lbuf] kdf
ck]lIft k|ltkmn k|fKt u/fpg k|fljlws k/LIf0f (Technical Audit) sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . k|fljlws
k/LIf0fnfO{ l;nl;nfa4, :jtGq / k|fdfl0fs k|ls|of, k|df0fx vf]h]/ ltgsf] j:t'ut kdf
d"Nof\sg u/L of]hgfaf6 cfzf u/] cg'?ksf] cfjZostf / ck]Iff k"/f x'G5 x'Fb}g eg]/ lgSof}{n
ug]{ sfo{sf] kdf cGt/f{li6o :t/ lgwf{/0f ;+:yf (ISO) n] lnPsf] kfOG5 . k|fljlws k/LIf0fn]

85

cfof]hgfsf] sfddf ;'wf/ Nofpg], q'l6 x'g glbg], q'l6 e} xfn] tTsfn ;Rofpg] / o; lsl;dsf]
q'l6 cGo cfof]hgfdf x'g glbg] sfo{df d2t k'ofpF5 . clgoldttf, e|i6frf/ eP sfg"g adf]lhd
sf/jfxLsf nflu l;kmfl/; ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 .
k|fljlws k/LIf0fsf] sfo{ g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df gofF 5 . sl/a * jif{ ePsf] 5 o;sf] cEof;
yflnPsf] . cfly{s k|zf;g ;DaGwL lgodfjnL, @)%^ df ePsf] klxnf] ;+zf]wgdf lgod ^@ -s_
yk u/L /fli6o of]hgf cfof]udf k|fljlws k/LIf0f dxfzfvf :yfkgf ePsf] kfOG5 . tTkZrft\
ljZj a}+ssf] ;xof]udf ef}lts of]hgf, lgdf{0f tyf oftfoft dGqfnodf ;~rfng ul/Psf] ;8s
dd{t tyf ljsf; cfof]hgf cGtu{t k|fljlws k/LIf0f Ifdtf ljsf; kl/of]hgf nfu" ul/of] . pQm
kl/of]hgfaf6 ;g\ @))% df cfjf;, ;8s Pjd\ vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ ;DaGwL k|fljlws k/LIf0f
Dofg'cnx tof/ ul/Psf] lyof] .
o; k[i7e"lddf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ldlt @)^) ;fpg @* sf] lg0f{oaf6 /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|df k|fljlws
k/LIf0f dxfzfvf :yfkgf e} pQm sfo{sf] lhDd]jf/L s]Gb|nfO{ k|fKt eof] . ;f] adf]lhd s]Gb|n] g]kfn
;/sf/ tyf ;/sf/sf] k"0f{ :jfldTj ePsf ;+ul7t ;+:yfxaf6 ;~rfng ul/g] of]hgfxsf]
k|fljlws k/LIf0f ug{ ;Sg] eof] . To:t}, /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^%
nfu" ePkl5 k|fljlws k/LIf0fsf] ;Gbe{df :ki6 sfg"gL Joj:yf ePsf] kfOG5 . ;f] lgodfjnLsf]
kl/R5]b ^ df k|fljlws k/LIf0f ;DaGwL Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . lgodfjnL adf]lhd s]Gb|n] ;fj{hlgs
lgsfoaf6 lgdf{0f tyf ;~rfng ul/Psf tyf ul/g] cfof]hgfxsf] cfjZostf cg';f/ k|fljlws
k/LIf0f ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . at{dfgdf Ps s/f]8 eGbf j9Lsf cfof]hgf clgjfo{ k|fljlws k/LIf0f ug'{kg]{
k|fjwfg /x]sf] 5 .
s]Gb|n] cfof]hgfsf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f u/fpg O{lGhlgol/ ljifodf slDtdf :gfts tx pQL0f{ u/L
O{lGhlgol/ If]qdf slDtdf !) jif{ ;]jf jf Joj;fo u/]sf], g]kfn O{lGhlgol/ kl/ifb\df btf{
ePsf] / k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd k|fljlws k/LIfs x'g cof]Uo g7xl/Psf] AolQmx dWo]af6 Ps
;"rL tof/ ug]{ tyf ;"rLdf ;dfj]z ePsf JolQmxnfO{ tflndsf] Joj:yf ug]{ ub{5 . cfof]hgfsf]
k|fljlws k/LIf0f ug{ s]Gb|n] tflnd k|fKt tL AolQmx dWo]af6 k/LIfssf] kdf v6fpg] sfo{
ub{5 .

-v_

k|fljlws k/LIf0fsf r/0fx

o; s]Gb|n] ;fj{hlgs lgsfoaf6 lgdf{0f;~rfng ug]{ cfof]hgfxsf] b]xfo dWo] s'g} Ps,
PseGbf a9L jf ;a} r/0fxsf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f ul/G5
!=

86

of]hgf th'{df tyf l8hfOgM o; r/0fdf cfof]hgfsf] k|f?k tof/L tyf l8hfOg kb{5g\ .

d'Votof of] r/0f Design Quality tyf Adequacy ;DalGwt x'G5 .


@=

vl/b jf 7]SsfkfM of] r/0f ;]jf, j:t' tyf lgdf{0f ;fdu|L vl/b tyf k|flKt;Fu
;DalGwt x'G5 . o;df d'Votof cfly{s k|zf;g lgdfojnL, kf/blz{tf tyf bft[ ;+:yfsf]
cfjZostf;Fu ;dGjo eP gePsf] ljifo x]l/G5 .

#=

lgdf{0fM of] r/0f cfof]hgfsf] lgdf{0f tyf sfof{Gjog;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 . o;df d'Votof
u'0f:t/, nfut, sfo{tflnsf, lgdf{0f Joj;foL;Fusf sfg"gL ljjfb;Fu ;DalGwt ljifo
x]l/G5 .

$=

lgdf{0fkl5sf] ;~rfng / ;Def/M of] r/0fdf of]hgfsf] ;+/rgfsf] lbuf]kg, l8hfOgsf]


pko'Qmtf tyf nfut k|efjsfl/tf cflb ljifoxdf cWoog ul/G5 .

-u_

k|fljlws k/LIf0fdf x]l/g] ljifox

s]Gb|n] cfof]hgfsf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f ubf{ cfof]hgfsf] nfut, ;do, u'0f:t/, k|efjsfl/tf / k|fKt
pknAwL ;d]tnfO{ ljrf/ ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgodfjnL, @)^%
cg';f/ k|fljlws k/LIf0fdf x]l/g] ljifox o; k|sf/ 5g\ M
!=

k|fljlws k/LIf0fsf] sfo{nfO{ cfof]hgfsf] cleGg sfo{sf] kdf /fv] jf g/fv]sf] .

@=

cfof]hgfsf] l8hfOg pko'Qm eP jf gePsf] .

#=

cfof]hgfaf6 ck]lIft pknAwL xfl;n x'g ;Sg] jf g;Sg] .

$=

cfof]hgfsf] k|efjsfl/tf / bLuf]kgf eP jf gePsf] .

%=

cfof]hgfsf] k|f?k tof/L tyf ;DefJotf cWoog, ;]jf, j:t' jf lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] vl/b
tyf k|of]u / cfof]hgfsf] sfof{Gjog ubf{ ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f lgb]l{ zsf jf cGo k|rlnt
sfg"gn] tf]s]sf] tl/sf / u'0f:t/ adf]lhd eP jf gePsf] .

^=

cfof]hgfsf] nflu ul/Psf] ah]6 Joj:yf / lgsf;f 7Ls eP jf gePsf] .

&=

cfof]hgfsf] nIo lgwf{/0f eP jf gePsf] / nIo lgwf{/0f ePsf]df tbg'?k sfd eP jf


gePsf] .

*=

lgwf{l/t ;dodf g} cfof]hgfsf] sfd ;'? eP jf gePsf] .

(=

cfof]hgf cGtu{t ;DkGg x'g] jf ePsf sfo{xn] ck]Iffs[t ;]jf lbg ;Sg] g;Sg] .

!)=

cfof]hgf ;DkGg ug{sf] nflu ;do tflnsf eP jf gePsf] / ;dotflnsf eP ;f] cg'?k
sfo{ k|ult eP jf gePsf] .

!!=

cfof]hgf ;DkGg ug{ / u'0f:t/ sfod /fVg] ;DaGwdf cfof]hgf ;DaGwL s/f/df cfjZos

87

Joj:yf eP jf gePsf] .
!@=

lgdf{0f sfo{ cg'dflgt nfut cg'?k ;DkGg eP jf gePsf] .

!#=

cfof]hgf p2]Zo cg'?k sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] .

!$=

cfof]hgf ;DkGg ePkl5 ;f]sf] ;~rfng tyf dd{t ;Def/sf] nflu cfly{s tyf ef}lts
Joj:yf eP jf gePsf] .

-3_

k|fljlws k/LIf0f ul/Psf cfof]hgfx

o; s]Gb|n] cf=j= @)^!)^@ b]lv @)^*)^( ;Dddf ;fj{hlgs lgsfox?af6 lgdf{0f jf


;~rfng ul/Psf @ ;o #* cfof]hgfx?sf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . cf=j= @)^*)^(
df %& cfof]hgfxsf] k|fljlws k/LIf0f u/L k/LIf0fsf qmddf b]lvPsf ckl/kfngf k|ltj]bgx?
(Non-confermeances) ;d:ofx af/] ;DalGwt lgsfoxnfO{ ;'wf/sf] nflu ;'emfj tyf lgb]{zg
lbOPsf] 5 .

-_

k|fljlws k/LIf0f tflnd

o; s]Gb|n] cf=j= @)^&)^* df hDdf !( hgf O{lGhlgo/x ;d]tnfO{ u/L xfn;Dd :jb]zL tyf
ljb]zL -e'6fgL_ ! ;o (% hgf Ol~hlgo/x?nfO{ k|fljlws k/LIfssf] tflnd k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 .

-r_

k|fljlws k/LIf0faf6 ck]lIft kmfObfx

o; s]Gb|n] ;DkGg u/]sf k|fljlws k/LIf0faf6 b]xfo adf]lhdsf] kmfObf x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
!= clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]un] 5fglag u/]sf] cfof]hgfdf z+sf nfu] k|fljlws
k/LIf0fsf nflu s]Gb|df k7fOg] / s]Gb|sf] k|fljlws k/LIf0fnfO{ lg0f{osf] cfwf/ dflgg] .
@= k"jf{wf/sf] u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ x'g] .
#= ;fj{hlgs lgdf{0f lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjogdf ;'lglZrttf x'g] .
$= j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] vl/b k|0ffnLdf kf/blz{tf cfO{ vl/b k|0ffnL ldtJooL x'g] .
%= nfutsf] x]/km]/df sdL cfpg] tyf lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]udf u'0f:t/Lotf Pad\
ldtJolotf cfpg] .
^= jflif{s dd{t ;Def/df sdL cfpg] .
&= kl/of]hgfsf] cfo' nfdf] u/fO{ kl/of]hgf nfut rqmdf sdL x'g] .

88

*= e|i6frf/ / clgoldttf ePsf] kfOPdf sf/jfxLsf nflu n]lv k7fOg] .


(= kl/of]hgfsf pkef]Qmf:yfgLo hgtf, k/fdz{bftf, lgdf{0f Joj;foLxdf cfof]hgfsf]
nfut, u'0f:t/ / ;do ;Ldf ;DaGwdf ;r]tgf tyf hfu[lt cfPsf] dxz'; ul/Psf] .

s]Gb|sf eljiosf sfo{ of]hgf


-!_

/fli6o uf}/jsf cfof]hgf / jflif{s jh]6 ? %) s/f]8 eGbf j9L /x]sf cfof]hgfx?sf]
k|fljlws k/LIf0f clgjfo{ ul/g] .

-@_

;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts rf8kj{ / ;df/f]x ubf{ ul/g] ef]het]/df x'g] vr{sf] ljj/0f lgDtf
ug]{x?sf] ;+Vof, u/uxgf jf >[f/ ;fdu|L vl/bsf] ljj/0f, ;f] sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ug]{ :yfg
/ cfDbfgLsf] ;|f]t v'nfO{ ef]h ;'? ug'{ k"j{ :yfgLo cfGtl/s /fhZj sfof{nodf ljj/0f k]z
ug'{kg]{ Joj:yfsf] k|efjsf/L cg'udg ul/g] .
ef]het]/ ;DkGg ePkl5 vr{sf] oyfy{ ljj/0f / s/r'Qmf k|df0fkq cfGtl/s /fhZj
sfof{nodf sfd ;DkGg ePsf] !% lbg leq k]z ug{'kg]{ Aoj:yf ug]{ . ljj/0fx?sf] lglZrt
k|ltzt /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb|n] 5fgjLg ug]{ Aoj:yf ldnfpg] . unt ljj/0f lbPsf] kfOPdf
;j{;fwf/0f eP s/ 5lndf / /fi6;]js eP e|i6frf/sf] sf/jfxL cuf8L a9fpg] .

-#_

e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLltsf] sfof{GjogM g]kfn ;/sf/n] d'n'sdf e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f tyf
;'zf;g sfod ug{ e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLlt, @)^% cGtu{tsf] lgsfout sfo{of]hgf,
@)^& nfu" u/]sf] 5 . pQm sfo{of]hgfn] o; s]Gb|nfO{ sltko lqmofsnfkxsf] lhDd]jf/L
k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . o;/L k|fKt lhDd]jf/L k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ul/g] .

-$_ pRr /fhg}lts Pjd\ k|zf;lgs k|ltj4tf xfl;n ug]{ .


-%_

e|i6frf/ lj?4 r]tgf clea[l4sf nflu k|rf/k|;f/ ul/g] .

-^_

e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ul/g] .

-&_

;+:yfut ;'b[9Ls/0f ul/g] .

-*_

sfg"gL Joj:yfdf ;'wf/ NofOg], s]Gb|nfO{ /fli6o ;ts{tf cfof]u jgfpg tof/ d;f}bfnfO{
clGtd ?k lbOg]] .

-(_

sfg"gL k|fjwfg cg'?k gful/s a8fkq sfof{Gjog cg'udg u/Lu/fO{ cfd ;]jfu|fxLx?nfO{
lbOg] ;]jfdf ;'wf/ ul/g] .

-!)_ k|fljlws k/LIf0f dfkm{t\ ljsf; cfof]hgfsf] lbuf]kgf tyf e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ul/g] .
-!!_ b]zsf] efjL ;+3fTds 9fFrf cg'?k s]Gb|sf] :jkdf k'gMljrf/ ul/g] .

89

s]Gb|sf ;d:ofx
e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf nflu sfg"gL k|fjwfg, k|wfgdGqLsf] k|ToIf /]vb]v / lgoGq0fdf /x]s]f o;
/fli6o ;t{stf s]Gb| /fli6o k|fyldstfdf /x] g/x]s]f, sfd s/jfxL k|efjsf/L ePgePsf] :yflkt
eO{ g;s]sf] jt{dfgdf s]Gb|n] dx;'; ub}{ cfPsf s]xL ;d:ofx? oxfF ;dfj]z ul/G5 .
-!_ ;+u7gfTds ;+/rgf / hgzlQm aLrdf tfnd]n ldln g;Sg' .
-@_ cfg} ejg tyf ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] cefj x'g' .
-#_ kof{Kt sfg"gL clwsf/ gx'g' .
-$_ sd{rf/Lsf] :yfloTj / ;]jf ;'ljwf la:tf/ x'g g;Sg' .
-%_ bIf tyf k|lzlIft hgzlQm ;bf sdL /xg' .
-^_ s]Gb|sf] s]Gb|Ls[t ;+/rgf lhNnf:t/df ;]jf lbg sl7gfO{ .
-&_ ah]6sf] ;bf ckof{Kttf .

;\If]kdf,
g]kfn ;/sf/n] e|i6frf/sf lj? z"Go ;xgzlntf ckgfpFb} yk clwsf/ ;lxt /fli6o ;ts{tf
s]Gb| cfof]u jGg] k|ls|ofdf cl3 j9]sf] kl/k|]Iodf s]Gb| b]zjf6 e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f tyf e|i6frf/sf
lj? hgr]tgf clea[l ug]{ sfddf s]Gb|sf] jt{dfg hgzlQm sfdofj x'g] ljZjf; lng ;lsG5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdu|L
/fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb| -P]g, lgod, sfo{of]hgf / lgb]{lzsfx?sf] ;+ufnf], @)^*, /fli6o
;ts{tf s]Gb| .
;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g, @)^$, ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_
lgodfjnL, @)^%, k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] sfof{no, @)^%
>]i7, ;'/]zdfg / ;fyLx?, /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gbsf] bz jif{ -la=;+ @)%(.$.@^ b]lv la=;+=
@)^(.$,@^ ;Dd_ @)^(, /fli6o ;ts{tf s]Gb

90

lghfdtL ;]jftkm{ ljleGg hfthfltsf]


cfsif{0f af/] Ps cWoog

vu]Gb| k|;fb ;'j]bL*

;f/f+z
c;n ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf Joj;flos sd{rf/LtGqsf] ljsf;, kf/bzL{ / hgpQ/bfoL ;/sf/,
;ztm / ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t gful/s ;dfh;+u ;xsfo{, sfg"gsf] zf;g, /fhgLlts j}wflgstf
/ pQ/bfloTj, lgikIf / e/kbf]{ Gofo k|0ffnL, cleJoltm tyf ;"rgfsf] xssf] k|Tofe"lt, r':t
/ k|efjsf/L9+uaf6 ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] Joj:yfkg, ljs]Gb|Lt sfo{qmd / ;xeflutfd"ns ljsf;,
k|efjsf/L zf;g Joj:yf, e|i6rf//lxt k|zf;goGq / clwsf/;lxtsf] dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt
h:tf ljifox? ;dfj]z /x]sf x'G5g . o;n] ;]jf k|bfg ug{ bIf, lqmofzLn, hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL,
:jR5, lgikIf, OdfGbf/ sd{rf/Lsf] ck]Iffsf]] ;fy} ;/n, l56f] 5l/tf], ;dtfd'vL, ljsf; /
k|zf;gdf hf]8, k|zf;gsf] bIftf, k|lta4tf, ultzLntf / hgtfk|lt rf;f] /fVg] k|j[lQsf]
sfo{k|0ffnL cjnDag ub{5 . o;n] ;dtf, ;dfj]zLs/0f, pQ/bfloTj / kf/blz{tf h:tf ljifonfO{
;d]t ;Daf]wg ug]{ k|of; ub{5 . k|:t't n]vdf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf log} ;+/rgf / k|lqmof tyf
cfk;L aGwgnfO{ Jojl:yt / j}1flgs agfpb} dfgjLo ljsf;nfO{ lbuf] agfpg] ;'zf;gsf nflu
ul/Psf Aoa:yf / ltgsf] sfof{Gjog kIfjf/] rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 .

!=!

cWoog If]q

lghfdtL ;]jfdf g]kfn /fHo leqsf ljleGg ju{ ;d'bfosf] k|j]zdf ;dfg'kflts ePg eGg] /fHosf]
rf;f] / ;dfj]zL agfpg ;sf/fTds lje]bsf] /0fgLlt g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# cg';f/
* jl/i7 dgf]lj1fgj]Qf nf]s ;]jf cfof]u

91

g]kfn lghfdtL P]g, @)$( sf] @)^$ sf] ;+zf]wg cg';f/ cf/If0fsf nflu lglZrt k|ltzt ;d]t
5'6\ofOPsf] kl/j]zdf jf:tjdf ljleGg hft ;d"xsf] b/vf:tdf s] sltn] kmf/fd e/L cfslif{t
ePsf 5g\ . t'ngfTds cWoog ug]{ x]t'n] nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf /x]sf] tYof\
snfO{ cfwf/dfgL cWoog ug{ cWoogsf] If]q 5gf}6 ul/Psf] 5 .

!=@ cg';Gwfgsf] 9fFrf


of] cWoog g]kfn /fHosf ljleGg hflt ;d'bfo ljzif]u/L lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( sf] @)^$ sf]
;+zf]wgn] /fv]sf] ;dfj]zL ;d"xx / ltgLxsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z af/] cWoog ug]{ lghfdtL
;]jf P]g @)$(, lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL @)%), g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^#, nf]s ;]jf
cfof]u lgodfjnL @)^&, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u -sfo{ljlw_ lgb]{lzsf @)^& sf] k|fjwfg;Fu ;DalGwt
5.
ljz]if u/L of] cWoog ljZn]if0ffTds / j0f{gfTds k4ltdf cfwfl/t /x]sf] 5 . o; cWoogdf
ljut rf/ jif{df ljleGg hft hflt, If]qsf JolQmxsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf b/vf:t kmf/d el/Psf]
l:yltsf] cWoog lj:t[t ?kdf ul/Psf] 5 .

!=# tYof\ssf] ;|f]t / k|s[lt


cWoogaf6 k|fKt tYoxnfO{ ljZn]if0f ug{ ljj/0ffTds / ljZn]if0ffTds b'j} sfo{ljlw cjnDag
ul/Psf] 5 . tYout ljj/0f lngsf nflu nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ul/Psf
tYof\sx cflwsf/Ls tYof\s ePsf]n] pQm ltLo tYof\ssf] ;xfotf o; cWoogdf k|of]u
pkof]u ul/Psf] 5 . s]lGb|o tYof\s ljefusf] @)^* sf] hgu0fgf / ;fIf/tf ;DaGwL tYof\s
;d]t ;|f]tsf] ?kdf pkof]u ul/Psf] 5 .

!=$ gd'gf 5gf}6


cWoogsf nflu ljleGg hfthflt / If]qsf] b/vf:tdf /x]sf] cfsif{0fnfO{ ljz]if u/L lghfdtL ;]jf
P]g @)$( sf] @)^$ sf] ;+zf]wg cyjf g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# kZrft\ lghfdtL ;]jf
P]g / lgodfjnLdf ePsf] ljleGg lk5l8Psf] ju{ ;d'bfo / If]qsf] lghfdtL If]qdf ;dfj]z ug]{
/0fgLlt adf]lhd ePsf] lgodsf] ;+zf]wg kZrft\sf rf/ jif{sf ;du| tYof\snfO{ gd'gf 5gf}6sf]
?kdf 5flgPsf] 5 .

92

!=% tYof\s ;\sng ljlw


ltLo tYof\s (Secondary Data) ;|f]taf6 g} cWoog ul/g] ePsf] x'Fbf o;sf] cflwsf/Ls
;|f]t nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgx g} x'g] x'Fbf pQm k|ltj]bgxsf $ j6f jflif{s
k|ltj]bgxaf6 ljleGg hfltut, If]qut tYof\sx, nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] k':tsfnoaf6 ;\sng
u/L cWoog ul/of] . ;fIf/tf ;DaGwL tYof\s j]e ;fO6af6 tflgof] / s]xL s'/f cfof]udf sfo{/t
sd{rf/LnfO{ ;d]t ;f]lwof] .

!=^ tYof\ssf] k|:t'tL / ljZn]if0f


ltLo tYof\s (Secondary data) ;|f]taf6 ;\slnt tYof\snfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ tflnsLs/0f
(Tabulation) u/L k|ltztdf 9flnPsf] 5 ;fy} pQm rf/ jif{sf] hfltut ?kdf b/vf:tdf efu
lng]sf] l:ylt s] /x]sf] 5 elg t'ngfTds ?kdf /flv b/vf:t kmf/fd a'emfpg] ;\Vof / hgu0fgf
@)^* sf] ljleGg hfltx?sf] hg;+Vof l:ylt / s"n hg;+Vofdf pgLx?sf] k|ltzt / ;f] cfwf/df
lghfdtL ;]jfdf ljleGg hfthfltsf] cfsif{0f s] /x]sf] 5 . pgLx?sf] ;fIf/tf :t/ s] 5 egL
t'ngf ug]{ k|of; k|fKt tYof\ssf] cfwf/df ul/g'sf ;fy} ;/n ljZn]if0f / JofVof ul/Psf] 5 .
pQm ljZn]if0fsf] cfwf/df k|:t't zf]w cWoogsf] p2]Zo cg'?k ;f/f+z, lgisif{ / ;'emfjx? k|:t't
ul/Psf] 5 .

@=! tYofsf] k|:t'lts/0f / ljZn]if0f


lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf hgzlQmx ;a} hfthflt / If]qsf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] 5}g eGg] ljifodf
cfjfh p7]sf] / /fHosf] Wofg ;d]t To; tkm{ uPsf]df g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] efu $
/fHosf] bfloTj, lgb]{zs l;4fGt tyf gLltx cGtu{t /fHosf gLltx cGtu{t bkmf #% -!$_ df
/fHon] dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw];L, d'l:nd nufot cNk;\Vos, e"ldlxg, ;'s'Djf;L,
sd}of, ckf\u, lk5l8Psf] If]q tyf ;d'bfo / G lkl8tsf nflu ;sf/fTds lje]bsf cfwf/df
ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{ gLlt cjnDjg ug]{ 5 elgPsf] 5 .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( / lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL @)%) df ;dfj]zLsf] pNn]v eO;s]kl5sf]
l:yltsf] cWoog nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ tYof\sx hgu0fgf
@)^* tyf ;fIf/tf / g]kfn cfdL{df /x]sf] df}h'bf l:yltx? o; k|sf/ pNn]v ul/G5M

93

94

If]qL
a|fXd0f
du/
yf?
tfdf
g]jf/
d';ndfg
blnt -sfdL +
;fsL{_
ofbj
/fO{ -ls/fFt_
u'?
t]nL
z]kf{
ysfnL
cGo
hDdf

hflt

2=36

745

11

657

0=09

1=05

120

1=04
4=38

119

497

1=25

142

6=73
0=31

764

36

1=15

131

1=58

268

180

58=89

15=53

k|ltzt

6681

1649

;+Vof

@)^$.^%

521

44

208

80

110

11

520

81

117

180

50=24

1219

;+Vof

6=41

0=06

0=54

2=56

0=98

1=35

0=13

6=40

0=99

1=44

2=21

61=87

15=01

k|ltzt

@)^%)^^

11=47
100

300363

0=02

0=17

1=31

1=12

4=73

3=10

3=27

0=41

5=00

1=83

4=12

8=78

41=03

17=57

k|ltzt

34467

65

530

3938

3350

14315

9337

9831

1234

15026

5517

12402

14371

123187

52793

;+Vof

@)^^)^&

251651

29993

69

252

3144

2138

9400

7640

8098

1048

12040

4388

9066

11541

107015

48819

;+Vof

100

11=91

0=02

0=10

1=24

0=84

3=73

3=03

3=21

0=41

4=78

1=74

3=60

4=58

42=52

18=20

k|ltzt

@)^&)^*

23151523

5843773

12973

154622

304536

543571

620004

1054458

1214943

1164255

1321933

1539830

1737470

1887733

3226903

4398179

;+Vof
16=60

100

25=70

0=06

0=68

1=34

2=39

2=30

3=90

5=34

4=30

4=90

5=80

6=60

7=10

12=20

72=6

45=8

52=7

57=5

58=7

39=2

41=9

34=4

72=1

42=0

46=6

57=7

75=5

60=9

7
8
9

;ftf}+
cf7f}+
kfFrf}
P3f/f}+
b;f}+
t]x|f}+
rf}wf}+

69

24

16

11

10

bf];|f]
k|yd
rt'y{
5}6fF}
gjf}+
t[tLo
afx|f}+

cfkm\gf]
hflt leq lghfdtL
hg;+Vof
;]jf
sf] cfwf/df s}lkmot
cfslif{t

qmd
qmd
k|ltzt ;fIf/tf

@)^* sf] hgu0fgf

Education in Nepal, Page 65-68 by Sushan Acharya & Bidya Nath Koirala.
/fhkqf\lst t[tLo >]0fLsf] g]kfn k|zf;g, Gofo / k//fi6 ;]jfdf b/vf:t a'emfpg]sf] dfq hfltut ljj/0f
/fhkqf\lst t[tLo >]0fLsf] g]kfn k|zf;g / Gofo ;]jfdf b/vf:t a'emfpg]sf] dfq hfltut ljj/0f
lghfdtL ;]jfdf b/vf:t a'emfpg] ;du| hfltut ljj/0f

gf]6 M UNESCO Kathmandu series of monographs and working papers no 11 A comprehensive Review of practices of literacy and nonformal

15

14

13

12

11

10

qm=;+=

nf]s ;]jf cfof]udf b/vf:t eg]{sf] l:ylt

tflnsf ! nf]s ;]jf cfof]udf b/vf:t eg]{sf] l:ylt

g]kfndf a;f]jf; ug]{ hfthflt / lghfdtL ;]jfdf bvf{:t a'emfpg]sf] l:ylt


lj=;+= @)^* ;fnsf] hgu0fgf cg';f/ s"n hg;\Vof @,^$,($,%)$ -b'O s/f]8, rf};L nfv,
rf}/fGgAa] xhf/, kfFr;o rf/_ /x]sf]df !^=^ k|ltzt hg;\Vof If]qL, !@=@ k|ltzt a|fXd0f, &=!
k|ltzt du/, ^=^ k|ltzt yf?, %=* k|ltzt tfdf, %=( k|ltzt g]jf/, $=&) k|ltzt blnt
-;fsL{ sfdL_, $=# k|ltzt d'l:nd, #=( k|ltzt ofbj, @=# k|ltzt ls/ft /fO{, @=#( k|ltzt
u'?, !=#$ k|ltzt t]nL, )=^* k|ltzt z]kf{ / cGo hfthflt @%=&) k|ltzt /x]sf] l:ylt 5 .
cfly{s jif{ @)^$)^% sf] /fhkqf\lst t[tLo >]0fL tkm{sf] Gofo, k|zf;g / k//fi6 ;]jfdf
b/vf:t kmf/d e/L lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]xsf] cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ pQm >]0fLsf] ;f]
;]jfdf kmf/d a'emfpg] s"n ;\Vofdf %*=*( k|ltzt j|fDx0fx cfslif{t ePsf] b]lvG5 / pQm
hflt g]kfnsf] hg;\Vofdf klg ;a}eGbf bf];|f] a9Lk|ltzt /x]sf] tYof\sn] b]vfpF5 . hg;\Vofdf
k|yd :yfg cf]u6\g] If]qLx pQm clws[t txsf] ;f] ;d"xxdf !$=%# k|ltzt cfslif{t ePsf]
kfOG5 . hg;\Vofsf] k|ltzt x]bf{ du/sf] hfltsf] t];|f] cj:yf b]lvG5 t/ cf=j= @)^$)^% sf]
pQm lj1fkgdf du/xsf] cj:yf kfFrf}df cyjf @=#^ k|ltzt cfslif{t /x]sf] kfOG5 . hgu0fgf
-@)^*_ cg';f/ yf? rf}yf] :yfgdf /x]sf] eP tfklg cfslif{t x'g]df 5}6f} :yfg cyjf !=%* k|ltzt
dfq /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df tfdf kfFrf} :yfgdf /x]sf] eP tfklg pQm ;d"x cf7f}
:yfgsf] ?kdf cyjf ^=&# k|ltzt cfslif{t /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df g]jf/ 5}6f}
:yfgdf eP tfklg lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df t];|f] cyjf ^=&# k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\
Vofsf] cfwf/df blnt ;ftf} :yfgdf ePsf]df Gofo, k|zf;g / k//fi6 ;]jfsf] clws[t txdf ;ftf}
:yfgd} cyjf !=@% k|ltzt cfslif{t /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df d'l:nd cf7f} :yfgdf
/x]sf]df pQm ;]jf / txdf P3f/f} :yfgdf cyjf )=#! k|ltzt kfOG5 . ofbjsf] hg;\Vofsf]
lx;fjn] gjf} :yfg /x]sf]df pQm clws[t txdf gjf} :yfg cyjf !=)$ k|ltzt g} /x]sf] kfOof] .
hg;f\lVos lx;fjn] bzf} :yfgdf /x]sf] ls/ft/fO{ pQm ;]jf >]0fL / ;fndf rf}yf} :yfg cyjf
$=#* k|ltzt ;xeflutf b]lvof] o;/L x]bf{ of] ;d"x hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] lghfdtL ;]jfdf a9L g}
;xeflutf kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] P3f/f} :yfgdf /x]sf] u'? hflt lghfdtL tkm{ bzf} :yfg
cyjf !=)% k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] ;f]x|fF} :yfgdf /x]sf] t]nL / ^(cf}+ :yfgdf
/x]sf] ysfnL hfltsf] ljifodf )^$)^% sf] nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgsf] tYofdf s'g}
tYof km]nf k/]g . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] rf}la;f}F :yfgdf /x]sf] z]kf{ hflt lghfdtLdf ;xeflutf
:yfg afx|f} ?kdf cyjf )=)( k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . To:t} s"n hg;\Vofsf] @%=&) k|ltzt
cf]u6\g] cGo hfthfltx lghfdtLdf ;xeflutf ^=%^ k|ltzt dfq /x]sf] kfOG5, hf] cToGt Go"g
eGg ;lsG5 .

95

/fhkqf\lst txsf] Gofo / k|zf;g ;]jfsf ck|fljlws ;]jfdf ;xeflutf -cf=j=@)^%^^_


hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] bf];|f] a9L k|ltzt j|fDx0fsf] /x]sf]df dfly plNnlvt tx / ;]jfdf ;xeflutf
klg pgLxsf] g} a9L cyjf ^!=*& k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] klxnf] :yfgdf /x]sf] If]qLsf] ltLo :yfg cyjf !%=)! k|ltzt pQm tx /
;]jfdf ;xeflutf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] g]jf/ 5}6f} :yfgdf /x]sf] eP tfklg dfly
plNnlvt tx / ;]jfdf t];|f] :yfg cyjf ^=$) k|ltzt ;xeflutf lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] ls/ft/fO{ bzf} :yfgdf /x]sf] eP tfklg lghfdtL tkm{ cfslif{t ePsf]
:yfg rf}yf] cyjf @=%^ k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] t];|f] :yfgdf /x]sf] du/
hflt lghfdtL ;]jftkm{ ;xeflutf x'g]df kfFrf} :yfg cyjf @=@! k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\
Vofsf] lx;fjn] rf}yf] :yfgdf /x]sf] yf? hflt lghfdtLtkm{ ;xeflutf x'g]df 5}6f} :yfgdf cyjf
!=$$ k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] ;ftf} :yfgdf /x]sf] blnt -;fsL{ sfdL_
hflt lghfdtL tkm{sf pQm tx / ;]jfdf ;d]t ;ftf} :yfgdf cyjf !=#% k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] kfFrf} :yfgdf /x]sf] tfdf hflt pQm tx / ;]jfdf ;xeflutf x'g]df cf7f}
:yfgdf cyjf )=(( k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] gjf} :yfgdf /x]sf] ofbj
hflt pQm tx / ;]jfsf lghfdtL kbdf cfslif{t x'g]df gjf} :yfg g} cyjf )=(* k|ltzt /x]sf]
kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] P3f/f} :yfgdf /x]sf] u'? hflt pQm tx / ;]jfsf lghfdtL
kbdf ;xeflutf x'g]df bzf} :yfgdf cyjf )=%$ k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn]
cf7f} k|ltzt cf]u6]sf] d'l:nd hflt pQm tx / ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g] :yfgdf P3f/f} cyjf )=!#
k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] rf}la;f}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] z]kf{ hflt jfx|f} cyjf )=)^
k|ltzt ;xeflutf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] cGo hfltxn] @%=&) k|ltzt /x]sf]df
lghfdtL tkm{ cfslif{t ^=$! k|ltzt cyjf cGo hfltn] b/vf;t pQm tx / ;]jfdf /fVg] dWo]
t];|f] :yfgdf /x]sf] kfOof] .
t]nL / ysfnL hfltsf] nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] cfly{s jif{ @)^%)^^ sf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v
ePsf] gkfOPsf]n] oxfF pNn]v ul/Pg .

/fhkqf\lst tyf /fhkq cg\lst b'j} >]0fLsf ;a} ;]jfxdf ;xeflutf -cf=j= @)^^^&_
lj=;+= @)%* sf] hgu0fgfsf] l:ylt cg';f/ bf];|f] a9L k|ltzt /x]sf a|fDx0f hflt lghfdtL tkm{
cfslif{t x'g]df ;a}eGbf a9L cyjf s"n b/vf:t eg]{ dWo] $!=)# k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\
Vofsf] lx;fjn] k|yd :yfgdf /x]sf] If]qL hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df bf];|f] :yfgdf
cyjf !&=%& k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] 5}6f}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] g]jf/ hflt lghfdtL

96

;]jfdf ;xefuL x'g]df t];|f] :yfgdf cyjf %=)) k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] t];|f]
:yfgdf /x]sf] du/ hflt lghfdtL ;]jf tkm{ cfslif{t x'g]df rf}yf] :yfgdf cyjf $=$* k|ltzt
/x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] bzf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] ls/ft/fO{ hflt lghfdtL tkm{ cfslif{t
x'g]df ;du| b/vf:t lbg]df kfFrf} :yfgdf cyjf $=&# k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn]
rf}yf] :yfgdf /x]sf] yf? hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df 5}6f} :yfgdf cyjf $=!@ k|ltzt
/x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] ;ftf}}F :yfgdf -b'j} hf]8\bf_ /x]sf] blnt -;fsL{ + sfdL_
lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df klg ;ftf}+ :yfgdf g} cyjf #=@& k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] .
hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] gjf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] ofbj hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df cf7f}+
:yfgdf cyjf #=!) k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] kfrf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] tfdf hflt
lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df gjf}+ :yfgdf cyjf !=*# k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf]
lx;fjn] ;f]xf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] t]nL hflt lghfdtL tkm{ cfslif{t x'g]df bzf}+ :yfgdf cyjf !=#!
k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] P3f/f}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] u'? hflt lghfdtL ;]jf tkm{
cfslif{t x'g]df klg P3f/f}+ :yfgdf cyjf !=!! k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] ;ftf}+
:yfgdf /x]sf] d'l:nd hlt lghfdtL ;]jf tkm{ cfslif{t x'g]df jfx|f}+ :yfgdf cyjf )=$! k|ltzt
/x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] @$ cf}F+ :yfgdf /x]sf] jf )=^* k|ltzt /x]s] z]kf{ hflt
lghfdtL ;]jf tkm{ cfslif{t x'g]df t]x|f} :yfgdf cyjf )=!& k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf]
lx;fjn] )=)^ -^( :yfgdf /x]sf]_ k|ltzt /x]sf] ysfnL hflt lghfdtL ;]jf tkm{ cfslif{t x'g]df
!$cf}+ :yfgdf cyjf )=)@ k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . ;du| hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] @%=&) k|ltzt
/x]sf cGo hfltx lghfdtL ;]jf tk{m cfslif{t x'g]df !!=$& k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] .

/fhkqf+lst / cg\lst b'j} >]0fLdf ;a} ;]jfxdf ;xeflutf -cf=j= @)^&^*_


hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df ;a} hfltx eGbf bf];|f] a9L !%=*) k|ltzt /x]sf j|fDx0f hflt lghfdtL
;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df klg a9L g} cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] $@=%@ k|ltzt /x]sf]
kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df ;a} eGbf a9L !@=&$ k|ltzt /x]sf If]qL hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf
cfslif{t x'g]df bf];|f] cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] !*=@) k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] .
hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df t];|f] &=!$ k|ltzt /x]sf du/ hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df rf}yf]
cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] $=%* k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df
rf}yf] ^=&% k|ltzt /x]sf] yf? hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df 5}6f}+ cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf
;xeflu x'g]dWo] #=^) k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df kfFrf}+ %=^$ k|ltzt /x]sf
tfdf hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df gjf}+ cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:t lbg] ;xeflu x'g] dWo]
!=&$ k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df 5}6f}+ %=$* k|ltzt /x]sf g]jf/ hflt lghfdtL
;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df cGo hflteGbf a9L g} t];|f] cyjf $=&* k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\

97

Vofsf] cfwf/df ;ftf}+ $=@& k|ltzt /x]sf d';ndfg hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df afx|f+}
cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] )=$! k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df
cf7f}+ #=($ sfdL / kGw|f}+ !=$) ;fsL{ u/L b'j} hf]8\bf ;ftf}+ :yfgdf blnt hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf
cfslif{t x'g]df ;ftf}+ cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] #=@! k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\
Vofsf] cfwf/df gjf}+ #=($ k|ltzt /x]sf ofbj hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df cf7f}+ cyjf
;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] #=)# k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df bzf}+ @=&(
k|ltzt /x]sf ls/ft/fO{ hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df kfFrf}+ cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf
;xeflu x'g] dWo] #=&# k|ltzt cGo hflt eGbf a9L g} cfslif{t ePsf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf]
cfwf/df P3f/f}+ @=#( k|ltzt /x]sf u'?\ hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df klg P3f/f}+ cyjf
;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] )=*$ k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df ;f]x|f}+
!=#$ k|ltzt /x]sf t]nL hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df bzf}+ cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf
;xeflu x'g] dWo] !=@$ k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] .
hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df rf}lj;f}+ )=^* k|ltzt /x]sf z]kf{ hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df
t]x|f}+ :yfgdf cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g]dWo] )=!) k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . hg;\Vofsf]
cfwf/df pgG;Q/Lcf}+ -^(cf}+_ )=)^ k|ltzt /x]sf ysfnL hflt lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df
rf}wf}+ cyjf ;Dk"0f{ b/vf:tdf ;xeflu x'g] dWo] )=)@ k|ltzt /x]sf] kfOof] . ;du| hg;\Vofsf]
cfwf/df dfly pNn]v ul/Psf !# hflt afx]ssf cGo @%=&) k|ltzt hg;\Vof ePsf cGo
hfltxsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df !!=(! k|ltzt s"n ldnfP/ ePsf] kfOof] hf] cGo !#
hfltxsf] eGbf Hofb} Go"g /x]sf] eGg ;lsG5 . o;/L g]kfndf hfltut ?kdf cfkm\gf] hflt leq
slt k|ltzt ;fIf/ /x]sf 5g\ eGg] tYof\ssf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ ;a}eGbf a9L ;fIf/ hfltdf a|fXd0f
/x]sf 5g\ , &%=% k|ltzt / pgLx? g} lghfdtL ;]jfdf klg a9L cfslif{t ePsf] kfOof] . bf];|f]
/ t];|f] a9L ;fIf/tf ePsfdf qmdzM ysfnL / g]jf/ hflt kfOG5 eg] g]jf/ hflt lghfdtLdf
cfslif{t x'g]df t];|f] cj:yfdf /x]sf] kfOof], ysfnL sd cfpg'df pgLx?sf] cfsif{0f af/] 5'}
cWoog ug'{ h?/L 5 . ;fIf/ x'g] rf}yf] hflt leq If]qL hflt /x]sf]df lghfdtLdf cfsif{0f x'g]df
bf];|f] cj:yfdf b]lvG5 . ;fIf/ x'g] dWo] kfFrf}+ :yfgdf /fO{ %*=& k|ltzt b]lvG5 eg] lghfdtL tkm{
cfslif{t x'gd
] f klg kfFrf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] kfOG5 . 5}7f}F / ;ftf}F ;fIf/ cj:yf /x]sf] qmdzM du/
%&=& / u'? %&=% sf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df du/ rf}yf] 5 eg] u'? P3f/f}+ cj:yfdf
b]lvG5 . u'?sf] k];fsf] cfsif{0f cGoq 5 ls cWoog ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . o;/L ;/;/tL cWoog ubf{
;fIf/tf / dflyNnf] lzIff cWoog ug]{sf] cj:yfsf] cWoog u/]kl5 yfxf x'G5 ls pQm hfltx?sf]
lzIffsf] cj:yfn] klg lghfdtL ;]jf tkm{sf] cfsif{0fsf] qmd ;f]xL cg';f/ /x]sf] 5 eGg ;lsG5 .

98

@=@

lgisif{

g]kfn /fHo leq a;f]jf; ug]{ ljleGg hfthfltx /x]tf klg lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;a}sf]
;dfg k|ltlglwTj x'g;s]sf] 5}g eGg] /fHosf] rf;f] g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# df g}
l:jsf/LPsf] 5 . o; cWoogdf cf=j= @)^$)^% / @)^%)^^ sf] jflif{s k|ltj]bgaf6
/fhkqf+lst t[tLo >]0fL ck|fljlws tkm{sf Gofo, k|zf;g / k//fi6 ;]jfdf b/vf:t kmf/fd eg{
cfslif{t ePsf ;xefluxsf] hfltut kdf pgLxsf] cj:yf ;xeflu k|ltzt lnOPsf]df
a|fDx0f, If]qL hg;\Vofsf] cfwf/df a9L /x]sf]df pQm ;]jfdf b/vf:t xfNg] klg cGo hftsf]
t'ngfdf a9L g} /x]sf] kfOof] . lj=;+= @)^* sf] hgu0fgf cg';f/ g]jf/ 5}6f}+ l:yltdf ePklg nf]s
;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df t];|f] cj:yfdf /x]sf] kfOPs]f 5 . ls/ft/fO{ hflt hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn]
bzf}+ cj:yfdf ePklg lghfdtL tkm{sf] cfslif{t x'g]df pQm b'O{ ;fndf pQm txdf rf}yf] cj:yfdf
/x]sf] b]lvG5 . du/ hflt hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] t];|f] cj:yfdf /x]sf] ePtf klg lghfdtL ;]jfdf
cfslif{t x'g]df kfFrf}+ :yfgdf /x]sf] kfOof] . blnt -sfdL + ;fsL{_ hflt hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] ;ftf}+
cj:yfdf /x]sf] / lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t x'g]df klg ;ftf}+ cj:yfdf /x]sf] kfOof] . yf? hflt
hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] rf}yf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] ePtf klg lghfdtL ;]jftkm{ cfslif{t x'g]df 5}6f}+
:yfgdf /x]sf] kfOof] . o:t} cj:yf cGo hftsf] cj:yf klg ;f]xL cg';f/ Go"g cfslif{t t'ngfTds
kn] b]lvof] .
lghfdtL ;]jfdf /fhkqf+lst / /fhkq cg+lst b'j} >]0fLdf ;a} ;]jfxdf b/vf:t /fvL cfslif{t
x'g] hfthfltsf] cf=j= @)^^)^& / cf=j= @)^&)^* sf] l:ylt cWoog ubf{ ;a}eGbf a9L
k|ltzt qmdzM a|fDx0f, If]qL, g]jf/, du/, ls/ft, /fO{, yf?, blnt ofbj, tfdf, t]nL, u'?,
d'l:nd, z]kf{ / ysfnL hflt /x]sf] kfOof] .
oBlk hg;\Vofsf] qmddf t];|f] cj:yfdf du/ 5 t/ g]jf/ 5}6f}+ cj:yfdf ePklg t];|f] cj:yfdf
5 . ls/ft/fO{ hg;\Vofsf] lx;fjn] bzf}+ cj:yfdf ePklg lghfdtLdf cfslif{t x'g]df kfFrf}+
:yfgdf /x]sf] kfOof] . blnt hg;\Vofsf] / lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t cj:yf ;ftf}+ cj:yfdf
/x]sf] kfOof] .
;fIf/tfsf] l:ylt hfltut ?kdf x]bf{ h'g hfltx? a9L ;fIf/ 5g\ pgLx?sf] cfsif{0f lghfdtLdf
;d]t a9L ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 h; cg';f/ a|fXd0f, If]qL, g]jf/, /fO{, du/ a9L ;fIf/ ePsf] kfOPsf]
5 / pgLx? lghfdtL tkm{ klg ;f]xL qmddf g} cfslif{t ePsf] b]lvG5 . ysfnL / u'? a9L ;fIf/
eP/ klg lghfdtLdf u'? a9L ;fIf/ eP/ klg lghfdtLdf ;fIf/tfsf] u0fgfsf] cfwf/df sd
cfslif{t ePsf] b]lvG5, x'g ;S5 pgLx?sf] cfsif{0fsf] If]qaf/] yk cWoogn] k|i6 kfg]{5 .

99

g]kfnL ;]gfdf xfn sfo{/t cj:yf x]bf{ If]qLa|fXd0f a9L %$=@! bf];|f]df cflbjf;L hghflt
#!=^%, t];|f]df blnt ^=%& / rf}yf]df dw]zL %=** k|ltzt / dlxnf !=^! /x]sf] x]bf{
If]qLa|fXd0f klxnf] bf];|f]df hghflt /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
g]kfnLsf] hLjg :t/df ;a} eGbf dflyNnf] >]0fLdf g]jf/ hflt /x]sf] ;d]t kfOG5 .
;du| hg;\Vofsf] @%=&) k|ltzt hfthfltn] !!=(! k|ltzt cfslif{t x'g]df cf]u6]sf] b]lvG5 .
lghfdtLdf cfslif{t x'g]df h'g hfltsf] a9L ;fIf/tf /x]sf] 5 pgLx? g} a9L cfslif{t ePsf]
b]lvof] . o;/L x]bf{ hg;\Vof / ;fIf/tf k|ltzt cg';f/ lghfdtL ;]jfdf b/vf:t /fVg cfpg]
hfthflt pQm cg'kftdf a|fDx0f If]qLsf] cj:yf pNn]vgLo /x]sf] 5 eg] t];|f] cj:yfdf g]jf/ hflt
/x]sf] 5 cGo hfthfltx b/vf:t a'emfpg] qmddf g} sd pkl:ylt /x]sf] sf/0f g} lghfdtL
;]jfdf plgxsf] ;xeflutf sd /x]sf] 5 . hlt;'s} ;dfj]zLsf] s'/f u/] klg nf]s ;]jf cfof]un]
lghfdtL ;]jfsf nflu u/]sf] lj1fkg cg';f/ b/vf:t kmf/fd a'emfpg] klxnf] r/0fdf g} ;fd]n
geP kl5 lghfdtL ;]jfdf pNn]vgLo pkl:ylt x'Fb}g . lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;dfj]z x'g klxnf] r/0f,
b/vf:tdf ;fd]n x'g] cj:yfsf] ;[hgf ;DalGwt ;d'bfoaf6 x'gk5{ / plgxnfO{ ;zlQms/0fsf]
dfWodaf6 plgxsf] lzIffdf hf]8 lbFb} lghfdtL ;]jfsf] k|j]zdf a9fjf ug'{kb{5 . lghfdtL ;]jf
cfsif{0fsf] If]q geP/ cGo ;d"xsf] cfsif{0fsf] If]q cGoq klg x'g ;Sb5 .

@=# ;'emfjx
lghfdtL ;]jfdf g]kfnsf] s"n hg;\Vofsf] cg'kft cg';f/ lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;dfj]z x'gsf
nflu ;f]xL cg'kftdf b/vf:t kmf/fd eg]{ cj:yfsf] ;[hgf x'gk5{ . lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfslif{t
u/fpg lgDg ;'emfjx k|:t't ul/G5 M
i) lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z ug]{ k|ltof]lutfsf] k|j]z lbg b/vf:t kmf/fd a'emfO{ ;xeflutf
a9fpg k|rf/ k|;f/ Pjd\ clek|]l/t ug'{k5{ .
ii) lzIffdf ;a} hfltsf] ;xeflutf clej[l4 u/fpg' kb{5 / ;zlQms/0f u/fpg' kb{5 .
iii) cf/If0fsf] Joj:yfsf ;fy;fy} plgxsf] lzIff / lghfdtL ;]jfsf nflu k|f]T;fxg ug]{
jftfj/0f ljleGg lgsfo tyf ;+:yfxn] ug'{kb{5 .
iv) nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] ;sf/fTds egf{ (Positive recruitment) sf] nflu ljleGg hfthfltsf]
a;f]jf; If]q tyf :s"n sn]hdf ul/g] hfu/0f cleofgnfO{ cem a9fjf lbg'kb{5 .

100

;Gbe{ u|Gyx

(Bibliography)

cu|jfn, nIfd0fnfn -!(&@_ . b P8ldlgi6z


] g l/kmd{ sldzg ef/t, Go"lbNnL k|];.
cfrfo{, afa'/fd -@)@&_ . g]kfnsf] ;+lIfKt j[tfGt,jgf/;, af/f0f;L k|]; .
hgu0fgf, -@)%*_ . s]Gb|Lo tYof\s ljefu, yfkfynL .
u'?, xs{, -@))!_ . OGSn'l;e Xo'dg 8]e]nf]kd]G6, o'=Pg=8L=kL=.
ltjf/L, 8f= dw'lglw, -@)^)_ . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf s]xL kIfx? k|sflzsf >Ldlt
sfGtL ltjf/L l8NnL ahf/ sf7df8f}+ .
lghfdtL ;]jf klqsf, ef]nd #@ g+=! cfiff9 nf]s;]jf cfof]u .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, -@)$(_ . sfg"g lstfavfgf, aa/dxn .
lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL, -@)%)_ . sfg"g lstfavfgf, aa/dxn .
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, -@)^#_ . sfg"g lstfavfgf, aa/dxn .
k|wfg, e'jgdfgl;+x, -@)#*_ . k|mfG;sf] lghfdtL k|zf;g ljifo Ps lrgf/L, lghfdtL
;]jf klqsf, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u ;\Vof @ ef]nd !# .
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u jflif{s k|ltj]bg @)^% .
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u jflif{s k|ltj]bg @)^^ .
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u jflif{s k|ltj]bg @)^& .
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u jflif{s k|ltj]bg @)^* .
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u jflif{s k|ltj]bg P3f/f}F .
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u -sfo{ ;~rfng_ lgb]{lzsf, @)^& .
;'j]bL, vu]Gb| k|;fb, -@)^&_ . nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 ug{ ckgfpg] ljlw
Pjd\ k|lqmofaf/] kl/rrf{, ljleGg hfu/0f sfo{qmddf k|:t't sfo{kq .

101

lghfdtL ;]jf k|j]zdf cf/If0f


cEof;n] b]vfPsf] ;+st
]

/ljnfn kGy*

;f/f+z
cf/If0f ;sf/fTds lje]bsf] Pp6f pks/0f xf] . k5fl8 k/]sf ju{, ;d'bfo, hflt / If]qsf]
d"nk|jfxLs/0fsf] nflu o;nfO h?/L 7fGg] ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfndf o;sf] cEof; k|f/De ePsf] kfr
jif{ dfq ljt]sf] 5 . o; k"j{ lghfdtL ;]jf k|j]zdf ;j}sf nflu ;dfg cj;/ ePsf] k[i7e"ldnfO{
x]bf{ vf; ;d"xn] dfq k|lt:kwf{ ug{ gkfpg] sfg"gL Aoj:yfsf] cjnDjg k|f/De x'g' gf}nf] dfq
lyPg, of] ;sf/fTds xf] egL l;4 ug'{ r'gf}tLk"0f{ cEof; ;d]t lyof] . cem}klg of] :yLlt sfod}
5, To;}n] o;sf] k|of]u / cg'ej ce}m s]xL ;do ;dfgfGt/ ?kd} hfg] b]lvG5 . k|:t't n]vdf
cf/If0f cEof;sf] qmddf b]lvPsf oyfy{tf / To;n] k|ltljlDjt u/]sf] s]xL kl/b[iox? phfu/
ug]{ k|oTg ul/Psf] 5 .

!= ljifo k|jz
] M
/fHosf] gLlt lgdf{0f nufot ;j} dxTjk"0f{{ lhDd]jf/L Pjd\ /f]huf/Lsf cj;/af6 jl~rt
;d'bfonfO{ cy{k"0f{ ?kdf ;xeflutfsf] cj;/ k|bfg ug{ cjnDag ul/g] ljz]if ;+/If0fsf] sfo{nfO
cf/If0f elgG5 . of] ;+/If0fjfbL cjwf/0ff xf] . o;df lglZrt l;6 ;+Vof hflt, ju{ / ;d"x
ljz]ifn] dfq :yfg kfpg] x'G5 . of] k5fl8 k/]sf] ju{nfO /fli6o d"n k|jfxdf Nofpg s]xL ;dosf
nflu ul/g] cGtl/d k|s[ltsf] sf]6f k|0ffnL xf] . of] ;sf/fTds lje]bsf] x:tIf]ksf/L pkfud xf] .
c;dfgx?sf] aLrsf] k|lt:kwf{n] ;dfgtf Nofpg g;Sg] ePsf]n] ;dfg:t/df dfq k|lt:kwf{ x'g'k5{
eGg] dfGotfsf] sf/0f cf/If0fsf] cjwf/0ff cfPsf] xf] . of] k|ltlglwTj ;'lglZrt ug]{ Pp6f pkfo
xf] .
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# hf/L ePkl5 o;} ;+ljwfgn] lrq0f u/]sf] ;dfj]zL /fHosf]
cjwf/0ffnfO{ d"t{ ?k lbg /fHo ;~rfngsf] ;+oGqdf /x]sf lghfdtL / u}/ lghfdtL kbx?df
* pk;lrj, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u

102

;sf/fTds lje]b cGtu{t cf/If0fsf] k|fjwfg /flvPsf] kfOG5 . lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( sf] bf]>f]
;+zf]wg @)^$ n] ;j} k|sf/sf kbx?sf] v'nf k|ltof]lutfaf6 k"lt{ x'g] s"n ;+Vofsf] $% kb;+Vof
;dfj]zL ;d"xsf] nflu cf/lIft u/]sf] xf] . ;dfj]zL tk{m 5'ofOPsf] $% nfO{ ztk|ltzt dfgL
ljleGg ^ j6f ;dfj]zL ;d"xx? dlxnf, cflbjf;Lhghflt, dw];L, blnt, ckf / lk5l8Psf]
If]qsf nflu qmdz ##, @&, @@, (, %, / $ kbx? ;'/lIft /fv]sf] b]lvG5 . ;dfj]zL
Joj:yf k|f/De ePkl5 lghfdtL ;]jfsf kbx?df lgo'lSQsf] nflu l;kmfl/z ug{ nf]s ;]jf cfof]un]
;~rfng u/]sf ljleGg k|ltof]lutfTds k/LIffx? dfk{mt ;]jf k|jfx ug]{ ;/sf/L ;+oGqdf tL
;dfj]zL ;d"xx?sf] k|j]z pNn]Vo dfqfdf ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 .

@= lghfdtL ;]jfdf cf/If0fsf] cfjZostfM


g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnfx?sf] ;+Vof cToGt Go"g /x]sf], g]kfnsf] ;fdflhs / hg;fFlVos
;+/rgf cg';f/sf] n3'?k /fHo ;+oGqdf k|ltlglwTj gePsf] / b]zsf ;j} e"uf]ndf /xg] hgtfn]
;/sf/L ;+oGqdf ckgTj jf]w ug{ g;s]sf] h:tf cfjfhx? j'nGb ePsf] cj:yfdf cf/If0fsf]
k|fjwfg cfPsf] b]lvG5 . To;f] t, cf/If0f ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] clGtd c:q xf], o;sf] k|of]u kZrft\
klg /fHo ;~rfngsf] ;+oGqdf hg;f+lVos ;+/rgf cg';f/sf] oyfy{ t:jL/ k|ltljlDat x'g ;s]g
eg] b]zsf] cv08tfdf g} cfFr cfpg ;Sg] cj:yf >[hgf x'g ;S5 tyflk /fhgLlts kl/jt{gn]
pRr km8\sf] df/]sf] cj:yfdf lk5l8Psf] ju{, hflt, ;d'bfo / If]qsf] dfunfO{ tTsfn ;+af]wg ug]{
cr's pkfosf] ?kdf cf/If0fnfO{ cjnDag ul/Psf] j'em\g ;lsG5 . pk/f]Qm Jojxfl/s k[i7e"ldsf
cltl/Qm b]xfo adf]lhdsf ;}4flGts cfjZostfx?n] cf/If0f Aoj:yfsf] cf}lrTo :yflkt ug{
;3fp k'ofPsf] b]lvG5 .
pTkfbg, ljt/0f / pkef]udf ;f/e"t ;dfgtf sfod ug{
/fli6o ljsf;sf k|To]s tx tyf If]qdf dlxnf nufot ;j} ju{nfO{ ;+jfb tyf
;f}bfjfhL ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf / cj;/ pknAw u/fpg
sdhf]/ ju{ / If]qsf] ;+/If0f ug{
/fHosf] j]jf:tfsf sf/0f lk5l8g k'u]sf] ln, ju{ / If]qnfO{ Ifltk"lt{ k|bfg ug{
dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt lbnfpg
/fli6o 3f]if0ff / dfu{bz{gsf] sfof{Gjog ug{
cGt/fli6o dxf;GwL / k|lta4tfx?sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ .

103

#= lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;dfj]zL ;DaGwL k|fjwfgx?M


;dfj]zL ;d"xdf pNn]v ePsf ;d"xx?nfO{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf k|j]z / ;]jf k|j]z kZrft klg
ljleGg ;+/If0fsf pkfox? cjnDjg ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . h;nfO{ b]xfojdf]lhd k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .
lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ ;dfj]zL agfpg v'Nnf k|ltof]lutf4f/f k"lt{ x'g] kbdWo] $% kb
5'6\ofO{ ;f] k|ltztnfO{ ztk|ltzt dfgL dlxnf ## k|ltzt, cflbjf;Lhghflt @&
k|ltzt, dw];L @@ k|ltzt, blnt ( k|ltzt, ckf % k|ltzt / lk5l8Psf] If]qsf] nflu
$ k|ltzt kb ;+Vof 5'ofO{Psf] 5 . -lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$(, bkmf &-&__
;dfj]zL ;d"xsf 5'ofOPsf] kbdf h'g jif{sf] nflu lj1fkg ePsf] xf] ;f] lj1fkgdf
pko'Qm pDd]bjf/ pknAw x'g] g;s]df To:tf] kb csf]{ jif{ x'g ;f]xL ;d"xaf6 lj1fkgdf
;dfj]z ug'{ kg]{ / To;/L lj1fkg ubf{ klg pko'Qm pDd]bjf/ pknAw x'g g;s]df To:tf]
kb ;f]xL jif{ v'Nnf k|ltof]lutff/f k"lt{ x'g] kbdf ;dfj]z ul/g] Joj:yf 5 . -lghfdtL
;]jf P]g @)$(, bkmf &-!)__
tf]lsPsf] k|ltztsf] ;Ldf leq /xL s'g} vf; k|s[ltsf sfdsf] nflu tf]lsP adf]lhdsf]
ckfx?aLr dfq k|lt:kwf{ u/fO kbk"lt{ ul/g] Joj:yf 5 . -lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$(,
bkmf &-*__
dlxnf pDd]bjf/x?sf] nflu ;]jf k|j]zsf] clwstd pd]/ xbjGbL $) jif{ sfod ul/Psf]
5 . -lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$(, bkmf !)-u__
dlxnf, cflbjf;Lhghflt, dw];L, blnt, ckf / lk5l8Psf] If]qdf :yfoL a;f]jf;
ePsf lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] nflu Ps jif{ sd ;]jf cjlw eP klg a9'jfsf] nflu
;DefJo pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] Joj:yf 5 . -lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$(, bkmf @!-@__
pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6sf] nflu lnOg] cGtjftf{sf] nflu u7g x'g] cGtj{ftf{ ;ldltdf ;dfj]zL
;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ul/g] Joj:yf 5 . -nf]s ;]jf cfof]u P]g @)^^, bkmf #%_
;dfj]zL pDd]bjf/x?n] zfvf clws[t ck|fljlws tk{msf] ;dfj]zL lj1fkgdf cfj]bg
ug{ k|f/lDes k/LIff lbO/xg' gkg]{ Joj:yf 5 . -nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] @)^$)$@( sf]
lg0f{o_
nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] lng] k/LIffsf] lj1fkg gDj/ sfod ubf{ v'nf tkm{sf] klxnf] qmddf
/ To;kl5 ;dfj]zL ;d"xx?sf] sfod ug]{5 -nf]s ;]jf cfof]u @)^(^* sf] lg0f{o _

104

$= cEof;df cf/If0fsf] l:yltM


;dfj]zL ;DjGwL gLlt cjnDjg eP kl5 kfFr cfly{s jif{sf k|ltj]bgx? dfq ;fj{hlgs ePsf
5g\ . s'g} klg gLltsf] k|efj d"Nof+sgsf] nflu of] cjlw k|of{Kt xf]Og tyflk o;n] b]vfPsf
;+s]tx?sf] ljZn]if0f clxn]af6 g} z'? ug{ ;lsPg eg] ;'wf/sf] Ph]G8fsf] lbzf g} osLg x'g
;Sb}g . To;}n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf kbk"lt{ ;DjGwL tYofsf] vf]hL Pj+ ljZn]if0f ;fGble{s eO;s]sf]
5 . o;sf] nflu lghfdtL ;]jfdf lgo'lStsf] nflu pko'Qm pDd]bjf/ l;kmfl/z ug]{ ;+j}wflgs
lhDd]jf/L kfPsf] nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] tYofx?nfO{ cfwf/ agfpg pko'Qm b]lvG5 . ;dfj]zL gLlt
cjnDag ePkl5 cf=j= @)^*)^( cfiff9 d;fGt ;Ddsf] tYof cg';f/ nf]s ;]jf cfof]uaf6
ePsf kbk"lt{ ;DjGwL l:ylt b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

$=!

kb;+Vof lgwf{/0fM

o; cjlwdf nf]s ;]jf cfof]uaf6 hDdf !& xhf/ ^ ;o %( kb;+Vof k"lt{sf] nlfu lj1fkg
k|sfzg ePsf]df sfo{Ifdtfsf] d"Nofs+g4f/f x'g] a9'jfdf ! xhf/ % ;o *), sfo{;Dkfbg tyf
cg'ejsf] d"Nofs+gaf6 x'g] ;dfof]hgdf $ ;o %!, cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutfdf @ xhf/ @ ;o ^
/ v'nf k|ltof]lutf tk{m !# xhf/ $ ;o @@ kbx? 5'ofOPsf] b]lvG5 . nf]s ;]jf cfof]uaf6
k|sflzt jflif{s k|ltj]bgx?sf cg';f/ v'nf k|ltof]lutf tk{m 5'ofOPsf !# xhf/ $ ;o @@ kbx?
dWo] ;dfj]zL tk{m % xhf/ (# / v''nf tk{m * xhf/ # ;o @( kb;+Vof 5'ofOPsf] b]lvG5 .
o; tYofnfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ /fHon] lghfdtL kbsf nflu c+uLsf/ u/]sf] ;dfj]zL gLlt cg';f/
;dfj]zL / v'nftk{msf] kb;+Vof qmdzM $% / %% k'Ug g;sL #* / ^@ x'g uPsf] b]lvg
cfpF5 . cfof]un] k|ltzt lgwf{/0f ubf{ lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, :jf:Yo ;]jf P]g / Aoj:yflksf ;+;b
;lrjfno ;DjGwL P]g cg';f/ ug]{ u/]sf] t/ :jf:Yo ;]jf P]gdf ;dfj]zL k|fjwfg gePsf]n]
:jf:Yo ;]jfdf 5'lPsf ;j} kbx? -%%_tk{m u0fgf x'g uPsf] b]lvG5 . o;} u/L pSt cjlwdf
;dfj]zL tk{m 5'ofOPsf s"n % xhf/ (# kbx?dWo] ljleGg ;dfj]zL ;d"xx?df b]xfo adf]lhdsf]
;+Vofdf kb;+Vof 5'ofOPsf] b]lvG5 .

tflnsf !
ljut kfFr jif{df ljleGg lsl;dsf nflu 5'lPsf] kb;+Vof
qm=;+=
1
2
3
4

lsl;d
sfo{Ifdtf d"Nof+sg
;dfof]hg
cf=k|=
v'nf
hDdf

kb ;+Vof
1580
451
2206
13422
17659

k|ltzt
9
3
12
76
100

105

tflnsf @
;dfj]zL / v'nfsf] cg'kft
qm=;+= lsl;d
1
;dfj]zL
2
v'nf

kb;+Vof
5093
8329
hDdf 13422

k|ltzt
38
62
100

tflnsfM #
;dfj]zLtk{msf ljleGg ;d"xx?df 5'ofOPsf] kb;+Vof
qm=;=
1
2
3
4
5
6

;dfj]zL ;d"x
dlxnf
cflbjf;Lhghflt
dw];L
blnt
ckf
lk%l*Psf] If]q
hDdf

kb;+Vof
1743
1334
1113
526
233
144
5093

k|ltzt
34
26
22
10
5
3
100

>f]tM nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] $(cf}F, %)cfF}, %!cfF}, %@cfF} / %#cfF} jflif{s k|ltj]bg
dfly plNnlvt tflnsf @ / # nfO{ dfq x]bf{ sfg"gdf tf]lsPsf] k|ltzt / lj1flkt kb;+Vof d]n
vfPsf] b]lvFbg} . t/ nf]s ;]jf cfof]u sfo{;~rfng lgb]{lzsf, @)^& df ePsf] k|ltzt lgwf{/0f
;DjGwL Aoj:yfdf k|To]s lj1fkgsf] v'nf tk{m 5'ofOPsf] kb;+Vof @) -jL;_ k'u] kl5 Ps kbrqm
k"/f x'g] / ;dfj]zL tk{msf] Ps k"0f{ kbrqm k"/f x'g !))-Ps ;o_ kb cfjZos kg]{ b]lvG5 . cyf{t
s'g} kbsf] v'nf tk{m @) / ;dfj]zL tk{m Ps ;o kb 5'lPsf] v08df dfq pSt kbsf] v'nf
tk{m -%%_ !! kb / ;dfj]zL tk{m -$%_ ( kb / ;dfj]zL ;d"xsf] nflu sfg"gdf Joj:yf eP
cg';f/sf] ##, @&, @@, (, % / $ k'Ug uO{ k|ltzt ldNg hfg] b]lvG5 . t;y{ lgb]{lzsfdf ePsf]
Ps kbrqm k"0f{ x'Fbf dfq ;j} ;dfj]zL ;d"xn] sfg"gdf tf]lsP adf]lhd kb;+Vof k|fKt ug]{df
ljZj:t x'g ;lsG5 .

$=@ cfj]bg ug]{ pDd]bjf/sf] n}ls l:yltM


cfof]usf] %#cf}F jflif{s k|ltj]bg cg';f/ cf=j= @)^$)^% b]lv @)^*)^( ;Dddf lj1flkt
kbsf nflu b/vf:t cfj]bg ug]{ dlxnf / k'?ifsf] ;+Vof b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

106

tflnsfM $
cfj]bg ug]{ pDd]bjf/sf] n}ls l:ylt
qm=;= cf=j=
1
2
3
4
5

2064065
2065066
2066067
2067068
@)^*)^(

dlxnf
;+Vof
67,435
32,457
1,39,963
1,10,307
1,13,785

k'?if
k|ltzt ;+Vof
39
1,07,687
38
53,711
47
1,60,500
43
1,41,344
42
1,57,792

hDdf
k|ltzt
61
62
53
57
58

1,75,122
86,168
3,00,463
2,51,651
2,71,577

>f]tM nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] %#cf} jflif{s k|ltj]bg


o; tflnsf cg';f/ ;dfj]zL Aoj:yfsf] cfwf/ jif{df dlxnf / k'?ifsf] ;+Vof #( / ^! /x]sf]df
cf=j= )^*^( df of] ;+Vof $@ / %* ePsf] b]lvG5, h;n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf kb cf/If0f
k|f/De eP kl5 dlxnf pDd]b\jf/sf] ;+Vof a9\b} uPsf] ;+s]t ub{5 . tyflk b]zsf] hg;fFlVos
;+/rgf cg';f/sf] -dlxnf %!=%) / k'?if $*=%) _cfj]bg cg'kft ldNg ;s]sf] b]lvb}g .

$=#

cGt/jftf{sf] nflu 5gf}6 ePsf pDd]bjf/ ;+VofM

cfof]uaf6 k|sflzt jflif{s k|ltj]bg / a'n]l6gx?sf cg';f/ ;dfj]zL Joj:yfnfu" ePkl5sf kfFr
jif]{ cjlwdf ;dfj]zL / v'nf tk{m 5'lPsf % xhf/ (# / * xhf/ # ;o @( kb;+Vofsf nflu
qmdzM * xhf/ & ;o *! / !^ xhf/ () hgf pDd]bjf/x? cGt/jftf{sf] nflu 5gf}6 ePsf]
b]lvG5 . cfof]usf] sfo{;~rfng lgb]{lzsfdf l/St kb;+Vofsf] ;fdfGotof @) k|ltztsf] ;+Vofdf
cGt/jftf{sf] nflu yk pDd]b\jf/ 5gf}6 ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf 5 ;fy} cl3Nnf] lj1fkgsf] lnlvt k/LIffsf]
glthfdf gfd ;dfj]z ePsf pDd]bjf/sf] kl5Nnf] glthfdf klg gfd ;dfj]z x'g uPdf pSt
pDd]bjf/ ;Fu} csf]{ pDd]bjf/sf] gfd ;d]t 5gf}6 ug'{ kg]{ k|fjwfg 5 . cyf{t cl3Nnf] lj1fkgsf]
glthfdf gfd ;dfj]z x'g]x?sf] kl5Nnf] lj1fkgdf klg 5gf}6 x'g uPdf bf]xf]l/Psf] ;+Vof a/fj/s}
;+Vofdf gfd bf]xl/g k'u]sf pDd]bjf/ eGbf nuQ} kl5Nnf] of]Uotfqmddf /x]sf pDd]bjf/x?sf]
gfd ;d]t ;dfj]z u/L lnlvt k/LIffsf] glthf k|sfzg ug'{kg]{ k|fjwfg /x]sf] b]lvG5 . o;
cjlwsf] tYof cg';f/ dfu ;+VofeGbf ;dfj]zL tk{m &@ / v'nf tk{m (# j9L pDd]bjf/x?
cGt/jftf{sf] nflu 5gf}6 ePsf] b]lvG5 . o; tYofn] Pp6} pDd]bjf/sf] gfd ;dfj]zL ;d"xsf
ljleGg ;d"xx? / v'nftk{m klg 5gf}6 ePsf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . Pp6} pDd]bjf/sf] gfd ljleGg
;d"x / lsl;dx?sf] nflu 5gf}6 x'g'n] ;dfj]zL tk{msf ;Lldt JolStx?sf] dfq ;zlSts/0f ePsf]

107

lgrf]8 lgsfNg ;lsG5 . o; tYon] cf/If0f Aoj:yfsf] kmfObf cf/lIft ;d"xsf 6fF7faf7fn] w]/}
p7fpF5g\ eGg] cf/f]knfO k'i6L u/]sf] ;+s]t ldN5 .
tflnsf % M cGt/jftf{sf] nflu 5gf}6 ePsf pDd]bjf/ ;+Vof
@) k|ltzt
cGt/jftf{sf]
cGt/jftf{sf] nflu dfu kb;+Vof
k/LIffsf] dfu
qm=;+=
yk ubf{ s'g nflu 5gf}6 ePsf eGbf a9L 5gf}6 ePsf pDd]bjf/sf]
lsl;d kb;+Vof
cfpg] ;+Vof pDd]bjf/ ;+Vof
k|ltzt
1
;dfj]zL 5,093 6,121
8,781
72
2

v'nf

8,329 9,995

16090

93

>f]tM nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] %), %!, %@ / %#cf} jflif{s k|ltj]bg

$=$

l;kmfl/z ePsf pDd]bjf/ ;+VofM

cf/If0f Joj:yfk|f/De eP kl5 cf=j= @)^*)^( sf] cGTo ;Dddf nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] hDdf !!
xhf/ * ;o !@ hgf pDd]bjf/x?nfO{ lgo'lStsf] nflu l;kmfl/z u/]sf] b]lvG5 . h;df cfGtl/s
k|ltof]lutfaf6 ! xhf/ # -(_, ;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 # xhf/ % ;o ^! -#)_ / v'nf tk{maf6 &
xhf/ @ ;o $* -^!_ l;kmfl/z ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;dfj]zL ;d"x / v'nf tk{msf] dfq t'ngf ubf{
of] ;+Vof qmdzM ## / ^& b]lvg cfpF5 . o; cjlwdf ;dfj]zL / v'nftk{m 5'ofOPsf] #*
/ ^@ sf] kb ;+Vof s} cg'kftdf klg pDd]bjf/ l;kmfl/z x'g;s]sf] l:ylt b]lvb}g . To;}u/L
clwsf+z kbx?df dlxnf ;d"xsf nflu sfg"gn] Joj:yf u/] cg';f/sf] k|ltztsf] dfqfdf l;6
ljefhg eO;s]sf] b]lvg cfp5 . cf=k|= ;dfj]zL / v'nftk{maf6 l;kmfl/z ePsf !! xhf/ * ;o
!@ / ;dfj]zL tk{mjf6 l;kmfl/z ePsf] s"n # xhf/ % ;o ^! sf] ;d"xut l:ylt b]xfo adf]lhd
/x]sf] b]lvG5 .

tflnsfM ^
ljleGg lsl;daf6 l;kmfl/z ePsf] ;+Vof
qm=;+= k/LIffsf] lsl;d
l;kmfl/z ;+Vof
1 cf=k|=
1003
2 ;dfj]zL
3561
3 v'nf
7248
hDdf
11,812

108

k|ltzt
9
30
61
100

tflnsf &M ;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 l;kmfl/z ePsf pDd]bjf/ ;+Vof


qm=;+=
1
2
3
4
5
6

;d"x
dlxnf
cflbjf;Lhghflt
dw];L
blnt
ckf
lk%l*Psf] If]q

l;kmfl/z ;+Vof
1310
975
730
302
141
103

k|ltzt
37
27
20
9
4
3

>f]tM nf]s ;]jf cfof]u %)cf}F, %!cf}F, %@cfF} / %#cfF} jflif{s k|ltj]bg
pk/f]Qm tflnsfnfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ sfg"gdf Joj:yf ul/P cg';f/sf] k|ltztdf pDd]bjf/ l;kmfl/z
ePsf] l:ylt b]lvb}g / cfof]ujf6 k|ltzt lgwf{/0f eP adf]lhdsf] ;+Vofdf -dfly tflnsf # df
5'6\ofOPsf] kb;+Vof cg';f/sf]_ pDd]bjf/x? l;kmfl/z x'g ;s]sf] b]lvb}g . pDd]bjf/ l;kmfl/zsf]
;d"xut l:ylt x]bf{ dlxnfx?sf] cg'kft j9L ePsf] / dw];L, ckf / lk5l8Psf] If]qaf6 l;kmfl/z
x'g] pDd]bjf/x?sf] cg'kft sd ePsf] l:ylt b]lvG5 .

$=% 5gf}6 x'g g;s]sf pDd]bjf/M


nf]s ;]jf cfof]uaf6 ;~rfng ePsf lj1fkgx?sf] lnlvt k/LIffaf6 cGt/jftf{sf] nflu s'g} klg
pDd]bjf/x? 5gf}6 x'g g;Sg] / cGt/jftf{sf] nflu pDd]bjf/x? 5gf}6 x'Fbf x'Fb} klg of]Uotfqmd
k|sfzgsf] qmddf s'g} klg pDd]bjf/ g} l;kmfl/z gx'g] l:ylt klg b]lvPsf] 5 . h;sf] ljj/0f
b]xfo jdf]lhd pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .

tflnsfM *
lj1flkt kbx?df pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 / l;kmfl/z gePsf] l:ylt
qm=;+=
1=
2=

5gf}6l;kmfl/z x'g
g;s]sf] k/LIffsf] k|sf/ cf=k|= k|ltzt v'nf
lnlvt
181 43
39
cGt/jftf{
153 62
13

k/LIffsf] ;d"x
hDdf k|ltzt
k|ltzt ;dfj]zL k|ltzt
9
197
47 417 100
5
80
33 246 100

>f]tM nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] %)cf}, %!cf}, %@cf} / %#cf} jflif{s k|ltj]bg

109

cfof]uaf6 k|sflzt k|ltj]bgx?sf cg';f/ o; cjlwdf lnlvt k/LIffaf6 5gf}6 x'g g;s]sf s"n
$ ;o !& kbx?dWo] ! ;o (& kb ;dfj]zLtk{msf ! ;o *! cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutftk{msf 5g\
eg] v'nftk{m #( kbx? /x]sf 5g\ . To;} u/L lnlvt k/LIffsf] glthf k|sfzg eO cGt/jftf{sf]
nflu 5gf}6 ePsf t/ cGt/jftf{af6 s'g} klg pDd]bjf/x? l;kmfl/z x'g g;s]sf kb;+Vof x]bf{
;dfj]zL tk{m *), cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutftk{m ! ;o %# 5g\ eg] v'nftk{m !# kbx? /x]sf 5g\ . b'j}
k|sf/sf k/LIffx?df ;dfj]zL tk{msf pDd]bjf/x? ;lDdlnt eO k/LIff ;~rfng ePsf @ ;o &&
kb;+Vofdf s'g} klg pDd]bjf/x? 5gf}6 x'g g;Sg'n] kb cf/If0f u/]/ dfq ;dfj]zLs/0f ;'lglZrt
x'bf] /x]g5 eGg] tYonfO{ jn k'ofPsf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . To;} u/L cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutftk{m # ;o #$
kb ;+Vofdf s'g} klg pDd]bjf/ l;kmfl/z ePsf] b]lvPg . o;df clwsf+z lx:;f /f=k=cg+= ltLo
>]0fLsf] nflu 5'ofOPsf] @) ;+Vofsf] /x]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . of]Uotf k'u]sf >]0fL ljlxg sd{rf/Lx?n]
dfq k|lt:kwf{ ug]{ o; k|sf/sf] cfGtl/s k|ltof]lutfdf olt w]/} kb;+Vofdf s'g} klg pDd]bjf/
l;kmfl/z x'g g;Sg'n] o; k|fjwfgdf ;d]t k'g/fjnf]sg ug'{ kg]{ ;+s]t b]lvPsf] 5 .

$=^ lghfdtL ;]jfdf n}ls l:yltM


cf/If0f Joj:yf k|f/De ePsf] cfwf/ jif{ b]lv cf=j= @)^*)^( sf] cGTo ;Ddsf] lghfdtL
;]jfsf] n}ls l:ylt b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

tlnsf (M lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnf / k'?ifsf] cg'kft


qm=;=
1
2
3
4
5

cf=j=
2064065
2065066
2066067
2067068
2068069

dlxnf
;+Vof
8,774
8,713
9,749
10,773
11,679

k|ltzt
11=09
11=96
13=00
13=84
14=67

k'?if
;+Vof
70,368
64,125
65,225
67,075
67,928

k|ltzt
88=91
88=04
87=00
86=16
85=33

hDdf
79,142
72,838
74,974
77,848
79,607

>f]tM lghfdtL lstfjvfgf


o; tflnsfnfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ cf/If0f k"j{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnf / k'?ifsf] cg'kft !!=)(
/ **=(! /x]sf]df x/]s jif{ dlxnf sd{rf/Lsf] k|ltzt j9\b} cf=j= )^*^( df !$=^& /
*%=## k'u]sf] b]lvG5 . ;+Vofsf] lx;fjn] x]bf{ oL kfFr jif{df dlxnf sd{rf/Lsf] ;+Vof @ xhf/
( ;o % n] j[l ePsf] b]lvG5 . dfly tflnsf & cg';f/ o; cjlwdf dlxnf ;d"xaf6 l;kmfl/z
ePsf] ;+Vof ! xhf/ # ;o !) /x]sf]df lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnfsf] ;+Vof @ xhf/ ( ;o % n] j[l

110

ePsf] b]lvPaf6 cf/If0f jfx]ssf] k/LIffsf] lsl;daf6 ! xhf/ % ;o (% hgf dlxnfx? ;]jf k|j]z
u/]sf] k|i6 x'g cfpF5 . cf/If0f jfx]ssf] ;]jf k|j]z ug]{ k/LIffsf] lsl;d v'nf k|ltof]lutf g} xf]
t/ dlxnf ljsf; clws[t, dlxnf ;'k/efOh/, d'Vo dlxnf sfo{stf{, dlxnf sfo{stf{, :6fkm g;{
/ cgdL h:tf kbx?df dlxnfx? dfq pDd]bjf/ kfpg] Joj:yf 5 . v'nf k|ltof]lutf tk{m u0fgf
ul/P klg oL kbx?sf] k|lt:kwf{ dlxnfx? aLrdfq x'g] ePsf]n] o;nfO k"0f{ v'nf k|ltof]lutf dfGg
;lsFb}g . dlxnfx?sf] dfq k|lt:kwf{ /xg] kbx?af6 ePsf] kbk"lt{ l:ylt b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf]
b]lvG5 .

tlfnsfM !) dlxnf dfqsf] k|lt:kwf{af6 5gf}6 ePsf kbx?


qm=;= kb
1
2
3
4
5
6

l;kmfl/z ;+Vof

dlxnf ljsf; clws[t


;'k/efOh/
d'Vo dlxnf sfo{stf{
dlxnf sfo{stf{
:6fkm g;{
cgdL
hDdf

53
70
133
135
321
286
1098

>f]tM nf]s ;]jf cfof]u %)cf}F, %!cf}F %@cfF} / %#cfF} jflif{s k|ltj]bg
pk/f]Qm tflnsfdf k|:t't ul/P adf]lhd dlxnfx?n] dfq k|lt:kwf{ u/L ;]jf k|j]z u/]sf dlxnf
sd{rf/Lsf] ;+Vof ! xhf/ (* /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ;dfj]zL ;d"xsf] dlxnfaf6 ! xhf/ # ;o !) /
dlxnf dfqn] k|lt:kwf{ ug{ kfpg] egL tf]lsPsf kbx? -h;nfO{ dlxnf ;d"xdf ;dfj]z ul/Psf]
5}g_ af6 ! xhf/ (* u/L hDdf @ xhf/ $ ;o * kb;+Vof s'g} g s'g} ?kn] dlxnfx?sf] nflu
;'/lIft /x]sf] b]lvG5 . oL tYofx?sf] cfwf/df s] lgZsif{ lgsfNg ;lsG5 eg] k"0f{ v'nf k|lt:kwf{
/ cGo ;dfj]zL ;d"xx?af6 ;]jf k|j]z ug]{ dlxnfx?sf] ;+Vof $ ;o (& dfq /x]sf] 5 . o;
tYon] cf/If0fsf] gLlt ;Fu;Fu} dlxnfx?sf] nflu ;zlSts/0fsf] gLlt plQs} cfjZos 5 eGg]
;+s]t ub{5 .

%= cEof;af6 b]lvPsf ;+s]tx?M


cf/If0f ;'/lIft ul/Psf] :yfg xf] . To;}n] o; leq ;j}sf] ;dfg kx'Fr x'b}g . tf]lsPsf] ju{, hflt
jf ;d"xn] dfq k|lt:kwf{ ug]{ ePsf]n] of] ;Lldt v'nf k|lt:kwf{ g} xf] . o;n] ubf{ ;+u7gdf Hofbf
Ifdtfjfg JolStn] k|j]z gkfpg] / sd Ifdtfjfgn] lhDd]jf/L lng] cj:yf 3fd hlQs} 5n{ x'g]

111

ljifo xf] tyflk df}h'bf /fhgLlts ,;fdflhs ,;f+:s[lts / k|zf;lgs kof{j/0fLo l:yltdf o;nfO{
tTsfn k|lt:yfkg ug{ ;lsg] b]lvFb}g . t;y{ xfn ;Ddsf] cEof;af6 cg'ej ul/Psf sdhf]/
kIfx?sf] Go"lgs/0f / ;jn kIfx?sf] ;'b[9Ls/0f g} pQd ljsNk xf] . o;sf nflu lghfdtL
;]jfdf ul/Psf] xfnsf] cf/If0f ;DjGwL k|fjwfgsf sf/0f k|fKt ePsf ;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds
;+s]tx?nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhd k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .

%=! ;sf/fTds ;+s]tM


lghfdtL ;]jf k|j]zsf] nflu b/vf:t lbg] dlxnf pDd]bjf/x?sf] ;+Vof a9\b} uPsf]
5.
lghfdtL ;]jfdf dlxnf sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof a9\b} uPsf] 5 .
lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;dfj]zL ;d"xsf] k|j]z ;'lglZrt ePsf] 5 . o;n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf
b]zsf] hg;f+lVos;fdflhs ;+/rgfsf] n3'?k k|ltljlDat u/fpg ;S5 .
lnlvt k/LIffdf ;j} eGbf pRr c+s k|fKt ug]{ pDd]bjf/x?nfO{ dfu ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df
5gf}6 ul/Psf] / tf]lsPsf] Go"gtd c+s k|fKt gug]{ pDd]bjf/nfO{ cGt/jftf{sf] nflu
5gf}6 gul/Psf] x'gfn] of]Uotf k|0ffnL ;dfKt ePsf] 5}g .
k|lt:kwf{sf ljleGg lsl;d / ;dfj]zL ;d"xx?sf] nflu sfg"gdf tf]lsP cg';f/sf]
k|ltzt lgwf{/0f ;DjGwL Joj:yfj}1flgs / Jojl:yt ePsf]n] ;a} If]qaf6 :jLsf/
of]Uo b]lvG5 .
b/vf:t btf{df b]lvPsf] hfltut, If]qLo, juL{o cfsif{0fn] ;]jf k|jfx ug]{ ;+oGqdf
ljleGg hflt ju{ / ;d'bfosf] ckgTj j[l x'b} uPsf] ;+s]t ldN5 .
;dfj]zL ;d"xdf kg]{ pDd]bjf/x?df r]tgf clej[l4 ePsf] 5 .
;lGw, dxf;GwL / k|ltj4tfdfk{{mt ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] ;DjGwdf ul/Psf cGt/fli6o
bfloTj lgjf{x ePsf] 5 .

%=@ gsf/fTds ;+s]tM


;dfj]zL ;d"xdf ;lDdlnt x'g] Ps} pDd]bjf/n] w]/} >]0fL / ;d"xx?df ;kmntf kfPsf]
b]lvof] . o; tYon] ;dfj]zL leqsf 6fF7f af7fn] dfq cj;/ kfPsf] b]lvG5 .
;dfj]zL tk{m ;kmn x'g] pDd]bjf/ v'nftk{m klg bf]xf]l/g uPsf]n] glthf k|sfzg /
Joj:yfkgdf sl7gfO pTkGg ePsf] b]lvG5 .
s'g} klg pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 gx'g] cj:yf ;dfj]zL ;d"xdf j9L b]lvG5 .

112

cf/lIft ;d"xdf kg]{ pDd]bjf/x?sf] v'nf k|ltof]lutfaf6 ;]jf k|j]z ug]{ ;+Vof Go"g
5.
;+ljwfgsf] kl/sNkgf cg';f/ cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kn] k5fl8 k/]sf] l;dfGts[t ju{n]
cf/If0f Aoj:yfaf6 nfe k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf] b]lvb}g .
;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 pDd]bjf/ 5gf}6 x'g g;s]sf] sf/0f o; ;d"xjf6 k"lt{ x'g] u/L kb
5'6\ofOPsf] sfof{nosf] b/aGbL nfdf] ;do ;Dd l/St x'g] l:ylt pTkGg ePsf] 5 .
;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 ;]jf k|j]z u/]sf pDd]bjf/x?n] lgo'lSt kq lnbf ;dfj]zL ;d"x
pNn]v u/L lgo'lSt lng OR5's g/xg] u/]sf]n] ;dfj]zL ;d"xnfO{ clwsf/ eGbf
cg'bfgsf] ?kdf k|:t't ug{ vf]h]sf]] b]lvG5 .

^= ;'wf/sf pkfox?M
cf/If0f cEof; k|f/De ePsf] ut cfwf bzs calwdf b]lvPsf ;+s]tx?sf] cfwf/af6 lghfdtL
;]jfdf cjnDag ul/Psf] ;dfj]zL Joj:yfdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf ;'wf/x? ug{ h?/L ePsf] 5 .
cf/If0f ;Fu} ;zlSts/0fsf] gLlt cjnDag ug]{ .
Ps k6s ;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 ;]jf k|j]z ug]{x?nfO{ ;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 k'gM cj;/
glbg] .
;dfj]zL ;d"xaf6 5gf}6 x'g g;s]df To;} jif{ v'nfaf6 kbk"lt{ ug{ sfg"gdf ;+;f]wg
ug]{ / v'nf tk{m a}slNks pDd]bjf/x?sf] ;+Vof a9fpg] .
;]jf k|j]zsf] nflu x'g] k|lt:kwf{af6 cGt/jftf{sf] nflu 5gf}6 x'g] ;dfj]zL ;d"xleqsf
k5fl8 k/]sf hflt / l;dfGts[t ;d'bfon] s]xL c+s -l;dfGts[t c+s_ :jtM kfpg]
Joj:yf u/L ;f] c+s ;d]tnfO{ of]Uotfqmd k|sfzg ubf{ hf]8]/ of]Uotfqmd sfod ug{
sfg"gdf ;+;f]wg ug]{ .
ckfx?sf] nflu pko'Qm x'g] kbx? tf]Sg] .
;+ljwfgdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kn] k5fl8 k/]sf ls;fg / dhb''/nfO{
klg ;dfj]zL ;d"xsf] Pp6f ;d"xsf] ?kdf sfod ug]{ .
hg;f+lVos ;+/rgf cg';f/sf] k|ltlglwTj eO;s]sf hfltx?nfO{ qmdzM cf/If0fjf6
x6fpFb} hfg] .
;DjlGwt hfltut / ;d"xut ljsf; ;ldlt / cfof]ux?nfO{ ;zlSts/0f sfo{qmd
;~rfng ug{ ;/sf/n] ;3fp k'ofpg] .

113

lje]bsf/L Aoj:yfjf6 pTkGg x'g ;Sg] ;fdflhs lje]b x6fpg r]tgfd"ns sfo{qmd
;~rfng ug]{ .
:j/f]huf/sf sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/L ;/sf/L kbx?dfly kb}{ uPsf] rfknfO{ sd
ug]{ .
cf/If0fsf] cfwf/ dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+snfO{ agfpg] .

&= lg:sif{M
/fHosf] d"n k|jfxdf ;d]l6g g;s]sf hflt, ju{, ;d"x / If]qsf] plrt k|ltlglwTjsf] Joj:yf
ldnfpg' cfk}mdf ;xL sbd xf] . ;fy} ;/sf/L ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ ;jn, ;Ifd r':t / k|efjsf/L agfO
gful/ssf] ;/sf/k|lt /xb} cfPsf] ljZjf;nfO{ sfod} /fVg] s'/f plQs} dxTjsf] 5 . xfn cEof;df
NofOPsf] cf/If0fsf] k|fjwfg x:tIf]ksf] gLltdf cfwfl/t b]lvG5 . o; gLlt cjnDjg kl5 b]lvPsf
;+s]tx?n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;fdflhs :j?ksf] oyfy{ t:jL/ k|ltljlDjt x'g ;Sg] b]lvb}g . o;sf
nflu ;dfj]zL ;d"x leq ;zlSQs/0fsf] vfFrf] 68\sf/f] ?kdf b]lvPsf] 5 . t;y{ o; lbzftk{m ;a}
;/f]sf/jfnfsf] Wofgfsif{0f x'g h?/L 5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|LM
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^#,
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( / lgodfjnL @)%)
:jf:Yo ;]jf P]g, @)%# / lgod
Aoj:yflksf ;+;b ;lrjfno ;DalGw P]g, @)^$
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u P]g @)^^ / lgodfjnL @)^&
nf]s ;]jf cfof]u sfo{;~rfng lgb]{lzsf @)^&
nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] $(cf}F, %)cf}F, %!cf}F %@cf}F / %#cf}F jflif{s k|ltj]bgx?
nf]s ;]jf cfof]uaf6 cf=j= @)^$)^%, @)^%)^^, @)^^)^& @)^&)^*
/ @)^*)^( df k|sflzt ePsf a'n]l6gx?
nf]s ;]jf cfof]uaf6 ljleGg ldltdf k|sflzt glthf ;DjGwL ;"rgfx?
Personnel Information System (PIS), lghfdtL lstfjvfgf

114

lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgog / o;sf] k|efj

lzj/fd Gof}kfg]*

;f/f+z
6]8 o'lgogsf] cjwf/0ff ;+u7gdf ;+nUg k]zfsdL{x?sf] k]zfut xs lxtsf] ;+/If0f Pj+ ;du|
sNof0fsf] cfjfh p7fpgsf nflu cfPsf] xf] . s'g}klg ;+u7gdf 6]8 o'lgogsf] pkl:yltjf6 pQm
;+u7gdf sfd ug]{ ;du| sd{rf/Lsf] sNof0f Pj+ lxtsf] ;Dj[l4 eO{ ;+u7gsf] ;d]t p2]Zo xfl;n
x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] x'G5 . lghfdtL ;]jfdf sd{rf/Lsf] xs lxt ;+/If0f Pj+ ;Dj4{g u/L ;]jfnfO{
k|efjsf/L / ultzLn jgfpg ;/sf/nfO{ /rgfTds ;'emfj / ;xof]u ug]{ p2]Zon] 6]8o'lgogsf]
u7g ePsf] xf] . lghfdtL ;]jfleqsf 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] e"ldsf ;du| sd{rf/Lx?sf] lxtsf nflu
s]Gb|Lt x'g g;s]sf sf/0f o'lgogx? k|ltsf] ljZj;lgotf Pj+ :jLsfo{tf dhj't x'g g;s]sf]
dx;'; ul/Psf] 5 . /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df km/s km/s ;d"xdf ljeflht eO{ u7g ePsf
lghfdtL ;]jf leqsf 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] u7gsf] :jefj, sfo{ ;+:sf/, d"No dfGotf, cfr/0f 6]8
o'lgogsf] jf:tljs l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t x'g g;s]sf sf/0f u7gsf] k|s[lt g} sdhf]/L ePsf] egfO{
/x]sf] 5 . ;du| lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;fdlos ;'wf/nfO{ k|fyldstfdf /fVg g;s]sf ;fy} sd{rf/Lsf]
k]zfut xslxtsf ;jfnx?nfO{ dxTj lbg g;s]sf o'lgogx?sf] jLrsf] ;xsfo{, ;dGjo Pj+ Pstf
klg sdhf]/ /x]sf] 5 . lglxt :jfy{sf ;+s'lrt ljifox?df cndlnPsf sf/0f o'lgogx?k|lt ;du|
sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;xof]u, ljZjf; / ;dy{g k|fKt x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . cfjZostf eGbf j9L /fli6o
6]8 o'lgogx?sf] u7g x'g'sf ;fy} cfk;L ljjfb, G, dtlje]b, lj/f]wsf ;d:ofx? hl6n x'b}
uPsf 5g\ . lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] dg;fo cg'?k Ps cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] u7g ug]{ sfo{
l9nf] x'+bf 6]8 o'lgox? uf}0f ljifox?df cndlnPsf 5g\ . o; kl/k|]Iodf lghfdtL ;]jfleq Ps
cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] u7g ug'{ ckl/xfo{ ePsf] 5 . ;fy} 6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf]
sfd st{Jo, clwsf/sf] :ki6tf u/L 6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] cfrf/;+lxtf tof/ ug]{ sfo{
oyflz3| ug'{ h?/L ePsf] 5 .

k[i7e"ld M
;+u7gdf sfd ug]{ JolQmx?nfO{ plgx?sf] j[lQ ljsf;sf ljifodf 5nkmn u/L dfu /fVg kfpg]
;'ljwf lbO{ ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo xfl;ndf ;d]t 6]jf k'ofpg] ck]Iff;lxt 6]8 o'lgogsf] cjwf/0ff
cfPsf] xf] . ;/sf/ jf /f]huf/bftfsf] PSnf] k|of;n] dfq ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ ;+ej gx'g]
ePsfn] ;/sf/, /f]huf/bftf / >lds tLg kIfnfO{ ;+u7gsf] k|lt:kwf{ j[l4 u/L pTkfbg Pj+
ljZj;lgotf j[l4 ug]{ lqzlQmsf ?kdf lng] ul/G5 . 6]8 o'lgog zJbn] Joj;foLx? jf ;f}bf
* pk ;lrj, ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno

115

ug]{x?sf] ;+3 eGg] cy{ lbG5 . cGt//fli6o >d ;+u7gsf cg';f/ 6]8 o'lgog eGgfn] sfdbf/x?sf]
o:tf] ;+:yf xf] hf] ;fdfGot vf; Joj;fo;+u dfq ;Lldt geO{ cfkm\gf ;b:ox?sf] cfly{s /
;fdflhs l:yltsf] ;'/Iff ;'wf/sf k|of; ;fd'lxs lqmofdfkm{t ug]{ ;+:yf eg]/ j'em\g] ul/G5 . 6]8
o'lgogsf] kl/efiffnfO{ SofDj|Lh l8S;g/Ldf 6]8 o'lgognfO{ JolQmx? hf] vf; pBf]usf] /f]huf/Ldf
;+nUg 5g\ pgLx?sf] clwsf/sf] ;'/Iff ub{5g\ / /f]huf/L lbg];+u /f]huf/L ug]{sf] tnj / sfd ug]{
jftfj/0fsf] jf/]df s'/f ub{5g\ eGg] cy{ lbOPsf] 5 . 6]8 o'lgogsf] ;DjGwdf ljleGg kl/efiff
ul/Psf] ePtfklg ;du|df oL o'lgogx? /f]huf/df ;+nUg x'g]x?sf] tnj / sfo{ jftfj/0fsf
jf/]df /f]huf/ lbg];+u jftf{nfk ub{5g\, /f]huf/L lbg] / /f]huf/L kfpg]sf jLrsf] ;DjGwsf] lgodg
/f]huf/Ldf nfu]sf tkm{jf6 ;fd'lxs sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{ cfkm\gf ;b:osf tkm{jf6 go+f dfu k|:t't
ug]{ / ltgsf] u'0f bf]ifx? ;Djf]wg u/fpg] sfo{ ub{5g\ .
g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgogsf] Oltxf; nfdf] 5}g . d'n'sdf @)$^ ;fnsf] /fhg}lts
kl/jt{g kl5 ljsf;sf x/]s If]qdf cfPsf] :jtGqtf, ;xeflutf, ;dfgtf, ;xsfl/tfn] lghfdtL
;]jfdf klg ;'wf/sf] cfjZostfsf] dx;'; eof] . kmn:j?k ;'wfl/Psf] ;]jf ;+rfng sfg"gsf] ?kdf
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( nfO{ sfof{Gjogdf NofOof] . t/ o;df 6]8 o'lgogsf ;DjGwdf :ki6tf
gul/Psf sf/0f lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] klxnf] ;+zf]wg @)%% df /fhkq cg+lst / >]0fLljlxg
sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ cfkm\gf] k]zfut xslxtsf] nflu Pp6f /fli6o:t/sf] sd{rf/L o'lgog u7g ug{
;Sg] Joa:yf eof] . lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] bf];|f] ;+zf]wgn] sfof{no k|d'v eO{ sfd ug'{kg]{ sd{rf/L
jfx]s /fhkqf+lst t[tLo >]0fL;Ddsf sd{rf/LnfO{ 6]8 o'lgog vf]Ng] clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttf k|bfg
u/]sf] 5 . lghfdtL ;]jfdf cfPsf] 6]8 o'lgogsf] cjwf/0ff Pj+ k|bfg ul/Psf] 6]8 o'lgogsf]
clwsf/sf] nfdf] cEof; ePsf] 5}g . 5f]6f] ;dod} 6]8 o'lgogsf] clwsf/sf] plrt pkof]u x'g
g;s]sf] u'gf;fx? j9\b} cfPsf 5g\ . lghfdtL ;]jfdf sfo{/t ;du| sd{rf/Lsf] sNof0fsf If]qdf
Pj+ lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{df ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/sf If]qdf xfn u7g ePsf /fli6o 6]8
o'lgogx?sf] of]ubfg 7f]; x'g g;s]sf ;Gbe{df 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] lqmofsnfksf lj?4df u'gf;fx?
j[l4 x'g' c:jfefljs b]lvb}g . 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] l;ldt If]qsf] lglZrt JolQm jf ;d'xsf] lglxt
:jfy{leqsf] ;+s'lrt lqmofsnfkn] 6]8 o'lgogsf] ul/dfdo clwsf/ / d"NonfO{ sfod ug{ ;s]sf]
5}g . o; ;Gbe{df lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgog clwsf/sf] plrt pkof]u ug]{ u/fpg] sfo{
r'gf}ltk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 .

6]8 o'lgogsf clwsf/x? M


ILO cle;lGw g+= *& n] ;+u7g :jtGqtf lbPsf] 5 . ;+u7gsf] :jtGqtf, ;+u7g 5fGg kfpg], g+of
;+u7g jgfpg kfpg], r'Gg Pj+ r'lgg kfpg], tf]lsPsf k|lqmofdf /xL cfGbf]ng ug{ kfpg], clgjfo{
>d / xtf]T;fxgjf6 :jtGqtf, ;fd'lxs ;f}bfjfhL ug{ kfpg] h:tf clwsf/x? 6]8 o'lgogx?nfO{

116

pknJw x'g] u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfnn] cGt//fli6o >d ;+u7gsf] ;b:otf !(^^ lnPkl5 o;sf
l;4fGtx?nfO{ cg';/0f ug'{kg]{ cfjZostf /x]sf] 5 . ILo n] xfn;Dd !*& j6f Conventions
/ ;f] eGbf j9L ;+Vofdf Recommendation kfl/t u/L ;s]sf] 5 . g]kfnn] Ratify u/]sf ILO
Convention x? lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M
Weekly Rest (industry) Convention (No. 14)
Forced Labour Convention (No. 29)
Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention (No 98)
Equal Remuneration Convention (No. 100)
Abolition of Force Labour Convention (No. 105)
Discrimination (employment & occupation) Convention (No. 111)
Minimum Wage Fixing Convention (No 131)
Minimum Age Convention (No. 138)
Tripartite Consultation (International labour standard) Convention (No. 144)
Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169)
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No. 182)

6]8 o'lgogsf] cfjZostf M


kl/jlt{t ;f]r, ;do, k4lt, k|ljlw, kl/j]zn] ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ PSnf] Pj+ lgolGqt k|of;
kof{Kt gx'g] :ki6 e};s]sf] 5 . ;d'xut sfo{ ultzLntf, ;fd"lxs lhDd]jf/L Pj+ pQ/bfloTj,
;fem]bf/L, JolQmut Pj+ ;f+u7lgs :jfy{jLrsf] tfbfTDotf, cfsif{s j[lQ ljsf;sf cfwf/df
jhf/sf cJjn hgzlQmnfO{ cfslif{t ug]{ xf]8jfhL, ;+u7gsf] nfe jf pknJwLdf of]ubfgstf{sf]
lx:;f h:tf wf/0ffn] dfGotf kfPsf ;Gbe{df o'lgogsf] cfjZostf :jfefljs 7flgPsf] 5 .
6]8 o'lgognfO{ ;+u7gsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtf j[l4 ug]{ d'Vo cfwf/sf ?kdf klg lng yflnPsf]
5 . ;+u7gdf ;+nUg JolQmx?sf] j[lQ ljsf;sf] ;'lglZrttfsf cfwf/df sfo{ cg'ej ePsf
Jofj;flos Pj+ ;Ifd hgzlQmnfO{ ;+u7gleq} cg'/fu ul//fVg] sfo{nfO{ 6]8 o'lgogsf] of]ubfgn]
7f]; cfwf/ lbg ;Sb5 . ;du|df 6]8 o'lgogsf] cfjZostfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 M

117

k]zfut pGgog, ;Ddfg / clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu


;+u7gsf] ;d'xut sfo{ ultzLntf j[l4 ug{sf nflu
;+u7gs]f pTkfbg, u'0f:t/, ;fv, ljZjf; j[l4 ug{sf nflu
;+u7gsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtf j[l4 u/L kl/jlt{t kl/j]z cg's'ng u/fpgsf nflu
;+u7gsf] sfo{ tyf pTkfbgdf ckgTj Pj+ lhDd]jf/L j[l4 ug{sf nflu
/fli6o Pj+ cGt//fli6o :t/df /fHon] u/]sf] k|ltj4tfnfO{ cfGtl/sLs/0f ug{sf nflu
j}b]lzs ;xof]u Pj+ lghL nufgL j[l4 ug{sf nflu
;+u7gx?jLrsf] ;dGjo, Pstf j[l4 ug{sf nflu
nf]stflGqs k|0ffnLsf] d"No dfGotfnfO{ cfGtl/sLs/0f ug{sf nflu
;fdflhs Gofo Pj+ ;fdflhs ?kfGt/0fsf nflu
;+u7gdf gljg ;f]]r, k|ljlw, k4lt, ;fem]bf/LnfO{ leq\ofpgsf nflu
/fli6o Pstf, k|lti7f, ljZjf;, ;fv j[l4 ug{sf nflu

6]8 o'lgogsf nflu ePsf Joj:yfM


g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f #) df k|To]s sfdbf/ / sd{rf/LnfO{ plrt >d cEof;sf]
xs x'g] Joa:yf ul/Psf] 5 . sfg"gdf Joa:yf eP jdf]lhd k|To]s sfdbf/ / sd{rf/LnfO{ cf
cfkm\gf lxt /Iffsf] lgldQ 6]8 o'lgog vf]Ng], ;+ul7t x'g] / ;fd'lxs ;f}bfjfhLsf] xs x'g] Joa:yf
ul/Psf] 5 .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( sf] bkmf %# df sfof{no k|d'v eO{ sfd ug'{kg]{ /fhkqf+lst sd{rf/L
jfx]s /fhkqf+lst t[tLo >]0fL jf ;f] eGbf d'lgsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] cfkm\gf] k]zfut xs lxtsf nflu
/fli6o:t/sf] lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] 6]8 o'lgogx? u7g u/L ;b:otf lng ;Sg] Joa:yf ePsf] 5 .
/fli6o:t/sf 6]8 o'lgogx?sf kbflwsf/Lx?n] 5gf}6 u/]sf kbflwsf/Lx? /xg] u/L Ps lghfdtL
sd{rf/Lsf] cflwsf/Ls 6]8 o'lgog u7g ug{ ;Sg] Joa:yf ePsf] 5 .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( cg';f/ lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] 6]8 o'lgogsf] sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ b]xfo

118

jdf]lhd x'g] Joa:yf ul/Psf] 5M


sd{rf/Lsf] xslxt ;+/If0f Pj+ ;Dj4{g u/L lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ k|efjsf/L / ultzLn
jgfpg g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ /rgfTds ;'emfj / ;xof]u ug]{
lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] 6]8 o'lgogn] e]nf, tfnLd, k|lzIf0f, uf]li7 nufotsf /rgfTds Pj+
;[hgfTds sfo{x? ;+rfng ug{ ;Sg]
lghfdtL sd{rf/L 6]8 o'lgognfO{ dxf;+3 u7g ug]{, To;sf] ;b:o jGg], cGt//fli6o
;+3 jf dxf;+3sf] ;b:o jGg] / cfkm\gf] ;+:yfsf] tkm{jf6 k|ltlglwTj ug]{ clwsf/ x'g] .
lghfdtL ;]jf;+u ;DjlGwt sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f ubf{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf]
cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] ;Nnfx / ;'emfj lng ;Sg] .
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] 6]8 o'lgosf] Joa:yfkgsf nflu >d tyf /f]huf/ dGqfno Pj+ ;fdfGo
k|zf;g dGqfnon] cfk;L ;dGjo u/L ug]{ Joa:yf ePsf] .

lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgogsf] k|efj M


lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgogsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ k|of]udf Nofpg'sf] k|d'v p2]Zo ;du| ;]jfsf
sd{rf/Lx?sf] xs lxt ;+/If0f u/L j[lQ ljsf;sf] ;'lglZrttf ug'{ g} xf] . lghfdtL ;]jf P]gdf
6]8 o'lgogsf] st{Josf ?kdf sd{rf/Lsf] xslxt ;+/If0f Pj+ ;Dj4{g u/L lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{
k|efjsf/L / ultzLn jgfpg g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ /rgfTds ;'emfj / ;xof]u ug]{ eGg] pNn]v
ePjf6 klg o; tYosf] k'li6 x'G5 . 6]8 o'lgogsf] l;4fGt Pj+ o;sf] d"No dfGotf cg'?k ;du|
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;'wf/, sd{rf/Lsf] Ifdtf Pj+ j[lQ ljsf;df ;'lglZrttf, k]zfut ;Dj[l4sf nflu
;/sf/sf] k|d'v ;Nnfxsf/sf ?kdf 6]8 o'lgogx?n] e'ldsf lgjf{x ug'{ kg]{ ck]Iff /x]sf] ePtfklg
o'lgogx?sf] e"ldsf k|efjsf/L x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df cgfjZos ;+Vofdf
/fli6o 6]8 o'lgogx? u7g ePsf, ul7t o'lgogx?sf] sfg"gL x}l;otsf ljifodf ljjfb ePsf],
6]8 o'lgogx?n] l;dLt JolQm jf ;d'xsf] lglxt :jfy{df cndlnO{ 6]8 o'lgogsf] jf:tljs d"No
dfGotf, l;4fGtnfO{ j]jf:tf ul/Psf] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . ;du|df lghfdtL ;]jfsf 6]8 o'lgogx?
k]zfut ;'wf/df sfdofjL x'g g;s]sf] u'gf;fx? /x]sf 5g\ . lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf 6]8 o'lgogx?
k|efjsf/L x'g g;s]sf sf/0fx? lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M
!_

6]8 o'lgogx? /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df ljleGg ;d"xdf ljeflht eO{ btf{ ePsf

@_

cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] u7g x'g g;s]sf] . /fli6o o'lgogx?n] cflwsf/Ls 6]8 o'lgog

119

u7g ug{ grfx]sf] cf/f]k ;d]t /x]sf] 5 .


#_

l;ldt ;d"x jf u'6sf] dfq kIfkf]if0f ug]]{ sfo{df cndlnPsf

$_

;du| lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;'wf/ Pj+ sd{rf/Lsf] k]zfut xslxtsf sfo{df s]Gb|Lt x'g g;s]sf

%_

sdhf]/ e"ldsfsf sf/0f clwsf+z sd{rf/Lsf] ;xof]u, ;dy{g, ;dGjo, ;xsfo{ k|fKt x'g
g;s]sf]

^_

;fdflhs ;Djfb jf ;f}+bfjfhL clGtd ;dfwfg s'g xf] :ki6 gePsf]

&_

/fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df l;ldt JolQm jf u'6sf JolQmx?sf] ;?jf, kb:yfkgfdf


clwsf+z ;do Jolyt ePsf sf/0f cf:yf, ljZjf;, k|lti7f u'dfpb} uPsf

*_

6]8 o'lgogjf6 sd{rf/L k|zf;gdf cgfjZos x:tIf]k, bjfj, wDsL cfpg] u/]sf sf/0f
k|zf;lgs lg0f{ox? k|efljt x'g] u/]sf]

(_

6]8 o'lgogsf] Joa:yfkg ;DjGwL gLlt, /0fgLlt, of]hgf tof/ ug{ g;lsPsf]

!)_ 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] PsLs[t ;f]r, b[li6sf]0f, cjwf/0ff Pj+ ;xdlt gePsf sf/0f s'g o'lgog;+u
s] ljifodf k/fdz{ ug]{ :ki6 x'g g;s]sf]
!!_

6]8 o'lgogx?jLr cfk;L ;dembf/L, ;xsfo{ x'g g;s]sf] . cfk;L Gsf] cj:yf /x]sf]

!@_ 6]8 o'lgogx?sf nflu cfrf/;+lxtf tof/ u/L nfu" ug{ g;lsPsf]
!#_

sfo{If]q, clwsf/, lhDd]jf/L, pQ/bfloTjsf] l;df+sg x'g g;Sbf cGof}nsf] cj:yf /x]sf]

!$_ /fhgLlts clei6 k'/f ug{ sd{rf/L ;+u7gx?nfO{ k|of]u ug]{ ul/Psf]
!%_ 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] cfh;Ddsf] ;xof]u, e"ldsf, cf}lrTo cflbsf ;DjGwdf cWoog u/L o;
ljifodf ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/sf ;DjGwdf s'g} cWoog jf k|efj d"Nof+sg x'g g;s]sf] .
lghfdtL ;]jfsf 6]8 o'lgogx?n] ;du| lghfdtL ;]jfsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] k]zfut xs lxt, j[lQ
ljsf; Pj+ cfly{s Pj+ ;fdflhs ;Dj[l4sf nflu 7f]; sfo{ ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ . 6]8 o'lgogsf]
clwsf/nfO{ /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df l;ldt JolQm ;d'xsf] ;+s'lrt :jfy{sf nflu l;ldt ug]{
k|j[lQ sfod} /x]sf] 5 . ;+s'lrt Pj+ ljjflbt e"ldsfsf sf/0f lghfdtL ;]jfsf] Ifdtf, u'0f:t/,

120

ljZj;lgotf ;d]t j[l4 ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g . o'lgogx?sf] e"ldsf sdhf]/ ePsf sf/0f lghfdtL
;]jfdf ljefhg, cfk;L G, sfo{ ;Dkfbg :t/df x|f;sf] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . lghfdtL ;]jfsf]
;'wf/sf ljifox?df ;xdlt x'g g;Sbf cfjZos gLltut Pj+ sfg"gL ;'wf/sf lg0f{ox? ;dod}
ug{ g;lsPsf] cj:yf Psftkm{ /x]sf] 5 eg] csf{tkm{ bjfj, wDsLsf sf/0f ePsf lg0f{ox? :jR5
?kdf sfof{Gjogdf nfg ;lsPsf] 5}g . sfo{ lhDd]jf/L glng], pQ/bfloTj kG5fpg], ;'ljwfsf
nflu c:j:Yo k|lt:kwf{ ug]{, sfg"gL k|fjwfgsf ;'ljwf lng ;d]t o'lgogx?sf] k5fl8 nfUg'kg]{
cj:yf ePsf sf/0f ;]jfleq cGof}ntf j9\b} uPsf] 5 . cfr/0f Pj+ cg'zf;gsf] cg';/0f gug]{
JolQmx?nfO{ ;+/If0f ug]{ k|j[lQ x'+bf b08lxgtfn] k|>o kfPsf] 5 . o;jf6 lghfdtL ;]jfleqsf
cg'ejL, ;Ifd, Jofj;flos, u'0f:t/Lo hgzlQm ;]jfjf6 ljslif{t x'g] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . ;fy}
lghfdtL ;]jfn] d'n'ssf] ;du| cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ljsf;df lgjf{x ug'{kg]{ cu|0fL e"ldsf lgjf{x
ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . lghfdtL ;]jf k|ltsf] hgcf:yf, ljZjf; / e/f];f sdhf]/ x'Fb} uPsf] 5 .

6]8 o'lgogjf6 dx;'; ul/Psf ;d:ofx? M


lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgogsf] ;'ljwf ;du| lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;'wf/ Pj+ ;Dj[l4sf nflu pknJw
ePsf] xf] . lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{ cg's'n k|lt:kwL{, Ifdtfjfg, u'0f:t/Lo u/fpg
ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/sf ljifodf sfo{ cg'ej ;d]tsf cfwf/df 6]8 o'lgogx?jf6 ;/sf/n] 7f]; /fo,
;'emfjsf] ck]Iff u/]sf] 5 . t/ 6]8 o'lgogsf] clwsf+z ;do l;ldt JolQmsf] lglxt :jfy{df Jolyt
ePsf sf/0f ;du| lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] sNof0fsf sfo{n] k|fyldstf kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . 6]8
o'lgogx?sf] bjfjsf sf/0f ;?jf, kb:yfkgf, j[lQ ljsf;sf cj;/ ljt/0fdf :jR5tf sfod x'g
g;s]sf sf/0f o'lgogx? k|ltsf] cfnf]rgf k|z:t j[l4 ePsf] 5 . lghfdtL ;]jfleq o'lgogx?sf]
e"ldsf :jR5 x'g g;Sbf dx;'; ul/Psf ;d:ofx? lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ M
6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ d'Vo ;lrj;Ddsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] 9f]sf;Dd cfO{ xft
ldnfP/ :jfut ug]{ / 9f]sf;Dd NofO{ xftldnfP/ ljbfO{ ug]{ ;+:sf/ ljsf; x'+bf 6]8
o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] c? sd{rf/Lx?sf ;d:of, u'gf;f, ;Dks{, ;dGjonfO{ uf}0f
dfGg yfn]sf 5g\ .
6]8 o'lgogsf] ;Nnfx jf bjfjjf6 dGqfnosf dlGqx?n] ;lrj b]lv pk ;lrj;Dd /f]Hg]
u/]sfn] jfWo eP/ sd{rf/Lx? /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df ;d'xdf ljefhg x'g] yfn]sf
5g\ . o;jf6 lghfdtL ;]jfsf] d"No dfGotf, cg'zf;g, k]zfut cfr/0fn] :yfg kfpg
;s]sf] 5}g . o;sf lj?4 g'gsf] ;f]hf] u/L sfo{ ug]{ k|j[lQ ljsf; x'g yfn]sf] 5 .
;?jf, kb:yfkgf, lgo'lQm h:tf sfo{nfO{ :jR5 ?kdf ;Dkfbg ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g .
6]8 o'lgogsf] x:tIf]k, bjfj, wDsL, qf;sf sf/0f lg0f{o ug]{ kbflwsf/Lx?n] ;dodf
ljj]szLn eO{ lg0f{o ug{ g;s]sf] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 .

121

x/]s 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] cfkm\gf elgg] u/]sf sd{rf/Lx?sf] km/s km/s ;?jf lni6 tof/
ug]{ ;fy} clwsf+zsf] ;?jf dfu jf /f]hfO{ /fd|f elgg] u/]sf sfof{nodf g} x'g] u/]sf
sf/0f lg0f{o Joa:yfkg ug{ sl7gfO{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno nufotsf
cGo If]qut dGqfnox?df ePsf ;?jf lg0f{ox? sfo{fGjog x'g g;s]sf] cj:yfn] of]
tYonfO{ k'li6 u/]sf] 5 .
6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] cfkm\gf elgg] u/]sf sd{rf/Lx? jfx]ssf dsf{df k/]sfnfO{
jf:tf gug]{ u/]sf sf/0f ;j} sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ Pp6f lglZrt ;d'xdf nfUg jfWo u/fPsf]
5 . o;jf6 ;+u7gleq u'6jGbL, G, sfo{ lhDd]jf/L glng], ;+u7gsf] sfo{df eGbf
JolQmut :jfy{df nfUg] k|j[lQ ljsf; x'Fb} uPsf] 5 .
6]8 o'lgogx? ljleGg /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df ljefhg ePsf sf/0f lghfdtL
;]jfleq Pstf, z'4tf, t6:ytf, ;d'x sfo{ ultzLntf sdhf]/ ePsf] 5 .
;du| lghfdtL ;]jfsf] k]zfut xs lxt, Ifdtf ljsf;, j[lQ ljsf;sf sfo{df cWoog,
cg';Gwfgsf] sfo{df 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] Wofg gk'u]sf]n] ;/sf/n] klg o; sfo{df rf;f]
lbPsf] 5}g . o;jf6 lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{ cg's"nsf] ;'wf/ ub}{ hfg] sfo{n]
dxTj kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g .

6]8 o'lgogsf] plrt Joj:yfkgsf nflu ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/x? M


s_ Joj:yfkgsf tTsflng pkfox?M
lghfdtL ;]jf P]gdf Joa:yf eP jdf]lhd cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] lgjf{rg ug]{ Joa:yf
ug]{ lglZrt ;doleq cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] lgjf{rg x'g g;s]df 6]8 o'lgogx?sf]
cl:tTj Pj+ cf}lrTo :jtM ;dfKt x'g] Joa:yf ug]{
6]8o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?n] kfngf ug'{kg]{ cfrf/;+lxtf tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] .
cfrf/;+lxtf kfngf gug]{nfO{ ljefuLo sf/jfxL ug]{ Joa:yf ug]{
6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ cGo sd{rf/Lx? ;/x pgLx?sf] ;xdlt gxF'bf ;d]t
;?jf ug{ ;Sg] Joa:yf ug]{ -o;df ;jf]{Rj cbfntsf] @)^*.*.^ sf] km};nfn] ;d]t
:ki6 u/]sf] 5_
lhDd]jf/L, pQ/bfloTj, kf/blz{tf sfod u/fpg]
lghfdtL ;]jfdf 6]8 o'lgogsf] cfjZostf, cf}lrTo, Joa:yfkgsf ;DjGwdf cWoog u/L
:ki6 /0fgLlt tof/ u/L sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg]
6]8 o'lgogsf] clwsf/ lg/k]If geO{ st{Jo;+u kf/:kl/s /x]sf] tYo :ki6 ug]{

122

v_ bL3{sflng pkfox?
6]8 o'lgogsf] e"ldsf, k|efj, bL3{sflng cfjZostf jf cf}lrTosf ljifodf cWoog u/L
o;df lg/Gt/ ;'wf/sf] of]hgf tof/ ug]{
6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] g]t[Tj Ifdtf, g}ltstf, cfr/0f, cg'zf;g j[l4 u/L
bfloTjsf ljifodf ;r]t u/fpg]
lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;'wf/sf If]qdf uxg cWoog, cg';Gwfg u/L ;'wf/sf 7f]; ;'emfj lbg]
k|d'v bfloTjsf ?kdf /fVg]
cGt//fli6o :t/sf 6]8 o'lgogx?;Fu ;Dks{ :yflkt u/L gofF k|ljlw, z}nL / ljwLx?
leq\ofpg]
;/sf/sf] d"Vo ;Nnfxsf/sf ?kdf :yflkt ug]{
6]8 o'lgogx?jLrsf] cfk;L ;xof]u, ;dGjo, ;xsfo{sf nflu ;femf P]h]08fx? tof/ ug]{

u_ 6]8 o'lgogsf tkm{jf6 ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/x?


cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] r'gfj ug{ ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u ug]{
lghfdtL ;]jf leqsf] cgfjZos /fhgLlts x:tIf]k, ljs[lt , clgoldttf lgoGq0f ug{
cu|0fL e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{
Jofj;flos P+j dof{lbt ;+:sf/ ljsf; ug]{
o'lgogx?jLrsf] cfk;L ;dGjo, ;xsfo{, ;dembf/L sfod ug]{
cGt//fli6o ;Dks{, ;xof]u, ;fem]bf/L j[l4 ug]{
lghfdtL ;]jfdf gljg k|ljlw, Jojxf/ ;'wf/, sfo{ ;+:sf/df ;'wf/ Nofpg cu|;/ x'g]
;du| sd{rf/Lx?sf] k]zfut xslxt Pj+ cfsif{s j[lQ ljsf;sf of]hgfx? tof/ u/L
;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj ug]{

lgisif{ M
;+u7gdf ;+nUg JolQmx?sf] xs lxt ;+/If0f u/L pgLx?sf] j[lQ ljsf;nfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{ 6]8
o'lgogx?sf] d'Vo Wo]o xf] . ;du| sd{rf/Lsf] k]zfut j[lQ ljsf;sf ljifox?nfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{

123

cfkm\gf ultljwLx?nfO{ s]Gb|Lo:t/ b]lv :yfgLo:t/;Dd lj:tf/ ug'{ logLx?sf] d'Vo bfloTj klg
xf] . lghfdtL ;]jfsf ljleGg 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] e"ldsf ;du| lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] lxtdf s]Gb|Lt x'g
g;s]sf sf/0f 6]8 o'lgogk|ltsf] cfnf]rgf / u'gf;fx? j[l4 x'b} cfPsf 5g\ . /fhgLlts cf:yfsf
cfwf/df ljleGg ;d'x jf u'6df ljeflht eO{ lglxt :jfy{df cndlnPsf 6]8 o'lgogx?sf] ;fv,
k|lti7f, ljZj;lgotf x|f; xF'b} uPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] 6]8 o'lgogx?jf6 lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;'wf/sf
nflu /rgfTds ;'emfj Pj+ ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . 6]8 o'lgogsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] cg'zf;g,
cfr/0f, sfo{ ;+:sf/ sdhf]/ ePsf sf/0f k|zf;lgs g]t[Tjn] o'lgogsf] pkl:yltnfO{ ;xof]uLsf
?kdf :jLsfg{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ . km/s ;d'xjf6 cfpg] km/s dfu, sfg"gsf] kfngf eGbf klg unt
JofVof u/L lglxt :jfy{sf nflu sfg"g, k4lt, ;+:sf/sf] pkxf; ug]{ k|j[lQn] 6]8 o'lgogx?sf]
;fv lub}{ uPsf] 5 . 6]8 o'lgogx?n] ;du| lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] lxt ug]{ pNn]vgLo sfo{ ug{
g;s]sf], k|zf;lgs lg0f{odf ;xof]uL e"ldsfdf /xg g;s]sf, cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgogsf] u7g ug{
g;s]sf, ;]jfleq /fhgLlts x:tIf]k lgoGq0f ug{eGbf phf{k|bfg ug{ e"ldsf v]n]sf sf/0f o:tf
;+:yfx?sf] cf}lrTottfsf ljifodf 5nkmn x'g yfn]sf] 5 . o; ;Gbe{df lghfdtL ;]jfsf 6]8
o'lgogx?n] ;dod} ;r]t Pj+ ;+j]bgzLn eO{ Ps cflwsfl/s 6]8 o'lgog u7g ug]{ tyf l;ldt
JolQm jf ;d"xsf] nflu ge} ;du| lghfdtL ;]jfsf] k]zfut xslxt / sNof0fsf nflu sfo{ ug'{
h?/L ePsf] 5 . o;jf6 dfq 6]8 o'lgogsf] ljZj;lgotf sfod eO{ cl:tTj hf]lug ;Sg] b]lvG5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|LM
!_

g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^#, g]kfn sfg"g lstfj Joj:yf ;ldlt, sf7df08f}+

@_

lqjifL{o o]fhgf @)^&, /fli6o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno, sf7df08f}+

#_

lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$(, lghfdtL ;]jf lgodfjnL @)%), g]kfn sfg"g lstfj Joj:Yff
;ldlt, sf7df08f}+

$_

k|zf;g ;'wf/ k'gM;/rgfsf] cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg @)^%

%_

k|zf;g klqsfsf ljleGg c+sx?, ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno, sf7df08f}+

124

sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog tyf o;sf] k|efjsfl/tf


lai0f'k|;fb uf}td*

;f/f+z
sfg"gsf] cufl8 ;dfgtf / sfg"gsf] ;dfg ;+/If0faf6 g} gful/sn] Gofosf] cg'e"lt ug{ ;S5g\ .
sfg"g /fHosf] ;fwg xf] eg] Gofo ;fWo xf] . ;dfhsf] k|efjsf/L lgoGq0f sfod /fVg' k|To]s
/fHosf] cxd\ bfloTj xf] . s'g} klg /fHosf] a}wflgstf, o;sf] nf]slk|otf tyf hg;dy{gsf] klxnf]
cfwf/ To; /fHon] c+lusf/ u/]sf] zf;sLo zf;g k|0ffnL, To;s]f ;+:yfut lasf; / sfg"gsf]
k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf e/ kb{5 . lawfoLsfn] sfg"g lgdf{0f ubf{ s]jn ;|f]tx?sf cfwf/df dfq
gu/L nf]stflGqs k|s[of / lawL cg'?k sfg"g lgdf{0f ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . k|To]s sfg"g ;dfhsf
nfuL pkof]uL x'g'k5{ / o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gogaf6 dfq} ;dfhsf nfuL kmnbfoL x'G5 . sfg"g
lgdf{0f ug]{ bfloTj, sfof{Gjog ug]{ bfloTj tyf sfg"gsf] kfngf ug]{ bfloTj ;d]t /fHosf] x'G5 .
o; cxd\ bfloTjaf6 /fHo pbf;Lg /xg ;Sb}g . ctM /fHon] sfg"g lgdf{0f ug'{ gful/ssf nfuL
dxTjk"0f{ xf]O{g . df}h"bf sfg"gx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gful/ssf nfuL dxTjk"0f{ x'g cfp5 .

laifo k|a]z
sfg"g /fHo ;~rfngsf] nflu cfjZos lgodx?sf] ;+u|x xf] . zf;sLo dfu{lrq dfkm{t /fHosf]
nIodf k'Ugsf nflu sfg"gsf] cl:tTj tyf o;s]f k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] cfjZostf kb{5 .
sfg"g zf;g ;~rfngsf] d"n ;fwg xf] . sfg"gsf] cufl8 ;dfgtf / sfg"gsf] ;dfg ;+/If0faf6
g} gful/sn] Gofosf] cg'e"lt ug{ ;S5g\ . sfg"g /fHosf] ;fwg xf] eg] Gofo ;fWo xf] . ;dfhsf]
k|efjsf/L lgoGq0f sfod /fVg' k|To]s /fHosf] cxd\ bfloTj xf] . ;dfh lgoGq0f tyf o;sf]
rfxgfsf] sb/ ug]{ sfd g} sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog dfkm{t x'g] xf] . x/]s sfg"g ;dfhsf
nflu aGg cfjZos x'G5 . ;dfh sfg"gsf nflu xf]O{g . sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogaf6 g}
/fHon] cfkm\gf] clei6 k'/f ug{ ;S5 eg] gful/sn] /fHon] k|jfx ug]{ ;]jf tyf ;'ljwfdfkm{t
Gofo tyf zflGtsf] cg'e"tL ug{ ;S5g . s'g} klg /fHosf] a}wflgstf, o;sf] nf]slk|otf tyf
hg;dy{gsf] klxnf] cfwf/ To; /fHon] c+lusf/ u/]sf] zf;sLo zf;g k|0ffnL, To;s]f ;+:yfut
ljsf; / sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf e/ kb{5 . sfg"gnfO{ ;fdfGotofM ;dfhn] c+lusf/
u/]sf lgodx?sf] ;+u|x elgG5 . h'g lgodx? ;dfhn] :jLsf/ ug{of]Uo x'g cfjZos x'G5 .

* pk;lrj, ;af]{Rr cbfnt

125

A Dictionary of Law n] sfg"gnfO{ The enforceable body of rules that govern any society 1 elg
kl/efiff u/]sf] b]lvG5 . sfg"gsf] kl/efiff tyf o;sf] ljsf;s|dnfO{ x]bf{ o;sf laleGg dt tyf
bz{gx? ljsf; ePsf] kfO{G5 . ;dosf] ljsf; qmd;Fu} sfg"g jf sfg"gzf:qsf] If]qdf ljleGg
dtx? (Schools of thought) ljsl;t ePsf 5g\ . k|fs[lts sfg"g;DaGwL dt (Natural school
of thought) n] sfg"g O{Zj/sf] OR5f xf] / of] ljZjJofkL k|s[ltsf] x'G5 eGg] of] dtsf] wf/0ff
5 . o; bz{gsf] jsfnt Thomas Aquinas n] u/]sf 5g . logn] law is nothing other than an
ordinance of reason for the common good issued by one who has care of the community and
promulgated 2 elg k|fs[lts dtsf] af/]df pNn]v u/]sf 5g pgn] sfg"gnfO{ Law is a sort of
rule and measure of acts, according to which one is induced to act or restrained from acting, for
lex (law) is said to be from ligare (to bind) because obligat (it binds) one to act. But the rule and
measure of human acts is reason, which is the first principle of human acts, ... for it belongs to
reason to order things to the end, which is the first principle in practical matters,3 elg sfg"g
ljj]s;+ut x'g'kg]{ elg hf]8 lbPsf 5g . sfg"gsf] ljZn]if0ffTds (Analytical or positive school of
thought) n] sfg"gnfO{ ;fj{ef}d;Qfsf] cfb]z xf], o;sf] pNn+3gdf b08 x'G5 eGb5 . John Austin
o; bz{gsf kIfkftL x'g . logsf cg';f/ law is the command of sovereign. It is a positive law
enforceable by sanction. It has three characteristics; (1) it is a type of command (2) It is laid
down by political sovereign. (3) it is enforceable by sanction4 elg sfg"gnfO{ ;Dk|e'sf] cfb]zsf
?kdf lnPsf 5g . sfg"gsf] P]ltxfl;s dtn] sfg"gsf] ;|f]tsf] ?kdf dflg;x?sf] hLjgz}nL,
cfr/0f, Jojxf/ / dflg;n] clusf/ u/]sf] k/Dk/fnfO{ dxTj lbPsf] 5 . ;dfhzf:qLo dt
(Sociological School of thought) n] sfg"g ;dfh lgoGq0fsf] ;fwg xf] / h;n] ;dfhdf afFlemP/
/x]sf ljleGg :jfy{x?sf] ;Gt'ng u5{ elg o;sf] sfof{Gjog kIfdfly hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . sfg"gsf]
cfly{s jf ;dfhjfbL dt (Economic or socialist thought) n] sfg"g zf;s ju{n] zfl;t ju{nfO{
zf]if0f ug]{ ;fwg xf] eg]sf] 5 . sfg"gsf] oyfy{jfbL dt (Realist thought) n] d'2fsf] km};nf ubf{
GofofwLzn] u/]sf] lg0f{o g} sfg"g xf] eGg] ljZjf; ub{5 . Salmond, Justice Homes Frank j,
Cardozo J. o; dtsf kIfkftL x'g . Salmond n] law as the body of principles recognized and
applied by the state in the administration of justice and as rules recognized and acted on by the
courts of justice5 elg kl/efiff lbPsf 5g .

1
2

A Dictionary of Law Oxford university press Fifth edition 2003 p 280


Mark C.Murphy Natural law theory ,Blackwell guide to the philosophy of law and legal theory,
Blackwell publishing 2005 p 16
3 ibid
4 Kalyan chaudhary , Legal theory ,New central book agency Calcutta ,p .8
5 ibid p 10

126

sfg"g lgdf{0fsf] klxnf] >f]tsf] ?kdf ljwflosf x'g] ub5{ . lawflosL k|s[of g} sfg"g lgd{f0fsf]
cf}krfl/s / hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL sfo{z}nL xf] . ljwflosfn] gofF sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ dfq ge}
e}/x]sf sfg"gx?sf] vf/]hL tyf ;+;f]wg ;d]t ub{5 . o;sf cnfjf cbfntn] sfg"gsf] l/Qmtf
k'/f ug]{ s|ddf sfg"gsf] AofVof u/L tyf Goflos ;ls|otfsf] dfWodaf6 sfo{sf/L lgsfosf nflu
sfg"g lgdf0f{ ug{ pko'Qm cfb]z ;d]t hf/L ug]{ ub{5 . lawflosfn] s]jn sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f, jf
vf/]hL ug]{ dfq geP/ sfo{sf/L lgsfoaf6 laleGg ;+a}wflgs lgsfodf lgo"lQm x'g] kbflwsf/Lsf]
l;kmfl/z tyf ;'g'jfO{ ,/fHosf] vr{sf nflu s/ nufpg kfpg] tyf p7fpg kfpg] clVtof/Lsf]
cg'df]bg tyf ;/sf/sf gLlt tyf sfo{s|d dflysf] 5nkmn ug]{ h:tf dxTjk"0f{ sfo{ ug]{ ub{5 .
lawflosfn] sfg"g lgdf0f{ ubf{ s]jn ;|f]tx?sf cfwf/df dfq gu/L nf]stflGqs k|s[of / ljwL
cg'?k sfg"g lgdf{0f ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 .
k|To]s sfg"g ;dfhsf nflu pkof]uL x'g'k5{ / o;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogaf6 dfq} ;dfhsf
nflu kmnbfoL x'G5 eGg] dfGotf /lx cfPsf] kfO{G5 . F.A.Hayek (1973) n] Law is quite different
from legislation. It is independent of human purpose for its function is to accommodate human
purposes and it is independent of human will for its business is the co-ordination of free will. 6
elg sfg"gsf] k|efjsfl/tf hgtfsf] lxt tyf O{R5fdf lge{/ x'g] s'/fnfO{ hf]8 lbPsf 5g .

lawflosL e"ldsf
ljwflosfsf] d"Vo rf;f] ;/sf/sf] k'g;{/rgf ug'{, laQLo k|aGwsf] cg'df]bg ug'{ tyf ;/sf/sf]
k|zf;gsf nflu lbzf lgb]{z ug'{ xf] . Henry Hart / Albert Sacks n] cfkmgf] k':ts Legal Process
materials df ljwflosfsf] sfo{, o;sf] pQ/bfloTjsf ;DaGwdf pNn]v ub}{ sfg"g sfof{Gjogsf
nflu cbfntsf] :yfkgfsf ;DaGwdf ;d]t pNn]v u/]sf] / tL lgsfosf] e"ldsf ;d]t sfg"gL
k|0ffnLs} ljsf;sf nflu x'g] elg pNn]v u/]sf] b]lvG5 pQm tYo o; c+zaf6 k|i6 x'g ;lsG5
A legislature has a primary, first-line responsibility to establish the institutions necessary or
appropriate in the everyday operation of government. As secondary in the sense of secondline, the legislature characteristically functions in this relation as occasionally intervening,
trouble-shooting, back-stopping agency. The private lawmakers, the courts, and administrative
agencies are the regularly available continuously functioning agencies of growth in the legal
system."7

6 supra note 2 p 240


7 ibid

127

cbfntsf] e"ldsf
sfg"gsf] AofVof dfkm{t cbfntaf6 v]lng] Goflos e"ldsf sfg"g k|0ffnLsf] ljsf;sf]] Ps ;zQm
dfWod xf] . Goflos k|s[ofsf] ;fj{hlgs rl/q eg]s} Goflos sfo{sf] ;Dkfbg dfq geP/ /fHosf
lgsfox?n] sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf vf; e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf 5g\ jf 5}gg\ elg lgu/fgL
ug'{ ;d]t xf] . cbfntsf] of] vf; e"ldsfnfO{ sfg"g sfof{Gjogsf nflu cbfntn] sfo{kflnsLo
lgsfonfO{ lbg] cfb]z jf lgb]{zgsf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . cbfntn] sfg"gsf] AofVofjf6 sfg"gsf]
l/Qmtf k'/f ug]{ ;Gbe{df lbg] cfb]z,lgb]{zgsf] k|rngnfO{ Goflos ;ls|otfsf] ?kdf ;d]t x]g]{
ul/G5 . cbfntf/f lbO{Psf To:tf cfb]z jf lgb]{zgsf] sfof{Gjog ug'{ tyf cbfntsf] cfb]z jf
km};nfsf] kfngf ug'{ /fHo ,/fHosf lgsfo tyf cfd gful/ssf nflu afWofTds cj:yf x'g cfpF5
tyfkL sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdfkm{t ;dfh lgoGq0f /fVg] sfo{df /fHonfO{ ;xof]u k|bfg
ug'{ cbfntsf] klg cxd\ bfloTj klg x'g cfpF5 . d"ntM x/]s zf;g k|0ffnLsf] d"n cGt{j:t'sf
?kdf sfg"gsf] cl:tTj /xg] / sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjogn] pQm zf;g k4tLsf] kl/If0f ;d]t ug]{ x'gfn]
of] dxTjk"0f{ laifo x'g] u/]sf] 5 . zf;g k4tLn] b]zsf] ;dfh ljsf; ,;dfhdf /x]sf gful/ssf]
efjgf, O{R5f tyf rfxgfnfO{ ;d]t ;Daf]wg ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 .

g]kfndf sfg"g sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{ M


g]kfnsf] zf;sLo k|0ffnLsf] cWoog ubf{ g]kfn laleGg zf;g Aoa:yfsf] k|of]u tyf To;sf]
k|rngaf6 cl3 a9]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfnsf] a}wflgs sfg"g @))$ nfO{ sfg"gL O{ltxf;sf] ;+lxtfsf]
sl8df k|f/De laGb'sf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . oBkL !(!) sf] d'n'sL P]g tyf cGo sfg"gx?
klg ;dosf] ljsf;s|d;u} lgdf{0f e} k|rngdf /x]sf lyP . ;dfhsf] ljsf;s|d;u} zf;sLo
k|0ffnLsf] O{R5f tyf rfxgfsf cfwf/df sltko sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f, k|of]u jf sfof{Gjog eof] eg]
tL sfg"gx?df ;fdoLs ;+;f]wg, ljsf; ;d]t x'b} uP . sltko sfg"gx? ;dfhsf] rfxgf cg"?k
lgdf{0f tyf cl:tTjdf /x] eg] sltko sfg"gx? lgdf{0f dfq eP k|rngdf cfpg ;s]gg\ .
at{dfg ;dosf] g]kfnsf] sfg"gL cl:tTjnfO{ x]bf{ g]kfn sfg"g lstfj Joj:yf ;ldltaf6 k|sfl;t
g]kfn P]g ;+u|x efu ! b]lv !& ;Ddsf] cx?df g]kfndf xfn k|rngdf /x]sf sfg"gx?sf]
cf}krfl/s tYof sl/a #)) eGbf al9sf] xf/fxf/Ldf b]lvG5 . h;dWo] ;+j}wflgs lgsfo tyf
;'zf;g, cbfnt tyf Gofok|zf;g, Joj:yflksf ;+;b, /fhgLlts bn tyf lgjf{rg, cfGtl/s
k|zf;g, ;'/Iff k|zf;g, /fhZj tyf cfly{s k|zf;g, d'b|f j}+ls, ljdf, ljQLo ;+:yf tyf lwtf]kq,
pBf]u jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{, ko{6g >d tyf oftfoft, ;~rf/ tyf lj1fg / k|ljlw, of]hgf ljsf;
tyf lgdf{0f, vfB, s[lif, ;xsf/L tyf e"ld k|zf;g, jg jftfj/0f tyf hn>f]t, k//fi6, lzIff tyf
v]ns"b, :jf:Yo, dlxnf jfnjflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f tyf ;+:s[lt, :yfgLo lgsfo tyf :yfgLo
ljsf; nufot laifout sfg"g tyf cGo ljljw P]gx?sf] Joj:yf ePsf] b]lvG5 . pNn]lvt

128

P]gx? dWo] sltko sfg"gx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf] l:ytL sdhf]/ ,sltko sfg"gx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf
k|efjsfl/tf b]lvPsf] kfO{b}g eg] sltko sfg"gx? lawflosfaf6 lgdf{0f ePklg k|f/De g} x'g
;s]sf] b]lvb}g . sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog tyf k|f/De g} x'g g;s]sf lgDg sfg"gx?nfO{
pNn]lvt ;Gb{edf lng ;lsG5 .
h'jf P]g @)@) - k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
;fdflhs Aoaxf/ - ;'wf/ _ P]g @)## - k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
sfnf] ahf/ tyf s]xL cGo ;fdflhs ck/fw tyf ;hfo P]g @)#@- k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog
gePsf] _
cTofjZos ;]jf ;~rfng P]g @)!$- k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f P]g @)%$- k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
vfB P]g @)@# - k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
Ifltk"lt{ P]g @)!( - k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
k|lt:kwf{ k|a4{g tyf ahf/ ;+/If0f P]g @)^# - k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] _
cGt{/fli6o laQLo sf/f]af/ P]g @)%$- k|f/De g} gePsf] _
lwtf]kq nufgL sf]if -6i6_P]g @)%# - k|f/De g} gePsf] _
cfof]l8go"Qm g"g pTkfbg tyf laqmL lat/0f P]g @)%%- k|f/De g} gePsf] _
Goflos sf]if P]g @)$# - k|f/De g} gePsf] _
afn>d - lgif]w / lgoldt ug]{ _P]g @)%&- k|f/De g} gePsf] _
ejg P]g @)%%- k|f/De g} gePsf] _
;+o'Qm cfjf;sf] :jfldTj ;DaGwL P]g @)%$- k|f/De g} gePsf] _
sfnf] ahf/ tyf s]xL cGo ;fdflhs ck/fw tyf ;hfoF P]g @)#@ n] gfkmfvf]/L tyf hDdfvf]/L /
s[lqd cefjsf] kl/efiff ;d]t u/]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] tf]s]sf] s'g} dfn j:t'sf] Jofkf/ ug]{
JolQmn] dfn j:t' / Jofkf/sf] k|rng cg';f/ ;fdfGotofM ;os8f @) eGbf a9L d'gfkmf lnPsf]

129

cj:yfdf jf cefjsf] nfe p7fO{ ;f] dfn j:t'sf] cg'lrt gfkmf lnO{ laqmL u/]df gfkmfvf]/L u/]sf]
7xl/g] tyf ahf/df s'g} dfnsf] s[lqd cefj x'g] u/L ;f] dfnsf] d"No j[l4 u/fP/ cg'lrt gfkmf
lnO{ ahf/df laqmL ug]{ lgotn] To:tf] dfn j:t' ;+u|x u/L laqmL gu/L hDdfvf]/L u/]df hDdfvf]/L
tyf s[[lqd cefj ePsf] dflgg]8 Aoa:yf ePsf] b]lvG5 . t/ o; P]gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf]
cefj b]lvG5 .
cTofjZos ;]jf ;~rfng P]g @)!$ ;fj{hlgs lxtsf] nflu cfjZos Pj+ plrt nfu]df g]kfn
;/sf/n] g]kfn /fhkqdf k|sflzt cfb]zf/f ;f]xL cfb]zdf tf]lsPsf] s'g} cfjZos ;]jfdf x8\
tfn lgif]w ug{ ;Sg] / g]kfn ;/sf/n] s'g} cfb]z lgsfn]kl5 ;f] cfb]zdf tf]lsPsf] s'g} cfjZos
;]jfdf sfd nufO{ /fv]sf] s'g} JolQmn] x8\tfn ug{ jf To;df efu lng jf efu lnO{/fVg gkfpg]
tyf To:tf ;]jfdf nufO{ /flvPsf JolQmx?n] To:tf] cfb]z lg:sg' eGbf cl3 jf kl5 u/]sf]
x8tfn jf u5'{ egL 3f]if0ff u/]sf] x8tfn cj}w dflgg]9 Joj:yf ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . o; sfg"gsf]
kl/kfngf tyf cbfntaf6 hf/L ePsf cfb]zsf] kfngf u/fpg ;/sf/n] klg ;s]sf] b]lvFb}g .

Goflos b[li6sf]0f M
sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] cefjdf gful/sn] ;ljwfg tyf sfg"g4f/f k|bQ clwsf/sf]
k|rngsf] nflu cbfntsf] ;xf/f lng] k|rng ;d]tdf a[l4 ePsf] 5 . gful/ssf ;+ljwfg tyf
sfg"g4f/f k|bQ clwsf/x?sf] k|rngdf /fHosf] pbf;Lgtfsf] af/]df gful/ssf] ;r]tgf klg
Tolts} dxTjk"0f{ 5 . ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf laifodf ;af]{Rr cbfntdf k/]sf ljljw ljifox?dWo]
;af]{Rr cbfntdf cf a @)^& .)^* df !!) j6f lgb]{zgfTds cfb]z tyf &! j6f k/dfb]z u/L
hDdf !*! j6f cfb]z g]kfn ;/sf/sf gfpFdf hf/L ePsf] b]lvG5 eg] hDdf %^ j6f cfb]z dfq
sfof{Gjog ePsf] 10 kfO{G5 .
sfnf] ahf/ tyf s]xL cGo ;fdflhs ck/fw tyf ;hfoF P]g, @)#@ adf]lhdsf] lgodfjnL tTsfn
th'{df u/L nfu" ug{ dfu ub}{ bfo/ ePsf] pkef]Qmf lxt ;+/If0f d~r g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 clwaQmf
huGgfy ld>
la?4 k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifb\sf] sfof{no ;d]t ePsf] )^^-wo-)^%)sf] k/dfb]z d'2fdf sfnf]
ahf/ tyf s]xL cGo ;fdflhs ck/fw tyf ;hfoF P]g, @)#@ sf] bkmf @# cGt{utsf] lgodfjnL ^
dlxgf leq agfO{ nfu' ug"{, bkmf !% cGt{utsf] d'2f x]g]{ clwsf/L tf]Sg] k|fjwfg tyf ;f]xL P]gsf]
bkmf @ sf] v08 -3_ cGt{ut d"No lgwf{/0f ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltx? u7g ug]{ tyf pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f
8
9
10

sfnf]ahf/ tyf s]xL cGo ;fdflhs ck/fw tyf ;hfo P]g, @)#@ sf] bkmf # ,%
cfjZos ;]jf ;~rfng P]g, @)!$ sf] bkmf #
;af]{Rr cbfntsf] aflif{s k|lta]bg @)^&.)^* k[i6 #^

130

P]g, @)%$ sf] bkmf * tyf bkmf !) df ePsf] sfg"gL Aoa:yf cg';f/sf] sfo{ cg'e't x'g] u/L
P]gsf] cIf/zM kfngf Pj+ k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug"{ u/fpg" elg lakIfL g]kfn ;/sf/sf gfpFdf
k/dfb]z hf/L x'g11] u/L cfb]z hf/L ePsf] b]lvG5 .
To:t} pkef]Qmf ;+/If0f P]g @)%$ sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] laifodf / vf; u/L ;fa{hlgs
;jf/L nufot a:t' / ;]jf;+u ;DalGwt If]qdf s'g} klg aGb x8tfn gug{ gu/fpgsf nflu
;af]{Rr cbfntdf bfo/ ePsf] pkef]Qmf lxt ;+/If0f d~r g]kfnsf] tkm{af6 / cfk\mgf xsdf ;d]t
clwaQmf Hof]tL aflgof la?4 k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifbsf] sfof{no ;d]t ePsf] )^#-wo-)^&&
sf] pTk|]if0fo'Qm k/dfb]z d'2fdf Psflwsf/ sfod x'g] l;l08s]6 ,sf6]{ln, / To:tf cGo s'g} ?k
jf lqmofsnfk ;~rfng gug'{ ,gu/fpg' ;~rfng ug{ glbg' ;fy} cfb]z sfof{Gjogsf] l;nl;nfdf
;]jf k|bfos ;+:yf AolQm jf lgsfon] s'g} k|sf/sf] afwf la/f]w gug'12
{ elg lakIfL g]kfn ;/sf/
tyf g]kfn oftfoft Aoa;foL /fli6|o dxf;+3 ;d]tsf gfpFdf k/dfb]z ;d]t hf/L ePsf] b]lvG5 .
oL / o:tf w]/} laifodf ;af]{Rr cbfntaf6 g]kfn ;/sf/ tyf cGo ;/f]sf/ lgsfosf gfddf
;d]t cfb]z hf/L u/]sf] b]lvG5 t/ dfly pNn]v u/] h:t} sfof{Gjogsf] l:ytL eg] sdhf]/ /x]sf]
b]lvG5 .

lgisif{ M
sfg"gsf] cgle1tf IfDo x'Fb}g of] sfg"gsf] ;a{dfGotf g} xf] . h;/L sfg"gsf] cgle1tf IfDo
x'bg} To;} u/L gful/sn] klg sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogdf /fHo pbfl;g x'g'x'b}g eGg]
ck]Iff /fv]sf x'G5g . sfg"g lgdf{0f ug]{ bfloTj, sfof{Gjog ug]{ bfloTj tyf sfg"gsf] kfngf ug]{
bfloTj ;d]t /fHosf] x'G5 . o; cxd\ bfloTjaf6 /fHo pbfl;g /xg ;Sb}g . sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L
sfof{Gjogsf] dfWodaf6 g} gful/sn] cfkmgf] xssf] lgaf{w k|rng u/fpg ;S5g . Gofosf]
cg'e't ug{ ;S5g . cbfntn] klg ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf ?kdf bfo/ ePsf ljjfbx?sf] lg/f]k0f
ubf{ km};nfsf] /f]xdf sfo{sf/L lgsfonfO{ sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu k/dfb]z jf
cGo lgb]{zgx? hf/L u/]sf] 5 tyfkL tL cfb]zx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf kIf ;+VofTds lx;fan] x]bf{
;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvg ;s]sf] 5}g . cbfntaf6 hf/L ePsf cfb]z jf lgb]{zgsf] sfof{Gjogdf /fHo
g} pbfl;g ePdf sfg"gL zf;gsf] pkxf; x'g hfG5 . ;+ljwfg tyf sfg"gf/f k|bQ clwsf/x?sf]
lga{fw k|of]uaf6 g} gful/sn] Gofosf] cg"e"lt ug{ ;S5g . /fHon] hgtfk|ltsf] pQ/bfloTj k'/f
u/]sf] 5 5}g eGg] s'/f klg gful/ssf] clwsf/sf] k|rngsf] ;'lglZrttf;+u t'ngf x'g] xf] . ctM
/fHon] sfg"g lgdf{0f ug'{ gful/ssf nflu dxTjk"0f{ xf]O{g df}h"b sfg"gx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog
gful/ssf nflu dxTjk"0f{ sfo{ x'g cfpF5 .
11
12

g] sf k @)^* efu %# c # k[i7 %@@


g] sf k @)^* efu %# c $ k[i7 ^%*

131

;Gb{e ;fdfu|LM
A Dictionary of Law Oxford university press Fifth edition 2003
FRANCIS G. JACOBS THE SOVEREIGNTY OF LAW: THE EUROPEAN WAY
Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge UK 2007
Kalyan chaudhary , Legal theory ,New central book agency Calcutta
Mark C.Murphy Natural law theory, Blackwell guide to the philosophy of law and
legal theory ,Blackwell publishing 2005
;/sf/L jlsn lbUbz{g @)^#
g]kfn P]g ;+u|xsf laleGg v08x? |
g]kfn sfg"g klqsfsf laleGg cx?
Goflos cfjfh, GofokfnLsf clws[t ;dfh ,@)^& ,@)^*,@)^( sf cx?

132

g]kfndf ul/aLsf] ljBdfg cj:yf Pj+


ul/aL lgjf/0fsf pkfox?
s'df/ e/fO{*

d'Vo zJbx? M ul/aL, ul/aLsf kIfx?, j]/f]huf/L, ul/aLsf] b'irqm, g]kfn .

;f/f+z
ul/aL g]kfnsf] Ps k|d'v cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pj+ /fhg}lts ;d:of xf] . d'n'ssf] cfly{s
k5f}6]kgsf] of] Ps k|d'v sf/0f xf] . ul/aL jx'kIfLo ;d:of xf] . o;sf cfly{s, dfgjLo,
/fhg}lts, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cflb kIfx? x'G5g\ . g]kfndf u/LaL dfkg ug{sf] nflu tLg
j6f ;'rsf+sx? M Head Count Index, Poverty Gap Index tyf Squared Poverty Gap Index
k|of]u ul/b} cfO{Psf] 5 . d'n'sdf ul/aL d"nt M u|fdL0f If]qdf a9L b]lvG5 . of] lxdfnL k|b]zdf
kxf8L tyf t/fO{ k|b]zsf] t'ngfdf jl9 /x]sf] 5 . ljsf;If]qsf] ;Gb{edf eGbf ;'b"/klZrdf~rn
ljsf; If]qdf ul/aLsf] cj:yf ljs/fn /x]sf] 5 . ul/aLsf k|d"v sf/0fx?df pRr a]/f]huf/L b/,
;'zf;gsf] cefj, pRr d'b|f:km|Llt, s[lif If]qdf cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] cefj, If]qLo c;Gt'ng cflb
/x]sf 5g\ . ul/aL lgjf/0fdf ;/sf/sf] cxd\ e'ldsf /xG5 . o;sf nflu ul/ad}qL cly{s
j[l4df hf]8, s[lifdf ;'wf/, k"jf{wf/sf] lgdf{0f, ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfo{Gjog cflbdf
hf]8 lbg' cfjZos /x]sf] 5 . ul/aL pRr b/df ljBdfg ePklg xfn ;Dd g]kfn u/LaLsf]
b'irqmdf eg] kml;;s]sf] 5}g .

kl/ro
ul/aL cefjsf ljleGg kIfx?;Fu ;DjlGwt x'G5 . of] ;'vL hLjg hLpgsf nflu cfjZos kg]{
cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pj+ cGo dfkb08x? k'/f gePsf] l:ylt xf] . of] Ps jx'kIfLo ;d:of xf] . o;n]
vfBfGg, cfjf;, lzIff, :jf:Yo, dfgjclwsf/, /f]huf/L, ;'/Iff, ;fdflhs dof{bf, cflb ljifox?df
dflg;x?sf] kxF'r gePsf] l:yltnfO{ bzf{p5 . gf]j]n k'/:sf/ ljh]tf cy{zf:qL cdTo{ ;]gsf
cg';f/ dflg;n] cfkm'n] /fd|f] 7fg]sf] hLjg hLpg c;dy{ x'g] l:ylt ul/aL xf] (Sen, 1981).
ljutdf ul/aLnfO{ cfo;Fu ;DjlGwt ljifosf] ?kdf dfq x]l/Psf] eP klg xfn cfP/ o;nfO{
Ps jx'kIfLo ;d:ofsf] ?kdf x]/LPsf] 5 . of] d'n"ssf] cfly{s k5f}6]kgsf] Pp6f k|d'v sf/0fsf]
?kdf /x]sf] 5 . ul/aL lgjf/0f gu/Lsg d'n"ssf cfd dflg;x?sf] hLjg:t/ clej[l4 ug{ ;Dej
* pkk|Wofks, kf6g ;+o'Qm SofDk;

133

5}g . g]kfndf ul/aL zx/L If]qsf] t'ngfdf u|fdL0f If]qdf j9L 5 . To;}u/L, kxf8L / t/fO{ If]qsf]
t'ngfdf lxdfnL If]qdf j9L ul/aL /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ljsf; If]qut ?kdf x]bf{ ;j} eGbf sd ul/aL
k"jf{~rn tyf ;j}eGbf j9L ul/aL ;'b"/klZrdf~rndf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . kl/jf/sf] cfsf/df j[l4 ;Fu}
ul/aL klg a9\b} uPsf] b]lvG5 . h'g 3/df dlxnf 3/d'nL 5g\ ;f] 3/df ul/aLsf] b/ t'ngfTds
?kdf sd ePsf] b]lvG5 . To;}u/L, k/Ljf/sf] d'nLsf] z}lIfs :t/df j[l4 ;Fu} ul/aLdf sdL cfPsf]
b]lvG5 .
of] n]vsf] p2]Zo g]kfndf ul/aLsf] jt{dfg cj:yfsf] af/]df cWoog ug'{ Pj+ ul/aLsf sf/0fx?
vf]Hg] / ul/aL lgjf/0fsf pkfox?sf] af/]df rrf{ ug'{ /x]sf] 5 . o;sf] nflu s]lGb|o tYof+s ljefu
- s] = t= lj =_ n] hf/L u/]sf ljleGg ;'rsf+sx?sf] pkof]u ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} ljleGg tflnsfx?
/ lrqsf] ;xfotfn] klg ;d:ofsf] af/]df ljj]rgf ug]{ sf]l;z ul/Psf] 5 .

ul/aLsf kIfx?
OECD -@))!_ sf cg';f/ ul/aLsf lgDglnlvt kIfx? x'G5g\ M

-!_ cfly{s kIfM


cfly{s kIfsf] cfwf/df ul/aLnfO{ lg/k]If ul/aL (Absolute Poverty) / ;fk]If u/LaL (Relative
Poverty) u/L b'O{ efudf ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . lg/k]If ul/aLn] cfwf/e"t dfgjLo cfjZostfx?sf]
uDeL/ cefj (Severe Deprivation) ePsf] l:yltnfO{ hgfpFb5 . o;nfO{ /fli6o jf cGt/f{li6o
?kdf lgwf{l/t ul/aLsf] /]vfsf] cfwf/df dfkg ug{ ;lsG5 . ljZj a}+sn] k|lt lbg cd]l/sL
8n/ !=@% -;g\ @))% sf] PPP df_ a/fj/sf] cfDbfgLnfO{ cGt/f{li6o ul/aLsf] /]vf dfg]sf] 5
(Wikipedia) . ctM k|ltlbg cd]l/sL 8n/ !=@% eGbf sd cfo cfh{g ug]{ dflg;x? u/LaLsf]
/]vfd'gL kb{5g\ . cyf{t\, pgLx? lg/k]If ul/a dflg;x? x'g\ .
csf]{tkm{ ;fk]If ul/aL cGtu{t ;dfhsf] Ps ;d"xsf dflg;sf] cfo csf]{ ;d"xsf dflg;sf]
cfo;+u t'ngf ul/G5 . o;n] /fli6o cfDbfgL slt ;dfg jf c;dfg ?kdf ljt/0f ePsf] 5 eGg]
s'/f atfpFb5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu klxnf], bf]>f], t]>f], rf}yf] Pj+ kfrf} k~rds (Quintile) n] /fli6o
cfosf] sltslt lx:;f k|fKt ub{5g\ eGg] s'/fn] ;fk]If ul/aLsf] l:yltnfO{ b]vfpFb5g\ . olb k|To]s
k~rdsn] /fli6o cfosf] aL; k|ltzt lx:;f k|fKt u/]df ;fk]If ul/aL gePsf] eGg] a'lemG5 .

-@_ dfgjLo kIfM


ul/aLsf] dfgjLo kIfn] dflg;x? lzIff, :jf:Yo, kf]if0fo'Qm vfgf, ;kmf kfgL tyf cfjf; h:tf

134

ljifox?af6 al~rt ePsf] l:yltnfO{ hgfpFb5 . oL ljljw ljifox?df ul/Af dflg;x?sf] Hofb}
Go"g kx'Fr x'G5 jf, ltgLx?sf] kxF'r g+} x'+b}g . oL ljljw dfgjLo kIfx?n] dflg;sf] pTkfbgzLntf,
;fdflhs Pj+ /fhg}lts lqmofsnfkx?df ;xeflutf, cflb h:tf ljifox?df k|efj kfb{5g\ .

-#_ /fhg}lts kIfM


o;n] dfgj clwsf/, :jtGqtf, ;fj{hlgs gLlt tyf /fhg}lts k|fyldstfdf dflg;x?sf] k|efj
h:tf ljifox?nfO{ ;d]6\b5 . clwsf/ ljlxgtfsf] l:yltn] ul/aLsf cGo kIfx?nfO{ klg k|efj
kfb{5 . /fhg}lts ?kn] sdhf]/ dflg;x?n] gLltut ;'wf/sf ljifodf cfjfh p7fpg ;Sb}gg\ .
;fy} pgLx?n] cfly{s >f]t Pj+ ;fwgx?df cfkm\gf] kxF'r clea[l4 ug{ klg ;Sb}gg\ .

-$_ ;fdflhs Pj+ ;f:s[lts kIfM


ul/aLs]f ;fdflhs Pj+ ;f:s[lts kIfn] dflg;x?n] ;dfhsf] dxTjk"0f{ ;b:o (Valued Member)
sf] ?kdf ;fdflhs lqmofsnfkx?df ;xeflutf hgfpg g;Sg] l:yltnfO{ hgfpFb5 . ul/a
dflg;x?sf] ;fdflhs l:ylt tyf dof{bf (Social Status & Dignity) Hofb} sdhf]/ x'G5 . pgLx?
;fdflhs ?kdf cnUuLPsf (Isolated) x'G5g\ .

-%_ k|lt/IffTds kIfM


ul/jx?sf] cfly{s Pj+ cGo lsl;dsf wSsfx? (Shocks) ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf sdhf]/ x'G5 .
pgLx?n] k|fs[lts k|sf]k, ljdf/L, o'4, ck/fw, cflb cj:yfx?af6 cfkm"nfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg ;Sb}gg\ .
oL dflysf ljleGg kIfx? Ps csf{df cGt/;DalGwt x'G5g\ . ltgLx?n] c?nfO{ k|efj kfg'{sf] ;fy}
cGo kIfaf6 klg k|efljt x'G5g\ . pbfx/0fsf] nflu, ;fdflhs l:ylt - ;fdflhs;f:s[lts kIf_
sdhf]/ ePsf] dflg;n] ;fj{hlgs gLlt lgdf{0f - /fhg}lts kIf_ df k|efj kfg{ ;Sb}g eg] csf]{
tkm{ ;fdflhs l:ylt sdhf]/ x'g'sf] sf/0f p;sf] lzIffdf kx'Fr gx'g' -dfgjLo kIf_ xf] .

g]kfndf ul/aLsf sf/0fx?


g]kfn Ps clt sd ljsl;t d'n"s (Least Developed Country) xf] . o;sf cfkm\g} lsl;dsf
cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pj+ /fhg}lts ljz]iftfx? 5g\ . g]kfnsf] ljBdfg ul/aL oL ;a} kIf;+u
cGt/;DalGwt /x]sf] kfO{G5 . xfd|f] d'n"sdf ul/aLsf ljleGg sf/0fx? 5g\ . tL dWo] s]xL k|d'v
sf/0fx? b]xfo adf]lhd pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .

135

-!_ pRr >d cNkpkof]u b/ (High Labour Underutilization Rate):


ljsf;f]Gd'v Pj+ clt sd ljsl;t d'n"sx?df a]/f]huf/L b/ dfkg ug{sf nflu >d cNkpkof]u
b/sf] k|of]u ul/G5 . cfly{s ?kn] ;lqmo dflg;x?dWo] >dsf] cNkpkof]u ePsf dflg;x?
cGtu{t b]xfosf dflg;x? kb{5g\M
a]/f]huf/
c:j}lR5s cNksfnLg /f]huf/ jf cw{a]/f]huf/
k"0f{ /f]huf/ t/ ckof{Kt sdfO{ ePsf
k]zfut ;Lk lzIFf of]Uotf;+u gldNbf] /f]huf/ ePsf JolQmx?
g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df !% aif{ jf ;f] eGbf dflysf] pd]/sf cfly{s ?kn] ;lqmo hg;+Vofdf >dsf]
cNkpkof]u b/ #) k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . h;dWo] a]/f]huf/ @=! k|ltzt, cw{a]/f]huf/ ^=& k|ltzt,
ckof{Kt sdfO{ ePsf *=! k|ltzt tyf cfkm\gf] lzIFf ;'xfpbf] k]zf gePsf !#=@ k|ltzt /x]sf
5g\ . o;n] xfd|f] d'n"sdf a]/f]huf/Lsf] l:ylt lgs} ulDe/ /x]sf] b]vfpFb5 .
o; k|sf/sf] pRr a]/f]huf/L b/ d'n"ssf] ljBdfg ul/aLsf] k|d"v sf/0f xf] . a]/f]huf/ JolQmx?;+u
cfly{s ;fwg gx'g] jf lgs} sd dfq x'g] l:ylt /xG5 . kmn:j?k pgLx?n] Hofb} Go"g dfqfdf
hLjgsf cfwf/e"t cfjZostfx? k'/f ug{ ;s]sf x'G5g\ . xfn d'n"sdf ljBdfg r/d a]/f]huf/Lsf
k|d"v sf/0fx?df cf}Bf]lus ljsf;sf] Go"g :t/ Pj+ Go"g ult, phf{;+s6, kF"hLsf] cefj cflb x'g .

-@_ ;'zf;gsf] cefjM


;'zf;gsf] cefj klg ul/aLsf] Pp6f dxTjk'0f{ sf/0f xf] . ;'zf;gsf] nflu ;xeflutfd'ns
zf;g k|0ffnL, kf/blz{tf, sfg"gL zf;g, hjfkmb]lxtf cflb cfjZos kb{5g\ . oL s'/fx?sf]
cefjdf /fHosf tkm{jf6 sfo{fGjog ul/g] ljleGg sfo{qmdx? lgik|efjL aGg hfG5g\ . ul/a
nlIft sfo{qmdx?df x'g] clgoldttf klg ;'zf;gsf] cefjn] ubf{ g} ePsf] xf] . ct M g]kfnn]
klg ;'zf;gnfO{ Jojxf/df ptfg'{ h?/L 5 . tfls cy{tGq ;xL tl/sfn] rNg ;sf];\ / cfly{s
j[l4 Pj+ ljsf;sf] ult klg j9f];\ . To;f] ePdf gofF /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x? ;[hgf x'g] Pj+ ul/aL
36\g] l:ylt k}bf x'G5 .

-#_ pRr d'b|f:kmLlt b/M


d'b|f:kmLlt eGgfn] ;fdfGo d"No:t/ (General Price Level) df cfpg] lg/Gt/ j[l4 eGg] a'lemG5 .
cyf{t\ of] d'n"sdf pkof]u ul/g] ljleGg j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] cf};t d"Nodf j[l4 x'g] l:ylt xf] .

136

d'n"ssf ljleGg ;d:ofx? dWo] Pp6f k|d'v ;d:of pRr d'b|f:kmLlt b/ klg xf] . tflnsf g+= !
n] d'n"ssf] d'b|f:kmLltsf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbG5 .
Tfflnsf g+= ! M cf};t d'b|f:kmLlt b/M
;do -O{=;+=_
!(&%&^!(*$*%
!(*%*^!(($(%
!((%(^@))$)%
@))%)^@)!)!!
!(&%&^ @)!)!!

cf};t d'b|f:kmLlt b/ -_
&=$^
!!=$#
%=&*
*=&@
*=#!

>f]tM cfly{s ;j]{IF0f, @)!!!@, cy{dGqfno, g]kfn ;/sf/ .


o;k|sf/ ;g\ !(&%&^ b]lv @)!)!! ;Ddsf] tYof+s x]bf{ d'n"sdf d'b|f:kmLltsf] b/ t'ngfTds
?kdf a9L g}+ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . of] b/ cf};tdf pQm ;dodf *=#! k|ltzt /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ctM
g]kfndf d'b|f:kmLlt Ps k|d'v Macroeconomic Problem sf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . d'b|f:kmLltn] dflg;sf]
qmo zlQmnfO{ 36fpFb5 . hlt a9L d'b|f:kmLlt /x\of] Tolt g} a9L dfqfdf qmo zlQm 36\b} hfG5 .
o;n] klg ul/aL a9fpgdf of]ubfg ul//x]sf] x'G5 . Psftkm{ cfly{s pkfh{gsf >f]tx? lgs} sd
x'g' tyf csf]{lt/ d'b|f:kmLlt tLa| x'g'n] ubf{ dflg;x?sf] hLjg:t/df gsf/fTds c;/ k/]sf] s'/f
;xh} cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 .

-$_ /fhg}lts cl:y/tfM


d'n"s /fhg}lts ?kn] lgs} t/n cj:yfdf /x]sf] 5 . lj=;+ @)$^ ;fnsf] kl/jt{g kl5 d'n"sn]
/fhg}lts ?kdf l:y/tf dx;'z ug{ ;s]g . lj=;+= @)^@^# sf] hgcfGbf]ng kl5 t d'n"s
/fhg}lts ?kn] ;+qmd0fsfnLg l:yltaf6 u'lh|/x]sf] 5 . /fhg}lts cl:y/tfn] d'n"sdf cfly{s
cl:y/tf k}bf u/]sf] 5 . cfly{s cl:y/tf ;+u} cfly{s j[l4 Pj+ ljsf;sf d'2fx? cf]em]n k/]sf 5g\ .
d'n"sdf nufgLsf] pko'Qm jftfj/0f aGg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . kmn:j?k /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x? Hofb}
;Lldt dfqfdf pknAw 5g\ . h;n] ubf{ a]/f]huf/L 36fpg lgs} ;d:of kl//x]sf] 5 . kmn:j?k
ul/aL lgjf/0f sfo{ lgs} r'gf}ltk"0f{ aGb} uO{/x]sf] 5 .

-%_ s[lif If]qdf ck]Iffs[t ;'wf/ x'g g;Sg'M


xfn d'n"sdf /f]huf/ JolQmx? dWo] &#=( k|ltzt s[lif If]qdf ;+nUg 5g\ . oBkL of] If]qdf >dsf]

137

pTkfbsTj lgs} sd 5 . o;sf] k|d'v sf/0f s[lif If]qdf cfw'lgsLs/0fsf] ult lgs} sd x'g'
xf] . k/Dk/fut s[lif k|ljwLsf] pkof]u, k/Dk/fut s[lif afnLsf] pTkfbg, l;+rfO{sf] cefj, ahf/
lj:tf/df tLa|tf cfpg g;Sg', cflb sf/0fx?n] ubf{ s[ifsx?sf] cfDbfgLdf pNn]Vo dfqfdf j[l4
x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . ctM pTkfbgzLn hg;+Vofsf] 7"nf] lx:;fsf] cfDbfgLdf ck]Iffs[t ;'wf/ x'g
;s]sf] 5}g . s[lif sfo{df ;+nUg dflg;x? d"ntM u|fdL0f If]qdf a;f]af; ub{5g\ . ul/aL klg
u|fdL0f If]qdf a9L b]lvG5 . ctM s[lif If]qdf ;'wf/ gNofpGh]n;Dd ul/aL lgoGq0f sfo{ s7Lg g}
x'g] b]lvG5 . ;fy} s[lif If]qdf /x]sf] >dsf] clws lge{/tfnfO{ 36fpg' klg lgs} h?/L b]lvG5 .
o;sf] nflu cf}Bf]lus lj:tf/ Pj+ ;]jf If]qsf] lj:tf/df hf]8 lbg' cfjZos 5 .

-^_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff of]hgfx? (Social Security Schemes) sf] ckof{KttfM


/fHon] ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf of]hgfx?sf] kof{Kt dfqfdf Joj:yf ug'{ kb{5 . a]/f]huf/, ckf, Go"g
cfo ePsf JolQmx?, a[4a[4fx?, cflb dflg;x?sf] nflu kof{Ktdfqfdf vr{ ug'{kb{5 . cfly{s
pkfh{g ug{ g;Sg] dflg;x?df g} ul/aLsf] ;a}eGbf a9L k|efj kg]{ x'gfn] oL dflg;x?sf] nflu
;/sf/n] Go"gtd hLjg:t/ hLpg ;Sg] l:ylt l;h{gf ul/lbg' kb{5 . cfly{s ?kn] sdhf]/
dflg;x?nfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo cflb ;]jfx? lgMz'Ns k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] Joj:yf sfod ul/lbg' kb{5 .

-&_ ef}lts k"jf{wf/x?sf] oy]i7 ljsf; x'g g;Sg'M


ef}lts k"jf{wf/x?df d"ntM /fHon] nufgL ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . of] If]qdf lghL If]qsf] cfsif{0f lgs} sd
x'g] ub{5 . oBkL xfd|f] h:tf] sd ljsl;t d'n"sdf lghL If]q cfkm}df sdhf]/ x'g] ub{5 . ctM o;
If]qdf nufgL ug]{ k|d'v bfloTj ;/sf/s} xf] . oBkL s]xL If]qdf ;/sf/LlghL ;fem]bf/L cGtu{t
klg nufgL eO{/x]sf] b]lvG5 . h] xf];\ k"jf{wf/sf] cefjdf d'n"ssf] ljsf; ;+ej x'b}g . :jb]zL Pj+
ljb]zL h'g;'s} k|sf/sf] nufgLsf] nflu klg k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; x'g h?/L x'G5 . d'n"ssf] cf}Bf]lus
ljsf;sf] :t/ Pj+ ult Go"g x'gsf k5fl8sf] Pp6f k|d'v sf/0f oxL g+} xf] . pBf]uwGbfsf] kof{Kt
ljsf; x'g g;Sbf /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/df pNn]Vo ;'wf/ x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . h;n] ubf{ ul/aL
36fpg] sfo{df ck]lIft ;kmntf k|fKt ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g .

-*_ >f]t Pj+ ;fwgsf] c;dfg ljt/0fM


d'n"sdf If]qLo c;dfgtfsf] hh{/ l:ylt /x]sf] 5 . ;lbof}+ b]lvsf] s]Gb|Ls[t zf;g k|0ffnLn] ubf{
klg ;Gt'lnt If]qLo ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffn] d"t{ ?k k|fKt ug{ ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . tYof+sut ?kdf x]bf{
lxdfnL e]udf ;a}eGbf a9L u/LaL $@=@& k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . To;}u/L of] b/ kxf8L tyf t/fO
k|b]zdf qmdzM @$=#@ / @#=$$ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . To;}u/L, ljsf; If]qut ?kdf x]g]{ xf] eg]
;jf{lws ul/aL /x]sf] If]q ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]q xf] hxfF ul/aL $%=^! k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .

138

:d/0f /xf];\ g]kfnsf] cf};t ul/aL b/ @%=!$ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . of] tYof+sn] klg s] b]vfpFb5
eg] If]qLo ?kdf cfly{s c;dfgtf d'n"ssf] Pp6f k|d'v ;d:of /x]s]f 5 . lxdfnL k|b]z Pj+
;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qdf /fHosf] k|efjsf/L cfly{s pkl:ylt x'g ;s]sf] cfefif To; If]qsf
hgtfn] kfpg g;sL/x]sf] jt{dfg l:ylt 5 . o;nfO{ hlt;Sbf] rfF8f] ;Daf]wg ul/g' h?/L 5 .

-(_ ul/a nlIft sfo{qmdsf] Go"g k|efjsfl/tfM


xfn;Dd d'n"sn] ul/aL lgjf/0f sfo{qmddf 7"nf] dfqfdf vr{ u/L/x]s]f 5 . ljleGg cfjlws
of]hgfx?df ul/aL lgjf/0f Pp6f k|d'v p2]Zosf] ?kdf /xb} cfPsf] klg 5 . oBkL oL ljljw
k|of;x?sf afjh'b klg ul/aL pRr b/df ljBdfg 5 . ;fy} d'n"ssf] k|ltJolQm cfo, cfly{s
a[l4b/ cflbdf klg ck]lIft ;'wf/ x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . ctM ul/Af nlIft sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/Ltf
j[l4 ug'{ clt g} cfjZos /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

-!)_ cGt/f{li6o ahf/df Go"g k|lt:kwf{Tds IfdtfM


cfd gful/sx?sf] hLjg:t/ psf:b} ul/aL lgjf/0fsf k|of;x? ;kmntfk"j{s ;DkGg ug{ 3/]n'
pTkfbgdf j[l4 cfjZos 5 . jt{dfg ;do cGt/f{li6|o Jofkf/sf] ;do xf] . xfdLn] cfkm"n] pTkfbg
u/]sf j:t'dfq geO{ ljb]zL j:t' klg pkef]u ub{5f} . cGo d'n"sx?n] klg ToxL ub{5g\ . oBkL
cfGtl/s Pj+ afx\o b'j} ahf/df kx'+r lj:tf/ ug{ k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtf lj:tf/ ug'{ h?/L 5 .
To;sf nflu pTkfbg nfut 36fpg] tyf u'0f:t/df j[l4 ug'{ cfjZos 5 . oBkL xfd|f pTkflbt
a:t' tyf ;]jfx?n] cGt/f{li6\o ahf/df k|lt:kwL{ x'g g;Sbf xfdLn] xfd|f a:t' tyf ;]jfx?sf]
cGt/f{li6o ?kdf ahf/ lj:tf/ ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gf} . kmn:j?k /f]huf/L ;[hgf Pj+ ul/aL
lgjf/0fsf k|of;x?df gsf/fTds c;/ kl//x]sf] 5 .

-!!_ :j/f]huf/sf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{ g;Sg'M


/fHon] :j/f]huf/sf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug{ g;Sg' klg ul/aLsf] Pp6f k|d"v sf/0f xf] . cfd
dflg;x?nfO{ pBdzLntfsf] af/]df hfgsf/L u/fpg] Pj+ :j/f]huf/sf sfo{qmdx?df ;+nUg x'g
rfxg]x?nfO{ ;x'lnot b/df C0f pknAw x'g] l:ylt ;[hgf ug'{ h?/L 5 . ;fy} /f]huf/L clej[l4sf
xfn;Ddsf sfo{qmdx?sf] pko'Qm d"Nof+sg x'g' klg h?/L 5 . tfls d'n"ssf] sdhf]/Lsf] jf/]df
hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ ;lsof];\ .

-!@_ hg;+Vofsf] k|efjsf/L Joj:yfkg x'g g;Sg'M


d'nsn] hg;+Vofsf] k|efjsf/L ?kdf Joj:yfkg ug{ ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . hg;+Vofsf] pko'Qm ?kdf
Joj:yfkg ug{ ;s]df ul/aL 36fpgdf s]xL ;xof]u cjZo ldNg] b]lvG5 .

139

-!#_ dfgjLo k"FhL lgdf{0f Go"g x'g'M


dfgjLo kF"hL lgdf{0fsf] ult Go"g x'g' klg ul/aLsf] Pp6f sf/0f xf] . dfgjLo kF"hL lgdf{0fsf] nflu
lzIff, ;Lk Pj+ :jf:Yodf ;'wf/ Nofpg h?/L x'G5 . xfdLn] d"ntM k|fljlws lzIFfdf hf]8 lbg' lgs}
dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . xfn d'n"ssf] ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{g ug{ Pp6f k|d'v >f]t a}b]lzs /f]huf/L /x]sf]
5 . olb k|fljlws ?kn] bIf hgzlQm tof/ ug{ ;s]df pgLx?n] ljb]zdf klg /fd|f] cfo cfh{gsf]
cj;/ k|fKt ug{ ;Sb5g\ . kmn:j?k ul/aL lgjf/0fdf ;s/fTds k|efj kb{5 .

g]kfndf ul/aLsf] ljBdfg cj:yf


g]kfndf s]lGb|o tYof+s ljefu - s]= t= lj=_ n] ljleGg ;dodf ul/aLsf] dfkg ub}{ cfO{/x]sf] 5 .
o;sf nflu pQm ;+:yfn] ;j]{If0f ljwL ckgfpFb} cfPsf] 5 . ul/aLsf] dfkgsf ;Gbe{df ul/Psf]
clGtd ;j]{If0f g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^& xf] . oxfF ;f]xL g]kfn hLjg:t/
;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^& - s]= t= lj= _ nfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ g]kfndf ljBdfg ul/aLsf] cj:yfjf/]
pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
g]kfndf ul/aLsf] dfkg kfl/jf/Ls pkef]u vr{sf] cfwf/df ul/b} cfO{Psf] 5 . xfn g]kfndf
cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf vfB tyf u}/ vfB j:t'x? pkef]u ug{sf] nflu cfjZos Go'gtd vr{
k|lt JolQm aflif{s ? !(,@^! /x]sf] 5 . ct Mg]kfndf xfn ul/aLsf] /]vf k|ltJolQm jflif{s ?=
!(,@^! lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] 5 . vfB ul/aLsf] /]vf ?=!!,(@( tyf u}/ vfB ul/aLsf] /]vf ? &,##@
/x]sf] 5 . To;}u/L, d'n"ssf] ljleGg If]qx?sf] nflu ul/aLsf] /]vf b]xfojdf]lhd 5 .

tflnsf g+=@ M ul/aLsf /]vfx?


If]q
lxdfn
sf7df8f} pkTosf zx/
cGo kxf8L zx/
t/fO{ zx/
u|fdL0f k"jf{~rn kxf8
u|fdL0f dWodf~rn kxf8
u|fdL0f klZrdf~rn kxf8
u+|fdL0f ;'b"/dWoklZrdf~rn kxf8
u|fdL0f k"jf{~rn t/fO{
u|fdL0f dWodf~rn t/fO{
u|fdL0f klZrdf~rn t/fO{
u+|fdL0f ;'b"/dWoklZrdf~rn t/fO{
g]kfn

ul/jLsf] /]vf -?=_


!(,*%(
$),(##
!(,%&&
@!,!##
!^,%%!
!*,^*(
!*,$@*
!^,#%%
!^,*%^
!&,%$)
!%,((*
!&,#!(
!(,@^!

;|f]t M g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^&, s]= t= lj=, sf7df8f} .

140

xfn g]kfndf ul/aLsf] dfkg ug{sf nflu lgDglnlvt tLg ;'rsf+sx? k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 M
Head Count Index
Poverty Gap Index
Squared Poverty Gap Index
Head Count Index

Head Count Index n] ul/aLsf] l:ylt dfkg ub{5 . cyf{t\ o;n] ul/aLsf] /]vfd'gLsf] hg;+Vofsf]
k|ltztnfO{ b]vfpFb5 . g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^& sf cg';f/ jflif{s ?= !(,@^!
eGbf sd pkef]u vr{ ePsf JolQmx? ul/a dflg;x? x'g . xfn g]kfndf ljBdfg ul/aLsf]
/]vfd'gLsf] hg;+Vof b]xfojdf]lhd 5 M
tflnsf g+= # M ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lgsf] hg;+Vof
If]q
zx/L If]q
u|fdL0f If]q
lxdfn
kxf8
t/fO{
k"jf{~rn
dWodf~rn
klZrdf~rn
dWoklZrdf~rn
;'b"/klZrdf~rn
g]kfn

Ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lgsf] hg;+Vof - _


!%=$^
@&=$#
$@=@&
@$=#@
@#=$$
@!=$$
@!=^(
@@=@%
#!=^*
$%=^!
@%=!^

;|f]t M g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^&, s]= t= lj=, sf7df8f} .


ul/aL dfkgsf] of] ;"rsf+s pkof]u ug{ ;xh Pj+ a'g klg ;xh 5 . t/ klg o;n] ul/ax? slt
ul/Af 5g\ Pj+ pgLx?aLr slt c;dfgtf 5 eGg] s'/f dfkg ub}{g .
t'ngfTds ?kdf u|fdL0f If]qdf ul/aL Af9L dfqfdf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . To;}u/L, ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf;
If]qdf ul/aLsf] l:ylt uDeL/ /x]sf] b]lvG5 . d'n"se/Lsf] ul/ax?sf] hg;+Vof dWo] sl/j cfwf

141

hg;+Vof ;'b"/klZrdf~rndf /x]sf] b]lvG5 . o;n] s] b]vfpFb5 eg] cem} klg ;'b"/klZrdf~rn
ljsf; If]q /fHosf] pk]Iffdf k/L/x]sf] 5 . of] s]Gb|sf] 5fofFdf k/]sf] 5 .
Poverty Gap Index

of] ;'rsf+sn] ul/aLsf] ljifdtf ( Poverty Gap ) dfkg ub{5 . o;n] ul/a dflg;x? cf}iftdf
ul/aLsf] /]vfjf6 slt k|ltzt 6f9f 5g\ eGg] s'/f dfkg ub{5 . xfn g]kfndf ul/aLsf] ljifdtf
b]xfocg';f/ /x]sf] 5 M

tflnsf g+= $ M ul/aLsf] ljifdtf


If]q
zx/L If]q
u|fdL0f If]q
lxdfn
kxf8
t/fO{
k"jf{~rn
dWodf~rn
klZrdf~rn
dWoklZrdf~rn
;'b"/klZrdf~rn
g]kfn

ul/jLsf] ljifdtf -_
#=!(
%=(^
!)=!$
%=^(
$=%@
#=*!
$=(^
$=@&
&=&$
!)=&$
%=$#

;|f]t M g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^&, s]= t= lj=, sf7df8f} .


tflnsf g+= $ cg';f/ lxdfnL If]q Pj+ ;'b"/klZrdf~rn If]qsf ul/j dflg;x? t'ngfTds ?kn]
ul/aLsf] /]vfjf6 lgs} 6f9f 5g\ . :d/0f /xf];, ul/jL dfkg ug]{ of] ljwLn] ul/jx?aLr /x]sf]
c;dfgtfnfO{ eg] ul/jLdfkgsf] k|s[ofdf ;+nUg u/fpFb}g .
Squared Poverty Gap Index

of] ;'rsf+sn] ul/aLsf] uxgtf - Squared Poverty Gap ) dfkg ub{5 . o;n] ul/aL dfkgdf
ul/ax?aLr /x]sf] c;dfgtfnfO{ klg ;+nUg u/fpFb5 . of] Weighted Sum of Poverty Gaps xf] .

142

ctM o;n] ul/aLsf] ljifdtf dfkg ubf{ ul/jx?AfLr /x]sf] c;dfgtfnfO{ klg dWogh/ ub{5 .
xfn g]kfndf ul/jLsf] uxgtf b]xfo jdf]lhd 5 M

tflnsf g+= % M ul/jLsf] uxgtf


If]q
zx/L If]q
u|fdL0f If]q
lxdfn
kxf8
t/fO{
k"jf{~rn
dWodf~rn
klZrdf~rn
dWoklZrdf~rn
;'b"/klZrdf~rn
g]kfn

Ul/jLsf] uxgtf -_
!=)!
@=))
#=%$
@=)(
!=#!
!=)!
!=&^
!=#*
@=^(
#=&&
!=*!

;|f]t M g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^&, s]= t= lj=, sf7df8f} .


Tflnsf g+= % cg';f/ lxdfnL k|b]z Pj+ ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qdf ul/aLsf] uxgtf t'ngfTds
?kdf al9 /x]sf] b]lvG5 . lxdfnL If]qdf ul/jLsf] uxgtf d'n"ssf] cf}ift ul/jL !=(^ u'0ffn] a9L
ePsf] b]lvG5 eg] ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qdf of] d'n"ssf] cf}ift eGbf @=)* u'0ffn] a9L /x]sf]
b]lvG5 .
ctM ;+If]kdf eGg'kbf{, d'n"ssf] ul/aL lxdfnL If]q Pj+ ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf;If]qdf s]lGb|t /x]sf]
b]lvG5 . t'ngfTds ?kdf ;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf; If]qdf ul/aLsf] l:ylt ljs/fn ?kdf /x]sf]
b]lvG5 . o;nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{sf] nflu ;dod} k|efjsf/L sbd rflng' cfjZos 5 .

ax'kIfLo ul/jL ;"rfsf+s (MPI) tyf g]kfn


ax'kIfLo ul/aL ;"rfsf+ssf] cjwf/0ff ;g\ @)!) h'nfO{ !$ df UNDP tyf Oxford University
n] ;+o'Qm ?kdf NofPsf x'g\ . of] ;"rsf+s Sabina Alkire tyf James Foster n] ljsf; u/]sf]
ljwLdf cfwfl/t 5 . MPI n] dflg;n] ;fdgf ug'{ k/]sf cefjx?sf] dfkg ub{5 . of] ;a}eGbf
eofjx l:ylt ePsf dflg;x?sf] klxrfg ug{, pgLx?n] s'g s'g s'/fdf cefjsf] dx;'z u/]sf
5g\ eGg] yfxf kfpg Pj+ ljleGg cefjx? AfLrsf] cGt/;DaGw kQf nufpg ;xof]uL 5 . of]
;'rfsf+s ;j{k|yd ;g\ @)!) df UNDP n] dfgj ljsf; k|ltj]bg dfkm{t ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] xf] .

143

MPI n] ul/aLsf tLgj6f dxTjk"0f{ kIfx?cfofdx? M lzIff, :jf:Yo tyf hLjg:t/sf] af/]df
dfkg ub{5 . o;sf] nflu !) j6f ;"rsx? (Indicators) k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . h;nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhd
b]vfpg ;lsG5 (OPHI,2011) M
!= lzIff
ljBfno lzIFf lnPsf] aif{ (Years of Schooling)
afnaRrfsf] :s"ndf pkl:ylt (Child School Attendance)
@= :jf:Yo
afn d[To' (Child Mortality)
kf]if0f (Nutrition)
#= hLjg:t/
ljB't (Electricity)
lkpg] kfgL (Drinking Water)
;/;kmfO{ (Sanitation)
3/sf] ;tx (Flooring)
Vffgf ksfpg] OGwg (Cooking Fuel)
;DklQ (Assets)
OPHI Country Briefing 2011 sf cg';f/ M
g]kfnsf] MPI )=#%)
MPI Poor - slDtdf ## k|ltzt ;"rsx?df a+lrt ePsf] hg;+Vof_ cyf{t\ ul/aLsf]
cj:yf (Incidence of Poverty _ ^$=& k|ltzt
cf};tdf ljleGg ;'rsx?df MPI Poor al~rt ePsf] k|ltzt (Average Intensity
Across the Poor) %$ k|ltzt

144

MPI sf ljleGg ;'rsx? dWo] cf};tdf %) k|ltzt eGbf a9L ;"rsx?df al~rt

ePsf] hg;+Vof (Severe Poverty) #&=! k|ltzt

ul/aLsf] rqm jf ul/jLsf] b'irqm


ul/aLsf ljleGg sf/0fx? 5g\ . ljleGg d'n"sdf ul/aLsf ljleGg sf/0fx? x'g ;S5g . oBkL
g]kfn h:tf clt sd ljsl;t d'n"sx?df ul/aLsf sf/0fx?df s]lx ;dfgtf eg] cjZo klg 5g\ .
tL dWo] s]lx k|d"v sf/0fx?sf] jf/]df dfly rrf{ ul/;lsPsf] 5 . t/ klg ul/aLsf] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{
sf/0f ul/aL cfkm} xf] . To;}n] cy{zf:qdf Pp6f egfO{ 5 M
A poor is poor because he is poor
ul/a dflg;x?sf] cfo sd x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ pgLx?sf] jrt klg sd x'G5 . jrt sd x'gfn]
pgLx?sf] ef}lts, dfgjLo Pj+ k|fs[lts k"FhLdf nufgL sd x'G5 . kmn:j?k pgLx?sf] pTkfbsTj
sd x'g uO{ cfodf x'g] j[l4 sd x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ pgLx? k'gM ul/aLdf /xg afWo x'G5g .
o;k|sf/sf] l:yltnfO{ ul/aLsf] b'irqm elgG5 . ul/aLsf] b'irqm nfO{ b]xfosf] lrqjf6 klg JoQm
ug{ ;lsG5 (Tragakes, 2009) :
sd jrt

sd cfo
(Low Income

(Low Saving)

sd nufgL
(Low Investment)

sd ef}lts k"FhL

sd dfgjLo kF"hL

(Low Physical Capital)

( Low Human Capital )

sd cfo j[l4

>d tyf e"dLsf] sd pTkfbsTj

(Low Growth in Income)

(Low Productivity of Labour and Land)

sd k|fs[lts kF"hL
( Low Natural Capital )

ul/aLsf] rqmdf k/]sf dflg;x?;Fu ;|f]t Pj+ ;fwg gx'g] jf ePklg Hofb} ;Lldt x'g] cj:yf x'G5 .
o;k|sf/sf] ul/aLsf] rqm s'g} kl/jf/, ;d'bfo, d'n"ssf] s'g} efudf jf ;Dk'0f{ cy{tGqdf b]vf kg{
;Sb5 . ul/aLsf] rqmsf] sf/0fn] ul/aL Ps kL+l9 ( Generation ) af6 csf]{ kL+l9df ;b}{ hfG5 .

145

o;nfO{ tf]8\gsf] nflu ;/sf/n] cfly{s ?kdf x:tIf]k ug'{ kb{5 . cyf{t\ ul/aLsf] rqm x6fpgsf]
nflu ;/sf/n] dfgjLo, k|fs[lts Pj+ ef}lts k"FhLdf nufgL j9fpg' kb{5 . To;}u/L, ;/sf/n]
ul/ax?sf] kx'Fr a+}s C0fdf k'ofpg klg ;xof]u ug'{kb{5 . olb ;/sf/ ;+u kof{Kt dfqfdf ;|f]t
Pj+ ;fwg gx'gfn] ul/aLsf] rqm tf]8\gsf] nflu nufgL ug{ g;s]df ;Dk"{0f cy{tGq g+} ul/aLsf]
b'irqmdf km:b5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf b]znfO{ j}b]lzs ;xfotf cfjZostf kb{5 .

s] g]kfn ul/aLsf] b'irqmdf km;]sf] 5 <


s]Gb|Lo tYof+s ljefusf cg';f/ g]kfndf ul/aL qmdzM 3l6/x]sf] 5 . g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f
klxnf] @)%@%# sf cg';f/ g]kfndf ul/aLsf] /]vfd'gLsf] hg;+Vof $!=$^ k|ltzt /x]sf]df g]kfn
hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0fbf];|f] @)^)^! df of] 36]/ #)=*% k|ltztdf emof]{ . To;}u/L, g]kfn hLjg:t/
;j]{If0ft];|f] @)^^^& sf cg";f/ xfn ul/aLsf] /]vfd'gL sff] hg;+Vof @%=!^ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .
pQm calwdf ul/aLsf] ljifdtf tyf uxgtf klg qmdzM 36\b} uO{/x]sf] l:ylt hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0fn]
b]vfPsf] 5 . ctM ;du|df eGg' kbf{ d'n"s ul/aLsf] b'irqmdf km;]sf] b]lvb}g . oBkL d'n"ssf s]xL
dflg;x?, ;d'bfox? Pj+ lglZrt ef}uf]lns If]qdf a:g] dflg;x? o; k|sf/sf] b'irqmdf km;]sf]
x'g ;Sg] ;+efjgfnfO{ eg] gsfg{ ;lsb}g .

ul/aL lgjf/0fsf pkfox?


g]kfndf ul/aL lgjf/0fsf nflu b]xfosf pkfox? cjnDjg ug{ ;lsG5 M
!_ ul/ad}qL cfly{s j[l4df hf]8 M o;sf] nflu d"ntM lgDglnlvt s'/fx?df Wofg lbg'kb{5 M
/fli6o cfosf] ;dtfd"ns ljt/0fdf hf]8
Go'g d'b|f:kmLlt
ul/ax?sf] lzIff tyf :jf:Yodf kx'Fr
ul/aL 36fpg ;xof]uL ljQLo gLlt df hf]8
@_ s[lif If]qdf ;'wf/ M d'n"ssf] 7'nf] hg;+Vof s[lifdf cfl>t /x]sf]n] s[lifdf ;'wf/ gul/sg ;xh}
ul/aL lgjf/0fsf] nIo xfl;n ug{ ;ls+b}g . o;sf nflu lgDglnlvt s'/fx?df hf]8 lbg' k5{ M
l;FrfO{ ;'ljwf
goFf k|ljwLsf] k|of]udf hf]8
aLp Pj+ dnsf] ;xh pknAwtf
s[lif cg';Gwfgdf hf]8

146

#_ cfly{s Pj+ ;fdflhs k"jf{wf/x?sf] lgdf{0fdf hf]8


$_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjogdf hf]8
%_ :j/f]huf/sf sfo{qmdx?df hf]8
^_ ul/a dflg;x?nfO{ cg'bfg Pj+ ;x'lnotk"0f{ C0fsf] Joj:yf
&_ ;'zf;g Pj+ ljs]lGb|s/0f ;DjGwL sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfo{Gjog
*_ dlxnf, blnt tyf lk5l8Psf] ;d"bfo / If]qsf] nflu cfod"ns sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjog
(_ ul/a nlIft sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsf/L sfo{Gjog

g]kfndf ul/aL lgjf/0fsf If]qdf ePsf k|of;x?


ul/aL lgjf/0f g]kfn ;/sf/sf] Ps k|d'v j[xt\cy{zf:qLo nIo xf] . ljut b]lvg}+ ;/sf/n]
ul/aL lgjf/0fsf lbzfdf ljleGg sfo{qmdx? ub}}{ cfO{/x]sf] 5 . ljleGg cfly{s of]hgfx?n] klg
ul/aL lgjf/0fsf nIo lnPsf 5g . ;du|df eGg'kbf{, d'n"sdf ul/aL lgjf/0fsf] If]qdf ePsf
k|of;x?nfO{ b]xfo jdf]lhd pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
!_ ;+:yfut Joj:yf M ul/aL lgjf/0f ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy ljleGg ;+:yfut Joj:yfx? ul/Psf
5g . pbfx/0fsf] nflu M
ul/aL lgjf/0f sf]ifsf] Joj:yf
Poverty Mapping ug]{ sfo{qmd
ul/aL cg'udg k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf
/f]huf/ k|j4{g af]8{sf] :yfkgf
@_ gLltut Joj:yf M o; cGtu{t ePsf k|of;x?nfO{ b]xfo adf]lhd pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
gjf} of]hgf b]lv ul/aL lgjf/0fnfO{ of]hgfut ljsf;sf] s]Gb|df /fvL ul/aL lgjf/0f
;DjGwL ljleGg k|of;x? ul/Psf]
bL3{sfnLg s[lif gLlt NofO{Psf]
rfn' -!@ cf}+ _ of]hgfdf ul/aL lgjf/0f ;DjGwL ljleGg Joj:yfx? u/LPsf]

147

#_ sfo{ut Joj:yf M o; cGt{ut ePsf Joj:yfx?nfO{ lgDglnlvt ?kdf pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5
-vgfn, @)^#_ M
s _ ljt/0fd'vL sfo{qmdx? M
sfdsf nflu vfBfGg sfo{qmd
vfBfGg cg'bfg sfo{qmd
le6fldg P sfo{qmd
v _ nlIft sfo{qmdx?
hghflt ljsf; sfo{qmd
b'u{d If]]q ljsf; sfo{qmd
klZrd t/fO{ ul/aL lgjf/0f sfo{qmd
u_ ;fdflhs kl/rfng sfo{qmd
dlxnf ljsf;
Enable State Program
u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf] kl/rfng, cflb
3_ n3' C0f
;fgf ls;fg ljsf; sfo{qmd
k|fyldstf If]q ljsf; sfo{qmd
u|fdL0f ljsf; j}ssf] :yfkgf, cflb
_ ljz]if sfo{qmdx?
o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd
ul/a;Fu ljZj]Zj/ sfo{qmd
u|fdL0f :jfanDag sfo{qmd
cfgf] ufFp cfFkm} agfpF sfo{qmd, cflb
r_ dfgj ljsf;sf sfo{qmdx?
;fIf/tf j[l4
tflnd
:jf:Yo ;]jf
;/;kmfO{ tyf vfg]kfgLsf] Joj:yf
5_ hg;+Vof Joj:yfkg ;DjGwL sfo{qmdx?, cflb

148

lgisif{
ul/aL g]kfnsf] Ps k|d'v cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pj+ /fhg}lts ;d:of xf] . d'n"ssf] cfly{s Pj+
;fdflhs ljsf;sf] ultnfO{ tLj|tf lbgsf] nflu ul/aL lgjf/0f ckl/xfo{ 5 . d'n"ssf] pRr b/sf]
ul/aLn] cfly{s j[l4 Pj+ ljsf;nfO{ gsf/fTds c;/ kfl//x]sf] 5 . d'n"ssf] s'n dfudf o;sf]
gsf/fTds k|efj x'G5 . kmn:j?k nufgL Pj+ /fli6o pTkfbgdf klg o;sf] gsf/fTds k|efj
x'G5 . ul/aL lgjf/0fsf nflu ;/sf/n] cfly{s ?kdf x:tIf]k ug'{kb{5 . lzIff tyf :jf:Yo h:tf
If]qx?df ul/a dflg;x?sf] kx'Fr k'ofpg ;s]sf] v08df pgLx?sf] ;Lk Pj+ Ifdtf j[l4 x'g uO{
/f]huf/Lsf] cj;/ k|fKt x'g] cj:yf /xG5 . kmn:j?k pgLx?sf] cfDbfgLdf j[l eO{ ul/aLsf]
l:yltjf6 jflx/ lg:sg ;kmn x'G5g\ . ;/sf/n] cGo k"jf{wf/x?, h:t} ;8s, l;FrfO{ ;'ljwf cflbdf
klg nufgL a9fpg' h?/L 5 . xfd|f] d'n"sdf hg;+Vofsf] 7"nf] lx:;f ul/aLsf] rk]6fdf k/]sf] 5 .
ul/a dflg;x? d"ntM u|fdL0f If]qsf afl;Gbfx? /x]sf 5g\ . h;sf] d'Vo k];f s[lif xf] . ct M
ul/aL lgjf/0fsf nflu s[lif If]qsf ;'wf/ Nofpg' clt cfjZos 5 . To;}u/L, ul/aLsf] rsf]{ df/df
;'b"/klZrdf~rn ljsf;If]qsf dflg;x? k/]sf 5g . pgLx?sf] l:yltdf ;'wf/ Nofpg To; If]qdf
;/sf/n] ljz]if k|fyldstf lbg' clt g} h?/L 5 . cGoyf To; If]qsf dflg;x?sf] /fHok|0ffnL k|lt
cfqmf]; k}bf x'g] lglZrt 5 , h;n] cGttM d'n"ssf] /fhg}lts Pj+ cfly{s l:y/tfdf k|Zg lrGx
v8f ug]{5 .

;Gb{e u|Gyx?
s]=t=lj= -@)^*_, g]kfn hLjg:t/ ;j]{If0f t];|f] @)^^^&, sf7df8f} .
vgfn, /fhg -@)^# _, ;fj{hlgs gLlt, k|zf;g / Joj:yfkg M ;+lIfKt l6Kk0fL, ;f]kfg dfl;s,
sf7df8f} .
Government of Nepal (2011). Economic Survey 2011/12. Kathmandu : Ministry of Finance.
OECD (2001). The DAC Guidelines: Poverty Reduction. Paris: OECD. Retrieved From
http://www.oecd.org/development/povertyreduction/2672735.pdf
Sen, A. (1981). Poverty and Famines. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tragakes, E. (2009). Economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) (2011): Country Briefing 2011.
Retrieved From http://www.ophi.org.uk
Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia [online]. Retrieved From http://www.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Poverty_threshold.

149

pTk|]/0ff / g]kfnsf] lghfdtL


;]jfdf o;sf] cj:yf
6Lsf/fd 9sfn*

;f/f+z
lbof] aln/xg t]n ylk/xg'kb{5 eg] em} s'g} sfd ;DkGg ug{sf nflu k|f]T;fxg cfjZos
x'G5 . sfd ;DkGGf u/]kl5 k|ltkmn vf]Hg' :jefljs} xf] . t;y{ Joj:yfkg ljwfdf pTk|]/0ffnfO{
;\u7g tyf dfgj ;+zfwg Joj:yfkgsf] clt ;+j]bgzLn, dfgjLo tyf sfo{ut kIf dflgG5 .
sfo{;Dkfbgsf] u'0f:t/ / pTkfbsTjdf sd{rf/L pTk|]/0ffn] k|ToIf c;/ k5{ . ;+u7gsf tLgj6f
d"Vo ef}lts, cfly{s / dfgj ;|f]tdWo] klxnf] b'O{j6f ;|f]tx? lghL{j x'g . tL b'j} ;fwgnfO{
pTkfbgdf tj dfq kl/0ft ug{ ;lsG5 ha oL b'j} ;|f]tx?df dfgj ;|f]tnfO{ hf]l8G5 . of]
dfgj ;|f]t g} o:tf] kIf xf] h;nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug{ ;lsPdf dfq} s'g} klg afl~5t kl/0ffd ;xh
?kdf xfl;n ug{{ ;lsG5 . oxL dfgj ;|f]tnfO{ s;/L pTk|]l/t ug{] eGg] ;Gbe{df ePsf ljleGg
cg';Gwfgx?sf] kmn:j?k pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL ljleGg l;4fGtx?sf] k|ltkfbg Pj+ ;f]xL l;4fGtx?
adf]lhd cEof;sf] k|oTg ;d]t ePsf] 5 . b]zsf] ;/sf/L ;]jfsf] ?kdf /xg] lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{
klg o;sf] ckafb dfGg ;lsGg . g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL Joj:yfaf6 ;Gt'i6
x'g] cj:yf 5}g . ax' 6]8 o"lgogsf] cjwf/0ffaf6 k|zf;lgs jftfj/0f b"lift aGg', a[lQ ljsf;sf
Go"g cj;/, tna tyf cGo df}lb|s ;'ljwfx? sd x'g' tyf e"d08nLs/0fsf] k|efj cfTdf;ft\ ug{
g;Sg' h:tf ;d:ofx? g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL k|ltlglw ;d:ofx? x'g\ . o:tf
kIfdf Wofg lbg ;lsPg eg] ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|efjsf/L agfpg] k|of; s]jn k|of;df dfq ;Lldt
/xg]5 eGg] s'/fdf b'O{ dt gxf]nf .

cjwf/0ff
dflg;sf cfjZostfn] ubf{ lglZrt p2]Zo l;h{gf ub{5 / ;f]xL p2]Zo xfl;n ug{sf nflu
dflg;n] sfd ug{] O{R5f k|s6 ub{5 . oxL cfsf+Iffn] g} p2]Zo xfl;n x'G5 / dfq p ;Gt'lnt
cj:yf (State of Homeostasis) df cfOk'Ub5 .
dfgj ;+zfwg g} ;+u7gsf] ;fj{ef}d tTj ePsf] x'gfn] dfgjLo k|of;ljgf ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo xfl;n
x'g c;Dej 5 . dfgjLo ;+zfwg r]tgzLn k|f0fL ePsf]n] p;Fu hf]l8P/ cfpg] ljifo hl6n ;d]t
* zfvf clws[t, nf]s ;]jf cfof]u

150

5g\ . o;sf] Jojxf/ cWoog u/]/ sfdk|lt hfu?s, nugzLn / pT;flxt kfg{ g;lsP;Dd sfddf
k|efjsf/Ltf b]lv+b}g h;af6 JolQm cfkm} / ;+u7g b'j}sf] nIo xfl;n x'g ;Sb}g . o; k|lqmofnfO{
lgDgfg';f/ b]vfpg ;lsG5 .
Need
(Deprivation)

Drive
(Tension or drive
to fullfil need)

Satisfaction
Satisfaction
(Reducing
the drive
drive
(Reducing of the
and
of the
the
andsatisfaction
satisfaction of
original
need)
original need)

Actions
(Tension or drive
to fullfil need)

Figure 1

cy{ / kl/efiff
Motivation eGg] zAb c+u|]hL efiffsf] 'Motive' af6 lnO{Psf] xf] . of] zAb k|frLg Nofl6g efiffsf]
'Movere' af6 cfPsf] xf] h;sf] cy{ cu|;/ x'g' cyjf sfo{ ug'{ (To move) eGg] a'lemG5 .
lglZrt nIo jf p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ JolQm ljz]iff/f b]vfO{g] tTk/tfnfO{ pTk|]/0ff eGg ;lsG5 .
of] o:tf] cfGtl/s tTj xf] h;n] dflg;nfO{ :jt:km"t{ ?kdf ;DjlGwt sfddf kl/rfng u/fpg]
;fdYo{ /fVb5 . k"lt{ gePsf jf x'g g;s]sf cfjZostfx?n] JolQmsf] dgleq cfGtl/s G
l;h{gf ul/lbG5 o;af6 p;df 56k6L z'? x'G5 . cGttM s]xL u/f}+ (Do Something) sf] efjgf
:jt:km't{ ?kdf hfu[t x'G5 .
g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;Gbe{nfO{ x]bf{ pTk|]/0ff (Motivation) nfO{ lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf
cfsf+Iff / cfjZostfx?sf] kl/k"lt{ ub{} ;fj{hlgs p2]Zo xfl;n ug{ ckgfO{Psf] Jojl:yt
k|lqmofsf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .
pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL s]xL kl/efiffx? o;k|sf/ 5g\ .
nIo jf k'/:sf/ k|fKt ug{sf nflu zlQmsf] lj:tf/ ug{] tTk/tfsf] ?kdf pTk|]/0ffnfO{ kl/eflift
ug{ ;lsG5 .1
1 "Motivation can be defined as a willingness to expand energy to achieve a goal or reward"
Dale S.Beach

151

pTk|]/0ff eg]sf] Pp6f JolQmn] vf; p2]Zo jf glthf k|fKt ug{sf nflu cfgf ;Dk"0f{ k|oTgx?
vlr{g] O{R5f jf tTk/tf xf] .2
tf]lsPsf] nIo k|flKtsf nflu pBt /xg' jf tTk/tf b]vfpg' pTk|]/0ff xf] . o;n] :j]R5fsf] tof/L
/ ljGb'kysf] em'sfjsf] af/]df ;d]t efj hfx]/ ub{5 .3
pQm kl/efiffx?sf cfwf/df pTk|]/0ffnfO{ sd{rf/Lx?sf] pT;fx, hfFu/ / xf};nfnfO{ lqmofzLn
agfpg] k|lqmofsf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . pTk|]/0ff JolQmsf] dgf]ut kIf;Fu ;DjlGwt 5 . ljleGg
pTk|]/s tTjx?af6 sd{rf/L pTk|]l/t x'G5 . sfo{;DkfbgnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfP/ ;f+u7lgs p2]Zo
xfl;n ug{ ;3fpg] lg/Gt/sf] k|lqmof pTk|]/0ff xf] . o;nfO{ sfo{;Dkfbgsf] zlQm (Power of
Performance) sf ?kdf ;d]t lng ;ls|G5 .

pTk|]/0ffsf] cfjZostf / dxTj


lglZrt p2]Zo xfl;n ug{sf nflu ;+u7gsf] ;fj{ef}d ;fwg dfgj ;+zfwgnfO{ ;dofg's"n pTk|]l/t
u/fO{/xg' cfjZos 5 . pTk|]/0ffn] Stimulus sf ?kdf sfo{ ub{5 . ;+u7gfTds / sd{rf/Lsf
lx;fan] pTk|]/0ffsf] dxTjnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ sfdk|lt clek|]l/t u/fpg,
tf]lsPsf] jf ;"lDkPsf] sfo{ ;kmntf;fy ;DkGg ug{,
u/]sf] sfo{;Dkfbgaf6 cfTd;Gt'li6 k|fKt ug{,
;+u7gk|lt sd{rf/Lx?sf] k|lta4tf / :jfldTjkgf af]w u/fpg,
sd{rf/Lx?df ;[hgfTds Ifdtf clea[l4 u/fpg,
sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]an pRr kf/L pTkfbsTj a[l4 ug{ cflb .

pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL l;4fGtx?
km/s km/s ljifox?nfO{ ljleGg l;4fGtx?df pTk|]/0ffsf sf/s tTjsf ?kdf j0f{g u/]sf] kfO{G5 .
sd{rf/Lx?sf] O{R5f / cfsf+Iff km/s km/s x'g] x'Fbf p;nfO{ pTk|]l/t u/fpg] tTjx? klg km/s
2 "Motivation may be defined as the desire and willingness of a person to expend efforts can be defined
as a willingness to expand energy to achieve a goal or reward"
-Wendall French
3 "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an arganism to pursue some designated goals, and
implies to determination of the nature and the locus of the forces, including the degree of readiness"
- Encyclopedia of Management

152

km/s x'G5g\ . sd{rf/Lx?sf] dgf]j]u;Fu ;DjlGwt ePsf]n] sfdk|lt cGtd{gaf6} k|]/0ff hufpg] sfo{
cToGt} hl6n sfo{ xf] . ;+u7gsf] sfo{;Dkfbgk|lt s;/L k|]/0ff hufpg ;lsG5 eGg] ;DjGwdf
ljleGg cg';Gwfgx? ;d]t ePsf 5g\ . ;f]xL cg'?k pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL ljleGg l;4fGtx?sf] k|ltkfbg
ePsf] kfO{G5 . pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL l;4fGtx?nfO{ d"ntM b'O{ k|sf/df ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 .
s_ cfjZostf;Fu ;DjlGwt l;4fGt (Need based Theories)
v_ k|lqmof;Fu ;DjlGwt l;4fGt (Process based Theories)
s_ cfjZostf;Fu ;DjlGwt l;4fGt (Need based Theories):
!= cfjZostfsf] ;f]kfg l;4fGt (Hierarchy of Needs Theory, 1943)
cfjZostfsf] ;f]kfg l;4fGtsf k|ltkfbs ca|fxd df:nf] x'g\ . df:nf]n] Ps hgf dgf]/f]uLsf]
pkrf/sf l;nl;nfdf o; l;4fGtsf] k|ltkfbg u/]sf] atfpF5g\ . pgsf cg';f/ sd{rf/Lsf ljleGg
lsl;dsf cfjZostfx? x'G5g\ h;nfO{ kfFr txdf ljefhg ug{ ;lsG5 . ha pgLx?sf k|fylds
cfjZostfx? k"lt{ x'G5g\ cyjf hlt ck]Iff a9\b} hfG5, cGo cfjZostfx?sf] >[+vnf ;d]t ylkFb}
hfG5 . dflg;nfO{ :jfefljs kdf ljleGg s'/fxsf] cfjZostf x'G5 / tL cfjZostfx k"lt{
ug{ dflg; cfk"mn] ;Sbf] k|of; u5{ . o:tf] cfjZostfsf] ;f]kfg x'G5 / tNnf] txsf] cfjZostf
k"/f ePkl5 To;eGbf dflyNnf] txsf] csf]{ cfjZostfsf nflu dflg;n] k|of; u5{ . o:tf
cfjZostfx?n] g} sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ sfdk|lt pTk|]l/t u/fpF5g\ . hLjg wfGgsf nflu cfwf/e"t
cfjZostfx? k"/f geP;Dd cGo cfjZostfx?n] dflg; pTk|]l/t x'Fb}g . ca|fxd df:nf]f/f
k|ltkflbt o:tf cfjZostfx?sf] >[+vnfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 .

zf/Ll/s
cfjZostf

;'/Iffsf]
cfjZostf

;fdflhs
cfjZostf

cfTd
;Ddfgsf]
cfjZostf
$

cfTd
;Gt'li6sf]
cfjZostf
%

Figure 2
ca|fxd df:nf]sf] cfjZostfsf] ;f]kfg l;4fGt

153

@= pTk|]/0ffcf/f]Uo l;4fGt (Motivation - Hygiene Theory, 1972)


cd]l/sfsf] Ohio University sf Joj:yfkgljb\ Herzberg f/f k|ltkflbt of] l;4fGt Two Factors
Theory sf gfdn] ;d]t kl/lrt 5 . dflg; d"nt b'O{ tTjsf sf/0f pTk|]l/t x'G5 . tL x'g\ cf/f]Uo
tTj (Hygiene Factors) / pTk|]/s tTj (Motivational Factors) . pTk|]l/t ug{] tTjx?nfO{ pTk|]/s
tTj / sfo{:ynsf] jftfj/0fnfO{ cf/f]Uo tTjsf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 . cf/f]Uo tTjx?n] sfdbf/
x?nfO{ cfgf] sfdk|lt pTk|]l/t\ ub{}gg\ a? cg'Tk|]l/t x'gaf6 eg] hf]ufpg ;S5g\ .
xh{au{sf b'O{ l;4fGtx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ b]vfpg ;lsG5 .
pTk|]/s tTj (Motivational Factors)

pknAwL
dfGotf
pGglt
pQ/bfloTj
r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfd
ljsf;
sfo{df a[l4

cf/f]Uo tTj (Hygiene Factors)

sfo{
;Gt'li6
k|f]T;fxg

tna
dof{bf
;'/Iff
sfo{l:ylt
gLltk|zf;g
;'kl/j]If0f
JolQmut hLjg
sfo{ jftfj/0f

sfo{
c;Gt'li6
/f]sfj6

Figure 3
ca|fxd df:nf]sf zf/Ll/s cfjZostfx?nfO{ xh{au{sf] l;4fGtsf] cf/f]Uo tTj (Hygiene Factors)
;Fu t'ngf ug{ ;lsG5 eg] pTk|]l/t tTjnfO{ df:nf]sf ;fdflhs, cfTd;Ddfg / cfTd;Gt'li6sf
cfjZostfx/sf] >]0fLdf /fv]/ x]g{ ;lsG5 . ha JolQm pTk|]l/t x'G5, p;n], a9L lhDd]af/L lng
rfxG5 / To;/L xfl;n u/]sf] lhDd]jf/Laf6 ;Ddfg, pknJwL h:tf pTk|]/s tTj (Motivational
Factors) a9]sf] cfTdfg'e"lt ub{5 .

#=

l;4fGt

(Theory X and Y)

k|f=] Dofs u|]u/n] dflg;sf pTk|]l/t x'g] ;sf/fTds / gsf/fTds ljrf/wf/fx? k|:t't u/L X
tyf Y l;4fGt k|ltkfbg u/]sf 5g\ . hxfF, X l;4fGt gsf/fTds z}nL / Y nfO{ ;sf/fTds
ljrf/z}nLsf ?kdf k|:t't 5g\ . JolQm slxNo} klg :jt:km"t{ eP/ sfdk|lt clek|]l/t x'Fb}g .
:jefj}n] dflg; cN5L x'G5 . cfgf] pQ/bfloTj :jLsf/ ub{}g . p;sf] nflu ;+u7gsf] p2]ZoeGbf
JolQmut kmfO{bf g} k|fy{gLo x'G5 . To;}n] 8/, qf;, cfb]z / lgoGq0fsf] dfWodaf6 sfdk|lt
p;nfO{ clek|]l/t u/fpg ;lsG5 eGg] dfGotf X l;4fGtn] /fVb5 . o;nfO{ gsf/fTds pTk|]/0ff
(Negative motivation) sf ?kdf lng ;lsG5 .

154

JolQm ;b}j lqmofzLn /xG5 . p :jlgb{]lzt / :jlgolGqt x'G5 . JolQm ;sf/fTds wf/0ffn] ;w}+
lgod sfg"gk|lt akmfbf/ x'G5 . /fd|f] sfo{ u/]/ k|z+l;t x'g rfxg] :jefj ePsf]]n] Y l;4fGtsf]
k|of]uaf6 sfo{;Dkfbg k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsG5 eGg] dfGotf o;n] /fVb5 . 5f]6s/Ldf oL b'j}
l;4fGtsf dfGotfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
X l;4fGt
zlQm Pj+ lgoGq0f

cfwf/
Joj:yfkgsf] cfwf/ g]t[Tj

Ps JolQmdf cfwfl/t sd{rf/L dgf]lj1fg

;xeflutfTds

cf1fkfng

g}lts dfkg

clek|]/0ff

cf1fsf/L

sd{rf/L l:ylt

;Nnfxsf/

lgDg:t/Lo

sd{rf/L cfk"lt{

pRr:t/Lo

clgR5's

kl/jt{g

O{R5's

zf/Ll/s;'/Iff;DjGwL cfjZostf
;+u7gfTds

nIo

Y l;4fGt

cfTd;Ddfg
JolQmut / ;f+u7lgs nIo PsLs/0f
Figure 4

v_ k|lqmof;Fu ;DjlGwt l;4fGt (Process based Theories)


!= tLg cfjZostfsf] l;4fGt (Three need Theory, 1961)
k|l;4 dgf]lj1fgj]Qf David C. Mcclelland n] JolQm tLgj6f cfjZostfx?sf sf/0fn] dfq sfdk|lt
pTk|]l/t x'G5 eGg] dfGotf cg';f/ of] l;4fGtsf] k|ltkfbg u/]sf 5g\ . tL cfjZostfx? x'g\M
Achievement
Affiliation and
Power

5f]6s/Ldf oL ltg cfjZostfx?nfO{


lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
N-ach
N-aff
N-pow

oL cfjZostfx? hGdhft jf k|fs[lts (Innate) eg] xf]O{gg\ . klxnf] cfjZostf s'g} s'/fsf]
k|flKtsf nflu ;DjlGwt 5 . o;df pknJwLsf] cfjZostf cGtu{t tf]lsPsf] :t/ (Standard)
cg'?k s;/L ;kmntf xfl;n ug{], pGgtL / ljsf; s;/L ug{] eGg] ljifodf JolQmn] cfkm'nfO{
s]Gb|Lt ub{5 .
bf];|f] cfjZostfn] JolQm ljz]ifn] c?af6 s;/L ;b\efj, k|]d / ;+/If0f k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 eGg]
s'/fdf a9L Wofg lbG5 eGg] ljifosf] kIfkf]if0f ub{5 . s;/L ;'kl/j]Ifs (Superviser), ;]jfu|fxL

155

/ ;xsdL{x?sf] lk|okfq aGg] eGg] Wo]on] p;nfO{ a]nfa]nfdf 3R3RofO{/xG5 . /fd|f] sfd /
pQ/bfloTj axg u/]/ nf]slk|o aGg] k|of;sf ;fy sfo{k|lt pTk|]l/t eO{/xG5 .
t];|f] cfjZostf zlQm (Power) ;Fu ;DjlGwt 5 . JolQm ljz]ifn] cfgf] O{R5f / efjgf cg's"n
;~rfng ug{ rfxG5 . Joj:yfksn] cfgf] zlQmnfO{ xltof/sf] ?kdf k|of]u u/]/ sfd ug{ bafa
l;h{gf ub{5 .
@= cl:tTj, ;dflji6 tyf cfTdf]GgtL l;4fGt (ERG Theory of Motivation)
Clayton Alderfer n] ljsf; u/]sf] o; l;4fGtdf klg dflg;sf cfjZostfx?nfO{ tLg txdf
pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . oL tLg cfjZostfx?n] ubf{ dflg;nfO{ sfo{If]qdf pTk|]/0ffsf] lglDt k|oTgzLn
/fVb5 .
E (Existence)
: cfwf/e"t cfjZostf -zf/Ll/s tyf ;'/Iff;Fu ;DjlGwt_
R (Relativeness)
: cy{k"0f{ ;fdflhs tyf cGtj{}olQms ;DjGw;Fu ;DjGwLt cfjZostf
G (Growth)
: cfTd;Ddfg / cfTdk"/s cfjZostf
ERG l;4fGtn] JolQmdf Ps} ;dodf PseGbf a9L cfjZostfx? l;h{gf ePsf] x'Fb}g eGg] dfGotf
/fVb5 . JolQmn] dflyNnf] txsf] cfjZostf k|fKt ug{ ;Sof] eg] t ;Gt'li6 k|fKt ul/xfN5 . cys
k|of; ubf{ klg dflyNnf] cfjZostf k|fKt x'g ;s]g eg] p tNnf] txsf cfjZostftkm{ kmls{G5 .
o;nfO{ Frustration - Regression Process elgG5 .
#= pTk|]/0ffsf] ck]Iff;DjGwL l;4fGt (Expectancy Theory of Motivation)
JolQmn] s'g} cfjZostf slt dfqfdf rfxG5 / pQm k|flKtsf nflu lglZrt sfo{;lxtsf] k|of;af6
k|fKt x'g] ;Defjgf slt /x]sf] 5 To;sf] cg'dfg g} ck]Iff xf] . Victor H. Vroom n] pTk|]/0ffsf]
ck]Iff;DjGwL l;4fGtnfO{ lgDg ;dLs/0ff/f :ki6 kfg{ vf]h]sf 5g\ .
hxfF,

VxE

Strength of drive toward an action

Strength of one's desire for something

E
=
Probability of getting it with a certain action
JolQmn] s'g ljsNk jf sfo{nfO{ a9L k|fyldstf lbPsf] 5 / ;f] k|fKt ug{] ;Defjgf slQsf] ;Dej
5 eGg] cfwf/df s'g} sfd ug{ pT;flxt x'G5 . sfo{sf] dxTj jf k|fyldstf / xfl;n ug{] ck]Iffsf]
;DjGwaf6 JolQmsf] pTk|]/0ffTds zlQm lge{/ x'G5 .

156

$= pTk|]/0ffsf] ;dtf l;4fGt (The Equity Theory of Motivation)


'An individual wants to treat his effort and achievements fairly in relations to others.'
pTk|]/0ff JolQmsf] dgf]ut ljifo;Fu ;DjlGwt ePsf]n] JolQmsf] ;f]rsf] uxg cWoogkl5 kQf
nfu]sf] 5 ls p lgikIf Jojxf/ / Gofo rfxG5 . (Human kinds always strive for justice snd fair
behaviour) o;}sf cfwf/df ;dtf ;DjGwL l;4fGtsf] JofVof ePsf] 5 . JolQmn] cfkm'n] u/]sf
sfdx? c?;Fu t'ngf u/]sf] x'G5 / cfkm'n] u/]hlQs} k|oTgdf c?n] slt k|fKt u/]sf 5g\ egL x]g{]
/ ;f] cg'?k cfkm'n] k|fKt u/]sf]gu/]sf] af/]df :ki6 x'g rfxG5 . c;dfg ;'ljwf jf k'/:sf/sf]
Joj:yfn] c;Gt'li6 l;h{gf ul/lbG5 eg] ;dfgtfsf] Jojxf/n] yk d]xgtsf nflu pT;fx k|bfg
ub{5 .
pknJwLsf] ljt/0fdf ;dGofosf] l;4fGtnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
Outcomes by one person
Outcomes by another
=
Input by one person
Input by another
o; l;4fGtdf ;+u7g / ;+u7gaLr / JolQm JolQmaLr pgLx?n] k|fKt ug{] pknJwL, Ifdtf, ;xsdL{
/ cg'kftsf] ljZn]if0f x'G5 . hxfF lgDg rf/ kIfx? dxTjk"0f{ dflgG5g\ .

a. Input:

What an individual brings in


organization Education, Skill,
Training, Time and Commitment

b.Outcomes:

Salary, Fringe benefit, working


environment, status & opportunities

Positive

Unconducive working environment,


Inconvenient mechanisms/system,
etc.

Negative

c. Referents:
d. Ratio:

With whom the comparison has to


be made.
Outcomes
Inputs

157

dfly plNlnlvt s'g} Ps kIfsf] ljt/0fdf ;dfgtf sfod x'g g;s] c;dfgtf x'G5 h;sf sf/0f
;dGofo (Fair and Justice) sfod x'g ;Sb}g .
dfly plNnlvt l;4fGt afx]s nIo lgwf{/0f l;4fGt (Goal setting Theory), B. F. Skinner f/f
k|ltkflbt ;jnLs/0f l;4fGt (Reinforcement Theory), Ouchi sf] h]8 l;4fGt (Z Theory),
sfo{If]qdf JolQmsf] Jojxf/df kl/jt{g u/L pTk|]l/t ug{ k|of]udf cfPsf] Hamner's l;4fGt, cd"s
tl/sfaf6 sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t gu/L JolQm ljz]ifsf] O{R5f / cfjZostf cg';f/ pTk|]l/t ug{
;lsG5 eGg] cjwf/0ffsf] Cafeteria Model nufotsf l;4fGtx? klg k|of]udf NofO{Psf dxTjk"0f{
l;4fGtx? x'g\ .

g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ffsf] cj:yf


g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jf ;/sf/sf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmdnfO{ hg;dIf k'ofO{ ;/sf/sf] pkl:ylt
:yfgLo :t/;Dd ;xh ?kdf k'ofO{ lbg] a}wflgstf k|fKt ;+oGq;]jf xf] . g]kfndf k|hftGqsf]
:yfkgf cl3sf] lghfdtL ;]jf khgL k|yfdf cfwfl/t ePsf x'gfn] sd{rf/Ldf pTk|]/0ffsf] cj:yf
;d]t cToGt} gfh's ePsf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . lj ;+ @))& ;fn k5fl8sf] nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf]
u7g, ljleGg P]g / lgodsf] th'{df, k|zf;g ;'wf/ cGtu{t ljleGg k|ltj]bg nufotsf ljleGg
b:tfj]hx?df lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ffsf] kIfnfO{ dxTjsf ;fy p7fpFb} cfPsf] kfO{G5 . Go"g
pTk|]/0ffsf] cj:yf, /fhgLlts x:tIf]k, Go"g tna eQf, cTofwLs o"lgogafb (Unionism),
cg'zf;gxLgtf, a9\bf] e|i6frf/ nuffotsf ljleGg b'u'{0fx?n] ljutdf l;Gb"/sf] dlxdf n] kl/lrt
lghfdtL ;]jfdf jt{dfg cj:yfdf gjo'jfx?sf] cfsif{0f sd x'Fb} uO{/x]sf] cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5 .4
g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ffsf] l:ylt ;Gtf]ifhgs 5}g . lghfdtL ;]jf pTk|]/0ffsf]
b[li6sf]0faf6 clxn] Oltxf;s} Go"gtd ljGb'df k'u]sf] 5 eGg] egfO k"0f{tM ;To geP klg o;
;]jfdf pTk|]/0ffsf] cj:yf gfh's /x]sf] s'/fdf eg] b'O{ dt kfOGg . oxFfsf] lghfdtL ;]jf cg'Tk|]l/t
dflgG5 . cGo b]zx?sf] t'ngfdf oxfF pTk|]/0ffsf] dxTjnfO{ uf}0f ?kdf lnO{Psf] 5 . Go"gtd
ljGb'df /x]sf] dflgG5 . ;jf]{Rr kbdf /x]sf tyf s]xL dxTjk"0f{ lgsfodf sfo{/t s]xL sd{rf/L
jfx]s lghfdtL ;]jfsf] 7"nf] lx:;fdf pTk|]/0ffsf] cefj /x]sf] dflgG5 . lghfdtL ;]jfsf] tNnf]
txb]lv pkNnf] :t/;Ddsf sd{rf/Lx? ;d]t cg'Tk|]l/t b]lvG5g\ . g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jf sfg"gL
?kn] /fhkqf+lst / /fhkq cg+lst u/L b'O{ efudf ljeflht /x]sf] eP tfklg jf:tjdf Jojxfl/s
?kn] x]bf{ of] pRr, dWod / lgDg u/L tLg txdf ljeflht /x]sf] b]lvG5 . oL tLg j6} txdf
pTk|]/0ffsf] l:ylt leGgf leGg} b]lvG5 . ax'6]8 o"lgogsf] cjwf/0ffaf6 k|zf;lgs jftfj/0f b'lift
aGg', a[lQ ljsf;sf Go"g cj;/, tna tyf cGo df}lb|s ;'ljwfx? sd x'g' / e"d08nLs/0fsf]
4 eLdb]j eM sd{rf/L k|zf;g, >LdtL zzL e, gy{ Sof/f]nfOgf, cd]l/sf, k[= @$*

158

k|efj cfTdf;ft ug{ g;Sbf / /fhgLlts k|zf;lgs k4ltn] ubf{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf u|]zD; n sf]
;+s]t b]vf kg{ yfn]sf] 5 .5 al/i7 k|zf;gljbs} olt;Ddsf] s8f ljrf/n] lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ff
t cFWof/f] kIfsf ?kdf /x]sf] s'/f cfFsng ug{ c;xh dfGg'kg{] cj:yf 5}g .
pRr txdf pTk|]/0ffsf] l:ylt s]xL xb;Dd ;Gtf]ifhgs dfGg ;lsG5 . o; txdf s]xL k|ltzt
sd{rf/Lx? jfx]s clwsf+z sd{rf/Lx yf]/} xb;Dd eP klg pTk|]l/t dflgG5g\ . t/ o;sf] ljkl/t
dWod txdf pTk|]/0ffsf] l:ylt leGg} b]lvG5 . o; txdf sfo{/t sd{rf/L dWo] krf; k|ltzt
sd{rf/L klg pTk|]l/t /x]sf] kfO{+b}g . o:t} l:ylt lgDg txdf klg /x]sf] 5 . o; txdf cToGt}
Go"g k|ltzt sd{rf/L dfq pTk|]l/t 5g\ . t/ oxfF pNn]vgLo s'/f s] eg] ;a} txdf pTk|]/0ffsf]
cefjsf sf/0fx? eg] km/s km/s /x]sf 5g\ . ;dli6ut ?kdf eGg ;lsG5 ls lghfdtL
sd{rf/L pTk|]l/t x'g g;Sg'df ljleGg cfGtl/s tyf jfXo jftfj/0fLo sf/0fx? ljBdfg /x]sf
5g\ . cfGtl/s sf/0fx?df s]xL Joj:yfksLo sdhf]/Lx? klg /x]sf 5g eg] s]xL sd{rf/L ju{
:jo+sf] sfd k|lt nufjsf] cefj, k]zfk|lt k|ltj4tfsf] sdL, pQ/bfloTjsf] sdL, ;'ljwfd'vL x'g',
lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ b]z / hgtfsf] ;]jf ug]{ dfWodsf] ?kdf glnO{ cfgf] OHht / k|lti7fsf ?kdf
dfq lng', gf]s/Lsf] p2]Zo cfly{s pkfh{g jf JolQmut pGgltdf dfq} ;Lldt /fVg' h:tf sf/0fx?
klg lhDd]jf/ b]lvG5g\ .
sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug{] ;DjGwdf g]kfndf ul/Psf Joj:yfx?nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{
;lsG5 .
lj=;+= @)!# df sfg"gL kdf lghfdtL ;]jfsf] u7g ePb]lv g} pTk|]/0ffsf] ljifon] pRr k|fyldstf
kfpFb} cfPsf] xf] . lghfdtL ;]jfsf] k|lti7f, ljsf; / ljljw ;'wf/sf nflu ;do ;dodf cfof]u,
sfo{bn, :jb]zL ljb]zL k/fdz{bft[ ;+:yf jf JolQmx?sf] ;xof]u ;'emfj k|fKt ePsf lyP . lj=;+=
@))* df u7g ePsf] Pg=Pd=a'rsf] k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]ub]lv g} lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ff
k|a4{gsf pkfox l;kmfl/; ug]{ yfngL ePsf] xf] .
lghfdtL ;]jfdf of]Uotf k|0ffnLsf] /Iff ug{ nf]s ;]jf cfof]unfO{ ;+j}wflgs k|Tofe"lt k|bfg
ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# sf] wf/f !@% df nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] Joj:yf
ul/Psf] 5 . pQm Joj:yf cg';f/ lghfdtL ;]jfdf pko'Qm pDd]bjf/ ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos
k/LIff ;~rfng u/L sd{rf/Lx? l;kmfl/z ug{], sd{rf/LnfO{ ljefuLo ;hfoFsf] ljifodf g]kfn
;/sf/nfO{ cfjZos k/fdz{ lbg] nufotsf dxTjk"0f{ lhDd]jf/Lx? cfof]unfO{ ;'lDkPsf] 5 .
o;af6 lgikIftfsf] ;'lglZrttf sfod ePsf] 5 eg] ljgfsf/0f sd{rf/LnfO{ ljefuLo sf/jfxL
5 eLdb]j eM lghfdtL ;]jfdf 36\bf] cfsif{0f /fli6o b}lgs uf]/vfkq, @)^% kmfu'g @)

159

u/L ;]jfaf6 x6fpg] ;d]tsf sfo{nfO{ lg?T;flxt kf/L sd{rf/Lsf] ;]jfsf] ;'/Iff sfod ul/Psf]
5.
;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnon] s]xL ;do cl3 ;~rfng u/]sf] zf;sLo k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ ug]{ sfo{qmdn]
lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;'wf/ ug]{ Wo]on] zf;sLo ;'wf/sf] dfu{lrq agfP/ sfof{Gjog u/]sf] lyof] . of]
dfu{ lrq d"ntM lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;'wf/df s]Gb|Lt lyof] . ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ePsf dfgj ;+zfwg
Joj:yfkgsf] ljsf; tyf ;'wf/sf ;a} k|of;xnfO{ pTk|]/0ffsf cfwf/laGb' agfOPsf] b]lvG5 .
g]kfn ;/sf/sf jflif{s ah]6, ;/sf/sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmd, a]nfa]nfsf kl/kq tyf dfu{bz{gx?n]
;d]t sd{rf/Lx?sf] pTk|]/0ffsf ;DjGwdf k|ToIfck|ToIf ?kdf k[i7kf]if0f ul//x]sf 5g\ .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( / lgodfjnL, @)%) lghfdtL sd{rf/Lx?sf] dfu{bz{g / lgoGq0f ug{]
sfg"gL b:tfj]h x'g\ . o;df ePsf ljleGg lsl;dsf Joj:yfx?n] sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ pTk|]l/t u/fpg]
k|of; u/]sf 5g\ . df}lb|s / u}/ df}lb|s u/L o; P]g / lgodfjnLdf ul/Psf dxTjk"0f{ Joj:yfx?
o;k|sf/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .

df}lb|s pTk|]/0ff

u}/ df}lb|s pTk|]/0ff

tnj, eQf / u|]8 yk


sd{rf/L ;~ro sf]ifsf] Joj:yf
cf}ifwL pkrf/
lgj[lQe/0fpkbfg
aLdfsf] Joj:yf
kfl/jfl/s lgj[lQe/0f
bz}+ vr{rf8kj{ vr{
;GttL a[lQ, z}lIfs a[lQ, Pj+ czQm a[lQ
n'uf eQf, cflb .

;?jf, a9'jf / kb:yfkgf


ljleGg k|sf/sf ljbfx?
cfjf; / ;jf/L ;fwg ;'ljwf
;]jfsf] :yfloTj / ;'/Iff
k|z+;f, k'/:sf/ tyf lhDd]jf/L
tflnd tyf k|lzIf0f
ljb]z e|d0f, cWoog / uf]i7Lx?
b08, ;hfoF / ljefuLo sf/jfxL
clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg, cflb .

Figure 5

of]hgfut k|of;x?
g]kfnsf cfjlws of]hgfx?df lghfdtL ;]jf ;'wf/sf ljleGg k|of;x? x'\Fb} cfO{/x]sf 5g\ . sd{rf/L
pTk|]/0ffsf] kIfnfO{ dxTjsf ;fy pQm of]hgfx?df ;dfj]z ul/Fb} cfPsf] kfO{G5 . rfn" cfjlws
of]hgf -lj=;+= @)^&)^*@)^()&)_ df ePsf pTk]|/0ff ;DjGwL Joj:yfx?nfO{ a'Fbfut ?kdf
lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .

160

sfo{;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t cfly{s ;'ljwf k|0ffnL nfu" ug{],


dfgj ;+zfwg ljsf; u/L sd{rf/Lsf] Ifdtf / bIftf clea[l4 ug{],
a9'jf k4ltnfO{ of]Uotfdf cfwfl/t agfpg], cflb .
lgjf{xd'vLeGbf klg sd tna ;'ljwf ePsf] / sfo{;Dkfbg;Fu tna ;'ljwfsf] k|ToIf ;DaGw
gePsf]n] hlt;'s} k|of; ul/Psf] b]lvP klg pTk|]/0ffsf pkfoxn] lghfdtL ;]jfsf sd{rf/LxnfO{
vf; pT;flxt agfpg ;s]sf] b]lvGg . tna eQfsf cltl/Qm pTk|]/0ffsf cfly{s tyf u}/cfly{s
k|fjwfgx klg vf; k|efjsf/L ePgg\ . k/Dk/fut 5lj / :jk kfPsf] lghfdtL ;]jf cj}olQms
k|s[ltsf] /x]sf] / k]zfut k|0ffnL /x]sf]n] pTk|]/0ffsf cfw'lgs pkfox vf;} k|efjsf/L x'Fb}gg\ eGg]
dfGotf klg sltko cj:yfdf b]lvg] u5{ . t/ cy{ dGqfno nufot cGo sltko ;/sf/L lgsfon]
sfo{;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t ;'ljwf, eQf / tna Joj:yf ubf{ pTk|]/0ff clea[l4 eO{ sfo{;Dkfbg /
pTkfbsTj a9]sf] pbfx/0fx 5g\ .6
g]kfndf #% k|ltzt sd{rf/Lxn] a}slNks k]zf ckgfPsf 5g\ . !) k|ltzt sd{rf/Lx
e|i6frf/df lnKt 5g\ . o; tYof+sn] s] b]vfpF5 eg] s"n sd{rf/Lsf] !) k|ltzt e|i6frf/df
nfu]sf eP klg e|i6frf/af6 cltl/Qm cfDbfgL ug]{ cj;/ k|fKt x'g] kbaf6 cGo kbdf ;?jf
x'g ;Sg] sf/0fn] ubf{ e|i6frf/df ;+nUg ePsf sd{rf/Lsf] k|ltzt !) eGbf a9L x'g ;S5 . !)
k|ltzt sd{rf/Lx bDktLn] g} sfd ug]{ ePsf]n] b'O{ hgfsf] cfDbfgLn] vr{ o]gs]g rn]sf] 5 . %
k|ltzt sd{rf/Lx ;fdflhs k|lti7fsf nflu hflu/ vfPsf] b]lvPsf]n] pgLxsf] kl/jf/sf] /fd|f]
cfly{s k[i7e"ldsf sf/0f vf; sl7gfOdf g/x]sf] efg x'G5 . olt x'Fbf klg $) k|ltzt sd{rf/Lx
t s'07fdf g} afFlr/x]sf] b]lvG5g\ .7 ha a}slNks pkfo gckgfO{sg ;fdfGo hLjg wfGg sl7gfO{
kg]{ lghfdtL ;]jfsf] tnadfg xF'bf pgLxaf6 ;'zf;g k|fKt x'g] kl/sNkgf s;/L ug{ ;lsPnf <
pgLx pTk|]l/t x'g cj:yf s;/L aGnf < o:tf k|Zgxsf] pQ/ vf]Hg' h?/L 5 .

;f/f+z
'Everything that is done in the world is done in hope.'

-Martin Luther King

JolQm s;/L pTk|]l/t x'G5 eGg] dfgjLo Jojxf/sf] cWoogsf ;DjGwdf y'k}| cg';Gwfgx? ePsf
5g\ . pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL ljleGg l;4fGtx? o;}sf pkh x'g\ . pTk|]/0ff s'g} klg ;+u7gsf] p2]Zo
6 lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ff -;j{]If0f k|ltj]bg, @)^&.)^*_, k[i7 @ k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifbsf] sfof{no
7 lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|/] 0ff -;j{I] f0f k|ltj]bg @)^&.)^*_, k[i7 @^ k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifbsf] sfof{no

161

jf nIo k|flKtsf nflu clgjfo{ zt{ xf] . of] sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]ut kIf;Fu ;DjlGwt 5 . pRrtd
k|ltkmnsf] ck]Iff ug{] t/ pTk|]/0ff;DjGwL ljz]if Joj:yfsf nflu tbf?stf gb]vfpg] k|j[QLdf
;'wf/ geP;Dd Joj:yfkg / sd{rf/L ju{aLrsf] 6s/fjnfO{ sd ug{] k|of;nfO{ ;fy{s ?k lbg
;lsFbg} g t ;du| ;+u7gsf] ;fv g} pFrf] /fVg ;lsG5 . t;y{ ;'wf/sf k|of;x? dflyNnf] :t/af6
x'g' clgjfo{ 5 . /fhg}lts txn] pRr k|zf;lgs txdf pTk|]/0ff hufpg l;Sg'kb{5 . tj dfq pRr
k|zf;lgs txn] qmdzM dWod tyf lgDg txnfO{ pTk|]l/t ug{ ;Sb5 . sd{rf/Lsf] cfjZostf s'g
txsf] 5 eGg] a'emL o;sf] kl/k"lt{ x'g] pkfo cjnDag u/]df dfq sd{rf/LnfO{ sfd k|lt pTk|]l/t
ug{ ;lsG5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df pTk|]/0ff ;DjGwL ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ ;lsPdf ;/sf/ /
sd{rf/Lx? aLrdf b]vf k/]sf] dgf]a}1flgs b"/LnfO{ sd ug{ ;lsg] / ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfxnfO{
k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsg] ljZjf; lng ;lsG5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdu|LM

162

e, k|f= 8f= eLdb]jM sd{rf/L k|zf;g, >LdtL zzL e, gy{ Sof/f]nfOgf, cd]l/sf

e, k|f= 8f= eLdb]jM lghfdtL ;]jfdf 36\bf] cfsif{0f /fli6o b}lgs uf]/vfkq, @)^%
kmfu'g @) ut]

ltjf/L, dw'lglw -kLPr 8L=_M ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf s]xL kIfx? >LdtL sflGt ltjf/L,
l8NnLahf/, sf7df8f}+

============,lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( / lgoddfjnL, @)%), sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt

============,lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk|]/0ff -;j{]If0f k|ltj]bg @)^&.)^*_, k|wfgdGqL tyf


dGqLkl/ifbsf] sfof{no

============,g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# sfg"g lstfa Joj:yf ;ldlt

============,lqjifL{o cGtl/d of]hgf -@)^&)^*@)^()&)_ /fli6o of]hgf cfof]u

Agrawal, Govinda Ram : Management in Nepal, Curriculum Centre, Tribhuvan


University, 1980

Acharya, M. R. (1996): 'Business of Bureaucracy', Nepal Encyclopedia Foundation,


Kathmandu.

Various internet searches

n}ls ;dfgtf tyf dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f M


k|lta4tf / k|of;x?

ls/0f hf]zL*

;f/f+z
g]kfn ;/sf/f/f /fli6o tyf cGt/f{li6o :t/df n}ls ;dfgtfsf] kIfdf cleJoQm ljleGg
k|lta4tfx?nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{] k|of;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} ;/sf/, u}/ ;/sf/L If]q, lghL If]q
tyf gful/s ;dfh / bft[ lgsfo ;d]tsf] ;xof]u kl/rfng u/L pNn]Vo sfo{x? ePsf 5g\ .
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg,@)^# n] n}ls dte]b cGTo u/L dlxnfsf nflu ;DkQLdf ;dfg xs
/ k|hgg xs ;DaGwL xssf] k|Tofe"t ug{] / pgLx?dfly x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lx+;fhGo lqmofsnfknfO{
b08gLo dfg]sf] 5 . dlxnf ju{sf] lzIff :jf:Yo / /f]huf/Lsf] nflu /fHon] ljz]if gLlt lng'kg{]
s'/f ;d]t ;+ljwfgdf g} pNn]v 5 . /fHosf ;a} c+ux?df dlxnfx?sf] ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf
;+ljwfgf/f g} ;'lglZrt ul/Psf] 5 . /fHo ;+oGqdf sDtLdf ## k|ltzt dlxnf k|ltlglwTjsf
nflu /fhgLlts ;+sNk JoQm ul/Psf] 5 tyflk ;dfhdf lkt[;tfTds ;f]r cem} sfod /xg',
dlxnfx?sf] /fhgLlts cfly{s ;fdflhs, sfg"gL ;zlQms/0fsf k|of;x? km}nfj6 / u'0f:t/sf
b[li6n] ck|ofKt x'g', ;z:q G n}ls lx+;f, dfgj j]rlavg tyf ul/aLsf] k|efj dlxnfdf a9g'
h:tf ;d:ofx? cem} ljBdfg /x]sf]n] dlxnfsf] d'ne"t tyf ;dfg clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ub}{ ;d'Ggt
Gofok"0f{ n}ls ?kn] ;dfj]zL / ;dtfd'ns gof g]kfn lgdf{0f ug{] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] bL3{sfnLg
;f]rnfO{ ;fsf/ agfpg' ckl/xfo{ 5 .

n}ls ;dfgtf
of] Pp6f o:tf] cj:yf xf] hxfF dlxnfxdfly s'g} klg k|sf/sf] lje]b gePsf] cj:yfnfO{
a'emfpF5 . o;n] o:tf] cfbz{ cj:yfnfO{ O+lut ub{5 hxfF dlxnf / k'?ifsf] ;dfg clwsf/, cj;/,
* zfvf clws[t, ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno

163

kx'Fr, lgoGq0f / cl:tTj Pj+ klxrfg ePsf] x'G5 . dlxnf / k'?ifnfO{ ;dfg:t/, ;dfg cj;/,
;dfg clwsf/, ;dfg lhDd]jf/L, ljsf;sf] ;|f]t Pj+ k|ltkmndf ;dfg kx'Fr, ;dfg ;xeflutf,
gLlt lgdf{0f tyf lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;dfg dtnufotsf kIfx n}ls ;dfgtfsf cfwf/e"t tTjx
x'g\ . n}ls ;dfgtf sfod /x]sf] s'g} klg ;dfhdf dlxnfx jl~rsLs/0fdf /xg' kb}{g . n}ls
;dfgtfnfO{ cf}krfl/s ;dfgtf, ;+/If0ffTds ;dfgtf, ;'wf/fTds ;dfgtf / ;f/jfg ;dfgtf
u/L rf/ efudf ljefhg ul/G5 .
World Economic Forum n] n}ls ;dfgtf dfkgsf nflu lgDg 9fFrfxnfO{ tf]s]sf] 5M
-

Economic Opportunity, Economic Participation, Political Participation, Health and


Well-being, Educational Attainment

xfn;Dd :jL8]g, gj]{, cfO;NofG8, 8]gdfs{ / lkmgNofG8 h:tf b]zxsf] n}ls ;dfgtf
;"rsf+s pRr :yfgdf /x]sf] kfOG5 .

dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f
;zQmLs/0f JolQmsf] zlQm;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . zlQm lgDg k|sf/n] k|of]u x'g ;S5M
-

Power too -s]xL ug{ ;Sg] zlQm_, Power with -;+o'Qm zlQm_, Power within -d leqsf]
cfTdzlQm ;Ddfg_, Power over -cdfly lyrf]ldrf] ug]{ zlQm_ .

dlxnfx k'?ifsf] t'ngfdf w]/} kl5 k/]sf 5g\ egL dlxnfnfO{ k'?if ;/x agfOg'kb{5 eGg] ljleGg
k|of;xdWo] dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f ;a}eGbf kl5Nnf] ;g\ !(() sf] bzslt/ k|rngdf cfPsf] Ps
d'Vo /0fgLlt xf] . n}ls ;dfgtf xfl;n ug'{ clGtd nIo xf] eg] dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f o;df
;xof]u k'ofpg] dfu{ jf k|lqmof xf] . dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f o:tf] dfWod xf] h;af6 dlxnfn] cfkm\gf]
ljifodf cfkm+} lg0f{o ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf / cfTdljZjf;sf] k|j4{g x'G5 . cfkm\gf] hLjgsf af/]df
:jlg0f{o ug{ cled'v u/fpg] /0fgLlt xf] . :jo+leq /x]sf] cfGtl/s zlQm -ljj]s, efjgf, wf/0ff
rfxgf cflb_ sf] k|of]u ug{ ;Ifd agfpg] dfWod g} dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f xf] .
Karen Mason -!(*^_ n] dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf $ j6f cfofd 5g\ egL JofVof u/]sf 5g\ .
cfly{s cfofd,;fdflhs cfofd,dgf]j}1flgs cfofd,/fhgLlts cfofd
dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] k|lqmof ;a} 7fpF, hfthflt, ;d'bfo, wd{, ;+:s[lt, pd]/ / :t/df ;dfg
x'Fbg} .

164

dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] nIo Ps}k6s xfl;n ug{ ;lsFb}g . dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f ug{sf nflu
kfFrj6f tx;lxtsf] 9fFrf k|of]u ul/G5 . h;cg';f/M

!= sNof0fsf/LM dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] klxnf] :t/M

o;df dlxnfn] ef]u]sf] tTsfnLg ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu sNof0fsf/L sfo{x kb{5g .

tTsfnLg ef}lts cfjZostf kl/k"lt{ ug]{ sfo{qmdx, ljleGg sNof0fsf/L ;'ljwfxM


lzIff, :jf:Yo, oftfoft, 3/fo;L sfo{df cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf dfWodaf6 sfo{ ;/nLs/0f
tyf pTkfbgzLn If]qdf ;+nUgtfsf nflu cfjZos nufgL tyf jftfj/0fsf] s]xL ;/n
Joj:yf ul/G5 .

@= kx'FrM

of] :t/df s'g} klg ;|f]t, ;fwg cj;/ tyf ;"rgfdfly dlxnfxsf] k'?if;/x kx'Fr a9]sf]
x'G5 .

dlxnfxsf] Ifdtf, 1fg ljsf; ug]{ cj;/, plrt :jf:Yo ;]jf, ;xh kdf C0f ;'ljwf
tyf ljQLo ;xof]u k|fKt ub{5g\ .

dlxnf lzIffsf] ;dfg cj;/, ;dfg sfdsf] cj;/ k|fKt u/L ljleGg lgsfoxdf
dlxnfxsf] kx'Fr a9]sf] x'G5 .

#= ;xeflutfM

of] :t/df dlxnfx n}ls e]befj klxrfg ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf x'G5g\ .

;dfhdf ePsf n}ls lje]bdf cfnf]rgfTds l6Kk0fL u/L ltgsf] lg/fs/0fsf nflu
;fd"lxs kxn ug{ / n}ls e]b x6fpg ;lsg] ljifo xf] eGg] s'/fdf dlxnfxsf] a'emfOsf]
ljsf; eO;s]sf] x'G5 .

$= ;r]tgfM

of] :t/df dlxnfx ;fdflhs / ;+:yfut n}ls lje]b x6fpg ljleGg If]qdf ;+nUg x'g
yfNb5g\ .

cfjZos ;"rgf k|flKt, cjnDag ug'{kg]{ pkfoxsf] klxrfg tyf kfl/jfl/s, ;fdflhs
tyf ljsf;fTds lqmofsnfkdf ;xeflutf ;dfg kdf ug{ ;Ifd x'G5g\ .

165

%= lgoGq0fM

of] :t/df dlxnfx cfkm\gf] cfocfh{gdf k"0f{tof lgoGq0f /fVg ;Ifd x'G5g\ .

3/fo;L lg0f{o k|lqmof, ;DkQL / cGo ;|f]t ;fwgdfly k'?if;/x lgoGq0f sfod ePsf]
x'G5 .

dlxnfxdf ;fdflhs tyf 3/fo;L lx+;flj?4 n8\g] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; eO{ To:tf
;d:ofxaf6 d'Qm x'G5g\ .

lgoGq0fsf] :t/df k'u]kl5 dlxnf / k'?ifaLr n}ls ;dfgtf sfod x'G5 .

n}ls ;dfgtf tyf dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fM k|lta4tf / k|of;x .

!= /fli6o:t/sf] k|of;
lj=;+= !(&& df ;tL k|yfsf] cGTo ->L # rGb|zdz]/_
lj=;+= @)@) ;fnsf] d'n'sL P]gn] n}ls ;dfgtfaf/]df 5nf df/]sf] .
lj=;+= @)!% / @)!( sf] ;+ljwfgdf dlxnf xslxtsf af/]df n]lvPsf] .
lj=;+= @)#$ ;fndf ;fdflhs ;]jf /fli6o ;dGjo kl/ifb\sf] :yfkgf .
lj=;+= @)#& df :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t dlxnf ljsf; zfvf :yfkgf .
lj=;+= @)%@ df dlxnf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnosf] :yfkgf .
lj=;+= @)%* df /fli6o dlxnf cfof]u u7g .
lj=;+= @)^) df dlxnf ;DaGwL /fli6o sfo{gLlt kfl/t .
lj=;+= @)^! df n}ls ;dfgtf tyf dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f / ;antf ;DaGwL sfo{gLlt
tof/ .
lj=;+= @)^& df dlxnf lx+;flj?4 /fli6o sfo{of]hgf agfO{ sfof{Gjogdf nluPsf] .
@= ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf
dlxnfk'?ifaLr ;dfg kfl/>lds
5'} sfg"g agfO{ ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ ;lsg]

166

wf/f @) cg';f/ dlxnfsf] xssf] Joj:yf


;DkQLdf ;dfg xssf] Joj:yf
;fdflhs Gofosf] xssf] Joj:yf
/fHosf gLltx cGtu{t dlxnf xs;DaGwL ljljw Joj:yf u/L lzIff, :jf:Yo / /f]huf/L
h:tf /fli6o ljsf;sf sfo{xdf ;xeflutf u/fpg] k|fjwfg ul/Psf]
cfly{s, ;fdflhs, z}lIfs b[li6n] kl5 /x]sfnfO{ ljz]if sfg"g agfO{ ;dfj]zLs/0f ug]{
gLlt cjnDag u/]sf]
;+ljwfg;efdf ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] .
#= sfg"gL Joj:yf
d'n'sL P]gdf ;+zf]wg u/L lgDg Joj:yf ;dfj]z u/]sf] kfOG5M

k}t[s ;DkQLdf dlxnfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt x'g]

!@ xKtf;Ddsf] ue{ktg ug{ kfOg] cfwf/ tf]s]sf]

;DaGw ljR5]bkl5 c+z lng / ljwjfn] nf]Ug]sf] c+zdf clwsf/ lng kfpg] .

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% cg';f/ uflj; / gu/kflnsfsf j8fxdf clgjfo{
dlxnf k|ltlglw /xg] Joj:yf u/]sf] .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g tyf lgodfjnLdf ljz]if Joj:yf u/L a9'jf, cfGtl/s k|lt:kwf{df !
jif{ sd, k/LIf0fsfn ^ dlxgf sd nufotsf Joj:yf ul/Psf] P]gsf] bkmf & cg';f/
v'nf kbdWo] $% k|ltzt sf]6f 5'6\ofO{ ;f] kbnfO{ ztk|ltzt dfgL ## k|ltzt dlxnfsf
nflu cf/If0fsf] k|fjwfg /fv]sf] .
/fli6o dlxnf cfof]u P]g, @)^# .
dfgj a]rlavg tyf cf];f/k;f/ lgoGq0f P]g, @)^$ tyf lgodfjnL .
3/]n' lx+;f -s;"/ tyf ;hfo_ P]g, @)^^ .

167

$= gLltut Joj:yf
5}6f}+ of]hgfM s[lifdf pTkfbsTj a9fO{ tflnd k|bfg u/L dlxnfsf] ljsf; ug]{ .
;ftf}+ / cf7f}+ of]hgfM dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf a9fpg], cfly{s ;|f]t ;fwgdf kx'Fr lbnfpg] .
gjf}+ of]hgf M n}ls e]befj x6fO{ ;zQmLs/0fsf] dfWodf/f d"nk|jfxdf ;dflxt ug]{ .
b;f}+ of]hgfM n}ls d"nk|jfxLs/0f, n}ls ;dfgtf, dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f ug]{ tyf ;f]sf]
cg'udg d"Nof+sg ug]{ .
cGtl/d of]hgfM dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f / n}ls ;dfgtf;DaGwL 5'} Joj:yf u/]sf] .
lqjifL{o of]hgfM n}ls ;dfgtf / dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f;DaGwL 5'} Chapter /fvL
dlxnfxsf] ;zQmLs/0f ub}{ pgLxsf] e"ldsfnfO{ ;zQm agfpg] n}lstfdf cfwfl/t
lx+;f Pj+ lje]b cGTo ug]{nufotsf gLltut Joj:yf .
5fpk8L k|yf pGd"ng lgb]{lzsf, @)^$ .
%= ;+:yfut Joj:yf
dlxnf afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno, dlxnf ljsf; ljefu, &% lhNnfdf
dlxnf ljsf; zfvfsf] :yfkgf .
/fli6o dlxnf cfof]usf] :yfkgf .
x/]s dGqfnoljefudf Gender Focal Point sf] Joj:yf u/]sf] .
cy{dGqfnodf Gender Responsive Budget Committee u7g eO{ sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] .
dlxnf ;dGjo ;ldlt / r]nLa]6L a]rlavg lgoGq0f ;ldlt /x]sf] -@^ lhNnfdf r]nLa]6L
lgoGq0f sfo{;ldlt /x]sf]_
^= sfo{ut Joj:yf
dlxnf ljsf; ;DaGwL 5'} sfo{of]hgf, dlxnf lx+;flj?4 /fli6o sfo{of]hgf hf/L .
dlxnf;DaGwL ;fs{:t/Lo ;GwLdf x:tfIf/ .
dlxnf hfu[lt cfocfh{g sfo{qmd ;~rfng .

168

g]t[Tj ljsf; tflndsf] gofF Joj:yf .


ljwjf / j[4 eQfsf] Joj:yf .
Gender Responsive Budget tof/ x'g yfn]sf] .
c;xfosf nflu lgMz'Ns sfg"gL, ;xfotfsf] Joj:yf .
&= cGo Joj:yf
ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfxaf6 dlxnf ljsf; tyf pTyfg;DaGwL sfo{qmdx ;~rfng
eO/x]sf .
;fd"lxs tyf JolQmut C0fsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] .
lzIff P]g cg';f/ k|To]s k|fylds ljBfnodf Pshgf dlxnf lzIfssf] Joj:yf x'g'kg]{ .
lzIff ;ldltdf dlxnf /xg] Joj:yf .
g]kfn k|x/Ldf dlxnf ;]nsf] u7g .
Gender Management Information System sf] Joj:yf .

n}ls ;dfgtf tyf dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f;DaGwL ;d:ofx


GDP df dlxnfsf] of]ubfgsf] Plsg ug{ g;lsPsf]gul/Psf] .
dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f / ;dfgtf;DaGwL cfGbf]ngdf 6f7faf7fxsf] af]njfnf /x]sf] .
k/Dk/fut d"No / dfGotfsf] k|efj pRr g} /x]sf] .
dlxnf ;xeflutfsf] sdL /x]sf] .
ljleGg lgsfox?af6 k|bfg ul/g] sfo{qmdxdf bf]xf]/f]kgf cfpg] u/]sf] .
GMIS sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g g;s]sf] .
cem;Dd klg dlxnfnfO{ ljsf;sf] lgliqmo pkef]Qmfsf kdf dfq lng] u/]sf] .
/fhgLltdf sd k|ltlglwTj / ;xeflutf /x]sf] .
dlxnfxsf] ;+:s[lt, wf/0ff, afgL Jojxf/n] ubf{ :jo+ pgLxn] n}ls ;dfgtf / ;zQmLs/0fdf
afws /x]sf] kfOG5 .

169

n}ls ;dfgtf tyf dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf nflu k|efjsf/L /0fgLlt / pkfox


/0fgLlt
n}ls d"nk|jfxLs/0f ug]{
dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f ug]{
n}ls dfj]zLs/0f ug]{
Gender Responsive Budget nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg]
;a} k|sf/sf n}ls c;dfgtf, n}lstfdf cfwfl/t lje]b / lx+;fsf] cGTo ug]{ .

pkfox
dlxnf ;xeflutfdf j[l4 ug]{
dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f ug]{
dlxnf d"nk|jfxLs/0f ug]{
n}ls e]befj x6fpg]
;+:yfut ;'wf/ ug]{
gLltut ;'wf/ ug]{
sfg"gL ;'wf/ ug]{
dlxnfsf] kx'Fr a9fpg]
/fhgLlts txdf k|lta4tf hfx]/ ug]{
k|efjsf/L cg'udg / d"Nof\sg ug]{ .

cGt/f{li6o dlxnf ;Dd]ngx

(International Women Conferences)

dlxnf ljsf; n}ls ;dfgtf / dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf nflu ljutdf eP u/]sf k|of;sf] ;+lIfKt
emns ljleGg ;dodf ;DkGg u/]sf ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngaf6 cjut ug{ ;lsG5 . ;fy} ;g\ !(&@
df dlxnf;DaGwL ljleGg ljifonfO{ lnP/ ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3n] cGt/f{li6o dlxnf jif{ dgfpg] 3f]if0ff
uof] . kmn:jk UNO sf] cfx\jfgdf ;g\ !(&% nfO{ cGt/f{li6o dlxnf jif{ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf]

170

lyof] . pQm dlxnf jif{df dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f;DaGwL ljleGg sfo{qmdx ljZjel/ g} ;~rfng
ul/Psf lyP . o; l;nl;nfdf ;g\ !(&% b]lv ePsf cGt/f{li6o ;Dd]ngx lgDgfg';f/ 5g\M
!= k|yd ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ng, !(&%
;g\ !(&$ sf] UNO dxflwj]zgdf dlxnf;DaGwL k|yd ljZj ;Dd]ng, !(&% df ;DkGg
ul/g] dt}Sotf;lxt UNO n] o; ;DaGwdf ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ff uof] .
of] ;Dd]ng ;g\ !(&% sf] h"g !( b]lv h'nfO{ @ ;Dd d]lS;sf] ;x/df ;DkGg eof] .
of] k|yd ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngn] ;dfgtf, ljsf; / zflGtsf] gf/f;lxt ;g\ !(&^ b]lv !(*%
;Dd ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3Lo dlxnf bzssf kdf dgfpg] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] lyof] .
of] ;Dd]ngdf g]kfn nufot ljZjsf !#) d'n'ssf k|ltlglwx ;xefuL lyP .
of] ;Dd]ngdf dlxnfsf] e"ldsf / ljsf;df dlxnfsf] k|of;af/] 5nkmn ul/Psf] lyof] .
ljz]ifu/L k|yd ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngkl5 dlxnf la?4sf zf]if0f, bdg / ;a} lsl;dsf
e]b\efj x6fpg dxf;lGwsf] cfjZostf af]w ul/of] .
UNO sf] ;fwf/0f;efn] !* l8;]Da/ !(&( df dlxnf pk/ x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd"ng
;DaGwL dxf;lGw kfl/t u/L # ;]K6]Da/ !(*! b]lv nfu" uof] .
k|yd ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngsf # k|d'v p2]Zox b]xfocg';f/ 5g\M

n}ls e]befjsf] pGd"ng u/L k"0f{kdf n}ls ;dfgtf :yfkgf ug]{ .

ljsf;df dlxnfnfO{ ;dflxt u/L pgLxnfO{ ljsf;df k"0f{kn] ;xefuL u/fpg] .

ljZj zflGtdf dlxnfsf] of]ubfgsf] clej[l4 ug]{ .

oL p2]Zox k"/f ug{ o; ;Dd]ngn] ljZj sfo{ of]hgf cjnDag u/]sf] lyof] .
pQm sfo{of]hgfn] lzIff, /f]huf/, /fhg}lts ;xeflutf, :jf:Yo ;]jf, cfjf;, kf]if0f tyf
kl/jf/ lgof]hgdf dlxnfsf] ;dfg kx'Frsf] nIo tf]sL pQm nIo ;g\ !(*) ;Dd ;xefuL
d'n'sxn] k|fKt ug'{kg]{ lgb]{zg lbPsf] lyof] .

171

@= bf];|f] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ng, !(*)


bf];|f] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ng 8]gdfs{sf] /fhwfgL sf]kgx]ugdf ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] .
o; ;Dd]ngn] cGt/f{li6o dlxnf bzssf] cw{bzs k|ult ;dLIff u/]sf] lyof] .
of] ;Dd]ngn] ljsf;df dlxnfsf] ;xeflutfsf nflu clwsf/, pQ/bfloTj / cj;/sf] ;dfgtf
k|bfg ug]{ / ;f] cj;/af6 k|fKt nfe klg dlxnfn] g} kfpg'kg]{ s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] lyof] .
of] ;Dd]ngn] sfg"gL ;dfgtf, k|To]s txdf x'g] bdg, zf]if0f / lje]bsf sf/s tTj vf]Hg]
k|oTg u/]sf] lyof] .
sf]kgx]ug ;Dd]ngn] dlxnfsf] ;DkQLsf] :jfldTj / lgoGq0f, k}t[s ;DkQLdflysf] dlxnfsf]
clwsf/, afnaflnsfsf] cleefjs aGg ;Sg] clwsf/ tyf /fli6otfsf] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{
;zQm kxn ug'{kg]{ lgSof}{n uof] .
of] ;Dd]ngn] k|yd ljZj ;Dd]ngn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf nIo k|flKtsf nflu cGt/f{li6o ;d'bfon]
rfn]sf sbdx ;/fxgLo ePsf] lgisif{ klg lgsfn]sf] lyof] .
#= t];|f] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ng, !(*%
s]Gofsf] /fhwfgL g}/f]aLdf ;g\ !(*% h'nfO{ !% b]lv @^ ;Dd ljZjsf !%& d'n'ssf
k|ltlglwxsf] ;xeflutfdf of] ;Dd]ng ;DkGg ePsf] lyof] .
o; ;Dd]ngn] dlxnf ljsf;sf nflu ckgfPsf /0fgLltxM ;dfgtf, ljsf;, zflGt, ljz]if
;/f]sf/sf ljifox, cGt/f{li6o If]qLo ;xof]u cflb lyP .
o; ;Dd]ngn] ;dfgtf, ljsf; / zflGt h:tf cGt/f{li6o dlxnf bzssf nflu to ul/Psf
p2]Zoxdfly k'g/fjnf]sg tyf d"Nof\sg;d]t u/]sf] lyof] .
t];|f] ljZj ;Dd]ngn] tof/ u/]sf dlxnf ljsf;sf sfo{of]hgf tyf lg0f{ox b]xfocg';f/
5g\M

172

dlxnfxnfO{ k'?if ;/x lzIff k|bfg ug]{

dlxnfxsf] :jf:Yo cj:yfsf] ;'wf/ ug]{

sfg"gdf /x]sf n}ls e]befj x6fpg]

dlxnfxnfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] If]qdf k|fyldstf -hf]8_ lbg] .

;g\ @))) ;Dddf lg/If/tf pGd"ng ug]{ / dlxnfxsf] cf};t cfo' sDtLdf ^% jif{;Dd
k'ofpg] Pj+ cfTdlge{/ x'g], /f]huf/sf] cj;/ pknAw u/fpg] lg0f{odf klg ;xdlt ePsf]
lyof] .
log} lg0f{oxnfO{ g}/f]aL cu|ufdL /0fgLlt (Nairobi Forward Looking Strategy) sf] gfd
lbOof] .
$= rf}yf] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ng, !((%
rLgsf] /fhwfgL a]Olhdf ;g\ !((% sf] ;]K6]Da/ $!% ;Dd of] ;Dd]ng eof] . h'g
xfn;Dds} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] lyof] .
ljZje/sf !*( /fi6sf ^ xhf/ k|ltlglw, $ xhf/ u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf k|ltlglw, $ xhf/
kqsf/ / cGo s}of}+ ljleGg JolQmx ;d]t ;xefuL ePsf lyP .
of] ;Dd]ngdf o;eGbf klxn] ;DkGg ePsf tLgj6f ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ng nufot dlxnf
;DaGwL /fi6;+3Lo ljleGg 3f]if0ffkq Pj+ dxf;lGwxsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ul/Psf] lyof] .
o; ;Dd]ngn] lgDg k|sf/sf b:tfj]hx tof/ kf/]sf] lyof]M

a]Olh 3f]if0ffkq

a]Olh sfo{d~r

gfh's ;/f]sf/sf If]qx

/0fgLlts nIo tyf sfo{x

dlxnflj?4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd"ng ug]{ dxf;lGw, !(&( / ;f]sf] OR5fwLg cfn]v, !(((
(CEDAW)
dlxnflj?4 /x]sf ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd"ng ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;g\ !(^& df cGt/f{li6o ;xdlt
sfod eP tfklg ;f]sf] !@ jif{kl5 ;g\ !(&( l8;]Da/ !* df UNO sf] dxf;eff/f pQm
dxf;lGw kfl/t ePsf] xf] / To;sf] sl/a b'O{ jif{kl5 ;g\ !(*! ;]K6]Da/ # b]lv nfu" ePsf]

173

xf] . dlxnf la?4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf] e]befj pGd"ng ug]{ dxf;lGw dlxnfxsf] dfgj clwsf/
;+/If0f ug]{ cGt/f{li6o clwsf/ kqsf kdf /x]sf] 5 . o; dxf;lGwn] dlxnf lj?4 x'g] e]befj
pGd"ng ug]{ / dlxnf / k'?ifaLr ;dfgtf sfod ug]{ d'Vo Wo]o /fv]sf] 5 . o; dxf;lGwdf #)
j6f wf/f /x]sf 5g\ . xfn;Dd o; dxf;lGwnfO{ ljZjsf !() j6f /fi6xn] cg'df]bg ul/;s]sf
5g\ . g]kfnn] sl/a b; jif{kl5 @@ clk|n !((! df lagf ;t{ of] ;lGw cg'df]bg u/]sf] 5 .
o; dxf;lGwn] dlxnfsf ;Dk"0f{ dfgj clwsf/xnfO{ sfg"gL dfGotf lbO{ To:tf clwsf/xsf]
;+/If0f ug]{ sfg"gL bfloTj dxf;lGw cg'df]bg u/]sf /fHoxnfO{ tf]s]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] ;lGw P]gn]
g]kfnn] cg'df]bg u/]sf jf g]kfn kIf ePsf ;a} ;lGwx g]kfnsf] /fli6o sfg"g x'g] tyf /fli6o
sfg"g / To:tf ;lGwx k/:k/ aflemPdf ;lGwsf] k|fjwfg nfu" x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . ctM
;lGwn] l;h{gf u/]sf bfloTjx k"/f ug'{ ;/sf/sf] ;+j}wflgs Pj+ sfg"gL st{Jo xf] . To;}n] o;
dxf;lGwsf Joj:yfx g]kfn /fHoleq g]kfnsf] sfg"g;/x dfGo x'G5g\ . o; dxf;lGwn] cGo
dxf;lGwxn] h:tf] lnsf cfwf/df x'g] c;dfg Jojxf/nfO{ dfq e]befjsf kdf kl/eflift
gu/L e]befjsf] lj:t[t kl/efiff u/]sf] 5 .

a]Olh sfo{d~r, !((%


;g\ !((% sf] ;]K6]Da/ $ b]lv !% ;Dd rLgsf] a]Olhdf ;~rfng ePsf] rf}yf] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngdf
dlxnfxsf ;d:of tyf n}ls c;dfgtf, dlxnf ljsf;sf afwfx lgd"{n ug]{ k|lta4tfsf ;fy
dlxnfxsf /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, dgf]j}1flgs, wfld{s, ;f+:s[ltsnufot ;a} kIfdf
kl/jt{g u/L dlxnf / k'?ifaLr n}ls ;dfgtf sfod ug]{ k|lta4tf ;lxtsf] 3f]if0ffkqnfO{ g}
a]Olh 3f]if0ffkq elgG5 . o; ;Dd]ngdf ;xefuL /fi6k|d'v tyf k|ltlglwxn] dlxnfxsf]
ljsf; ug{ cfkm\gf] k|lta4tf hfx]/ ub}{ dlxnfxsf] xs / lxtsf nflu #* a'Fb] a]Olh 3f]if0ffkq
hf/L u/] . h;cg';f/M

174

ljZjsf ;Dk"0f{ dlxnfxsf] pGgltsf nflu ;dfgtf, ljsf; / zflGtsf] nIo k"/f ug]{ .

ul/aL g} dlxnfxsf] pTyfgsf lglDt 7"nf] afwssf kdf /x]sf] x'Fbf o:tf cj/f]wnfO{
x6fO{ dlxnfsf] df}h'bf kl/l:yltdf ;'wf/ Nofpg] .

/fi6;+3f/f 3f]lift dfgj clwsf/, dlxnflj?4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj lgd"{n ug]{
dxf;lGw, afn clwsf/, dlxnflj?4sf] lx+;f / ljsf;;DaGwL clwsf/ cg'k sfo{qmd
;~rfng ug]{ .

dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f u/L dfgjtfsf cfwf/df ;dfhdf dlxnfxsf] lg0f{o ug]{ k|lqmof
nufot ;Dk"0f{ ljsf;df ;xeflutf u/fpg] .

dlxnfxnfO{ ;zQmLs/0f ug{sf nflu k|hftflGqs clwsf/ lbnfpg] .

dlxnf clwsf/ g} dfgj clwsf/ x'g] eGg] h:tf s'/fsf] af]w u/fpg] .

lbuf] cfly{s ljsf;sf cfwf/df ;fdflhs ljsf;, jftfj/0f ;+/If0f, ;fdflhs Gofo
OToflb s'/fdf dlxnfsf] ;dfg ;xeflutf h'6fpg] .

rf}yf] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngaf6 kfl/t sfo{d~r sfof{Gjog ug]{ / ;a} txdf dlxnfxsf]
k"0f{ ;xeflutf / of]ubfg h'6fpg] .

dlxnf / afnaflnsfn] dfgj clwsf/ cg'k :jtGqtfk"j{s hLjg JotLt ug]{ s'/fdf
ln, hfthflt, pd]/, efiff, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f tyf wd{sf cfwf/df e]befj ug{ gx'g] .

a]Olh 3f]if0ffkq dlxnfxsf] ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts tyf cfly{s ;zQmLs/0f ug]{


k|of;df ljZjsf ;a} /fi6xsf] ;femf dfu{bz{s /x]sf] 5 .

o; ;Dd]ngn] klxrfg u/]sf !@ ;/f]sf/sf If]qx (12 Critical Areas of Concern)


;d]6L /fli6o sfo{of]hgf tof/ ug];
{ d]t ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] .

;/f]sf/sf If]qxdf cGt/f{li6o ;d'bfo, gful/s ;dfh, u};; / lghL If]qn] ;d]t sfo{
u/L n}ls ;dfgtf sfod ug{ k'?if klg ;xefuL x'g'kg]{ s'/f a]Olh sfo{d~rdf pNn]v
5.

pk/f]Qm a]Olh 3f]if0ffkqsf a'Fbfxdf pNn]lvt s'/f k"/f ug]{ ;Gbe{df ;3fp k'ofpgsf
nflu n}ls ;dfgtf;Fu ;DalGwt lgDg k|sf/sf !@ j6f ;/f]sf/sf If]qx /x]sf 5g\M

!= dlxnf / ul/aL
ljBdfg P]g, sfg"g tyf k|zf;lgs k|lqmofnfO{ ;dLIff u/L dlxnf lxtcg's"n agfpg],
cfly{s gLlt tyf ljsf;;DaGwL ;dLIff ub}{ dlxnfsf] pTyfg cg's"n agfpg] k|of; ug]{,
dlxnfxsf] ul/aLsf] ;DaGwdf dlxnf / k'?ifaLrsf] leGgtfnfO{ dWogh/ u/L dlxnf
la?4sf] ul/aL lgjf/0f ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ .
@= dlxnf / lzIff tyf tflnd
dlxnf lg/If/tf pGd"ng ug]{,
dlxnfxnfO{ lzIffsf] ;dfg cj;/ lbnfpg],

175

Jofj;flos tflnd, lj1fg / k|ljlwdf dlxnfnfO{ cj;/ k|bfg ug]{,


dlxnf / afnaflnsfnfO{ hLjg ko{Gt lzIff / tflndsf] Joj:yf ug]{ .
#= dlxnf / :jf:Yo
dlxnfsf] k|hgg clwsf/ ;'/lIft ug]{,
u'0ffTds :jf:Yo x]/rfxsf ;"rgf / ;DalGwt ;]jfx dlxnfxnfO{ pknAw u/fpg],
dlxnfsf] :jf:Yosf nflu cfly{s ;|f]t a9fpg] / lgoldt cg'udg ug]{,
dlxnfxsf] :jf:Yo l:ylt;DaGwL cg';Gwfg ug]{ .
$= dlxnf lj?4 lx+;f
dlxnflj?4 x'g] ck/fw lgd"{n ug{ PsLs[t pkfo cjnDag ug]{,
dlxnfnfO{ ljb]zdf nuL a]rlavg ug]{ sfo{ sd ug{ / ;f] sfo{ ug{ lg?T;flxt kfg{]
cleofg rfNg] .
%= dlxnf / ;z:q ;+3if{
zflGtsf lgldQ ;f+:s[lts kdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf a9fpg],
xftxltof/sf] lj/f]w ug]{ ljifodf lg0f{o lng] 7fpF / cf]xbfdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf j[l4
ug]{,
lx+;f / ljgf;sf] lj/f]w ug]{ kl/kf6LnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ lg0f{o lnOPsf 5g,
pklgj]z tyf :jzf;g gePsf d'n'ssf dlxnfnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{,
;z:q ;+3if{ tyf Gsf qmddf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zLxsf] lgoGq0fdf /x]sf dlxnfnfO{
;'/Iff ug]{ .
^=

dlxnf / cy{tGq
dlxnfnfO{ cfly{s clwsf/ / :jtGqtf k|bfg u/L /f]huf/ pknAw u/fpg],
k];fut /f]huf/Ldf e]befj x6fpg],
kfl/jfl/s sfo{ / pQ/bfloTj axg ug]{ l;nl;nfdf dlxnf / k'?ifsf] ;DaGw k|j4{g ug]{ .

176

&=

zlQm / lg0f{o k|lqmofdf dlxnf


zlQm / ;+/rgf tyf lg0f{o k|lqmofdf dlxnfsf] ;dfg kx'Fr / k"0f{ ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt
ug]{,
/fli6o lgsfo / cGo ;/sf/L lgsfoxdf dlxnfnfO{ lg0f{ostf{sf kdf ;xefuL
u/fpg ;xof]u ug]{,
g]t[Tj Pj+ lg0f{osf] txdf ;xeflutfsf nflu dlxnfsf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ .

*= dlxnf ljsf;sf nflu ;+:yfut ;+/rgf


dlxnf ljsf;sf nflu :yflkt ;+/rgfnfO{ ;'b[9 / ;Ifd agfpg],
of]hgf th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg / d"Nof\sg ubf{ / tYof+s ;+sng ubf{ n}ls
b[li6sf]0f ckgfpg],
n}ls b[li6sf]0fnfO{ ljwflosf, Gofokflnsf, /fli6o gLlt / sfo{qmddf PsLs[t ug]{ .
(= dlxnf / dfgj clwsf/
dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/af/] r]tgf hfu/0f ug]{ / lzIf0f, k|lzIf0f ug]{,
dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/ ;+/If0f tyf dlxnf zf]if0fsf] cGTo ug]{,
dlxnfsf] ljZjJofkL dfgj clwsf/ ;'lglZrt u/L ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{,
dlxnfsf] ;jf{\uL0f ljsf;sf nflu dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug]{,
dlxnf / k'?ifsf] ;dfg e"ldsfaf/] r]tgf j[l4 u/L Jojxf/df kl/jt{g Nofpg],
dlxnfsf] dfgj clwsf/sf] ;'lglZrt ug{ cg'udg tyf d"Nof\sg k4ltsf] ljsf; ug]{ .
!)= dlxnf / ;~rf/
;~rf/ / ;~rf/df gofF k|ljlw nufot lg0f{o lng] tyf cleJolQm ug]{ sfo{df dlxnfsf]
kx'Fr / ;xeflutf j[l4 ug]{,

177

;~rf/sf If]qdf n}ls ;dfgtf ;'lglZrt ug]{,


;~rf/df k|:t't ul/g] dlxnfsf] k/Dk/fut 5ljnfO{ xtf]T;flxt u/L ;Gt'lnt / ;sf/fTds
5lj k|:t't ug]{ .
!!=

dlxnf / jftfj/0f
jftfj/0fsf] ;+/If0fdf dlxnfsf] e"ldsfaf/] r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ / ;xeflutf a9fpg],
jftfj/0f ;DaGwL gLlt lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjog k|lqmofdf dlxnf ;xeflutf j[l4 ug]{ / lbuf]
ljsf;sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ gLlt tyf sfo{qmddf n}ls b[li6sf]0f ckgfpg],
ljsf; / jftfj/0f;Fu ;DalGwt gLltxsf] dlxnfdfly kg]{ k|efjsf] d"Nof\sg ug]{
;+/rgf :yfkgf ug]{ .

!@=

aflnsf
aflnsf lj?4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj cGTo ug]{,
aflnsf lj?4sf ;f+:s[lts Jojxf/ lg/fs/0f ug]{,
aflnsf lj?4sf lx+;f x6fpg],
:jf:Yo / kf]if0fdf aflnsflj?4sf] e]befj x6fpg],
aflnsfsf] lzIff, ;Lk, tflnd cflb ljifodf ;dfg clwsf/ :yflkt ug]{,
aflnsfsf] l:ylt ;'wf/ ug{ kfl/jfl/s e"ldsf ;'b[9 ug,]{
afn>d zf]if0fsf] lg/fs/0f ug]{ / >d zf]if0faf6 aflnsfnfO{ ;+/If0f ug]{,
aflnsfx k|ltsf] /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s Jojxf/af/] :jo+ pgLxnfO{ ;r]t
u/fpg] .

dlxnf clwsf/sf] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"ld / cGt/f{li6o k|of;


dfgj clwsf/sf] cjwf/0ffleq} dlxnf xs clwsf/sf] ljifo klg ;dflxt ePsf]n] dfgj clwsf/sf]
cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; ;Fu;Fu} dlxnf xs clwsf/sf] cjwf/0ffsf] klg ljsf; ePsf] dfGg ;lsg]

178

eP tfklg dlxnf clwsf/sf] ljifodf ;+:yfut k|of; @) cf}+ ztfAbLsf] k|f/De;Dd x'g ;s]sf]
kfOFbg} . @) cf}+ ztfAbLdf cfP/ dfq k'?if;/x dlxnfn] klg cfly{s, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, z}lIfs
nufotsf /fli6o hLjgsf ;du| If]qdf ;xefuL x'g] ;dfg cj;/ k|fKt ug{ kfpg'kb{5 egL
cf}krfl/s kdf dlxnf clwsf/sf] ;DaGwdf k|of;sf] k|f/De ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 . ;g\ !($%
df ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3 :yfkgf x'Fbf tof/ ePsf] a8fkqdf cGt/f{li6o ;d'bfoaf6 dlxnf / k'?ifaLr
;dfgtf Pj+ dfgj clwsf/k|lt ;Ddfg sfod x'g'kb{5 eGg] pNn]v 5 . o;nfO{ ;g\ !($* sf]
dfgj clwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ffkqn] cem ;zQm t'Nofof] . dlxnf ju{sf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s Pj+
/fhgLlts l:yltdf ;'wf/ ug]{ p2]Zon] ;g\ !($^ df ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3n] dlxnfsf] l:ylt ;DaGwL
cfof]u (Commission on the Status of Women) sf] u7g uof] . ztfAbLof}+b]lv ljBdfg dlxnf /
k'?if sfdbf/sf] aLrsf] c;dfg Hofnf ;DaGwL k|yf x6fpg] p2]Zon] ;g\ !(%! df lagf e]befj
dlxnf / k'?ifnfO{ ;dfg Hofnf lbg'kb{5 eGg] 3f]if0ffsf;fy ;dfg Hofnf ;DaGwL dxf;lGw, !(%!
cGt/f{li6o >d ;7gf/f kfl/t eof] .
dlxnfsf] /fhgLlts ;xeflutfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ug{ ;g\ !(%@ df dlxnfn] dt lbg kfpg] /fhg}lts
clwsf/ ;DaGwL dxf;lGw ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3af6 kfl/t eof] . To:t} u/]/ dlxnfsf] gful/stf kl/jt{g
ug]{ ;DaGwdf Joj:yf ug{ dlxnfsf] gful/stfsf] clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw, !(%) hf/L ul/of] .
;g\ !(^) df dlxnfdfly x'g] u/]sf] /f]huf/L / k];fut e]befjnfO{ pGd"ng ug]{ ;DaGwdf
cGt/f{li6o >d ;7gf/f k];f / /f]huf/Lsf] e]befj pGd"ng ;DaGwL dxf;lGw kfl/t ul/of] .
o;sf] b'O{ jif{kl5 ;g\ !(^@ df ljjfx, ljjfxsf] nflu Go"gtd pd]/ tyf ljjfx btf{;DaGwL
dxf;lGw kfl/t eof] .
dlxnfdfly x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf] e]befj pGd"ng ug]{ ;DaGwdf ;g\ !(^& df cGt/f{li6o ;xdlt
sfod eof] . dlxnfsf] pTyfg / ljsf; ;DaGwdf hf]8 lb+b} ;g\ !(&% df ;+o'Qm /fi6;+3n] ;g\
!(&% nfO{ cGt/f{li6o dlxnf jif{sf] kdf dgfpg] 3f]if0ff uof] . o;}sf] kl/0ffd:jk ;g\ !(&%
df klxnf]kN6 d]lS;sf]df cGt/f{li6o dlxnf ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf u/L To;} ;Dd]ngn] ;dfgtf,
ljsf; / zflGtnfO{ d"n gf/fsf] kdf kfl/t ub}{ ;g\ !(&^ b]lv !(*% sf] bzsnfO{ cGt/f{li6o
dlxnf bzs dgfpg] lg0f{o ;d]t uof] .
;+o'Qm /fi6;+3sf] dxf;eff/f dlxnf lj?4sf ;a} e]befj lgd"{n ug]{ ;DaGwdf cGt/f{li6o ;xdlt
ePsf] !@ jif{ k5fl8 ;g\ !(&( df dlxnflj?4 x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf e]befj pGd"ng ug]{ ;DaGwL
dxf;lGw kfl/t eof] . k|yd k6s cGt/f{li6o dlxnf bzs dgfpg] lg0f{o ul/Psf] ;g\ !(&^
!(*% sf] dWofjlw ;dLIff ug]{ p2]Zon] ;g\ !(*) df 8]gdfs{sf] sf]k]gx]ugdf bf];|f] cGt/f{li6o
dlxnf ;Dd]ng cfof]hgf ul/of] . ljsf;sf lgldQ ;fdflhs, /fhg}lts, cfly{s nufotsf ;Dk"0f{
If]qdf dlxnfnfO{ ;lqmo ;xefuL u/fpFb} dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] cleofg k|f/De ug'{kg]{ s'/fdf

179

hf]8 lb+b} ;g\ !(($ df OlhK6sf] sfo/f]df hg;+Vof / ljsf; ;DaGwL cGt/f{li6o ;Dd]ngsf]
cfof]hgf eof] . dlxnf clwsf/ ;DaGwL kl5Nnf] dxTjk"0f{ cleofgsf] kdf ;g\ !((% df rLgsf]
a]Olhdf rf}yf] ljZj dlxnf ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf eof] / pQm ;Dd]ngn] dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf
nflu sfo{qmd nfu" ul/g'kg]{ !@ j6f If]qnfO{ d'Vo ;/f]sf/sf If]qsf] kdf klxrfg u/L sfo{of]hgf
tof/ ug]{ lgb]{z uof] .

g]kfndf dlxnfsf] l:ylt


ljut !# jif{df g]kfnL dlxnfsf] l:yltdf Jofks kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5 . dlxnfsf] lzIff, /f]huf/L
tyf :jf:Yosf] If]qdf pNn]vgLo k|ult ePsf] 5 . dlxnfsf] klxrfgdf hft, ju{ / hftLo
cfofdxaf6 o:tf] kl/jt{gsf] lj:tf/ tyf :jefjdf cem k|efj k/]sf] 5 . To;f] eP tfklg
k'?ifsf] t'ngfdf ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts, cfly{s tyf sfg"gL If]qdf ;Lldt cj;/ / clwsf/sf
sf/0f dlxnfnfO{ ;fdflhs k|lti7fsf] ;f]kfgdf tNnf] txdf /x]sf] b]vfPsf] 5 . o;n] dlxnf
/ k'?ifaLr ljBdfg km/s / e]befjk"0f{ oyfy{tf bzf{pg] c;dfg n}ls ;DaGwnfO{ cem a9L
phfu/ u/]sf] 5 . o;n] dlxnflj?4 x'g] k/Dk/fut k"jf{u|xsf] hfgsf/L lbG5 / cfly{s, ;fdflhs
tyf /fhg}lts ;Gbe{df kl/jt{gsf gofF cj;/sf] vf]hLsf] nflu 7fpF k|bfg ub{5 / o;sf ;fy}
e]befjsf gofF :jksf] phfu/ klg u/]sf] 5 .
jf:tjdf eGg] xf] eg] dlxnf lj?4sf] e]befjn] ubf{ pgLx cfkm\gf] cj:yf / l:yltdf ;'wf/ u/L
;dfhdf ;'vL hLjg latfpg P]ltxfl;s kn] g} pk]lIft /x]sf 5g\ . g]kfndf 3/]n' lx+;fnfO{
lgoGq0f tyf ;hfo ug]{ kof{Kt sfg"gsf] Joj:yf ug'{kg]{ 5 / dlxnfsf] ;DkQLdflysf] clwsf/
s]xL dfqfdf ;Lldt g} /x]sf] 5 . dfgj ljsf;;DaGwL n}ls e]befjsf kl/;"rsn] lndf cfwfl/t
jf:tljs lje]bnfO{ oyfy{ kn] lrq0f u/]sf] 5 / of] lrq0f k'?ifdf eGbf dlxnfdf 68\sf/f] kdf
b]vf kb{5 .
o;n] ;fdfGo hLjg latfpgsf] nflu cfjZos cj;/df klg kIfkft 5 eGg] s'/fsf] lrq0f ub{5 .
xfnsf] ;lqmo hg;+VofdWo] dlxnfsf] ;+Vof k'?ifsf] eGbf a9L 5 t/ pgLxsf] cTolws ;do
sd pTkfbgzLn lqmofsnfk / 3/]n' sfddf laTg] ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm dlxnf hg;+Vofsf] 7"nf]
lx:;fnfO{ sfg"gaf6 k"0f{ ;+/lIft gul/P;Dd pgLxnfO{ cgf}krfl/s If]qsf] clen]vdf pNn]v
gx'g] HofnfljxLg kfl/jfl/s sfdbf/af6 dfly p7fpg / j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x lj:tf/
ug{ cTofjZos 5 .
zf]if0faf6 ;+/If0f ug]{ qmddf obfsbf dlxnfsf] gful/s :jtGqtf ;DaGwL clwsf/df s6f}tL
x'g uO{ dlxnfn] /f]huf/L / ultzLntfdf k'?if;/x ;dfg cj;/af6 jl~rt /xg'kg]{ l:ylt /x]

180

tfklg o:tf] cj:yf dlxnf ;zQmLs/0fsf] qmddf x6]/ hfg] s'/f lglZrt 5 . blIf0f Pl;ofsf
cGo d'n'ssf] t'ngfdf g]kfnsf] ;fIf/tf b/ ;a}eGbf sd 5 k|To]s kfFr hgf jo:s dlxnfdWo]
Ps hgf ;fIf/ 5g\ . ;fIf/tf b/ k'?ifsf] ^%=)* k|ltzt / dlxnfsf] s]jn $@=$( k|ltzt 5 .
-/fli6o hgu0fgfM @)%*M s]Gb|Lo tYof ljefu_ lk5l8Psf] u|fdL0f If]qdf 5f]/L eg]sf] cflv/
csf{sf] 3/ hfg] hft g xf], eg]/ 5f]/Lsf] nflu lzIffnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] u/]sf] kfOFb}g . ;fIf/tf
tyf v'b :s'n egf{ ;+Vofsf] lx;fan] n}ls c;dfgtf blIf0f Pl;ofnL If]qd} ;jf{lws 5 . alnof]
sfg"gL k|fjwfg /xFbf /xFb} klg s]6Lxsf] ljjfx sd pd]/df ul/g] k|rng cfh klg /x]sf] kfOG5 .
g]kfndf dft[ d[To'b/ ljZjd} ;a}eGbf a9L 5 M k|lt !,)),))) hLljt hGddf %$) hgf, !)
k|ltzteGbf sd hGddf dfq tflnd k|fKt :jf:Yo sd{rf/Lsf] ;]jf k'Ub5 / %)^) k|ltzt;Dd
ue{jtL dlxnfdf /QmcNktf 5 / %) k|ltzt dft[d[To', cj}w / c;'/lIft ue{ktgsf sf/0fn]
x'g] u/]sf] 5 -If]qLo dfgj ljsf; k|ltj]bg, @))# M o"Pg8LkL_ . oL ;a} kl/;"rsxn] ljleGg
k|sf/sf ;fdflhs jl~rltk|lt Wofg cfs[i6 ub{5 h;n] g]kfnL u[x:yLdf dlxnfsf] hLjg hf]xf]sf]
ljsNknfO{ uDeL/ kn] s6f}tL ub{5 .
dlxnfsf] k/lge{/tf ;fj{hlgs 7fpF, ahf/ / ;d'bfosf cGo If]qdf klg b]Vg ;lsG5 . lndf
cfwfl/t 3/]n' lx+;f, z+[vnfa4 3/]n' lx+;fsf] sf/0f ;[lht anfTsf/, r]nLa]6L a]rlavgsf]
;d:ofnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ ;/sf/ lg/Gt/ kdf k|oTgzLn /lxcfPsf] 5 . ;/sf/L gLlt / sfg"gL
Joj:yfdf ;'wf/ ug{ cfjZos x'Fbfx'Fb} klg k|rlnt sfg"g tyf gLltsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g
g;s]sf sf/0fn] klg dlxnfsf] ;'/Iff / cGo df}lns dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / kl/k"lt{ jfl~5t
kdf x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .
;fdfGotM dlxnfn] ;DkQL, shf{, lzIff / /f]huf/L h:tf 7f]; ef}lts ;fwg tyf ;"rgf, ;fd'bflos
g]6js{, /fhg}lts kx'Fr tyf g]t[Tj cflb h:tf ;fdflhs ;|f]tdf cfgf] kx'Fr k'ofpg y'k|} afwf
Jojwfgxsf] ;fdgf ub}{ cl3 a9\g k|oTg ug'{kb{5 . lzIff, /f]huf/L, lghfdtL ;]jf tyf /fhg}lts
k|0ffnLdf dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf;DaGwL ul/Psf] ;fgf] ;dLIffn] :ki6l;t lk/fld8 9fFrfnfO{ k|blz{t
ub{5, h;df lszf]/L, dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf ;+:yfut ;+/rgfsf] lkFwdf /x]sf] kfOG5 . /fli6o /
3/]n':t/df dlxnfsf] dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg 5Fbf5Fb} klg dlxnfn] u/]sf] sfo{ gb]lvg', lghL tyf
;fj{hlgs If]qsf] gLlt lgdf{0f tyf lg0f{o ug]{ ;+/rgf / k|lqmofdf dlxnfsf] ;Lldt k|ltlglwTj,
;xeflutf / g]t[Tj x'g' h:tf s'/fxn] dlxnf / k'?ifsf nflu km/skm/s kl/0ffd lbg] ;Gbe{df
lje]bk"0f{ n}ls cfbz{ / o;sf] ef}lts cleJolQmnfO{ g} 6]jf k'u]sf] 5 .

181

lgZsif{
g]kfn ;/sf/n] 5}6f}+ of]hgf cjlw -@)#&@)$@_ b]lv dlxnf ljsf;nfO{ / To;kl5sf cfjlws
of]hgfx?df dlxnf ;zlQms/0f / n}ls ;dfgtf tyf ;dtfsf] ljifonfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbb} cfPsf]
5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3 nufot ;fs{:t/Lo / /fli6o:t/df ePsf dlxnf ljsf;, dlxnf ;zlQms/0f /
n}ls ljifosf dxf;lGw tyf 3f]if0ffsf k|fjwfgx? nfu" ug{ bzf{Psf] k|ltj4tf cg';f/ sfg"g tyf
gLltx?df yk ;'wf/ ub{} sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ul/b} cfPsf] 5 tyflk k|lta4tf k"/f u/L dlxnfsf]
xs clwsf/ / n}ls ;dfgtf ;'lglZrt ug{ g]kfnsf /fhg}lts bnx?, g]kfn ;/sf/, u}/ ;/sf/L
If]q, gLlh If]q bft[ lgsfo nufotn] cem w}/} sfo{x? ug{ afFsL /x]sf] 68\sf/f] cg'ej ul/Psf] 5 .

;Gbe{ ;fdu|L M
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# ,g]kfn sfg"g Joj:yf lstfa ;ldlt, sf7df08f}+ .
lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$(, g]kfn sfg"g Joj:yf lstfa ;ldlt, sf7df08f}+ .
>d P]g,@)$*, g]kfn sfg"g Joj:yf lstfa ;ldlt, sf7df08f}+ .
lqjifL{o of]hgf @)^&^*@)^(&), /fli6o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno, sf7df08f}+ .

www.mowcs.gov.np sf] web site .

www.nwc.gov.np sf] web site.


www.dow.gov.np sf] web site.
cGt/f{li6o dlxnf ;Dd]ngx?sf b:tfj]hx? .

182

ljsf;df hg;xeflutf / g]kfndf o;sf] k|of]u


wf]ns/fh 9sfn*

;f/f+z
s'g} kIf jf JolQm ljz]ifsf] c?;u ldn]/ sfd ug]{ cj;/ jf clwsf/nfO{ hg;xeflutf
elGfG5 . ;dfh / /fi6sf] ljsf;df hgtfx?sf] ;xeflutf g} hg;xeflutf xf] . t;y{
h'g;'s} ljsf;sf] nIo k|flKtsf] lgldQ ul/g] k|oTgdf ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf
x'g'kg]{ dfGotfsf cfwf/df hg;xeflutfsf] l;4fGt k|fb'ef{j ePsf] xf] . k|:t't n]vdf hg;xeflutfsf]
oxL kIfnfO{ k|i6 kfg]{ k|of; ePsf] 5 .

kl/ro tyf kl/efiff M


'When you want to know if the plumbing works ask the occupant"

;fdfGo cy{df hg;xeflutf hgtfn] cfkm";Fu ;/f]sf/ ePsf] s'g]} klg ljifodf efu lng] jf
;l/s x'g] k|s[of jf cj:yfnfO{ hgfpg] zAb xf] . hg;xeflutfnfO{ lju|x ubf{ hg;xeflutf
x'g cfpF5 h;af6 klg xfdL ;f]em} cg'dfg ug{ ;S5f} ls s'g} klg ljifodf hgtfsf] ;xeflutf
g} hg;xeflutf xf] .
hg;xeflutsf] vf;u/L b'O{ cy{ 5g j[xt\ / ;+s'lrt= . ;+s'lrt cy{df o;n] s'g} gful/sn]
cfkm\gf] lglZrt p2]Zo k'/f ug{ s'g} ;fj{hlgs dfdnfdf cfkm\gf] ;+nUgtf hgfpg] lglZrt sfo{
xf] eg] j[xt cy{df o;n] x/]s gful/snfO{ l;h{gfTds ;fj{hlgs sfo{df s'g]} k|zf;lgs jf
Joj:yfksLo lgsfo;Fu cfa4 geO{ ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL x'g] cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ sfo{nfO{ hgfpF5 .
hg;xeflutf s] xf] eGg] ;DaGWfdf s'g} :ki6 / ;j{dfGo kl/efiff ljsl;t ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g .
vf; u/L hg;xeflutf ljsf;sf] ;Gbe{df g} hf]l8P/ cfPsf] x'G5 oBkL cGo k|zf;lgs tyf
Joj:yfksLo ultljwLdf k|of]u gx'g] zAb eg] xf]Og . hg;xeflutfsf] ;Gbe{df UN publication
n] o;/L kl/efiff u/]sf] 5 M People participation means mass sharing of benefit of development,
mass contribution to development and mass involvement in decision making process as three
basic ingredients.
* zfvf clws[t, ;+3Lo dfldnf tyf :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno

183

s'g} klg /fHon] ug]{ ljsf;sf pkef]Qmf tyf ;h{s b'j} dflg; g} x'g\, t;y{ dflg; g} ljsf;
lqmofsnfk ;~rfng tyf pkef]u ug]{ Psdfq ljj]szLNf PJf+ r]tgzLNf k|f0fL ePsf] tYo
k|frLgsfn b]lv g} :yflkt x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3Lo dxf;lrj sf]kmL cGgfgn] klg
dflg;sf] dxTjnfO{ dgg ub}{ jt{dfg ;Gbe{Dff h'g;'s} sfo{ ubf{ klg "We must put people at the
centre" egL pb\3f]if u/]sf lyP .
hg;xeflutfsf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ ;g\ !(^) sf] bzsb]lv g} rrf{df NofO{Psf] xf] . hg;xeflutfnfO{
cjwf/0ffsf] ?kdf k|:t't ug]{ klxnf JolQmTj k|mfG;sf /fhgLlt1 tyf bfz{lgs Alexis De
Tocquevelle x'g . UNO sf] cfx\jfgdf ;g\ !(&) sf] bzsdf vf; u/Lsg ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6sf]
u|fdL0f ljsf;sf] l;nl;nfdf hg;xeflutf nfu' ug{ ljz]if hf]8 lbO{Psf] lyof] . t/ u|fdL0f:t/df
/x]sf ;d'bfon] ;f]eGbf klxn] klg cfkm\g} :YffgLo :f|f]t ;fwg h'6fO{ cfkm'nfO{ cfjZos kg]{
cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog ub}{ cfPsf lyP . hg;xeflutf sfo{qmdnfO{ ;+:yfut lx;fan] cl3 a9fpg
;g\ !(&# df UNO sf] Economic and social council n] Pp6f k|:tfj kfl/t uof] . h;df lGfDg
s'/f pNn]lvt lyof] . The Government of state member of the United Nations should encourage
wide popular participation and coordination in the development process in setting the goals,
implementing the plans and enjoing the benefit of Development. o;} 3f]if0ff kZrft g} ljleGg
;+3:f+:yfx?n] hg;xeflutfnfO{ ljsf;sf] k"Jfzt{sf] ?kdf lng yfn] h;af6 of] ljifo ljZjJofkL
?kdf rlr{t x'g k'Uof] .
t;y{ dflysf] 5nkmn / kl/efiffaf6 xfdL s] eGg ;S5f} eg] hgtfs]f lxt Pj+ sNof0fsf lgldQ
;~rfng ul/g] ljsf; lqmofsnfksf] th'{dfb]lv sfof{Gjog ;Ddsf of]hgf rqmdf ;/f]sf/jfnf
ju{sf] ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt u/L plgx?nfO{ ljsf; k|s[ofdf ;xefuL u/fpg] / To;af6 k|fKt
k|ltkmnsf] ljt/0fdf ;dtf tyf ;dfgtf emNsfpg] sfo{ g} hg;xeflutf xf] .

hg;xeflutf k|fKt ug]{ tl/sf


hg;xeflutf :j]lR5s / :JftM:km"t{ 9+un] a9\g] k|s[of ePtf klg o;sf nflu ;DalGwt ;/sf/L
tyf ;+:yfut :t/af6 cfjZos jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug'{klg cfjZos b]lvG5 . o;sf nflu
;DalGWt /fi6, ;+:yfn] JolQmsf] dg lhTg ;Sg'k5{ h;sf nflu ;~rfng ul/Psf] kl/of]hgf,
of]hgf, ljsf; lqmofsnfk, ljifo jf sfo{ nf]slk|o Pj+ cTolws JolQmnfO{ nfe lbg] vfnsf] x'g'k5{
o;sf ;fy} b]xfosf] a'Fbfdf Wofg lbg' cfjZos b]lvG5 M
of]hgf th'{df, ljsf; lgdf{0f tyf lg0f{o k|s[ofsf x/]s r/0fdf ;/f]sf/jfnf ju{sf]
;+nUgtf ;'lglZrt ug]{,

184

hg;xeflutf k|j{4g x'g] vfnsf P]g, lgod, gLlt tyf lgb]{lzsfx?sf] lgdf{0f tyf
sfof{Gjog ug]{,
cd's lhNnf, gu/ tyf ufpFx?df eP ul/Psf /fd|f sfdx?sf] cjnf]sg u/fpg],
ljleGg ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldlt, pkef]Qmf ;ldlt cflbsf] dfWodaf6 sfo{x? u/fpg],
ljsf; lgdf{0f sfo{sf] l;nl;nfdf s]xL cfly{s cyjf ef}lts ;xfotf cfjZos kg{
uPdf ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L ;+u7g cyjf cGo s'g} ;|f]taf6 o:tf] /sd jf ;fdfu|L
pknAw u/fpg],
ljsf; lgdf{0fsf nflu hg>dbfg u/]afkt ljleGg cfly{s Hofnf jf vfBfGGf lbP/
hgtfnfO{ cfs[i6 ug]{,
cTolws hg;xeflutf h'6fO{ cfkm\gf] If]qsf] ljsf; pGgltdf pbfx/0f k]z ug]{ ufpF jf
lhNnfnfO{ k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf ug]{,
hgtfsf] ;+nUgtfdf ul/Psf ljsf; lgdf{0fsf] lznfGof;, lgl/If0f cjnf]sg pb\3f6g
ljlzi6 JolQmTjaf6 u/fpg],
of]hgf th'{df s]Gb|Lo:t/df gu/L tNnf] txdf ug]{,
k|zf;g, /fhgLlt, lzIff, :jf:Yo ;a]} If]qdf sfo{/t lgsfon] hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ af/]
;femf k|oTg hf/L /fVg],

hg;xeflutsf k|s[ofx?
hg;xeflutf k|fKt ug]{ dfly pNn]lvt tl/sfx?sf cltl/Qm of] h'6fpg] lglZrt / ;j{dfGo
k|s[ofx? klg klxrfg ul/Psf 5g\ h;nfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
1= ;'rgfsf] k|jfx ug]{,
2= 5nkmncGt{lqmof ug]{
3= glthfsf] lglDt ;xsfo{ ug]{
4= ;zlQms/0f ug]{
5= hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ug]{
6= ;dGjo / ;dLIff ug]{

185

hg;xeflutfsf cfwf/
ljsf; sfo{x?df ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;xeflutfnfO{ ;lqmo, l;h{gzLn / ;fy{s t'Nofpg] s]xL
cfwf/x? x'G5g\ . hgtfsf] lg0f{o lgdf{0fdf kx'Fr, ;fj{hlgs ;"rgfdf kx'Fr / Gofodf kx'Fr
;xeflutfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg] o:tf cfwf/x? x'g .

-s_ lg0f{o lgdf{0fdf kx'Fr M


clVtof/jfnfn] lg0f{o ug'{eGbf cl3sf] cj:yf M

;Nnfx ;'emfj / ;xof]u k|bfg u/]/,

ljz]]if1sf] ?kdf ;xeflutf hgfP/,

kl/of]hgfdf hf]8 lbP/

lg0f{o ul/;s]kl5sf] cj:yf M

lg0f{o sfof{Gjog u/]/,

sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf cfjZos lgoGq0f u/]/,

-v_ ;fj{hlgs ;'rgfdf kx'Fr M


cfkm\gf] ;/f]sf/sf] ;"rgfdf hgtfsf] kx'Fr / ;xeflutf x'g],
of]hgf ;DalGWf lr7\7Lkq, dfOGo"6, k|ltj]bg, ;Demf}tf, ah]6 ;DalGWf ljifo cflbdf
;xh kx'Fr x'g],
hgtfn] cfkm\gf egfO{, k|ltlqmof, ;'emfj /fVg kfpg] Joj:yf x'g'kg]{,
-u_ Gofodf kx'Fr M
ljsf;sf] k|ltkmn Gofof]lrt ljt/0fsf] ;'lglZrttf x'g'kg]{,
ljsf; Joj:yfkgdf ;dfj]zL gLltsf] cjnDAfg ul/g'kg]{,
ljsf; lqmofsnfkaf6 x'g;Sg] b'ik|efjaf6 pGd'lQm kfpg Goflos pkrf/sf] Joj:yf
x'g'kg]{,

186

hg;xeflutfsf] k|sf/
hg;xeflutfsf k|sf/nfO{ ljleGg ljfgx?n] ljleGGf 9+un] pNn]v ug]{ u/]sf] kfO{G5 . oBlk
ljsf;sf] ;Gbe{Dff eGg'kbf{ hg;xeflutfsf lgDglnlvt k|sf/ x'G5g eGg ;lsG5 M

-!_ lgliqmo ;xeflutf M


gfddfqsf] ;xeflutf xf] .
hgtfnfO{ s] x'Fb}5 jf s] eO{;Sof] eGGf] hfgsf/L dfq lbO{G5,
pgLx?n] nfeflGjt ;d"xsf ?Kfdf s]jn nfe k|fKt ub{5g / nfe k|fKt
u?Gh]n;Ddsf nflu dfq ;xeflutf hgfpF5g,
kl/of]hgf Joj:yfkgn] pgLx?;Fu k/fdz{ ub}{g,
;"rgfsf] cfbfg k|bfg s]jn ljsf; Joj;foLx?aLr dfq x'G5 .

-@_ of]ubfgsf/L ;xeflutf M


lgliqmo eGbf cln:t/Lo hg;xeflutf,
hgtfn] kl/of]hgfsf nflu ;"rgf, ;|f]t;fwg tyf pgLx?sf] >dsf] of]ubfg
u/]/ ljsf; lqmofsnfkdf ;xeflutf hgfpF5g, t/ kl/of]hgfsf] l8hfOgdf
pgLx?sf] guGo e"ldsf /xG5 .
o;df vf;u/L gful/sx?n] cg';Gwfgstf{ / kl/of]hgf k|aGWfsx?n] l8hfOg
u/]sf k|Zgx?sf] hjfkm lbg] sfo{ ub{5g\ t/ cuf8Lsf] k|lqmofdf pgLx?sf]
;+nUgtf jf k|efj /xFb}g .
hgtfn] ;|f]t ;fwg pknAw u/fpF5g t/ kl/of]hgf lqmofsnfkdf pgLx?sf]
;xeflutf /xFb}g .

-#_ k/fdz{bfoL ;xeflutf M


o;df ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu ;DalGwt If]qsf ;d:of tyf cj;/x?sf af/]df /
kl/of]hgf l8hfOgsf af/]df k/fdz{ lnO{G5 t/ kl/of]hgf l8hfO{gsf af/]sf]
lg0f{odf eg] pgLx?sf] s'g} xft /xFb}g ,

187

hgtfaf6 lnO{Psf] k/fdz{x?nfO{ :JfLsf/ jf OGsf/ ug'{ kl/of]hgf


Joj:yfkgsf] :j]R5fdf e/ k5{ ,

-$_ sfo{ut ;xeflutf M


o;k|sf/sf] hg;xeflutfdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx? kl/of]hgfsf k"j{lgwf{l/t
p2]Zox? k'/f ug{ ljleGg ;d"xx? lgdf{0f u/]/ ;xeflu x'G5g,
pgLx?sf] ;xeflutf d'Vo lg0f{ox? e};s]kl5 kl/of]hgfsf] clGTfd r/0flt/
dfq} x'g] u5{ .
;du| lg0f{o k|s[ofdf ;+nUg x'b}gg .
o;nfO{ sfof{Gjogdf ;xeflutf klg elgG5 .

-%_ cGt/lqmofTds ;xeflutf M


o;df hgtfx? ljsf; Joj;foL ;+u;Fu} ljZn]if0f / of]hgfdf ;lqmo ?kdf
;xefuL x'G5g\ .
:yfgLo lg0f{o lgdf{0fdf ;+nUGf x'G5g .
;/sf]sf/ jfnfx?n] lg0f{o lgdf{0fdf ;d]t k|efj kfg]{ x'Fbf o; lsl;dsf]
;xeflutfnfO{ lg0f{o lgdf{0fdf ;xeflutf klg elgG5 .

-^_ cfTdkl/rfng ;xeflutf M


;a}eGbf pGgt l;h{gzLn / ;lqmo lsl;dsf] ;xeflutf xf] .
o; k|sf/sf] hg;xeflutfdf afx\o ;+:yfaf6 :JftGq /xL cfkm\g} k|of;df
ljsf;sf sfo{x?df ;xefuL x'G5g .
pgLx?n] ljsf; sfo{qmdx?df Joj;foLx?sf] ;xof]u lng ;S5g\ t/ ;Dk"0f{
k|lqmof eg] pgLx?sf] lgoGq0fdf x'G5 .
o;k|sf/sf] ;xeflutfdf hgtfn] pgLx?sf] cfjZostf cg';f/ ljBdfg
k|0ffnLsf] kl/jt{g ug{ ;S5g . To;}n] o;nfO{ ?kfGt/0fsf/L ;xeflutf klg
elGfG5 .

188

hg;xeflutfsf] cfjZostf / dxTj M


hg;xeflutfn] lg0f{odf hgtfsf] cfjZostf / cfsf+Iff k|ltlalDat x'g] cj:yfsf] l;h{gf u5{
/ hgtfx?nfO{ ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfo{x?sf] ;+/If0f ug{Dff pTk|]l/t ub{5 . ;~rflnt ljsf;
sfo{df lbuf]kgf sfod u/fpg tyf ;f] k|lt hgtfsf] :JffldTj :yflkt u/fpg cfjZos b]lvPsf]
hg;xeflutsf] cfjZostf / dxTjnfO{ a'Fbfut ?kdf o;/L pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
;Lldt ;|f]tsf] k|fyldstf ;lxt ;jf]{QDf pkof]u ug{,
sfof{Gjogdf cfjZos kg]{ ;|f]t tyf ;fwgsf] cefj k"lt{ ug{,
;fd"lxs hjfkmb]lxtf k|j{4g ug{,
cfof]hgf sfo{qmddf :jfldTj af]w u/fpg,
nfut s6f}tL ug{ / k|ltkmndf a[l4 ug{,
ljjfbsf] lg?k0f ug{,
;dGoflos ljt/0f k|0ffnL :yflkt u/fpg,
sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf kf/blz{tf k|j{4g ug{,
k|fljlws ;LKf / bIftf j[l4 ug{,
sfo{qmddf lbuf]kg sfod ug{,
;fd"lxs lg0f{o k|0ffnL k|j{4g ug{,
hgtfsf] k[i7kf]if0f k|fKt ug{ tyf cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf] qmddf x'g] ;"rgfsf] cj/f]wnfO{
Go"gLs/0f ug{,
;fj{Hflgs j:t'x?sf] k|of]udf j[l4 ug{ d2t k'ofpg,
hgtfsf] jf:tljs cfjZostf klxrfg ug{,
/f]huf/Lsf] cj;/ l;h{gf / u/LaL Go"gLs/0fdf of]ubfg k'ofpg,
ljsf;df >dd"ns / jftfj/0fd}qL k|ljlwsf] cjnDAfg ug{,
:yfgLo txdf k|hftflGqs cEof;, g]t[Tj ljsf;, ;+:yfut Ifdtf clej[l4 / ;fdflhs
;f}xfb{tfnfO{ an k'ofpg,
:yfgLo:t/b]lv g} clwsf/df cfwfl/t cjwf/0ffsf] k|j{4g ug]{ jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{,

189

g]kfndf hg;xeflutf M
g]kfndf hg;xeflutfsf] kl/rfng k|ToIf k/f]If 9+un] ljutb]lv g} x'Fb} cfPsf] Joxf]/f ;j{ljlbt}
5 . ;/sf/n] ufpF3/df k|ToIf ;]jf k'ofpg g;s]sf sf/0f :yfgLo jfl;Gbfx?n] ;fd"lxs lg0f{o
u/L cfkm\gf cfjZostf k"lt{ ub}{ cfPsf pbfx/0f ljutsf] Oltxf;n] 5n{ kf/]sf] 5 . h]7f a'9fsf]
;Nnfx, k~renfb\dLsf] lg0f{onfO{ ;jf]{k/L dfGg] rng ufpF3/df jt{dfg ;dodf klg kfO{G5 .
3f]s nufP/, s6'jfn s/fP/ hg;xeflutf h'6fpg] k|yf klg ufpF3/df nf]k e};s]sf] 5}g .
ufFp3/df ;~rflnt af6f] uf]/]6f], d7dlGb/, s'nf]gx/, kf6Lkf}jf, :s"n cflb ;fgf 7"nf ljsf;
sfo{df hg;xeflutf h'l6g} /x]5 . o;sf] u}/pkl:yltdf ufpF3/sf] b}lgs hLjg cuf8L a9fpg]
kl/sNkgf g} ug{ ;lsGg .
g]kfndf ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3sf] cfx\jfg kl5 ;/sf/n] hg;xeflutf kl/rfng sfo{df cu|;/tf
b]vfPsf] xf] . vf; u/L ljZj vfB ;+u7gaf6 sfdsf nflu vfBfGGf sfo{qmd cGtu{t pknAw
u/fO{Psf] ;xof]uaf6 u|fdL0f tyf lhNnf:t/Lo ;8s lgdf{0fdf 7'nf] ;3fp k'u]sf] 5 . o;sf ;fy}
g]kfn ;/sf/n] ufpF kms{ /fli6o cleofg, PsLs[t u|fdL0f ljsf; sfo{qmd cflbsf gfddf ljsf;
sfo{qmddf hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ug]{ gLlt cjnDag uof] . lqe'jg ljZjljBfnon] ;~rfng
u/]sf] /fli6o ljsf; ;]jfdf klg Jofks ?kdf hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ul/of] . t/, s]Gb|Lo
;dGjosf] cefj, sfo{qmdn] lg/Gt/tf kfpg g;Sg', ;/sf/L k|lta4tfsf] sdL / cGo sltko
sf/0fn] ubf{ To;a]nf sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf rlr{t sfo{qmd ;d]t :yug ul/P .
o;/L ;g\ !(^) kZrft g]kfndf hg;xeflutf sfo{qmdn] h'g ultdf pFEff] km8\sf] df/]sf] lyof],
;Q/Lsf] bzsdf ;f] x'g ;s]g . olt dfq xf]Og, ;g\ c:;Lsf] bzsdf o;df xf; b]vf kg{ uof] .
hgtfn] cfkm\gf] cu|;/tfdf ;fgf ltgf ljsf; sfo{ ;~rfng u/]tf klg ;/sf/L cfx\jfgdf ;f] x'g
;s]g . hg;xeflutfsf] gfddf cfkm' 7luPsf] pgLx?n] dxz'; u/] . kmntM g]kfndf hg;xeflutf
kl/rfng ug]{ p2]Zon] h] hlt sfo{qmd yfngL ul/Psf lyP tL dWo] clwsf+z kl/If0fd} ;Lldt
/x] . t/ xfn cfP/ km]/L o;nfO{ gLltut ?kdf ;an agfpg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 ,h;df sfof{Gjog
kIf k|efjsf/L x'g'kg]{ 68\sf/f] dxz'; ul/Psf] 5 .

g]kfndf hg;xeflutf k|j{4gsf nflu ljBdfg sfg"gL Joj:yf M


g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^#
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%%
;fj{Hflgs vl/b P]g, @)^#

190

;'zf;g -;~rfng tyf Joj:yfkg_ P]g, @)^$


:yfgLo :JffoQ zf;g lgodfjnL, @)%^
;fj{Hflgs vl/b lgodfjnL, @)^$
;'zf;g -;~rfng tyf Joj:yfkg_ lgodfjnL, @)^%
:yfgLo lgsfo -cfly{s k|zf;g_ lgodfjnL, @)^$
lqjifL{o of]hgfsf] cfwf/kq @)^&)^*@)^(&)

hg;xeflutf kl/rfngdf ;+nUg lgsfout Joj:yf M


:yfgLo lgsfo M :yfgLo :JffoQ zf;g P]g adf]lhd :yflkt :yfgLo:t/df ljsf; lgdf{0f
/ ;]jf k|bfg ug]{ sfo{df lqmofzLNf :yfgLo :JffoQ zf;g ;DaGwL lgsfo cyf{t ufpF
ljsf; ;ldlt, gu/kflnsf tyf lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt .
ljifout sfof{nox? M g]kfn ;/sf/sf ljleGg ljifout dGqfno cGtu{t ul7t lhNnfl:yt
sfof{Nfo tyf l8lehg sfof{nox? .
cfof]hgf lgdf{0f ;~rfng, Joj:Yffkg / dd{t ;Def/ ug{sf nflu ul7t pkef]Qmf
;ldltx? .
:yfgLo lgsfo;Fu ;DfGjo /fvL sfo{;~rfng ug]{ :yfgLo txdf lqmofzLNf u}/;/sf/L
;+:yf tyf ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx? .

hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ;DaGwL ljBdfg d'Vo d'Vo Joj:yf M


g]kfndf ljBdfg sfg"gL Joj:yfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf hg;xeflutf j[l4sf k|of;nfO{ a'Fbfut ?kdf
lgDg cg';f/ pNN]fv ug{ ;lsG5 M

cfly{s ;fdflhs jf z}lIfs b[li6n] kl5 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghftL, dw]zL
;d'bfo, pTkLl8t ju{, u/La ls;fg / dhb'/nfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df
/fHosf] ;+/rgfdf ;xefuL u/fpg] .

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf] dfWodf/f hgtfnfO{ clwsflws dfqfdf ;lDdlnt x'g] cj;/
k|bfg ug]{ .

191

:yfgLo :t/b]lv g} hgtfsf] ;fj{ef}d:fQf k|of]u ug]{ cg's'n jftfj/0f agfO{ d'n'ssf]
zf;g Joj:yfdf hgtfsf] a9LeGbf a9L ;xeflutf k|j{4g ug]{ .

:YffgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]gsf] k|:tfjgfdf ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] dfWodf/f hgtfnfO{ zf;g


k|s[ofdf clwsflws dfqfdf ;lDdlnt u/fO{ ljsf; k|s[ofnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{ s'/f pNn]v
ul/Psf] .

:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;gsf] l;4fGt tyf lgtLn] hgtfsf] ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t gful/s
;dfhsf] :yfkgf ug]{tkm{ pGd'v u/fpg] .

:yfgLo lgsfon] of]hgf 5gf}6 ubf{ sd nfut / a9L hg;xeflutfdf ;+rfng x'g]
of]hgfnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'kg]{ .

s'g} lgdf{0f sfo{ u/fpFbf jf ;f] ;DaGwL ;]jf k|fKt ubf{ ldtAolotf, u'0f:t/Lotf jf
lbuf]kg clej[l4 x'g] ePdf jf kl/of]hgfsf] d'Vo p2]Zo g} /f]huf/Lsf] l;h{gf ug]{ /
nfeu|fxL ;d'bfonfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg] ePdf pkef]Qmf ;ldlt jf nfeu|fxL ;d'bfonfO{
tf]lsPsf] sfo{ljlw k'/f u/L To:tf] sfo{ u/fpg jf ;]jf lng ;lsg] .

^) nfv ;DDf nfut ePsf] / hl6n k|fljlws kIf ;dfj]z gePsf] sfo{ pkef]Qmf ;ldlt
dfkm{t ;~rfng ug{ k|fyldstf lbg'kg]{ .

g]kfn ;/sf/n] s'g} kl/of]hgf jf cfof]hgf hgtfsf] k|ToIf ;xeflutf / :jfldTjdf


;+rfng x'g] Joj:yf ldnfpg ;Sg] .

:yfgLo:t/df sfo{;Dkfbg ug]{ sfof{Nfo k|d'vn] cfkm" axfn /x]sf] sfof{nosf] sfd
sf/jfxL :JfR5, kf/bzL{, j:t'lgi7 agfpg k|To]s rf/ dlxgfdf ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ ug]{ .

;]jfu|fxLn] cfkm'n] k|fKt u/]sf] ;]jf ;DaGWfL s'g} u'gf;f] u/]df ;f]sf] Joj:Yffkg ug{ gf]8n
clws[tsf] Joj:Yff ug]{ .

:yfgLo lgsfon] cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt ePsf] rf/ dlxgfleq cfkm"n] jif{e/L u/]sf] cfly{s
sf/f]af/sf] ;fdflhs n]vfk/LIf0f u/fpg] .

ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] dfWodf/f :YffgLo hgtf / lgsfosf] k|ToIf ;+nUgtfdf ;|f]t ;fwg ;LKf
tyf k|ljlwsf] pkof]u ub}{ /fi6sf] ;jf{l0f ljsf;sf] cfwf/zLnf tof/ ug]{ .

192

g]kfndf hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ;DaGWfdf b]lvPsf ;d:of M


'Participation is a plant that does not grow easily in the human environment"

g]kfnsf] ljsf; sfo{df hg;xeflutf ;'lglZrt agfpgsf] lglDt xfn;DDf ePsf ;/sf/L
k|oTgaf6 ck]lIft kl/0ffd k|fKt x'g ;s]sf] cg'ej eg] clxn];DDf klg x'g ;s]sf] kfOFb}g . ck]Iff
cg'?k hg;xeflutf a9\g g;Sgfsf] k5fl8 s]xL cfwf/e"t sf/0f / ;d:ofx? /x]sf] b]lvG5 . tL
;d:ofx? lgDg 5g M
hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ug]{ ;+:sf/sf] cefj x'g' .
;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] r]tgfsf] :t/ Go"g x'g .
of]hgf rqmdf hg;xeflutf clej[l4 ug]{ k|of; gx'g' .
Top to Bottom of]hgf k|0ffnL sfod /xg',
hg;xeflutf clgjfo{ x'g'kg]{ sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] cefj,
hg;xeflutsf] :j?k / k|s[lt lglb{i6 gul/g] of]hgf th'{df k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf
ljBdfg x'g',
hg;xeflutf kl/rfng ul/g] ljZjfl;nf] ;+oGqsf] cefj x'g' ,
:yfgLo ;fwg / ;|f]t cfFsng ug{ ;Ifd ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] cefj x'g' ,
;/f]sf/jfnfju{df lhDd]jf/L axg ug]{ rfxgf / TfTk/tf Go"g x'g',
;fd'bflos ljsf;sf lgldQ eGbf ;/sf/L ljsf;k|lt cfZj:t x'g] kl/kf6L sfod
x'g',
zflGt ;'/Iffsf] c;xh Joj:yf x'g' ,
hg;xeflutf kl/rfngdf bnLo :jfy{ xfjL x'g',
pkef]Qmf ;ldltsf] u7g / kl/rfngdf k|efjsf/Ltf / :ki6tf gx'g',
hgtfsf] rfxgf / cfjZostfsf] ljljwtf, Ifdtfsf] k[ystf, c:jefljs ck]Iff
tyf :Jffy{sf] G h:tf sf/0fn] Joj:yfkg hl6n aGb} hfg' ,
;xeflutfsf] k|s[ofdf :yfgLo 7'nfa8f / 6f7faf7fsf] jr{:j sfod x'g',
;xeflutfdf x'g] of]ubfgsf] clen]vf+sg gx'g',
pkef]Qmf ;ldltsf] ;+u7g Ifdtf tyf Joj:yfkg bIftf kof{Kt gx'g' .

193

;d:ofn] kf/]sf k|efjx? M


pNNf]lvt ;d:ofaf6 lgDg lsl;dsf k|efj k/]sf 5g\M

>f]t ;fwgsf] k|of]udf ldtJooLtf sfod ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g .

hjfkmb]xL ;+oGqsf] cefj v8\lsg] u/]sf] 5 .

cfof]hgf sfo{qmddf :jfldTj hfu[t u/fpg ;lsPsf] 5}g .

of]hgfsf] nfut jif]{lkR5] a9\bf] 5 .

ljsf;sf] k|ltkmn ;DfGoflos ?kdf ljt/0f ug{ ;lsPs]f 5}Gf .

e|i6frf/ clgoldttf tyf ;fwgsf] b'?kof]u a9]sf] 5 .

agfO{Psf] ljsf; lgdf{0f 5f]6f] ;dosf nflu x'g] u/]sf] / dd{t ;Def/ gx'Fbf k'gM
plx cljsf;sf] l:yltdf d'n's k'u]s]f 5 .

cg'udg / d"Nof+sg nfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsPsf] 5}Gf .

;d:of ;dfwfgsf pkfo M


pNNf]lvt ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ lgDg pkfox? cjnDAfg ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 M
cfof]hgfsf] z'?b]lv g} hgtfsf] ;+nUgtf ;'lglZrt ug'{kg]{,
Bottom up approach cg';f/ of]hgf th'{df tyf sfof{Gjog ug]{ tyf Top down approach
df hg;xeflutf kl/rfngsf] pko'Qm k4lt :yfkLt ub} hfg'kg]{,
nfut sd ePsf], l56f] ;DkGg x'g] / a9L k|ltkmn lbg] of]hgf th'{df tyf sfof{Gjog
ul/g'kg]{,
lg0f{o k|lqmofdf hgtfsf] efjgf tyf ljrf/sf] ;Ddfg tyf sb/ ul/g'kg]{,
hg;xeflutf :JftM:km"t,{ :Jf]lR5s / a9L nrstf x'g] u/L cfjZos dfkb08, sfo{ljlw
/ k|s[of lgwf{/0f ul/g'kg]{,
:yfgLo :f|f]t ;fwgsf] k|of]u, >dd"ns k|ljlw cjnDag / /f]huf/L s]lGb|t k2lt cjnDag
ul/g'kg]{,
pkef]Qmfx?df hjfkmb]xLk"0f{ :JffldTjsf] ljsf; ul/g'kg]{,
k|lqmofTds kf/blz{tf, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ / ;fdflhs kl/If0fsf] ;+:yfut Joj:Yff
ul/g'kg]{,
k|ltkmnsf] pkof]udf ;dfg kx'Frsf] ;'lglZrttf ul/g'kg]{,

194

;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts tyf jftfj/0fLo kIfx?k|lt kof{Kt Wofg lbOg'kg]{ .


cg'udg / d"Nof+sg kIf ;zQm / k|efjsf/L agfOg'kg]{,
pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ lgu/fgLstf{sf] ?kdf :yflkt ug]{ tyf ;dGjo / ;xsfo{NffO{ k|a{4g
ul/g'kg]{,
;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ of]ubfgsf] cfwf/df k|ltkmn pknAw u/fO{g'kg]{,
ljBdfg P]g, lgod gLltsf] k|efjsf/L 9+un] kfngf u/fpg],

;'emfj sfof{Gjogsf] sfo{of]hgf M


Dffly pNn]lvt ;'emfjx? sfof{Gjogsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/, :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno nufot
hg;xeflutf kl/rfngdf k|ToIf ?kn] ;xefuL x'g] lgsfox?n] b]xfo adf]lhd ;do;fl/0fL
;lxtsf] :ki6 sfo{of]hgf agfO{ ;f]sf] k|efjsf/L 9+|un] sfof{Gjog ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 .

lg/Gt/ jf tTsfn

dWosfn

v lg0f{o k|lqmofdf hgtfsf] efjgf v cfof]hgfsf] z'?b]lvg} hgtfsf]


;+nUgtf ;'lglZrt ug'{kg]{,
tyf ljrf/sf] ;Ddfg tyf sb/
ul/g'kg]{,
v hg;xeflutf
:JftM:kmt{
:Jf]lR5s / a9L nrstf x'g] u/L
v :yfgLo :f|f]t ;fwgsf] k|of]u,
cfjZos dfkb08, sfo{ljlw /
>dd"ns k|ljlw cjnDag /
k|s[of lgwf{/0f ul/g'kg]{,
/f]huf/L s]lGb|t k2lt cjnDag
ul/g'kg]{,
v pkef]Qmfx?df
hjfkmb]xLk"0f{
:JffldTjsf] ljsf; ul/g'kg]{,
v pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ lgu/fgLstf{sf]
?kdf :yflkt ug]{ tyf ;dGjo
/ ;xsfo{NffO{ k|a{4g ul/g'kg]{, v k|ltkmnsf] pkof]udf ;dfg
kx'Frsf] cj;/ ;'lglZrttf
ul/g'kg]{,
v ljBdfg P]g, lgod gLltsf]
k|efjsf/L 9+un] kfngf u/fpg],
v ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts tyf
v cg'udg / d"Nof+sg kIf ;zQm
jftfj/0fLo kIfx?k|lt kof{Kt
/ k|efjsf/L agfOg'kg]{,
Wofg lbOg'kg]{ .

bL3{sfn
cg';f/
of]hgf th'{df tyf sfof{Gjog
ug]{ tyf Top down approach
df hg;xeflutf kl/rfngsf]
pko'Qm k4lt :yflkt ub{}
hfg'kg]{,

v Bottom up approach

v nfut sd ePsf], l56f] ;DkGg


x'g] / a9L k|ltkmn lbg] of]hgf
th'{df tyf sfof{Gjog ul/g'kg]{,
v k|lqmofTds kf/blz{tf, ;fj{hlgs
;'g'jfO{ / ;fdflhs kl/If0fsf]
;+:yfut Joj:Yff ul/g'kg]{,
v ;/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ of]ubfgsf]
cfwf/df k|ltkmn pknAw
u/fO{g'kg]{,

195

lgisif{ M
hg;xeflutf ljsf; k|zf;gsf] ljljw pkfud dWo] Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ pkfud xf] . of] s;}sf]
s/sfk / cfb]zdf ;+rfng x'g] geO{ :j]lR5s / :JftM:km"t{ 9+Ufn] cl3 a9\g] k|lqmof xf] . ljsf;sf]
jf:tljs pkef]u ug]{ ju{sf] ;xeflutfdf ljsf; sfo{ cuf8L a9fpFbf jf:tljs ljsf;sf] ck]Iff
k'/f x'g], sfof{Gjogsf] r/0fdf tLgsf] efjgfTds / ef}lts lqmofzLntf clej[l4 x'g], cg'udg
/ lgoGq0f k|lqmof nfut k|efjL eO{ ;~rfng kl5sf of]hgfdf ;d]t lbuf]kgf sfod x'g] x'Fbf
hg;xeflutf ljgfsf] ljsf; lqmofsnfk k|foM c;kmn x'g] / To:tf sfo{qmddf ePsf] nufgL
afn'jfdf kfgL xfn] ;/x x'g] ;Defjgf klg Tolts} x'G5 . g]kfndf hg;xeflutf k|j{4gsf] nflu
ljutb]lv ljleGg k|of;x? eP . ljleGg gLltut / ;+:yfut k|of;sf jfjh'b hg;xeflutfn]
ck]lIft ult lng g;s]sf] oyfy{ xfdL;fd' 5n{ 5 . t;y{ jt{dfg ;dodf g]kfndf hg;xeflutf
kl/rfngsf nflu dfly pNn]lvt sfo{of]hgf cg';f/sf] sfo{qmd to u/L ;f]xL adf]lhd gLltut
tyf ;+:yfut Joj:yf u/L ljBDffg gLltx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog x'g] xf] eg] lglZRft ?kdf
hg;xeflutf k|j{4g eO{ hgtfn] ljsf; sf] k|ltkmn ;dGoflos ?Kfdf xfl;n ug{ ;S5g .

;Gbe{ ;fdfu|LM
e, eLdb]j M ljsf; k|zf;g,
kf08], o'j/fh M ljsf; k|zf;g
bfxfn, k|sfz M ljsf; k|zf;g, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / :yfgLo ;/sf/
hf]zL, l;4/fh M zfvf clws[t d"n k/LIff bk{0f
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^#
:yfgLo :jfoQ zf;g P]g, @)%% / :yfgLo :JffoQ zf;g lgodfjnL, @)%^
;fj{Hflgs vl/b P]g, @)^# / ;fj{Hflgs vl/b lgodfjnL, @)^$
;'zf;g-;~rfng tyf Joj:yfkg_ P]g, @)^$ / ;'zf;g-;~rfng tyf Joj:yfkg_
lgodfjnL, @)^%
:yfgLo lgsfo-cfly{s k|zf;g_ lgodfjnL, @)^$
lqjifL{o of]hgfsf] cfwf/kq @)^&)^*@)^(&)
:6fkm sn]h tyf ljleGg tflnd sfo{qmddf ljtl/t ;fdfu|L
;f]kfg, rnfgL tyf cGt//fi6Lo d~rsf ljleGGf c+sx?

196

g]kfndf gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf]


cfjZostf Pj+ r'gf}tLx?

dx]z kf08]*

;f/f+z
zf;sLo :j?kdf cfPsf gof gof l;4fGt, cjwf/0ff Pj+ d'No dfGotfx?n] sd{rf/LtGqsf]
cfsf/, sfo{z}nL / cfbz{nfO{ abNb} uPsf] 5 . ljleGg sf]0fx?af6 eO/x]sf] cfnf]rgf,
k|:tfljt ljsNk, ;fdflhs lj1fgsf cGo ljwfx? /fhgLltzf:q, cy{zf:q, gLlt lj1fg /
sfg"gsf] ;]kaf6 arfpb} sd{rf/LtGqn] ;fj{hlgs sfo{sf] Joj:yfkg / zf;sLo Joj:yfsf] d'Vo
kfqsf] ?kdf cfkm"nfO{ :yflkt ul//x]sf] 5 . sd{rf/LtGqn] cfh nf]stflGqs d"No dfGotfx?sf]
hu{]gf ub{} hgtf;u} /x]/ sfd ug'{kg{] bjfj kl//x]sf] 5 . cfk"mnfO{ ;]js xf]Og zf;s 7fGg]
ljutsf] h:tf] sfo{z}nLdf cfd'n kl/jt{g cfO{ Put the people at the centre sf] dfGotf adf]lhd
Joaxf/ ug'{ ckl/xfo{ ePsf] 5 . PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLsf] z'?jftb]lv g} ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{
ahf/Ls/0f ug{] cjwf/0ffn] gful/sx?sf] x}l;otnfO{ gh/ cGbfh ub{} u|fxssf] ?kdf lnPsf]
egL s8f cfnf]rgf x'g k'Uof] . gof ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf sdhf]/Lx?sf] k|ltlqmof :j?k
gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] If]qdf k|efj kfg{ yfNof] . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf]
cWoogdf tYonfO{ dfq xf]Og d"Nox?k|lt ;+j]bgzLn x'g'kg{], JolQmut dfgjLo Jojxf/nfO{
j:t'ut Jojxf/eGbf a9L k|fyldstf lbg'kg{] / jf:tljs hgtf;usf] ;DaGwdf dfgjLo ;+j]bgf,
efjgf Pj+ dgf]lj1fgnfO{ a9L Wofg lbg'kg{] eGg] Post Modern Public Administration sf]
cjwf/0ff gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] ;}4flGts ;f/ aGof] / ;g\ @))@ b]lv o;nfO{ cjnDag
ul/of] . k|:t't n]vdf gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] cfjZostf Pj+ r'gf}tLx?jf/] rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 .

* zfvf clws[t, g]kfn ;/sf/

197

! ljifo k|jz
] / kl/efiff
gof ;Fj{hlgs ;]jf ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] IF]qdf cfPsf] Pp6f gof cjwf/0ff xf] . o;nfO{ ;g\
@))@ b]lv ljfg\ Janet V. Denhardt and Robert B. Denhardt n] k|of]udf NofPsf x'g\ . vf;u/L
o;sf] cjwf/0ff :s]l08g]leog d'n'sx?af6 cfPsf] xf] .
gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] hgtfnfO{ u|fxs xf]Og, gful/ssf] ?kdf Jojxf/ ug'{k5{ eGg] d"n cf;onfO{
cfTd;ft u/]sf] 5 .
New Public Service
Responsive Governance
New Public Management
New Public Administration
"Public servants do not deliver customer service they deliver democracy" Denhardt and Denhardt.

NPS sf d"n ljz]iftfx?M


nf]stflGqs d"Nox?k|lt k'glj{Zjf; .
ahf/ k|lt:kwf{ / u|fxssf] ;f nf]stGq, gful/s / uj{ -pride_ df ljZjf; .
;/sf/ Joj;fo xf]Og .
hgtfnfO{ ;'gfpg] xf]Og hgtfsf] ;'Gg] .
lbUbz{g xf]Og ;]jf ug{] .
gful/s ;+nUgtf / nf]stflGqs ;'zf;g .
gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] k|zf;sx?sf] e"ldsfnfO{ jf:tljs ?kd} ;DalGwt lgsfo / hgtfk|lt

198

pQ/bfoL eO{ gful/s d"Nox?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ub{} kof{Kt / lgikIf ?kdf ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] ;xeflutf
;'lglZrt ug{] lbzfdf s]lGb|t u/]sf] 5 .
NPS sf

!=

k|d'v l;4fGtx?
Serve rather than streer : gof ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gn] ;/sf/ / k|zf;sx?n] lbUbz{g

ug{] xf] 8'+uf lvofpg] xf]Og eGg] egfO k|:t't u/]sf] lyof] . t/ gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn]
;/sf/L sd{rf/Lx?n] lgoGq0f / lbUbz{g ug{] xf]Og ls gful/sx?nfO{ pgLx?sf] ;femf
d"Nox? / :jfy{x? k|fKt ug{df ;3fpg' kb{5 . sd{rf/Lx?n] ;fj{hlgs ;|f]tsf] /vaf/L
ub{} hgtfsf] ;]jf ug{] lhDd]jf/L lnPsf] ;To e'Ng ldNb}g eGg] o; cjwf/0ffsf] ts{ 5 .
@=

Seek the public interest : k'/fgf] k|zf;lgs cjwf/0ffdf ;fj{hlgs :jfy{sf] klxrfg

lgjf{lrt hgk|ltlglwx?af6 x'G5 t/ gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf ;dfhsf OR5f / dfux?sf]


cleJolQm hgk|ltlglw jf sd{rf/Lx?sf] lhDd]jf/L ePsf] dflgb}g . lgjf{lrt / lgo'Qm x'g]
logLx?sf] sfd eg]sf] j[xt ;fj{hlgs ;+jfb / ax;nfO{ ;xof]u k'ofpb} ;femf d"Nox?
lglZrt u/fpg'df Wofg lbg' xf] .
#=

gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] hgtfsf]


cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg x'g] u/L gLlt tyf sfo{qmd lgdf{0f u/L sfof{Gjogdf gful/s
;+nUgtf / ;d'bfo lgdf{0fdf hf]8 lbG5 . o;n] hgtf;u} sfd ug{] k|zf;g dfq casf]
nf]stflGqs o'udf ;kmn x'g] dfGotf /flvPsf] b]lvG5 . sfof{Gjog kIfdf dfq xf]Og gLlt
lgdf{0fdf ;d]t gLlt ;+hfn dfkm{t\ gful/sx?n] cxd\ e"ldsf v]Ng] ub{5g\ .

$=

Serve citizens not customers: nf]stflGqs ;dfhdf gful/sx? u|fxs pkef]Qmf jf

Think strategically act democratically :

;]jfu|fxL dfq xf]Og pgLx? t dflns x'g\ . To;}n] gful/sx?nfO{ gful/s h:t} Jojxf/
ul/g'k5{ . lghfdtL sd{rf/Ln] hgtfsf dfux? ;Daf]wg ug{] dfq xf]Og pgLx? aLr
;fd~h:otf, ljZjf; / ;f}xfb{k"0f{ ;DaGw :yflkt ug'{kb{5 eGg] gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf]
dfGotf /x]sf] 5 .
%=

gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] ;/sf/, ;/sf/L lgsfo


/ o;sf clwsf/Lx? pgLx?sf clGtd :jfdL gful/sx?k|lt a9L pQ/bfoL x'g'kg{]
dfGotf /fVb5 . o;sf nflu nf]stflGqs cfbz{x?, ;j}wflgs sfg"g, ;fd'bflos gd{;
/ g}lts dfkb08k|lt sd{rf/Lx? k|ltj4 /xg' k5{ . cfhsf sd{rf/Ln] Multiple lines of
accountability df sfd ug'{k5{ .

Accountablity is not simple :

199

^=

Value people, not just productivity : gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] ;/sf/L sd{rf/L

eg]sf ahf/sf v]nf8L dfq xf]Ogg\ pgLx?sf] e"ldsf / k|of;n] c?x?sf] hLjg:t/df
pNn]Vo kl/jt{g Nofpg ;Sb5g\ eGb} sd{rf/LtGqsf] e"ldsfnfO{ g} k'gMkl/eflift ug{
hf]8 lbPsf] b]lvG5 . ;fj{hlgs :jfy{ / lxtnfO{ k|a4{g ug{ k|zf;g, gful/s nufot
;a}n] ;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf sfd ug'{kg{] / Ps csf{sf] /fd|f] Pj+ k|lti7fk"0f{ cl:tTj :jLsfg'{
k5{ eGg] o; cjwf/0ffsf] hf]8 5 . nf]stGqdf hgtf ;jf{]k/L x'g] x'bf pgLx?nfO{ cfb/
ug{], ljZjf; ug{] / ;f] cg'?k Jojxf/ ug{ clgjfo{ x'G5 .
&=

Value citizenship and public service above entrepreneurship : Reinventing

government df slx klg ;dtf, Gofo, gful/s / gful/stfsf] rrf{;Dd ul/Psf] kfOb}g .
gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] ;a} k|zf;lgs / cGo zf;sLo Joj:yfkgsf k|lqmofx?df gful/ssf]
cy{k"0f{ ;xeflutf x'g'kg{] ts{ cufl8 NofPsf] 5 . gful/sx?nfO{ ljleGg d~r / k|lqmofdf
cfj4 u/fpg ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO,{ gful/s ;j{]If0f, of]hgf af]8{, ;fd'bflos ;d"x h:tf
gof gof tl/sfsf] canDag x'g' kb{5 / oL ;a}sf] nflu k|zf;sx?n] lzIffk|b e"ldsf
v]Ng'kg{]df hf]8 lbPsf] 5 .
clxn]sf] o'u nf]stflGqs o'u xf] . o:tf] /fhgLlts Joj:yfdf lgjf{lrt k|ltlglw x'g jf sd{rf/L
x'g nf]stflGqs d"Nok|lt k|ltj4 x'g} k5{ . nf]stflGqs d'Nok|ltsf] a9\bf] cfsif{0fn] klg o; gof
cjwf/0ffn] nf]stflGqs elgg] b]zx?df /fd|f] k|efj kfb{} hfg]df ljZjf; ug{ ;lsG5 . ;j{;Qfjfb
jf s'g} klg ?ksf] tfgfzfxL Joj:yfdf dfq o;n] k|ltkfbg u/]sf l;4fGtx? c;fGble{s x'g
;Sb5g\ .

@= ;fj{hlgs If]qsf ;d:ofx?


g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs If]q laleGg ;d:ofx?af6 u|l;t 5 / hgtf g} zlQmsf k|d'v ;|f]t x'g eGg]
s'/fnfO{ ;+ljwfgdf g} pNn]v ul/P klg ;f] cg'?k Jojxf/ x'g] u/]sf] 5}g . /fHosf ljleGg
If]qx?df ;dfj]zL k|0ffnL cjnDag ug{ vf]lhP klg nlIft ju{;Dd kx'+r k'Ug ;s]sf] 5}g .
hgtfn] a'em\b}gg\ / To;}n] 8fS6/sf] h:t} pgLx?sf] /f]usf] lgbfg klg xfdLn] g} ug'{k5{ eGg]
sd{rf/LtGqsf] dfgl;stfn] nf]stflGqs ;'zf;gnfO{ k|j4{g ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs
If]q ;Ifd, ;jn Pj+ k|efjsf/L gx'gdf lgDg ;d:ofx? cGt/lglxt /x]sf 5g\ M

k|zf;goGq cem} klg dflnSofO{ k|j[QLaf6 u'h|L/x]sf] .

sd{rf/LtGq ;+ljwfg, nf]stflGqs d"No / o;sf d'Vo kfq gful/sx? k|lt pQ/bfoL
x'g g;s]sf] .

200

hgtfn] ;/sf/sf] k|ToIf cg'e"lt ug{ g;s]sf] .

/fHosf ljleGg ;+oGqx?aLr k|efjsf/L ;dGjo x'g g;s]sf] .

hgtfsf cfjZostfdf Wofg lbg'sf] ;f6f] JolQm, ;d"x / /fhg}lts bnsf :jfy{;+u
ufl;Psf ljifonfO{ af/Daf/ cufl8 NofP/ hgdtnfO{ j]jf:tf ug]{ ul/Psf] .

;/sf/L If]qn] gful/s ;dfhnfO{ k"0f{ ?kdf ljZjf; ug{ g;s]sf] / gful/s ;dfh
hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL x'g g;s]sf] .

b08lxgtfsf] k|j[QL df}nfpb} uPsf] .

/fHo ;+rfngsf x/]s If]qdf /fhgLlts/0f xflj ePsf] .

sd{rf/L x'g' eg]sf] /ftf/ft wgf9\o x'g' xf] eGg] ljs[t dfgl;stfn] w]/}df k|efj kf/]sf] .

hgtfnfO{ gful/ssf] ?kdf geO{ ;]jfu|fxL, dtbftf jf u|fxssf] ?kdf dfq Jojxf/ ug]{
k|j[QL sfod} /x]sf] .

;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ ;/n, l56f] 5l/tf] Pj+ u':t/Lo agfO{ nf]stflGqs Joj:yfnfO{
;'b[9 agfpg g;lsPsf] .

#= g]kfndf gofF ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] nflu ePsf Joj:yfx?


k|ToIf?kdf gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] cjwf/0ff cjnDjg gul/Psf] eP klg ;+ljwfg tyf cGo P]g,
sfg"gdf ePsf lgDg Joj:yfn] gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] cfzonfO{ k|i6 kfb{5 M
cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^#
k|:tfjgf M k|lt:kwf{Tds ax'bnLo nf]stflGqs zf;g Joj:yf, gful/s :jtGqtf, df}lns
clwsf/, dfgj clwsf/, jflnu dtflwsf/, cfjlws lgjf{rg, k"0f{ k|]; :jtGqtf, :jtGq
Gofokflnsf tyf sfg"gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ff nufot nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfk|ltsf] k"0f{
k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf] .
g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf / /fhsLo ;Qf g]kfnL hgtfdf lglxt /x]sf] .

201

;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;+rfng_ P]g, @)^$


k|:tfjgf M d'n'ssf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ hgd'vL, hjfkmb]xL, kf/bzL{, ;dfj]zL tyf
hg;xeflutfd'ns agfO{ To;sf] k|ltkmn ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ pknAw u/fpg] k|lta4tf
hgfPsf] .
P]gn] k|zf;lgs sfo{ ;+rfngsf cfwf/, lg0f{o ubf{ kf/blz{tf canDag ug'{kg{], kbLo
pQ/bfloTjsf] lgjf{x, gful/s a8fkq /fVg'kg{], hgtfsf] ;xeflutf / :jfldTj, u'gf;f]
Joj:yfkg, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ h:tf k|fjwfg pNn]v u/]sf] .

lghfdtL ;]jf P]g @)$( sf] bf];|f] ;+zf]wg @)^$ n] lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ ;dfj]zL agfpg
cf/If0fsf] Joj:yf u/]sf] .

la=;+=@)%^ b]lv nfu" eO{ sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] gful/s a8fkq gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf]
nflu Ps alnof] sf]z9] '+uf ePsf] .

lqjifL{o of]hgf -@)^&^*@)^(&)_ n] ;dfj]zL tyf ;dGoflos ljsf; u/L ;'zf;gsf]


clej[l4 dfkm{t hgtfnfO{ k'ofpg] ;]jf ;'ljwf u'0f:t/o'Qm agfO{ ;'ky d"Nodf ;dod}
pknAw u/fpg hf]8 lbPsf] 5 .

ah]6 -@)^()&)_ n] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ ;]jfu|fxL d}qL agfpb} nUg Ifltk"lt{ ;lxtsf]
gful/s ;]jf k|jfxsf] Joj:yf nfu" ul/g] s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] 5 .

hgu'gf;f] Joj:yfkg lgb{]lzsf @)^& nfu" eO{ sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] 5 .

$= g]kfndf gofF ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] cfjZostfdxTj


g]kfn h:tf] ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sdf gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn] cToGt} dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng ;S5 .
sd{rf/LtGqsf] xfnsf] ;+:s[ltdf kl/jt{g NofO{ hgtfnfO{ u|fxs xf]Og gful/ssf] ?kdf Jojxf/
ug{ o;sf] cfjZostf 5 . gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] cfjZostfnfO{ lgDg a'bfx?af6 pNn]v ug{
;lsG5 M
g]kfn ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqdf k|j]z ul/;s]sf]n] o;nfO{ d"t{?k lbg gof ;fj{hlgs
;]jf pkof]uL b]lvG5 .
gful/sx?nfO{ gLlt tyf lg0f{o lgdf{0fdf ;+nUg u/fO{ Owner sf] ?kdf dfGotf k|bfg
ug{ .

202

sd{rf/LtGqsf] sfo{ ;+:s[ltdf kl/jt{g NofO{ zf;ssf] ?kdf xf]Og ls ;]jssf] ?kdf
k|lt:yfkg ug{ .
Working with the people eGg] dfGotfnfO{ Jojxfl/s ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ .

:jtGqtf, ;dfgtf, ;dtf, Gofo, k|ltlglwTj / ;xeflutf h:tf nf]stflGqs d'Nox?sf]


k|j4{g ug{ .
JolQmut 5gf]6nfO{ xf]Og ls ;femf :jfy{ / ;femf lhDd]jf/Lsf] ;[hgf ug{ .
;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?nfO{ gful/s;]jfu|fxLx?k|lt k|ToIf ?kdf pQ/bfoL u/fpg .
;dfj]zL ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffdfkm{t hgtfnfO{ ljsf;sf laleGg r/0fdf k|ltlglwTj u/fO
;DalGwt au{, If]q, hflt / ln+usf] d"nk|jfxLs/0f ug{
gful/s a8fkqnfO{ Aoaxfl/s?kdf sfof{Gjog u/L hgtfdfem ;/sf/sf] k|ToIf cg'e"lt
u/fpg
;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf gof d"Nox?sf] k|j4{g u/L ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] IF]qdf k|j]z ug{
cfsif{0f a9fpg .
;fj{hlgs lgsfox?df ;]jfu|fxL hgtfx?sf] kx'r j[l4 u/L ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ r':t, b'?:t,
u'0f:t/Lo Pj+ hgd}qL u/fpg .
;Gt'lnt ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffnfO{ cfTd;ft ub{} lk5l8Psf] ju{sf] d'n k|jfxLs/0f dfkm{t
;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"tL lbg .

%= gofF ;fj{hlgs ;]jfnfO{ Jofjxfl/s ?kdf canDag ug{ ckgfpg' kg{] pkfox?
gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jf Ps gof cjwf/0ff xf] . o;n] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] If]qdf ;sf/fTds k|efj
kfg{] lglZrt 5 . ;fj{hlgs If]qdf b]lvPsf ;d:ofx?sf] plrt ;dfwfg ub}{ o;sf] k|efjsfl/tfdf
a[l4 Nofpg lgDg kIfdf ;'wf/ ug'{ kb{5 M
!=

lzi6 / gd| Jojxf/ ;]jfu|fxLsf] clwsf/ eGg] gf/fsf] sfof{Gjog M lghfdtL ;]jf lbj;
@)^& sf] d"n gf/fsf] ?kdf ;f] gf/fnfO{ lghfdtL sd{rf/Ln] Jojxfl/s ?kdf sfof{Gjog
ug'{kb{5 . ;]jfu|fxLn] ;f]w]sf pQ/ ;/n efiffdf lbg], ;xof]u Jojxf/ k|bz{g ug{], vfnL

203

d]rdf a:g cfu|x ug{], x'g] sfd tTsfn} ul/lbg], kfn} kfnf] ;]jf lbg] nufotsf ;fdfGo
lgod kfngf ubf{ klg ;]jfu|fxLdf lzi6 / gd| Jojxf/sf] cfef; k'Ub5 .
@=

lkk'N; af]g; l;i6d nfu" ug{] M hd{gLn] nfu" u/]sf] o; l;:6d cg';f/ ;]jf k|bfg ug{]
sd{rf/LnfO{ u'0f:t/Lo ;]jf k|bfg u/] jfkt ;]jfu|fxL :jo+n] k'/:s[t ub{5g\ . o;af6 ;]jf
k|bfg ug{]sf] pQ/bfloTj :jtM ;]jfu|fxLk|lt /xg k'Ub5 .

#=

u'gf;f] Joj:yfkg M ;fj{hlgs lgsfox?df ;]jfu|fxLsf] u'gf;f] ;'Gg] 5'} clws[t, 5'}
8]:s / 5'} sfo{ljlw tf]lsg' kb{5 . k|fKt u'gf;f] pk/ u'gf;f] ;'Gg] clws[tn] s'g sfo{
k|lqmoff/f ;f] u'gf;f]sf] ;dfwfg u/L ;]jfu|fxLn] ck]Iff u/] cg';f/sf] ;]jf k|fKt ug{
;S5g\, o;sf] ;'lglZrttf x'g' h?/L 5 .

$=

kl/jt{g pGd'v ;f]r M PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLdf pkef]Qmf ?kL hgtfnfO{ ;]jf k'ofpg' ;xh
5}g . x/]s ;/sf/ ;dofg's"n kl/jt{g pGd'[v ;f]rdf bQlrQ /xg' k/]sf] 5 . h;sf
nflu ljleGg b]zn] k|of]udf NofPsf street bureaucracy, vision twenty h:tf cjwf/0ff
canDag u/L sfo{z}nLdf kl/jt{g Nofpg' k5{ .

%=

pRr g}ltstf M k|zf;lgs sf}zntfsf] k|f0f g} pRr g}ltstf xf] . Tof] JolQm dfq cfbz{
x'g ;S5 h;df pRr g}ltstf x'G5 . Joj:yfksLo g}ltstf cGtu{t lgDg kIfdf Wofg
lbg' kb{5 M
dftxt sd{rf/LnfO{ ;dfg Jojxf/ ug'{k5{ .
sfdsf] pQ/bfloTj :ki6 x'gk' 5{ .
;'wf/k|ltsf] k|ltj4tf x'gk' 5{ .
nf]e, l/;, lg/fzf Pj+ s'07faf6 pGd'Qm x'g'k5{ .

^=

;fdflhs Gofo M /fHosf] k|d'v bfloTj dWo] ;fdflhs Gofo klg Ps xf] . ;fdflhs
ljljwtfsf] ;Ddfg, JolQmsf] :jtGqtfsf] /Iff, df}lns tyf dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt,
;+/If0f / ;Da4{g, lk5l8Psf] ju{, If]q / cNk;+Vosx?sf] xslxtsf] ;+/If0f h:tf
;fdflhs Gofosf ljifonfO{ jt{dfg zf;sLo Joj:yfn] ;Daf]wg ug'{k5{ .

&=

sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]andf j[l4 Nofpg] M hgtfdfem lgs6 /xL ;]jf k'ofpg] sd{rf/Ln] ;/sf/ /
hgtfsf] k'nsf] ?kdf sfd ub{5g\ . sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]andf j[l4 geP;Dd h:tf ;'s} /fd|f
cjwf/0ff NofP klg tL sfdofjL x'g ;Sb}gg\ . To;}n] sd{rf/Lsf] dgf]andf j[l4 Nofpg

204

df}lb|s Pj+ u}/ df}lb|s tTjx?sf] plrt Joj:yf ug'{k5{ .


*=

k|ToIf pQ/bfloTj canDag ug{] M cfk"m eGbf dflysf clwsf/Lk|lt pQ/bfoL eP k'Ug] k'/fgf]
loop model of accountability n] ca sfd ug{ ;Sb}g . To;}n] ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Lx?
;|f]t / zlQm lbg] gful/sk|lt ;a} sd{rf/L k|ToIf pQ/bfoL x'g'k5{ .

(=

gful/s lzIffsf] k|j4{g ug{] M nf]stflGqs Joj:yfsf] ;+rfng, ljsf; / lbuf]kgf sfod ug{
gful/s lzIff ckl/xfo{ 5 . nf]stflGqs zf;gsf] lbuf] kgfsf nflu gful/s lzIff dfk{mt
gful/snfO{ zf;sLo Joj:yfsf x/]s c+u tyf k|lqmofdf ;lqmo ;xefuL u/fpg gful/s
lzIffsf] k|j4{g ug'{ kb{5 .

!)=

;/sf/L lgsfox?df gful/ssf] kx'r j[l4 ug{] M nf]stflGqs ;'zf;gsf] k|j4{gsf nflu xfd|f
;/sf/L jf ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfx? oL ;+:yfx?sf] ;+u7gfTds ;+/rgf / k|lqmof, sfo{ljlwx?
gful/ssf] kx'rsf nflu afws t 5}gg\ < ;dLIff ug'{k5{ . oL ;+:yfsf ;+/rgf leq
g} gful/sx?sf] k|ltlglwTj u/fpg ;lsG5 ls jf xfd|f ljBdfg k|lqmof ;+zf]wg u/]/
k|lqmofsf] kf/bzL{tfsf] Uof/]G6L ug]{ / k|lqmofdf g} hgtfx?sf] ;+nUgtf x'g] Joj:yf
ug'{kb{5 .

cGo pkfox?
d':sfg ;lxtsf] Gofo ;]jf canDag ug{] .
;xeflutfd"ns sfo{ z}nLsf] cjnDag / ljsf;df hgtfsf] ckgTj efj ;[hgf ug]{ .
;/f]sf/jfnfx?aLrsf] ;dGjo sfod ug{] .
nf]stflGqs ;'zf;gdf hf]8 lbg] .

^= r'gf}tLx?
gofF ;fj{hlgs ;]jfnfO{ g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf Joaxfl/s?kdf cjnDag ug]{ qmddf lgDg
adf]lhd r'gf}tLx? ;[hgf x'g ;S5g\ M
sd{rf/Lx?n] Multiple lines of accountability df sfd ug'{ .
;fj{hlgs ;]jfnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfO{ nf]stflGqs Joj:yfnfO{ ;'b[9 kfg'{ .
gful/s a8fkqsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug'{ .

205

sd{rf/LtGqsf] dgf]andf j[l4 Nofpg' .


;DalGwt lgsfo, ;+:yf tyf JolQmx?af6 hgtfnfO{ k|bfg ug'{kg{] ;a} k|sf/sf ;]jfx?
lgoldt, ;/n, ;'ne / ;xh ?kdf k|jfx ug'{ .
;]jf k|bfos lgsfodf sfo{/t JolQmx?df ;sf/fTds ;f]rsf] ;[hgf ug'{ .
kl/nlIft p2]Zox?sf] glthfd'ns tyf ;xeflutfd'ns cg'udg / d"Nof+sg ug'{ .
cGtl/d ;+ljwfgn] kl/sNkgf u/] adf]lhd ;'zf;g sfod ug'{ .
;d'bfoleqsf ljifdtfnfO{ ;Daf]wg u/L ;dGoflos glthf Nofpg] .
;/sf/L ;+:yfx?sf] :j?k, ;+/rgf, sfo{ljlw / k|lqmofdf ;]jfu|fxLsf] kx'r j[l4 ug'{ .
nf]stflGqs d"Nox?sf] ;+/If0f / k|j4{g ug'{ .

&= cj;/x?
g]kfn zflGt k|lqmofdf k|j]z ul/;s]sf] jt{dfg cj;/df gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jf cjnDag ug{ lgDg
cj;/ Pj+ ;Defjgfx? b]lvPsf 5g\ M
b]z ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqdf k|j]z ul/;s]sf] .
;]jfu|fxLx?n] cfgf xs clwsf/ / ;]jf ;'ljwfk|lt ;r]t /xL ;'zf;gk|lt rf;f] b]vfPsf] .
:yfgLo :t/df NGO, INGO tyf CBO x?sf] pkl:yltn] gful/s ;xeflutf / ;+nUgtfdf
hf]8 lbPsf] .
;dfj]zL ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ffn] u|fxotf kfpb} uPsf] .
b]zdf ePsf] /fhgLlts kl/jt{n] bLuf] zflGt :yfkgf tkm{ ;+s]t u/]sf] .

*= lgisif{
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] If]qdf k|ltkflbt gof gof l;4fGt, cjwf/0ff Pj+ d"No dfGotfx?n]
gful/sx?nfO{ cfkmgf] x}l;ot lbg g;s]sf] kl/k|]Iodf canDag ul/Psf] gof ;fj{hlgs ;]jfn]
hgtfnfO{ s]jn u|fxs, dtbftf geO{ gful/ssf] ?kdf Jojxf/ ug'{kg{] pb\3f]if uof] . hgtfnfO{
zf;g Joj:yfsf] s]Gb|ljGb'df /fv]/ Jojxf/ ug'{kg{] ;fy} ;'zf;gsf ;a} kIf, ;+:yf, k|lqmof Pj+

206

;+/rgfx?df gful/ssf] cosmetic participation ge} authentic and extensive ;+nUgtf x'g'kg{] gof
;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] hf]8 5 .
g]kfn ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s, ax';f+:s[lts ljz]iftfo'Qm d'n's ePsfn] xfd|f] h:tf]
ljljwtfo'Qm ;dfhdf gofF ;fj{hlgs ;]jf k|efjsf/L x'G5 . nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfx?sf]
k|j4{g ub{} b]z / hgtfsf] kIfdf pQ/bfoL x'g] sd{rf/LtGq clxn]sf] cfjZostf xf] . ;fj{hlgs
kbflwsf/LnfO{ pQ/bfoL agfpg] hgtfsf ljleGg kmf]/dx? h:t} Social audit, accountability
centres, citizen charter cflbsf] Jojxfl/s cEof; u/L ;]jfsf] jl/kl/ hgtf xf]Og ls hgtfsf]
jl/kl/ ;]jf k'ofpg]lt/ ;Da4 ;a}sf] Wofg hfg' h?/L 5 .

;Gbe{ ;"rL

Janet V. Denhardt and Robert B. Denhardt, (2003), The New Public Service, Serving not Streering, Armonk, New
York, London.

Hugh T. Miller, Charles J. Fox (2007), Post Modern Public Administration, New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India
Pvt. Ltd.

CAMAD Vol. 12, No. 2, 23 Oct. 2010.

af:sf]6f, s[i0fx/L -@)^&_, ;d;fdlos k|zf;g, sf7df8f}+ M Pd=s]= klAn;;{ P08


l8li6Jo'6;{ .
vgfn, /fhg -@)^^_, ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgsf ;fdlos ax;, sf7df8f}+ M ;f]kfg dfl;s .
/fpt, s[i0faxfb'/ -@)^*_ k|zf;g, Joa:yfkg / ljsf;, sf7df8f+} M cflzif a'S; xfp;
k|f= ln=

k|zf;g, jif{, $@, c+s #, k'= !!*, @)^* c;f/ .

g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# .

lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( .

;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;+rfng_ P]g @)^$ .

lqjifL{o of]hgf -@)^&)^*, @)^()&)_ .

ah]6 cf=j= @)^(&) .

207

Work Culture and Nepalese Civil Service


Yuba Raj Pandey*

Abstract
The way that the members of an organiza!on or a group feel and behave towards the
work or the task required for ful"lling the objec!ve and the responsibility of that group
or the organiza!on is called the 'work-culture' of that par!cular group or organiza!on.
Organiza!on culture as a pa#ern of basic assump!ons, invented, discovered and
developed by a group as it learns to cope with its problems. There may be di$erent
types of cultures in an organiza!on, like- work culture, communica!on culture,
disciplinary culture, people/client-friendly culture, business culture, etc. If the members
of the organiza!on are not people/customer-friendly or if the communica!on system
of the organiza!on is weak, the organiza!on cannot perform its work e$ec!vely. Public
administra!on o%en is recognized as having di$erent characteris!cs that can be regarded
as the di$erent dimensions of the administra!ve culture. The organiza!on helps its
new employees to adopt its culture. This adapta!on process is called socializa!on.
Socializa!on is conceptualized mainly as a process. Selec!on of entry-level personnel,
placement on the job, job mastery- extensive and carefully reinforced experience,
measuring and rewarding performance, adherence to important values, reinforcing
the stories and folklore, recogni!on and promo!on, etc. are the important steps in the
process of socializa!on. The measures such as assessment of the exis!ng culture, se&ng
realis!c goals that impact on bo#om-line, recrui!ng outside personnel with related
experience, making changes from the top and deliver a consistent message from all
management team members should be followed while changing the work culture.

Introduction
The term "work culture" is made by the combination of two words - work and culture.
Thus, the combination of the meaning of work and meaning of culture can be expected
to give the meaning of the term 'work culture'.
The term 'work' refers to the job/task of an individual or a group. The duties that
an individual or an organization has and the activities that the organization or the
* Former Secretary, Government of Nepal

208

individual has to do or considered as the part of a job or work or that organization or


the individual. An individual receives regular payment for his/her job or work.
The term 'Culture' refers to the customs and beliefs, way of life and social organization
of a particular country or group. Thus, the beliefs and attitudes about something
that people in a particular group or organization share is called the culture of that
organization or group.
The term 'attitude' refers to the way that an individual or a group behaves towards
somebody/something that shows how that individual or group thinks and feels.
Keeping in mind the meanings of the terms-work culture, we can formulate the
general meaning of this term that people in a particular group or organization think
and feel about their work in the organization or group can be called the work culture
of the particular organization or group. In other words, the way that the members of
an organization or a group, feel and behave towards the work or the task required for
ful!lling the objective and the responsibility of that group or the organization is called
the 'work-culture' of that group or the organization.

Work-culture and Organization Culture


The work required for achieving the objective or the mission of an organization or a
group is the basic identity of that group or organization. Therefore when people think
about an organization or a group, they immediately remember the mission or the task
of that organization or group. If seen in this way, work culture or organization culture
can be seen and used in same meaning . That is why, when management thinkers and
administrative thinkers use the term organization culture, they generally are supposed
to mean the work culture of that organization. In this context, It is appropriate to
mention the de!nition of organization culture given by Edgar Schein. according to
him, "organization culture is a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered,
or developed by the given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external
adaptation and internal integration- that has worked well enough to be considered
valuable, and therefore, to be taught to new members as correct way to perceive, think
and feel in relation to these problems" (Cited by Fred Luthans, 1998, 449).
The above de!nition of organization culture de!nes organization culture as a pattern
of basic assumptions, invented, discovered and developed by a group as it learns to
cope with its problems.
The task or work of an organization can be taken as the problem of that organization
to be solved. In this sense, organization culture and work culture give same meaning.

209

But if people try to de!ne the term 'work' of an organization as one of the many
features of that organization, the term 'work culture' can also be de!ned narrowly to
mean only a single dimension of the broad organization culture. Then the feelings or
the behavior of the members of that organization towards their duty, and their feeling
towards the clients or ordinary people may be taken as two separate dimensions or the
organization culture.
Internal communication system within the organization also can be looked as the
separate dimension of the organization culture. Looked in this way, we can identify
different types of cultures in an organization like- work culture, communication
culture, disciplinary culture, people or client friendly culture and business culture
etc. But as the communication system, disciplinary system, system of treating or
behaving with the clients or people etc are closely related with the overall mission
or that task of the organization. If the members of the organization are not people
or customer friendly or if the communication system of the organization is weak,
the organization cannot perform its work effectively. In other words, the feelings
or behavior of the organization members towards their client or ordinary people,
communication system within the organization, dress, norms and code of ethics of
the organization, pay systems, token and argons only understood by insiders and
team orientation in performing work, etc., all have direct or indirect effect upon the
work performance of the organization. Argued in this way, organization culture and
work culture can be used in the same meaning. This author also believes that de!ning
'work culture' in a broader meaning to mean as the term organization culture means
is the appropriate way to de!ne this term. Then the characteristics of the organization
culture also become the characteristics of the work culture and the term 'work culture'
itself termed organization culture. Therefore these two terms are used interchangeably
in this article.

Characteristics of Organization Culture/Work Culture


There seems to be a wide agreement that organization culture or the work culture refers
to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization
from other organizations. This system of shared meaning in closer examination, can
be de!ned as a set of key characteristics or properties that the organization values.
But acknowledgement that organization culture or the work culture has some speci!c
characteristics does not mean however that there can not be any subcultures within
any given culture. Most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous
sets of subcultures (Stephen P. Robbins, 2003). A dominant culture expresses the core
values shared by the majority members of the organization. When we talk about the

210

culture of an organization, we refer to the dominant culture of that organization. The


dominant culture of an organization is not other than the macro-view of the Culture
that gives the organization its distinct personality. Subcultures land to be developed
in large organizations. Such subcultures re#ect the common problems and situations
that members face. Any speci!c departments of an organization's or the of!ce units
of the organization that are geographically separated from the main separations of the
organization may have their own subcultures. The subculture of such departments or
of!ce units will include the core values of the dominant culture plus the additional
values unique to the members of those departments or units.
The organization culture or work culture of an organization have following different
characteristics:
I)

Observed Behavioral Regularities: The language organization members


use, the customs and traditions they have developed and the rituals they
employ in speci!c situations.

II)

Norms/Group Norms: Standards of behavior that exist in organization


members for example, members of many organizations are found to have
developed a work norm- "neither do too much nor do too little".

III)

Exposed values: There are some values that organization advocates and
expects that the participants share-high product quality and high ef!ciency
can be taken as the examples of such values.

IV)

Organizational Philosophy: The broad policies and organizational


principles that guide the actions of the organization towards stakeholders,
employees and customers;

V)

Rules of the Game: The implicit rules and guidelines related to getting
along in the organization;

VI)

Organization Climate: The overall 'feeling' that is conveyed by the physical


layout and the way the employees or the members of the organization treat
such other customers and outsiders;

VII)

Embedded Skills: The special competencies that organization members


display in accomplishing certain talks are often transferred from generation
to generation without necessarily being documented in written form;

211

VIII) Innovation and Risk Taking Tendency: Certain organizations encourage


members to take risks and perform innovative works. in comparison of
certain other organizations.
IX)

Outcome Orientation: The degree to which management focuses on results


or outcomes may differ in different organizations

X)

Team Orientation: Work activities are more organized around teams in


certain organizations while in some other organizations such activities ore
organized around individual employees or members.

XI)

Attention to Detail: Organization members are expected to exhibit more or


less i.e. different level of precision, analysis and attention to detail.

XII)

Orientation towards the people within the organization: the degree to


which management expresses its concern on the effect of outcomes on
people within the organization.

XIII) Aggressiveness towards the task: The degree to which people are aggressive
rather than easy going towards the task differs in organizations
XIV) Status-quo or the Stability: The degree to which organization emphasizes
on status-quo in contrast to growth differs in organizations.
XV)

Habits of Thinking, Mental Models and Linguistic Paradigms: The


members of speci!c organizations share some speci!c cognitive former
that guide their thought, perceptions and the language. New members
become familiar with such perceptions, thought and languages in the early
socialization process.

XVI) Shared Meanings: The emergent understandings that are created by


organization members as they interact with each other also may differ in
organizations.
XVII) "Root metaphors" or integrating symbols: The groups or organizations
develop speci!c ideas, feelings, and images to characterize themselves.
Such ideas, feelings and images are embodied in buildings, of!ce layout
and various other artifacts of the organization.
These various characteristics provide a speci!c identi!cation to the organization.
As the administrative mechanism of a country itself represents an organization, it
also has developed its own culture.

212

Public administration often is recognized as having following different


characteristics that can be regarded as the different dimensions of the administrative
culture.
i.

Administration is characterized by the hierarchical arrangement of


of!ces each with its own authority

ii.

There is division of labour based on the hierarchy and in functional


specialization.

iii.

Of!cials are expected to be appointed generally on the basis of


objective quali!cations and competitive and fair examinations

iv.

Of!cials are completely repeated legally from the means of


administration

v.

Activities are regulated by formal rules and procedures

vi.

Organization is expected to follow the philosophy of impartiality


in decision making. Of!cials are expected to ful!ll their duties in
a spirit of impersonality without any kind of partiality towards to
the people.

vii.

Public administration is often recognized as the organization not


friendly towards innovation and charge. These organizations are
often blared as organizations that adhere unduly to traditions and
prefer maintaining status-quo to avoid uncertainty.

viii.

Principle of 'do not do too much and do not do too little" in found
to work largely as the working norm of the people in public
organizations

ix.

Respect and facility including the salary is often based on the


hierarchy. High level of!cials enjoy higher level of facilities and
organizational and social respect.

x.

Top-down communication prevails more,

xi.

More loyalty is seen in of!cials towards a part of the organization


rather towards the whole organization. Of!cials express their
loyalties to speci!c departments and of!ce units in which they

213

work. Administrative organization is characterized by subcultures


within it .
xii.

People often recognize public of!ces as of!ces that exhibit


excessive formality and do not take decisions on time or take
decisions very late.

xiii.

Large power distance in found to exist in public administration .


People are often blamed as found is worship power rather than the
personal qualities and competencies of the individuals.

xiv.

Administration is expected and also often is blamed to maintain


unnecessary secrecy in different matters.

xv.

People outside the administration organization often consider


themselves superior to other people.

xvi.

Public administration is regarded as an important arm of the


government. Administration is considered responsible to carry out
the policies and programs of the political leaders in government.

Socialization
The organization helps its new employees to adopt its culture. This adaptation process
is called socialization. Socialization is conceptualized mainly as a process made up of
following three stages:
a) Pre-arrival- In this stage, learning occurs before a niw member joins the group
or the organization.
b) Encounter- In this second stage, the new employee sees and recognizes what
the organization is really like. The employee knows about the reality and
evaluates it with his pervious expectations.
c) Metamorphosis- Relatively long- lasting charges take plac3e in this third stage.
The employee masters the skills required to perform the job and successfully
performs the required roles. The employee makes the adjustments of individual
values and norms with the group values and norms.

214

The followings are the important steps in the process of socialization (Fred Luthens,
1998):
i)

Selection of entry-level personnel

ii)

Placement on the job

iii)

Job mastery- extensive and carefully reinforced experience

iv)

Measuring and rewarding performance

v)

Adherence to important values

vi)

Reinforcing the stories and folklore

vii)

Recognition and promotion

Guidelines to Change The Organization Culture


Following are some ways to be followed to change the culture of and organization
(Luthans, 1998):
i)

Assessment of the existing culture

ii)

Setting realistic goals that impact on bottom-line

iii)

Recruiting outside personnel with related experience

iv)

Making Changes from the top and deliver a consistent message from all
management team members

v)

Including employees in the charge process, especially in making charges


in rules and procedures

vi)

Taking out all trappings that remind. The previous culture

vii)

Expecting to have some problems and preparing to take necessary steps


to solve those problems. Finding people who would rather leave the
organization rather than change with the culture.

viii)

Moving decisively and quickly to build momentum and to diffuse any


resistance to the mew culture.

215

ix)

Stay the course by being persistent. For the process of cultural charge
to be started, the organization must at !rst feel the need of such charge.
Management.

Commitment also is a must. All the concerned people must have a clear
understanding about where the organization was trying to go and what that meant
to their individuals roles. Thus the organization should develop a clear mindset of
its people. All employees working in the organizations are required to be involved
in the process if making the charge a reality. Organization needs to provide focused
training to adequately prepare its people to as well as for change. Monitoring and
evaluation system as well as the accountability system need to be developed to
monitor and evaluate the performance of the people and reward or punish them on
the basis of performance evaluation.

Opportunities of Change
Because of the emergence of new theories on management and administration,
relatively the favorable opportunity has been created in recent times to initiate the
process of cultural change in organization.
Democratic and pluralistic systems provide better opportunities for hard-working
and better performing. In this context people and government organizations also
have begun to feel the need of innovation and risk taking.

Reference:

Denhardt, R.B. and Denhardt J.V. (2009), Public Administration, Cenguge


Learning

Luthons, F. (1998), Organizational Behaviour, Irwin/Mc-Graw Hill

Robbins S.P.(2003), Organizational Behaviour, Pearson Education

kf08] o'j/fh -@)^*_, ljsf; Joj:yfkg, ljBfyL{ k':ts e08f/ .

216

Managing Work Ef!ciency:


Tools and Techniques
Hari Da! Pandey*

Abstract
Employees need to be happy, healthy and, at work, in order to deliver "rst rate
services. That is the best way to posi!on organiza!ons to be#er deliver core
func!ons. Managing sickness absence improves e(ciency and delivery. Managers
across the public sector are star!ng to recognize the link between sickness
absence, e(ciency and produc!vity. There is already a lot of good prac!ce going
on. Governments and public at large worldwide are now showing increasing
concerns and interests in the *results* of the public programmes/projects.
Expenditures on the public services is rapidly increasing, however, the public
con!nues to complain about the unreliability, inadequacy and unsa!sfactory
nature of the public services. Thus, demands for sa!sfactory results by the people
have necessitated the need for the accountable management. Consequently,
governments of the developing countries are making vigorous a#empts to
improve their public services using various tools and techniques. They are also
emphasizing innova!ons so that they could enhance the work e(ciency of their
organiza!ons and the people working with them. Organiza!onal e(ciency lies
in the fact that an organiza!on can essen!ally use e$ec!veness to measure its
products and services. E(ciency and e$ec!veness are highly dependent on the
ability of the organiza!on to adjust itself to rapid changes in its environment,
resources or technology.
Both the e(ciency and e$ec!veness are central terms in assessing organiza!onal
performance, yet the challenge for organiza!ons is to balance e(ciency with
e$ec!veness. The e(ciency and e$ec!veness of the organiza!on depend greatly
on how well the social and technical systems are designed with respect to each
other and also with respect to the demands of the external environment .There
should be a '"t' between various design elements and the external environment.
If there is a change in the external environment, resources or technology, the
organiza!on has to respond through appropriate structural changes and if it is
the public sector organiza!on it also needs to take into account the impact on
public sector values such as equity, access to services, and the quality of services.

* Joint Secretary, Public Service Commission

217

Background
Public organizations in developing nations have heavily been facing the pressure of
innovation, globalization, international competition, adaptability, alternate products
and services since the last quarter of the twentieth century. Efforts ensuring increased
results orientation, such as budget practices and procedures and performance
measurement arrangements; provisions that increase #exibility including devolution
of functional and !scal responsibilities from central to local agencies, publicprivate partnership, intra-governmental coordination, human resource management
arrangements and e-government; methods for strengthening competitive pressures
through privatization and other approaches; and right sizing the bureaucracy,
inclusive public service, the extent and nature of unionization and the attractiveness
of the public sector have been practiced by these countries. Thus, it seems than the
governments of the developing countries are making vigorous attempts to improve
their public services with the application of above mentioned tools and techniques.
However, most of them are still unable to gain the trust of their people regarding the
ef!ciency of their public service organizations.
Obviously, governments and public at large worldwide are now showing increasing
concerns and interests in the "results" of the public programmes/projects. Whereas
public expenditures on the services is continued to rise, the public continues to
complain about the unreliability, inadequacy and unsatisfactory nature of the public
services. Demands for satisfactory results by the public have therefore, necessitated
the need for accountable management. As used by the Fulton Report (1966-68: 150),
the term accountable management means, "holding individuals and units responsible
for performance measured as objectively as possible. Its achievement depends upon
identifying or establishing accountable units within government departments/units
where output can be measured against costs or other criteria and where public
employees can be held personally responsible for their performance. In order to make
management accountable various tools were used in different times.
Project management was conceived as entailing activities organized on the basis of
an organization's current mission, allocating leadership roles on the basis of expertise,
and adopting multi-disciplinary approach to problems of project implementation.
In the same vein, Management-by-Objectives (M BO) was described as "identifying
goals and objectives de!ning managerial responsibility in terms of expected results,
and measuring performance and achievement against those goals and objectives.

218

Likewise, Programme and Performance Budgeting, or Programming, Planning and


Budgeting System (PPBS) is a budgetary system which provides a means of comparing
inputs. Its emphasis is on planning and forecasting. In sharp contrast to the line-item
incremental budgeting system which focuses attention on inputs only, PPBS focuses
on both inputs and outputs.

Organizational Ef!ciency
Organizational ef!ciency is the organization's ability to implement its plans using
the smallest possible expenditure of resources. It is an important factor in the
organizational effectiveness, this being the ease and degree of success with which
the organization is able to accomplish its aims. Ef!ciency can be de!ned as costs
per unit of output. The measurement of ef!ciency requires quantitative information
on costs (or physical inputs) and outputs of organization's service provision. Ideally,
this requires an accrual accounting system that registers costs rather than cash #ows.
Likewise, the measurement of outputs should ideally capture both quantitative and
qualitative aspects of the products/services provided. The latter is especially dif!cult
in the public sector since a large bulk of the services provided are typically intangible,
e.g. policy advice. These measurement dif!culties are even more pronounced for
cross-country comparisons, although they are possible to overcome for some sectors.
For an organization to succeed at accomplishing its aims, it must be able to create the
right plans needed to accomplish those aims, pull together the resources needed to
implement those plans, and then use resources (!nancial, human, etc.) in the actual
implementation of those plans.
Organizational ef!ciency essentially denotes how well an organization uses its
resources. In public organizations, organizational ef!ciency lies in their ability to
proper utilization of resources to achieve de!ned goals/objectives within the set timeframe. Regularly monitoring organizational ef!ciency can help organizations prevent
misuse of resources. Some scholars opine that return on investment (ROI) constitutes
a good measure of organizational ef!ciency.

Organizational Effectiveness
Organizational effectiveness has a very broad and often vague de!nition so that
most sources explain the concept by example rather than de!nition. Basically, the
effectiveness of an organization constitutes its ability to perform a function with
optimal levels of input and output. Organizations use their effectiveness to measure

219

their products and services, from the relationship between employee performance
and achievement of organizational objectives/goals. Since there are no set parameters
and formula each organization creates its own method of measuring effectiveness.
Measuring effectiveness can help an organization without the ability to absorb
ineffective processes modify its approach to avoid loss.

Fundamental Differences between Organizational


Organizational Effectiveness

Ef!ciency

and

The most basic fundamental difference between organizational effectiveness and


organizational ef!ciency lies in the fact that an organization can essentially use
the former to measure anything, while the latter pertains exclusively to !nancial
ef!ciency. For instance, effectiveness could measure how effectively the employees
of an organization waste time as easily as it could how effectively employees use an
organizations assets. Furthermore, organizational ef!ciency constitutes a concrete
measurement, while organizational effectiveness is abstract; it exists in the conceptual
realm and relates more directly to business theory than business practice. Effective
management is not the same thing as ef!cient administration. As Viswasan (1975)
concluded recently, "the latter may lead to the former, but not necessarily".
According to Barnard (1938:2) "Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which
operative and operational goals have been attained while the concept of ef!ciency
represents the cost/bene!t rate incurred in the present of these goals.
In the words of Jackson et al (1986: 24), "Effectiveness is commonly referred to as the
degree to which predetermined goals are achieved. Ef!ciency refers to the economical
manner in which goal-oriented operations are carried out-something of an output/input
ratio."
Thus, a business enterprise is said to be effective if it is able to attain the desired
volume of sales (sales goal), but it will be called ef!cient if it can produce goods
at a low cost. the distinction between effectiveness and ef!ciency is very important
to explain why some organizations are effective but highly inef!cient, or highly
ef!cient but ineffective. Effectiveness is a multidimensional concept which cannot
be measured by a single criterion whereas ef!ciency can be measured by the ratio of
output to input. In other words, ef!ciency considers the issue of how much input is
necessary to attain a given level of output.

220

Organizational Performance
Ef!ciency and effectiveness are central terms in assessing organizational performance,
yet the challenge for organizations is to balance ef!ciency with effectiveness. Empirical
research in this area indicates that organizations often fail to achieve differentiation
and innovation in their surrounding service networks, through dealing with
ef!ciency and neglecting effectiveness. Because of low productivity problems many
organizations focus on issues of competitive advantage through value appropriation
rather than on issues of creating new growth opportunities in their networks. They
are solely addressing their operational ef!ciency and neglecting effectiveness in their
service networks. Therefore, organizations need emphasize the importance of linking
ef!ciency and effectiveness.
What is performance Measure ?
A performance measure is a numeric description of an organizations work and the
results of that work. Performance measures are based on data, and inform whether an
organization or activity is achieving its objectives and if progress is being made toward
attaining policy or organizational goals. In technical terms, a performance measure is
a quanti!able expression of the amount, cost, or result of activities that indicate how
much, how well, and at what level, products or services are provided to customers
during a given time period. Performance measures indicate managers something
important about the organizations products, services, and the processes. Measures are a
tool to help understand, manage, and improve organizations products, services, and the
processes. Effective performance measures can let the manager monitor performance
to judge how well the employees are doing, know if the organization is meeting its
goals and if the service seekers are satis!ed, take action to affect performance or
improve ef!ciency if improvements are necessary. In short, performance measures
provide data and information necessary to make informed decisions. Performance
measures provide a snapshot of current performance capabilities and track whether
actual performance is getting better, staying the same, or getting worse over time.
The best performance measures start conversations about organizational priorities, the
allocation of resources, ways to improve performance, and offer an honest assessment
of effectiveness. Good performance measures should be relevant, understandable,
timely, comparable, reliable and cost effective. Useful measures help employees
doing the work understand what is happening with their work process, and how to get
better results for clients/service seekers.

221

Major Factors Affecting Ef!ciency


The major sets of variables that potentially have their in#uence on ef!ciency are
shown in Exhibit-1:
Exhibit-1: Major Factors Affecting Ef!ciency
1. Organizational characteristics
Structure
Specialization
Formalization
Decentralization
Span of control
Size of organization
Technology
Operation
Materials
Knowledge

2. Environmental characteristics
External
Complexity
Stability
Uncertainty
Internal
Achievement orientation
Employee centeredness
Security of job
Openness vs. Defensiveness

3. Employee characteristics
Organizational attachment
Attraction
Retention
Commitment
Job performance
Motives, goals and needs
Abilities
Role clarity

4. Managerial policies and practices


Strategic goal setting
Resource acquisition and utilization
Leadership and decision making
Organization adaptation and innovation
Creating a performance environment

Obstacles in the Way of Work Ef!ciency


In the context of public organizations like in Nepal, there are a large number of factors
which come in the way of enhancing work ef!ciency. Some of the factors are listed
below:

222

Lack of well de!ned job responsibilities, lack of well designed performance


standards, etc.

Dif!cult to evaluate social cost and social bene!t

Dif!cult to identify task environment and contextual environment

Lack of de!nite structure

Lack of effective management system

Administrative procedures not updated

Lack of administrative capability in personnel

Lack of effective leadership

Lack of effective logistic support

Ineffective decision making/ Centralized decision making

Lack of adequate information

Reward and punishment not tied up with performance

Low motivation

Inadequate occupational health and safety

Techniques of Managing Work Ef!ciency


In order to effectively manage work ef!ciency, an organization should pay attention
to the following techniques:
Institutional capability Enhancement

Managing organizations and people effectively- Who, What, and Why?

Taking a strategic approach to e(ciency and improvement

Human Resource development

223

Strengthening internal communication.

Updating group email lists to ensure key project players are never left off
messages, and peripheral players can limit their exposure to daily or weekly
digests.

Interlocking systems of an organization: Technical system, social system,


administrative system, and strategic system.

Planning, developing and utilizing human resources: Rightsizing the human


resource, motivating outstanding talents, retaining trained and experienced
human resource

Understanding groups and developing effective teams

Institutionalizing a calendaring system with transparent free/busy time that


lets colleagues book appointments on one anothers calendars, circumventing
the need to share suggested times back and forth.

Applying a text-expansion tool that can speed up routine tasks by pasting or


loading a favorite website with just a few keystrokes.

Institutionalizing a central !le repository for sharing the latest company


memos, scripts, and graphics.

Institutionalizing a public knowledgebase to let clients help themselves.

Introducing a case ticketing system to keep track of service issues and feature
requests.

Performance Management

Managing resources in a !ght "nancial climate

Regularly reviewing services

Engaging with sta$ and workforce planning

Using con!nuous improvement method

Engaging with service users

224

Ensuring ownership of the e(ciency strategy

Evaluating performance through control systems (Understanding how MIS is


changing control systems.)

Applying Client Relationship Management (CRM) tool for tracking all clients'
interactions.

Organization Development

Welcoming to the changing world of work (managing change)

Suppor!ng innova!on and learning

Assessing the environment, identifying the major sources of environmental


uncertainty, identifying the ethical issues in environment scanning,
formulating and implementing strategies for managing the environment.

Internalizing the signi!cance of Organiza!onal development +OD): OD arises in


the context of changes in technology, knowledge, product and services, and the
social system. This involves changes in beliefs, a&tudes, values and structure.

Socio-technical systems approach to organiza!on re-design

De!ning the scope of the system to be re-designed

Determining the environmental demands

Creating a vision statement

Educating organizational members why planned change is necessary


in the organization

Creating the change structure

Conducting socio-technical analysis

Formulating re-design proposals

Implementing recommended changes

Evaluating changes

225

Decision making

Making effective decisions

Introducing appropriate technology and the designing work processes


Planning system

Making best use of collaboration and joint working arrangements

Using benchmarking to identify potential ef!ciencies

Planning in an uncertain environment, de!ning organization's purpose,


creating and implementing strategies, being familiar with ethics of strategy,
making assumption how far is too far.

Organizational culture

Creating and sustaining the organization's culture, identifying threats to


diversity, downsizing the strong culture, and introducing effective techniques
for managing sound and conducive organizational culture

Human Behaviour

Understanding the basics of human behavior, classifying individual differences,


interpreting the World around vs. Expectations, attitudes, learning: how people
adapt.

Habits needed to be developed by a manager/leader for increasing ef!ciency


in the organization
Leadership in every organization is important. The support of leaders is vital for
pushing the implementation of organizational reforms. Leaders have an important role
to play in their development. Strong leadership can create momentum and impetus for
change and help to overcome organizational resistance. Undoubtedly, many scholars
stressed the importance of strong leadership at all levels of organizations. In order to
increase ef!ciency in the organization, the manager/leader must develop the following
habits:

226

Try to correct the behaviour of team members


It can be believed that pointing out a mistake invariably includes some degree
of ridicule. However, correcting someone without being animatedly angry,
making defamatory remarks or hurting sentiments constitutes recti!cation.
Appreciate and Reward
People entrusted with leadership positions often forget to encourage their team
members. The biggest way of boosting tempo of an employee/team member
is to appreciate his or her efforts. Appreciation in person can work wonders
to uplift an employee or the entire team. It is the biggest psychological
stimulus a person needs to continue working hard. If along with appreciation,
a manager/leader can combine some sort of reward, no matter how small, the
appreciation is further driven home. Management scholars often quote the
examples of iron-!sted leaders who put forth incredibly-high incentives. This
ensures that a team member has the biggest motivation to accept the hierarchy
and work better, i.e., money.
Lead by Setting Examples
People often question how to establish authority and ensure that people look
up to the manager/leader. Perhaps, the easiest way of doing so is leading by
example. This is the easiest form of leadership since an active and capable
manager/leader does not need to explain much. His/her actions alone prove
his/her credibility.
Be Proud not Egoistic
Managers/Leaders need to have a commanding aura, clearly establishing
that they are in control. Having self-con!dence and some degree of pride
are associated with most managers/leaders. However, this blend of qualities
shouldnt include ego. When a person becomes egoistic, his/her leadership
starts oscillating between arrogance and being smug with authority. None of
these traits are liked by people. If the manager truly wants to become a leader,
he/she needs to gain a bigger understanding on issues. This means looking at
things from somebody elses perspective too but an egoistic person is incapable
of doing so. A proud manager/leader can still maintain an open mind and gain
advice from others. An egoistic manager/leader is prone to distancing himself

227

from his./her well-wishers as he/she cannot digest the smallest bit of ridicule.
Once a person loses that vital vibe of understanding with his/her inner circle
of con!dantes, his/her leadership becomes short-lived
Communicate with Transparency
Communication is the biggest tool that a manager can use to turn into an
effective leader. Being a leader does not mean being born with extraordinary
skills. A leader too needs to commit mistakes, pay his/her dues and learn along
the way. If a manager is open to honest conversations, including giving &
receiving feedback, he/she quali!es as an upfront and capable individual
an impressive trait that would make people trust him/her with responsibility.
Many employees complain about their team leaders or managers not being
sensitive to their problems. Even worse are instances when managers seem
aloof and unapproachable. These are all examples of managers/leaders who
have poor communication skills.

Conclusion
The organization has to be both effective and ef!cient to achieve its goal. Organizational
ef!ciency refers to the amount of resources an organization uses in order to produce
a unit of output. Ef!ciency and effectiveness are highly dependent on the ability of
the organization to adjust itself to rapid changes in its environment, resources or
technology.
Organizations have to function in consonance with its external environment, which
includes other organizations,ecology,governmentpolicies,tradesystems,technological
environment, cultural beliefs and other factors. Likewise, the functional and political
decentralisation (i.e. spending responsibility) to local agencies also seems bene!cial
for ef!ciency. In principle, devolution of functional responsibilities, if accompanied
by appropriate !scal and political decentralisation, provides incentives for local
government institutions to deliver locally preferred services more ef!ciently, as the
burden and the bene!ts of public service delivery both accrue in the communities.

228

Similarly, human resource management practices also matter a great deal. The soft
aspects of human resource management, such as employee satisfaction and morale,
are considered to be the most important drivers of performance. While salary and other
!nancial bene!ts are important for staff, non-monetary incentives are also essential.
Last but not least, the leadership competency is a must for achieving organizational
ef!ciency and effectivenes as strong leadership can creat momentum and impetus for
change and help to overcome organizational resistance.

References
Barnard, C. I., (1938), The Functions of the Executive, Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Mass.
Burns, J. M., (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row.
Belbin, R. M. (1997), Changing the Way We Work, Butterworth - Heineman.
Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (1985), Leadership: Strategies for Taking Charge, New York: Harper
and Row.
Bennis, W. (1999), The leadership advantage, Leader to Leader, 12, Spring.
Conger, J. A. and Kanungo, R. N. (1998), Charismatic Leadership in Organizations, Thousand
Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Fayol, H., (1974), General and Industrial Management, Sir Issac Pitman and Sons Ltd.
French R. P. and Raven, B.H. (1959), the Bases of social Power, in D. Cartwright (ed.), Studies
in Social Power, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 150-167.
Galbraith, J. K., (1983), The Anatomy of Power, Houghton: Mif#in Co.
Grif!n, R. W. (2007), Management (Eighth Edition), Biztantra, New Delhi.
Hicks, H. G. and Gullet, C. R., (1981), Management, McGraw-Hill, Aukland, 1981, p.333.
Hayes, J. (2007), The Theory and Practice of Change Management (Second Edition), New York:
Palgrave Macmillan.
Jackson, J. H., Morgan, C.P., and Paolillo, J.G., (1986), Organization theory: A Macro Perspective
for Management, Prentice-Hall, Rnglewood Cliffs, New Jersy, p.24.
The Civil Service. Vol. 1. Report on the (Fulton) Committee, 196668 Cmnd 3638, HMSO
London, Para. 150.
Viswasan, C. (1975), "Modern Management Techniques" , Paper presented at the All Nigeria
Conference of Secondary School Principals" Workshop, Faculty of Education, University of Ife,
21 August, 1975 (mimeographeds:9 pp).

229

Administrative Reforms and Bureaucratic


Commitment An Analytical Discussion
Bharat Gautam, PhD*

Abstract
The words reform and change have widely been used for explaining reform phenomena in
the context of public administra!on. Reform is a delibera!ve a#empt of changes made by
poli!cal and administra!ve leaders in structural and cultural features of an organiza!on.
Change is what actually happened in the structure and culture of the organiza!on. Reform
in an organiza!on is also necessary for its adapta!on in the changed environment. It is a
con!nuous process and undertaken in order to work e$ec!vely in the changed context and
!me taking public aspira!on into considera!on. Reform is also a means to make administra!ve
system more e$ec!ve instrument for making economic growth in the country and for bringing
jus!ce in the society. There may be a number of factors that may have numerous e$ects in
reform process in the public sector. Among them bureaucra!c commitment is one of the
major factors for making reform agenda of the government more e$ec!ve and successful.
But, it may be more complex ques!on is that how to measure commitment of bureaucrats
working at the di$erent levels of reform process. In the case of the Nepalese Civil Service,
the role of non-gaze#ed sta$, sec!on o(cers, under-secretary, joint secretary, and secretary
level o(cials is perceived important to implement reform programs of the government
in their capacity of comple!ng their roles and responsibili!es in the reform process. The
secretaries who are the chiefs of the bureaucra!c actors have their decisive role in reform
policy decision and implementa!on in bureaucracy. Therefore, their commitment has greater
e$ects for making reform program successful in the ministries and their line agencies.
The commitment of bureaucra!c actors is also shaped by the administra!ve culture of the
bureaucra!c system of the organiza!on and it a$ects the execu!on of reform policies to a great
extent. Administra!ve culture where the percep!on and understanding between junior and
senior level employees is also one of the cri!cal factors for making reform programs e$ec!ve
as a whole is an important variable. The interpersonal rela!onship between senior and
junior level employees that re0ects the level of power distance between them is important
for execu!ng reform agenda of the government in bureaucracy. Those bureaucra!c systems
where power distance is low between the lower and upper level employees, wide range of
consulta!on between them takes place while introducing and execu!ng reform agenda. In
such organiza!ons, implementa!on of reform agenda would be more e$ec!ve.

* Dr. Gautam is Joint Secretary at the Legistative Parliament Secretariat

230

1. Introduction
The main objective of this article is to discuss relationship between administrative
reforms and bureaucratic commitment. Probably, in many cases of reforms, we may
generally have seen the comments like, 'reform program was comprehensive, but
it could not be implemented effectively, simply because lack of commitment'. This
kind of comment mainly comes from politicians and bureaucrats. It may also come
from civil society and donor agencies as well. Political leaders may charge lack of
commitment on the side of bureaucrats to carry out the reform agenda. Vice versa,
bureaucrats may charge lack of commitment/will on the part of political leadership of
the government towards the reform programs. In the reforms in public administration
as well as in other policies of the state, both the political and bureaucratic actors are
the most important agents that they have great influence in the whole policy process
and implementation. However, this paper only discusses on the relationship between
administrative reforms and bureaucratic commitment. The discussion goes through
a number of units of analysis. The article first discusses on the meaning of reforms
in the context of public administration. Then the article explains the meaning of
bureaucracy and its commitment in the context of reforms. The article then analyzes
the relationship between administrative reforms and bureaucratic commitment in the
context of Nepalese civil service. Then the article highlights the discussion on findings
and presents its conclusion.

2. Meaning of Reforms in Public Administration


The words reform, transformation, modernization, innovation, and revolution have
generally been used in the process of change in an organization, in an established
system, in an idea, and in an existing practice. In specific, reform is a process of change
for the betterment of organizational performance. Transformation is a path of change
from one state or form, or phase to another. The word modernization is also a process
of change where obsolete things have been deleted and modern ways, ideas, and styles
have been adopted. Innovation is also a process of change where new things have been
introduced instead of established things, systems, and ideas. Finally, revolution is a
total form of change where the existing structures and systems have been replaced by
new one that we can also define sweeping change (answers.com).
The words reform and change have widely been used for explaining reform phenomena
in the context of public administration. Reform is a deliberative attempt of changes
made by political and administrative leaders in structural and cultural features of

231

an organization. Change is what actually happened in the structure and culture of


the organization (Christensen et al., 2007:122). Pollitt and Bouckaert (2004:8) also
view that public management reforms as deliberative changes to the structures and
processes of public sector organizations with the objective of running them better.
In reform phenomena structures, processes, and ideologies are shaped by the change
agents and altered in order to operate organization more functionally and efficiently
(Brunsson and Olsen, 1993:1). Public administration is the principal state machinery
that implements public policies and carries the activities of national development.
Therefore, an efficient, competent, and effective public administration can only work
to achieve a larger goal of the national development. However, public administration
is generally criticized for being more bureaucratic, rigid, inefficient, and incompetent.
Jamil, (2007:49) commented that bureaucrats are criticized for buck passing, sitting on
files, delaying in decisions making, and excessively adhering the rules and regulations.
Olsen, in his article 'to rediscover bureaucracy' (2005:1), remarked that 'bureaucracy'
is an organizational dinosaur helplessly involved in its death struggle as an undesirable
and unviable form of administration. Therefore, there is a need to continue reforms in
bureaucracy to overcome its inefficiency. According to Pollitt and Bouckaert (2004:6),
reform is necessary for improving quality of public services, making operation of
government more efficient, and implementing public policies effectively.
Reform in an organization is also necessary for its adaptation in the changed
environment. It is a continuous process and undertaken in order to work effectively
in the changed context and time taking public aspiration into consideration. Reform
is also a means to make administrative system more effective instrument for making
economic growth in the country and for bringing justice in the society (Turner and
Hulme, 1997:106). There may be widespread agreement among the governments
regarding the need to reshape public administration in order to increase efficiency
and improve public service delivery (Brunsson and Olsen, 1993:27). Reform in public
administration is initiated from those people who work with the bureaucracy i.e.
politicians and administrative leaders because they see the shortcomings in existing
administrative system (Schedler and Proeller, 2002:177). Reforms in an organization
may also be triggered from lower echelons and sometimes from the pressure of the
general public (Brunsson and Olsen, 1993:2).
Public administration in the 1970s was sharply criticized for being complex, rigid,
cost consuming, rule oriented, and poor performing institution. Bureaucratic means
of service delivery was rated as inefficient and ineffective state machinery (Dawson
and Dargie, 2002:34). Bureaucratic actors were blamed for maximizing their own

232

needs rather than the needs of the organization and citizens. Therefore, reform in
public administration is necessary for bringing changes in the established bureaucratic
structures, practices, mindsets, and behaviors for organizational effectiveness and better
service delivery. Above all, the commitment of the bureaucratic actors is perceived as
an important factor for making reform agenda of the government successful. However,
what does bureaucratic commitment mean, how it exists, and how can we measure the
commitment of employees in the process of reforms in public administration are the
important aspects of the discussion. Therefore, the following section discusses on the
bureaucratic commitment in the context of administrative reforms.

3. Bureaucratic Commitment
The word 'bureaucracy' is desived from 'bureaux' which means public of!ces.
Max Weber describes bureaucracy is an administrative body of appointed of!cials
(Lakshmanna and Rao, 1994:79-80). The of!cial/s working in an administrative body
is/are known as bureaucrat/s or bureaucratic actor/s. The word "commitment" denotes
a state of being bound to a certain course of action. It is willingness to work and
to take ownership to the jobs to be done. Commitment is also some sort of pledge
to do something and is manifested to actor's disposition. Disposition is the mental
positioning of the actor that could be negative and positive. Commitment with
positive disposition is a mental faculty of dedication to complete particular task with
preference where a sense of relying is existed in the jobs (answers.com). Commitment
is also a philosophy of mind and it is associated with positive thought for functioning
tasks effectively. It is about to take responsibility in order to accomplish assigned jobs.
Commitment is also viewed as an intention that re#ects in the behavior through which
we can predict whether policy implementers implement a policy proposal effectively
or not. In sum, commitment is the state of actor's mind and quality of being dedicated
to a certain course action. It is also known as pledge for undertaking the jobs to be
done.
In an organizational context, commitment is associated with a course of action
generated by position, assurance, and obligation. Commitment in the context of public
administration is associated with the disposition of policy implementers. Bureaucratic
commitment in the case of administrative reforms is a pledge made by employees
from the top to bottom of the organization in the change process. Bureaucratic
commitment is also associated administrative culture where employees disposition
and behavior have an effect in executing organizational decisions. In general policy
science, after the policy decision, the next step is its implementation, which is the main

233

task of bureaucracy. In modern policy science, bureaucratic actors are also engaged
in analyzing public policies, in taking policy decisions, and in implementing public
policies in a large scale. Therefore, bureaucratic agencies and actors working different
levels of government have been involved in the whole process of decision making in
general and in implementing public policies in particular. Bureaucratic actors, each of
them have their own interests, ambitions, thoughts, traditions, and behavior that affect
the implementation process and influence the outcomes of reform agenda (Howlett
and Ramesh, 2003:187) which are guided by their level of commitment.

4. Relationship between Reforms and Bureaucratic Commitment


There may be a number of factors that may have numerous effects in reform process in
the public sector. Among them bureaucratic commitment is one of the major factors
for making reform agenda of the government more effective and successful. But, it may
be more complex question a that how to measure commitment of bureaucrats working
at the different levels of reform process. In the case of the Nepalese Civil Service
(NCS), the role of non gazetted staff, section officers, under-secretary, joint secretary,
and secretary level officials is perceived important to implement reform programs
of the government in their capacity of completing their roles and responsibilities
in the reform process. The secretaries, chiefs of the bureaucratic actors, have their
decisive role in reform policy decision and its implementation through bureaucracy.
Therefore, their commitment has greater effects for making reform program successful
in the ministries and their line agencies. The joint secretary level employees have an
influential role in decision making and their implementation in the civil service.
Mid-career level employees i.e., under-secretary and section officer, also have a great
influence mainly in executing reform program effectively in the civil service. The
role of non-gazetted staffs as the frontline executors of reform activities depending
upon the types of reform is important to achieve the targets and objectives of reform
programs. Therefore, the commitment of bureaucratic actors working at any level of
organization is of vital importance for making reform agenda effective. In the process
of reforms, a series of policy decisions need to be taken and procedures need to be
modified while implementing reform activities by the bureaucratic actors. Therefore,
there is a relationship between bureaucratic commitment and administrative reforms
which are the most important factors for the execution of reform policies effectively in
public administration.
The following table 1 shows the level of relationship between bureaucratic commitment
and administrative reforms in NCS. The table reflects the relationship by survey data
which was conducted with the 200 respondents in 2009. The employees working

234

different levels of their position in the civil service represented from the Prime
Minister Office and Ministry of General Administration known as reform leading
and co-coordinating organizations. Likewise, employees from the Ministry of Finance
known as finance regulating organization in the reform process were also included in
the survey. Similarly, the survey was also conducted in the Ministry of Agriculture,
Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Education known as development and service
rendering organizations which were first piloted in the Governance Reform Program
in 2001-2005 and its extended period up to June 2007 for the execution of performance
improvement plan (PIP). The table below shows the respondents' opinion on the
relationship between bureaucratic commitment and reforms on "Disagree" and "Agree"
statements in the percentage form.
Table 1
Opinion on the Relationship between Bureaucratic Commitment and Reforms
Relationship
Administrative
Reforms

Disagree

Bureaucratic Commitment
Disagree
Agree
Total Number N
(Responses Received)
85%
48%

Agree

15%
52%
N=33
N=166
199
Source: Questionnaire Survey, 2009,
SPSS Cross Tabulation, Fraction % is Adjusted

Question: Here is a question statement, "There is a relationship between bureaucratic


commitment and reforms in civil service". Would you agree completely, agree partly,
disagree partly or disagree completely?
Among the four choices of the answer on the above question, the survey data on
agree completely and agree partly were merged in the Agree form and the survey
data on disagree partly and disagree completely were merged in the Disagree form
while processing the data in the SPSS1 cross tabulation. The data has revealed that
administrative reform in the civil service is highly affected by the bureaucratic
commitment. In the table, out of total 199 respondents, 166 in number or 83% of
them are in Agree column, while 33 in number or 17% of them are only in Disagree
column. If we look at the fourth quadrant, out of respondents who agreed, 52% of
them have both agreed that there is a strong positive relationship between bureaucratic
commitment and administrative reforms in the civil service. Out of the respondents
1

SPSS- Statistical Program for Social Science

235

who disagreed, only 15% of them in the third quadrant have not agreed that there is a
positive relationship between bureaucratic commitment and administrative reforms.
If we compare the data of the fourth and third quadrant, the value of difference is
more by 37% in the forth Agree/Agree quadrant which entails that there is highly
positive relationship between bureaucratic commitment and administrative reforms
in the Nepalese civil service.

5. Discussion: Commitment Requires for Executing Reform Agenda


The study found that there is highly positive relationship between administrative
reforms and bureaucratic commitment. The inference is that commitment of
bureaucratic actors has a great influence for the execution of reform programs in the
civil service. The survey inference also corresponds with the theoretical literature on
policy implementation. The literature on policy implementation argues that there is
a relationship between policy implementers' disposition from where commitment
generates and it positively affects the policy execution. In the case of reform, disposition
of implementers/bureaucratic actors that determines their responses on the proposed
reform policy and program. Committed disposition is also reflected in their willingness
to carry out the implementation of reform policies. Policy implementers cognition,
their direction, and intensity of responses have an effect on the policy execution.
Policy implementers may fail to execute policies faithfully because they may reject
the goals contained in the proposed policies. Conversely, acceptance level of policy
implementers towards policy standards and objectives enhances successful execution
of public policies (Van Horn and Van Meter, 1974:473). In addition, intensity level of
acceptance also affects reform policy implementation. Similarly, positive and negative
attitude that has an effect on generating commitment in policy implementers. Those
who hold negative attitude that leads low level of commitment and resulted the
execution of reform policies less effective. Those who hold positive attitude that leads
to high level of commitment and contributes to execute reform policies effectively.
Therefore, it is argued that the commitment of reform policy implementers is shaped
by their disposition that could be positive and negative towards the whole range of
reform agenda. For example, those organizations where the performance based
incentive is applied such as Tax and Custom Offices, and also in the Department of
Civil Service Records, employees working there shared their positive disposition.
Employees in these organizations during the interviews with them claimed that they
are more committed to execute their reform agenda effectively compared to those
organizations where the application of performance based incentive is not applied.

236

The commitment of bureaucratic actors is also shaped by the administrative culture


of the bureaucratic system of the organization and it affects the execution of
reform policies to a great extent. Administrative culture where the perception and
understanding between junior and senior level employees is also one of the critical
factors for making reform programs effective as a whole is an important variable. The
interpersonal relationship between senior and junior level employees that re#ects the
level of power distance between them is important for executing reform agenda of
the government in bureaucracy. Those bureaucratic systems where power distance
is low between the lower and upper level employees, wide range of consultation
between them takes place while introducing and executing reform agenda. In such
organizations, implementation of reform agenda would be more effective.
Those bureaucratic systems where power distance between senior and junior level
employees is high and lower level are less consulted in the reform process. There,
reform agenda of the government may not be effectively implemented. However,
relationship between senior and junior level employees is considered high power
distance and less interactive in introducing and executing reform policies in the
Nepalese civil service. Junior level employees during the interviews with them
commented that they were consulted very little while introducing new reform
agenda in the civil service. Consequently, junior level employees opined that they
could not develop highly positive disposition and commitment while implementing
proposed reform agenda. Therefore, it can be argued that the least consultation with
lower echelons of organization also hinders for developing positive disposition and
commitment in implementing proposed reforms effectively in the bureaucracy.
Bureaucratic actors also link their positive and negative disposition towards the
reform agenda with their interest. If they see the proposed reform agenda serves their
interest they build positive disposition and would be committed for the execution of
such reform agenda. Adversely, if they do not see the reform agenda in favor of their
interest, they may develop negative disposition to implement the reform agenda of the
government and consequently their commitment will be low. For example, in the case
of performance based incentive in the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health,
and Ministry of Education under the GRP, 2001-2005 and its extended period 2007,
the field level employees were positive to implement their performance improvement
plan (PIP). However, the employees working at the center were not really interested in
implementing PIP. The reason was that the proposed incentive package was set for the
field level employees, not for the employees working at the center. Therefore, employees

237

at the center might not have been committed to apply PIP effectively. In other words,
bureaucratic actors working at the center i.e. Ministries and Departments could have
lost their interest to apply and monitor performance based incentive package in the
field level organizations.

6. Conclusion
Reforming public organization is an ongoing policy agenda of the government across
the world. The main essence of reform is to bring changes in organizational structure,
practice, and behavior of the employees. To bring change in these aspects of an
organization is highly influenced by the commitment of the employees working in it.
Defining and measuring commitment of bureaucratic actors in the context of reforms is
a difficult task. However, we can define employees' commitment as pledge and measure
it through their ownership taken for executing reform programs. The commitment is
also manifested with the positive or negative disposition which is a mental positioning
of the employees towards reform policies and programs of the organization. The study
shows that there is a strong relationship between commitment of bureaucratic actors
and administrative reforms in NCS. It concludes that the commitment with positive
disposition of bureaucratic actors working at different levels of bureaucracy has a
great influence for brining change in organizations through implementation of reform
policies introduced by the government. Therefore, the message is that organizational
leadership also needs to work for developing commitment with positive disposition
of the employees through incentives, consultation, and other viable measures if they
want to see their reform agenda is effectively implemented in the civil service.

References
Brunsson, N. & Olsen, J. P. (1993). The reforming the organization. Norway:
Fagbokforlaget.
Christensen, T., Lagreid, P., Roness P. G & Rovik, K. A. (2007). Organization theory
and the public sector: Instrument, culture and myth. London and New York: Routledge.
Dawson, S. & Dargie, C. (2002). New public management: A discussion with special
reference to UK health. In K. Mclaughlin, S. P. Osborne, & E. Ferlie (Eds.), New public
management: Current trends and future prospects (pp.34-56). London: Routledge.

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Government of Nepal. (2001-2005). Governance reform program. Policy document.


Kathmandu, Nepal.
Hill, M. & Hupe, P. (2002). Implementing public policy. New Delhi: SAGE
Publications.
Howlett, M. & Ramesh, M. (2003). Studying public policy: Policy cycle and policy
sub-systems (2nd ed.). New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Jamil, I. (2007). Administrative culture in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: A. H.
Development Publishing House.
Lakshmanna, C. & Rao, A.V.S. (1991). Maxweber. In D. Ravindra Prasad, V.S. Prasad,
P. Satyanarayana (Eds.). Administrative Thinkers (pp.76-90). New Delhi: Sterling
Publishers Private Limited.
Olsen, J. P. (2005). May be it is time to rediscover bureaucracy. Journal of Public
Administration Research and Theory. Advance Access Publications, March, 1-24.
Pollitt, C. & Bouckaert, G. (2004). Public management reform: A comparative
analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schedler, K. & Proeller, I. (2002). The new public management: A perspective from
mainland Europe. In K. Mclaughlin, S. P. Osborne, & E. Ferlie (Eds.), New public
management: Current trends and future prospects (pp.163-180). London: Routledge.
Turner, M. & Hulme, D. (1997). Governance, administration and development:
Making the state work. UK:Macmillan Press Ltd.
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conceptual framework. In Administration and Society. Vol. 6, No.4, February, 445487.
www.answers.com

239

A Study of Relationships between


Human Capital Development and
Foreign Direct Investment
Chet Nath Dahal*

Abstract
Over the last decade an increasing number of emerging market economies have opened their
countries to FDI, and have made a#rac!ng FDI an integral component of their development
strategies. The level of economy growth is likely depends on volume of in0ows FDI for example
China and India and other emerging economy countries. As a result, FDI is now more likely
to "nance a large ini!al surge in capital goods imports, bringing advanced technology, knowhow an organisa!onal technique. However, FDI causing to a race to the top as governments
recognize the need for an educated workforce. The possibility that FDI is contribu!ng to
widening wage and income inequali!es has revealed an important but rela!vely unexplored
link with human capital and human capital policy, educa!on and training. On the demand
side, as mul!na!onal a(liates u!lize "rm-speci"c knowledge assets and invest in physical
capital they raise demand for skilled workers. All this may also occur in domes!c "rms in
host countries if these knowledge assets are somehow transferred, but evidence on this
par!cularly for externality spillovers is rather mixed. On the supply side, mul!na!onals
can raise the supply of skilled workers both at the micro-level of individual a(liates training
workers in-house and via interac!ons with host country educa!on and training ins!tu!ons.
They can also do this at the macro-level through channels such as helping to raise and stabilize
output decisions. Two areas in par!cular on this interac!on between mul!na!onals and
skill upgrading may merit closer analysis. Furthermore, examining the rela!onship between
human capital and FDI, which could be extremely frui1ul for both poli!cal scien!sts and
policy makers. In par!cular, we need to know more about such mechanisms and the ways in
which policies can support them.

Introduction:
Over the last twenty years, globalisation has become a contentious issue. Much of the
debate has focused on the role of capital in#ows and foreign direct investment (FDI).
There is substantial evidence that short-term capital #ows, and portfolio capital in
particular, increase the susceptibility of developing countries to !nancial crises, while
FDI appears to be more stable and less subject to reversal and rapid out#ows. Over
the last decade an increasing number of emerging market economies have opened
* Mr.Dahal is working in Inland Revenue Department

240

their countries to FDI, and have made attracting FDI an integral component of their
development strategies.
The level of economy growth depends on volume of in#ows FDI for example China
and India and other emerging economy countries. The majority of FDI from developed
countries to developing countries now goes into services, rather than manufacturing
and natural resource production. This change of composition has been accompanied by
a change in purpose. As a result, FDI is now more likely to !nance a large initial surge
in capital goods imports, bringing advanced technology, know-how an organisational
technique. However, FDI causing to a race to the top as governments recognize the
need for an educated workforce. The possibility that FDI is contributing to widening
wage and income inequalities has revealed an important but relatively unexplored link
with human capital and human capital policy, education and training.
Furthermore, it is needed to !nd out the relationship between human capital and FDI,
which could be extremely fruitful for both political scientists and policy makers. In
particular, we need to know more about such mechanisms and the ways in which
policies can support them. The paper examines the literature about links between FDI
and Human Capital Development policy which helps to policy makers for formulating
economic and !scal policy in our country.

Skills Upgrading and Spillovers' Effects


When analyzing level of skills of labour demand and supply of both out#ows of FDI
and host countries. Each side of labour market also need to analysis. On the demand
side, the academic literature suggests several channels by which inward FDI stimulates
demand for skilled workers in host countries. These include technology transfer to
host country af!liates; technology #ows-both market-mediated and via spillovers
to host country !rms; and investments in physical capital related to new technologies.
There is compelling evidence on the importance of within-!rm technology transfer
and capital investment as modes of boosting host country demand for skilled workers.
The evidence is much more mixed on technology #ows to domestic !rms, particularly
via spillovers. But contrary, one can argue that a lack of spillovers is not necessarily
a bad thing in light of the stronger evidence on the signi!cant roles played by within!rm technology transfer and capital accumulation.
On the supply side, the question of how inward FDI in#uences the development of
human capital is much more dif!cult to answer. This link is, correctly, at the centre
of this discussion, as not a lot is known about it. One involves short-term, !rm-level
activities by which individual !rms interact with host country labour markets through

241

on-the-job training, support for local educational institutions, and the like. The other
involves long-term, country-level activities by which collectively contribute to an
overall macro environment where !scal policy can support and drive education policy.
To the extent that FDI contribute to a good macro environment in host countriesthrough raising worker productivity, providing a relatively stable source of foreign
capital, paying host country taxes they contribute to the ability of host countries
to fund education. Even if at this point generalizations of successful !rm-level
educational initiatives are hard to come by, as these efforts continue sight should not
be lost of the Country-level contributions.

Skills Human Resource Demand side Analysis


Theoretical Links
There is widespread agreement among researchers in many !elds that a distinguishing
feature of these !rms is their possession of knowledge assets patents, proprietary
technology, trademarks, etc. that can be deployed in af!liates outside the parent
country. This knowledge intensity is important for understanding the nature of
FDI labour demand in host countries. From an industrial-organization perspective
(Dunning, 1981):
a. First is the ownership advantage, i.e. the ownership of a !rm speci!c asset,
b. Second is the location advantage, i.e. it must be more cost ef!cient for the !rm to
exploit that asset abroad than in just the home country and
c. Third is the internalization advantage, i.e. the !rm must be better off using its
asset itself rather than contracting with another !rm.
The vertical FDI view is that multinationals arise when !rms want to take advantage
of international factor price differences. These !rms generally engage in two
activities: headquarter services to develop and maintain the !rms knowledge assets,
and production of output. Headquarter services are intensive in physical and human
capital, while production is intensive in manual labour. When factor prices differ
across countries, !rms become multinational by locating production in countries
where manual-labour costs are relatively low and headquarters in countries where
skilled-labour costs are relatively low. Even though the production activities may be
low-skill intensive relative to headquarter services, for host countries they likely will
be skill intensive relative to their initial activity mix.
The horizontal FDI view is that multinationals arise because trade barriers make
exporting costly. The formal setup is one in which !rms have high !xed cost

242

headquarters and one or more production plants. When trade costs are low, a !rm
produces all output in domestic plants and serves foreign consumers through exports.
When trade costs are high, a !rm becomes multinational by building production
plants both at home and abroad, each serving only local consumers. This type of FDI
is called horizontal because the multinational has the same activities in all countries.
Technology Transfer
The MNE use of knowledge assets often entails the transfer of technology from parents
to af!liates. Inward FDI, then, can mean new production technologies for the host
country, which in turn can boost demand for more skilled labour within host country
af!liates to the extent that the innovations are skill biased. This can occur whether
the inward FDI is horizontal or vertical in nature.A second demand channel is that
these new technologies may also reach domestically owned !rms in host countries.
New technologies may also reach domestic !rms to productivity spillovers via nonmarket channels.
Spillovers of knowledge
From af!liates to domestic !rms is an often-claimed bene!t of inward FDI, so it is
worth outlining possible spillover channels. The general idea that interaction among
!rms can generate spillovers had an early and ongoing interest in analyzing this
possibility of multinationals interacting with host country !rms.
Theoretical work on the mechanics of spillovers ranges from general discussions, often
leavened with anecdotes, to formal general-equilibrium models. Broadly speaking,
spillovers are commonly hypothesized to fall along industry or regional lines. An
example, it is often hypothesized that domestic !rms learn from af!liates in the
same industry via a range of informal contacts: e.g. trade shows; supplier/distributor
discussions; exposure to af!liate products, marketing, and patents; technical support
from af!liates; and reverse engineering. Depending on how narrowly or broadly
industries are de!ned, if the key contacts are between suppliers and/or distributors,
then spillovers may be classi!ed as intra-industry or inter-industry.
Other spillover mechanisms may operate along regional lines. Some of the knowledge
particular to foreign af!liates is embodied in their labour force, then as af!liate
employees leave to work for domestic !rms this knowledge may move as well.
A third channel for boosting host country skilled labour demand, for both foreign
and domestically owned !rms alike, is capital investments. Implementing new

243

technologies often entails making new capital investments. To the extent that capital
and skills are complements in the factor demands of !rms, skill upgrading may arise
not only directly from new technologies but also indirectly from the capital investments
induced by these new technologies.
Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications
There is compelling evidence that af!liate demand for skilled labour is stimulated by
their receipts of parent technology and their investments in physical capital. Through a
compositional shift, then, more inward FDI can raise host country demand for skilled
workers. The evidence is mixed, however, for determining whether af!liates also
stimulate this host country demand via technology transfer to domestic competitors.
The ambiguous evidence, at best, on knowledge spillovers from foreign to domestic
!rms may strike some as unfortunate. Such spillovers are an often touted bene!t of
inward FDI. It is important to emphasize, however, that externalities of this kind are,
by de!nition, market failures. In theory, if pro!t maximizing MNEs are aware of their
ability to generate spillovers, then their operational decisions may be endogenous to
this possibility and thus may try to minimize spillover bene!ts to local competitors.
They argue that when !rms vary in their inherent technological abilities and other
measures of !rm performance, then these !rms differ in the net bene!ts they realize
from agglomerating near each other. Best practice !rms have the least to gain and
the most to lose from clustering: few other !rms can offer them new ideas, yet their
good ideas can bene!t a large number of other !rms. Thus, with heterogeneous !rms
agglomeration may be characterized by adverse selection, where the !rms with the
most to offer by clustering have the least incentive to do so.
Put differently, there is compelling evidence that inward FDI brings new technology
and capital investment to host countries within the boundaries of af!liate operations.
The evidence that this technology spills over to domestic !rms is much more mixed.
But one should not automatically assume that more of the latter would be better,
because in general equilibrium it may come at the cost of less of the former. Policy
makers need to keep this in mind. If policy makers care only about raising aggregate
productivity, then they should be indifferent about the nationality of ownership of
their more productive !rms.
The global presence of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) industries
involves not just high-income but many middle- and low-income countries as well.
The McGraw Hill Companies et al.(2000) reports that in many central ICT industries,
many countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, Philippines, and South Korea are large

244

exporters running net trade surpluses. This is consistent with global production
networks in which these countries tend to import ICT intermediates, add value to
these intermediates, and then export them on to other countries.
It is also important to emphasize that for many producers of ICT products, foreign
customers may be served much more effectively through foreign af!liates than through
exports. This may be particularly true for ICT services, many of which require !rms to
interact on-site with customers. Af!liates of MNEs, then, can also !gure prominently
in terms of serving foreign markets.

Skills Human Resource Supply side Analysis


Short-Term, Firm-Level Supply of Labour
MNEs can facilitate investments in skilled labour through the short-term, !rm-level
activities in which individual !rms interact with host country labour markets, such
as on-the-job training, support for local educational institutions, and the like. MNEs
might directly affect labour supplies, as their transferred knowledge might boost
the skills of their employees (and, with spillovers, the skills of local employees as
well). They might also indirectly affect labour supplies, for example, by in#uencing
the educational infrastructure of host countries in terms of curriculum choices and
vocational training.
There is recurring discussion of the skills gaps multinationals encounter in host
country labour markets. Knowing how individual !rms try to overcome these gaps may
hold lessons for the educational initiatives of host country governments. While others
may be more familiar with real world cases and can better discuss these approaches
and policy lessons, there are two related points.
a. First, in the training literature it is well documented that educational initiatives
by !rms tend to be for !rm-speci!c skills, not general skills. This focus on !rmspeci!c skills is understandable in light of the inability of !rms to capture the
returns on investment in general skills.
b. Second, the knowledge of MNEs is often of competitive value. Government
initiatives to have this information #ow beyond af!liates may have unintended
consequences.
Taken together, these two points are not meant to say that individual MNEs cannot
engage the institutions of host country labour markets to help build skills. But they do
mean to say that the methods of MNE human capital development are often likely to
be !rm-speci!c rather than aimed at developing general human capital skills such as
numeracy, literacy, and problem solving.

245

Long-Term, National Supply of Labour


The MNEs can facilitate human capital development is through long term, countrylevel activities that collectively contribute to the overall macro environment. Even if
at this point generalizations of successful !rm-level educational initiatives are hard
to come by, as these efforts continue sight should not be lost of the country level
contributions that MNEs can make to human capital development in developing
countries. This is particularly true for policy aimed at longer time horizons. High MNE
wages as an important labour market signal, higher and more stable macroeconomic
growth and tax revenue: through all these channels MNE af!liates can stimulate longterm skills acquisition in host countries in !scal policy can support education policy.
To the extent that MNEs contribute to a good macro environment in host countries,
they contribute to the ability of host countries to fund education.
a. First, MNEs foster skills acquisition economy-wide to the extent that their
af!liate activities of technology transfer and capital investment boost demand and
thus wages for skilled workers. If MNEs contribute to rising demand and wages
for skilled workers economy-wide, then over the long run they contribute to the
general-equilibrium incentive of individuals in host countries to acquire skills
through education and/or training. If individuals in host countries have access to
these methods of skills acquisition, then they should respond to the price signals
coming from the labour market.

246

Second, the rise in economic activity from MNE af!liates means a rise in host
country tax revenue (whether taxes are levied on labour, capital, or both). This
broadening of host country tax bases can allow greater government investment
in education and training. Of course, FDI output and the tax revenues this
generates do not automatically imply greater investment in human capital.
But FDI output and tax revenues there from do free up budget constraints
and thereby make possible these greater investments. This broadly accords
with the !ndings of Dollar and Kray (2000) who document for a large set
of developing countries that overall economic growth tends to coexist with
growth in incomes for these countries poorest groups.

Third, FDI in#ows can improve not just the level of host country economic
activity but also reduce its volatility. Many developing countries rely on
foreign capital to help fund domestic investment opportunities. One prominent
fact is the declining relevance of of!cial aid #ows, whose share of the total
fell from nearly 60 per cent in 1990 to under 20 per cent in 1999. A second

prominent fact is that within private #ows, FDI has grown in both absolute
and relative importance. By 1999 FDI accounted for about two-thirds of total
capital in#ows and nearly 80 per cent of a notable feature of FDI relative
to other forms of capital #ows is its low volatility. All this means that over
time, for many countries a rising share of their total international capital
in#ows has been made up of relatively stable FDI. From the standpoint of
macroeconomic policy, stable capital in#ows are much easier to manage.
Accordingly, these FDI in#ows help foster macroeconomic stability in which
educational investments can better #ourish. Again, macro stability - like tax
revenue growth - may not be a suf!cient condition for FDI to stimulate human
capital development, but it may, again, be a necessary condition.

A fourth issue is that FDI in#ows can inhibit brain drain. In many developing
countries an ongoing policy concern is the loss of highly educated natives to
employment opportunities abroad (either as these people get education locally
and then emigrate or as they get education abroad and then do not return
home). To the extent that FDI in#ows bring those attractive employment
opportunities to host countries, they can inhibit brain drain. Again, consider
the example of Ireland. The 1990s boom, due in large part to the inward
FDI surge, is widely perceived as having boosted demand for skilled Irish
workers- with a resulting surge in labour supply driven largely by reverse
migration of young Irish back into the country from locations like England
and the United States. Over the 1990s the Irish labour force rose by about 60
per cent, with a commensurate rise in the population from 2.8 million in 1961
to 3.8 million (Brumley, 2001). For several decades before the 1990s, annual
net emigration out of Ireland was about 35 000 per year. During the 1990s this
reversed to net immigration of about 45 000 per year, of which the majority
were Irish returnees. Of course, the Irish experience may be somewhat unique
and not representative of developing countries, but it exempli!es well the
general idea of the interaction between inward FDI and reverse migration.
To sum up, even if at this point generalizations of successful !rm-level
educational initiatives are hard to come by, as these efforts continue sight
should not be lost of the country level contributions that MNEs can make to
human capital development in developing countries. This is particularly true
for policy aimed at longer time horizons. High MNE wages as an important
labour market signal, higher and more stable macroeconomic growth and tax
revenue, and reduced emigration incentives: through all these channels MNE
af!liates can stimulate long-term skills acquisition in host countries.

247

Conclusion
This paper has examined how multinational !rms affect both the demand for and
supply of skills in host country labour markets. On the demand side, as multinational
af!liates utilize !rm-speci!c knowledge assets and invest in physical capital they raise
demand for skilled workers. All this may also occur in domestic !rms in host countries
if these knowledge assets are somehow transferred, but evidence on this - particularly
for externality spillovers - is rather mixed. On the supply side, multinationals can raise
the supply of skilled workers both at the micro-level of individual af!liates training
workers in-house and via interactions with host country education and training
institutions. They can also do this at the macro-level through channels such as helping
to raise and stabilise output decisions. Two areas in particular on this interaction
between multinationals and skill upgrading may merit closer analysis. On the demand
side, understanding how these !rms control the within-!rm and cross-!rm #ows of
information may be important for understanding how broadly these knowledge assets
spread within host countries. At this point, there simply is not a large, systematic body
of evidence on knowledge #ows into FDI host countries. This is in part because data
requirements for distinguishing alternative stories identifying and analyzing. FDI
and HCD issues will largely depend on which countries will be able to provide the
necessary data to permit that learning. On the supply side, an ongoing issue is obtaining
a clearer understanding of effective micro-level policies for fostering private-public
skills building.
Last but not least, In our country speci!c case, we are also FDI importing country and
there is hard to !nd any research documentation in the following including this one,
not late to include our policy agenda that can help to understand the pros and con of
FDI. The research agenda are:
a. implications of FDI for skill demand and supply;
b. the interaction between FDI promotion policy and human capital;
c. reviewing the relationship between domestic policy, FDI and human capital ; and
d. Reviewing the literature on human capital spillovers.

References:

248

Slaughter M.J. (2002); Skill Upgrading in Developing Countries: Has inward


Foreign Direct Investment Played a Role? Paris, Working Paper No.192; OECD
Development Centre.
Inter Economic (2012); Challenges Facing European Labour Markets: Isa Skill
Upgrade the Appropriate Instruction, Belzime, EU Publishing House.

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ISSN- 2091-0533

251

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