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NAME

ABISAGBO OLUWASEGUN AFOLABI

MATRIC

149082099

COURSE CODE

GIM 841

COURSE TITLE

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING IN GIS

MASTERS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS


DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, YABA

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SYMBOL

NAME

MEANING

Flow Line

An arrow coming from one symbol and ending at another


symbol represents that control passes to the symbol the arrow
points to. The line for the arrow can be solid or dashed. The
meaning of the arrow with dashed line may differ from one
flowchart to another and can be defined in the legend.

On-Page
Connector

Generally represented with a circle, showing where multiple


control flows converge in a single exit flow. It will have more
than one arrow coming into it, but only one going out. In simple
cases, one may simply have an arrow point to another arrow
instead. These are useful to represent an iterative process (what
in Computer Science is called a loop).

Annotation

Annotations represent comments or remarks about the flowchart.


Like comments found in high-level programming languages,
they have no effect on the interpretation or behavior of the
flowchart. Sometimes, the shapes consists of a box with dashed
(or dotted) lines.

Terminal

Represented as circles, ovals, stadiums or rounded (fillet)


rectangles. They usually contain the word "Start" or "End", or
another phrase signaling the start or end of a process, such as
"submit inquiry" or "receive product".

Decision

Represented as a diamond (rhombus) showing where a decision


is necessary, commonly a Yes/No question or True/False test.
The conditional symbol is peculiar in that it has two arrows
coming out of it, usually from the bottom point and right point,
one corresponding to Yes or True, and one corresponding to No
or False. (The arrows should always be labeled.)

Input/output

Represented as a parallelogram. Involves receiving data and


displaying processed data. Can only move from input to output
and not vice versa. Examples: Get X from the user; display X.

Predefined
Process

Represented as rectangles with double-struck vertical edges;


these are used to show complex processing steps which may be

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detailed in a separate flowchart. Example: process-files. One


subroutine may have multiple distinct entry points or exit flows
(see coroutine). If so, these are shown as labeled 'wells' in the
rectangle, and control arrows connect to these 'wells'.
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Process

Represented as rectangles. This shape is used to show that


something is performed. Examples: "Add 1 to X", "replace
identified part", "save changes", etc....

Preparation

Represented as a hexagon. May also be called initialization.


Shows operations which have no effect other than preparing a
value for a subsequent conditional or decision step.
Alternatively, this shape is used to replace the Decision Shape in
the case of conditional looping.

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Off-Page
Connector
Document

Stored Data

Direct Data

Internal
Storage

Sequential
Access

Represented as a pentagon. Similar to the on-page connector


except allows for placing a connector that connects to another
page.
Document object is a rectangle with a wave-like base. This
shape is used to represent a Document or Report in a process
flow.
This is a general data storage object used in the process flow as
opposed to data which could be also stored on a hard drive,
magnetic tape, memory card, of any other storage device.
Direct Data object in a process flow represents information
stored which can be accessed directly. This object represents a
computer's hard drive.
This is an object which is commonly found in programming
flowcharts to illustrate the information stored in memory, as
opposed to on a file. This shape is often referred to as the
magnetic core memory of early computers; or the random access
memory (RAM) as we call it today.
This object takes the shape of a reel of tape. It represents
information stored in a sequence, such as data on a magnetic
tape.

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Manual Input

This object is represented by rectangle with the top sloping up


from left to right. The Manual Input object signifies an action
where the user is prompted for information that must be
manually input into a system.

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Delay The Delay shape represents a waiting period where no activity is


done. In Process Mapping, delays are often important as they
may result in adding to the cost of the product or simply
delaying its production. Delays should be analyzed to see if they
can be minimized or eliminated.

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Off Page This shape means the flow continues on another page. A letter or
Connector page number in the shape tells you where to go. It is an
alternative to using a circle.

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Alternate The rounded rectangle is sometimes used instead of the standard


Process rectangle and can have the same meaning. However, it is also
used as an alternate process. The lines associated with the
alternate process are usually dashed. It allows you to specify a
process in a sharp cornered rectangle and an alternate process in
a rounded rectangle. Some people also use the rounded rectangle
for an automated activity.

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Manual Input This shape looks like a side view of a keyboard and often
represents entering data into a computer via a keyboard.
Manual The trapezoid shape represents a manual operation. That is any
Operation operation or adjustment that has to be done by hand rather than
automatically.
Database A cylinder represents a data file or database. This shape can also
represent the magnetic disc itself. A hard drive is referred to as
direct access storage since any sector on the drive can be
accessed. A tape is sequential access storage as the data has to be
read sequentially.
Magnetic Tape This shape is supposed to look like a reel of tape with a small
portion of tape extending from the reel. It represents magnetic
tape storage which is also called sequential access storage.

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Offline Storage The shape represents storage offline, regardless of the storage
medium.
Display This shape is used to show that the information is being
displayed to the user. It often refers to the display of a PC.
Preparation This shape was originally used by IBM programmers to set a
switch, modify an index register, or initialize a routine. Currently
you can use it to differentiate between steps that prepare for
work versus steps that actual do the work. It is probably best not
to use this shape at all.

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Punched Card This is the old IBM punched card. Each line of a program was
punched into one IBM card. Then the cards were stacked in
order and taken to a card reader. Usually the student would
submit the cards and someone else would run them during the
middle of the night, when the computer wasn't so busy. The
output was printed on wide z-fold paper. If you made a mistake,
you would have to resubmit the cards and wait another day.
Large programs had stacks of cards several feet high. If you are
using this shape, you need to update your hardware.

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Punched Tape Punched tape is another antiquated technology. A software


program would be saved by noisily punching holes in a paper
tape. The paper tape was about an inch wide and hundreds of
feet long. The holes were large enough to see. As the
minicomputer punched the tape, it would stream onto the floor.
Then the programmer would take a battery operated gadget that
would wrap the tape into a nice roll. The computer could read
the tape from this roll to reload the program. If you had a special
program that you wanted to save, you would use a Mylar
polyester tape instead of paper, as it was stronger and lasted
longer. (My grandfather told me about this.)

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Comment This shape was used to add a comment or additional descriptive


text to a software flowchart. A dotted line should extend from
the comment to the symbol it references. This shape is seldom
used today.

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30.

Keying This is an old shape for an operation using a key-drive device,


such as punching, verifying or typing. It is seldom used today.

31.

Sort The Sort shape arranges a set of items or data into a sequence.

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Merge/Storage The Merge shape combines two or more sets of items into one
set.

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Extract The Extract shape involves removal of one or more specific sets
of items from a set.

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Collate The Collate shape combines merging with extracting. Two or


more sets of items are formed from two or more other sets.

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Summing This shape adds the inputs. To subtract, you add a negative
Junction input.

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Logical Or This shape performs a logical Or on the inputs. If the inputs are
Oblige
A and B, the output could be A or B.

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