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TENSE

Present Simple

USE
o

I,We,You,They work.

something happens repeatedly


how often something happens
one action follows another
First I get up, then I have breakfast.

Never changing/always true

FORM

My friend often draws nice posters.

Infinitiv
e

He,she,It works.

he/she
/it + -s

things in generaL:
every day
sometimes
always
often
usually
seldom
never

lThe sun rises in the East.

(WH)DO

after the verbs of state (to love, to hate, to think,


etc.)

(WH)DOES

I,We,You,T
hey

future meaning: timetables, programmes

Present Progressive

The plane flies to London every Monday.

something is happening at the same


time of speaking or around it

He,she,It

Peter is reading a book now.


Happening during a period
around now
now
at the moment
Look!
Listen!

something is happening these days

Implaying guitar these semesetar

future meaning: when you have


already decided and arranged fixed plan
trendsMore and more people are using their
computers to listen to music.

work?

He,she,it
work.

I understand English.

I,We,You,They

TO BE

DONT
DOESNT

am

You

are

He,she,it

is

am

are

You

is

He,she,it

working.

(am,are,is)
+ infinitive
+ -ing

I,

working?

You,they,we

am not

He,she,it

are not

working.

isnt

Present Perfect

gone.
o

present results more


importantthan when the
evant happened

just, yet, never,


already, ever, so far,
up to now, recently,
since, for

Result of an action in the past is


important in the present

I,You,they,
we

has

I have already eaten so I am not hungry.


o

Action beginning in the past and still


continuing

We have lived in Canada since 1986


o

He,she,it

Recently completed action

He has just played handball.


o

have

together with lately, recently, yet

have/h
as
+
Past

I,You,they,
we

gone?.

has
He,she,it

participl
e

I have been to London recently.

I,You,they,
we
He,she,it

We use the present (not 'will') after


when/if/while/before etc.

TENSE

have

have not

gone.

has not

FORM

Present
PerfectProgresive
action started in past and:

have/h
as

I,We,You,They have
He,she,It

has

been wor

+been
o

all day, for 4 years, since


1993, how long?, the
whole week

continuing now

I have been waiting for an hour

+ inf
+ -ing
Have
Has

I,We,You,They

been wor

He,she,it

finished but evidence remains

I have been sunbathing in the garden thats


why my face so red.

I,We,You,T
hey

havenot

been wor

has not
He,she,It

Past Simple
yesterday,

action took place in the past

I visited Berlin last week.

regular:
inf+-ed
irregular

I,We,You,They,He,she,It worked.

last week,
a month ago,
in 2002

The Simple Past interrupted an


action which was in progress in the
past.

They were playing cards when the


telephone rang.

(WH)DID I,We,You,They He,she,it work?


I,We,You,They,He,she,It DIDN T work.

USED TO
USED TO+GERUND

used to indicates something that happened regularly in the past but doesn' t happen now
I used to work at night. {= I often worked at night, some time ago)
I'm used to working at night. (= it is normal for me to do this)

Past Progresive
While,when, as long as

action going on at a certain time in


the past

working
I,You,they,
we

Peter was reading a book yesterday


evening.actions taking place at the same time

were
was

He,she,it

While she was driving ,she was talking.

action in the past that is interrupted


by another action

While we were sitting at the breakfast


table, the telephone rang.

working?
was/w
ere

were
was

I,He,she,it

+inf +
ing

I,You,they,
we
He,she,it

Past Perfect

action taking place before a certain


time in the past

By 1988 Oprah Winfrey had become famouos


o

already, just, never, not yet,


once, until that day,by..
if sentence type III (If I had

sometimes interchangeable with past


perfect progressive

had
+
+
past
participle

You,they,w
e

were not

working

was not

I,We,You,They,he she had worke

talked, )

putting emphasis only on the fact (not


the duration)

(WH)Had I,We,You,They He,she,it worked?

I saw Billy Idol last night.I have never seen


him before
I,We,You,They,He,she,It had not worked.

Past Perfect

talk about an action that was in


progress before specific time in the past

Progressive

I sow Rob at 4.He had been waiting 2 hours.


Relationships with other past event

I,You,we,they,He,she,it had been working


HAD
+BEEN

Had I,You,we,they,He,she,it been working?

+INF_ing

When the race started ,it had been raining .


(it wasnt raining during the race)
all day, for 4 years, since
1993, how long?, the
whole week

*When the race started ,it was raining (it was


still raining)/Past Progressive

conclusions about past events

The streets were wet.It had been raining.

I,You,they,we,He,she,it HADNT BEEN Working.

be going to He is going to be a new director(100%)


predictions

will

FUTURE

He is going to be a new director(maybe).

Look!He is going to fall.( NOT He will fall)

be going to I m going to see Jessica tonight


intentions,plans

will **decisions at the moment of speaking There is Marry.I ll go and speak to her.
Present Continuous(+time reference),already arranged plans I m seeing Jessica tonight.

offers

will I ll help you

sheduled future

Present Simple The train leaves at 10:00 pm tomorrow.

evants

TENSE

USE

Future Continuous

FORM
will + be
+inf+ ing

action that is going on at a certain time

l,you,he she,it,we they will be working.

in one year, next week,


tomorrow, for

in the future

will l,you,he she,it,we they be working?

o
o

l,you,he she,it,we they wont be working.

When I come to school, the other


kids will be waiting for me.

action that is sure to happen in the near


future. We'll be going to the disco on Saturday.

Future Perfect

To look ahead to a time in the future


when:

will + hav
e+
past
participle

o
by+time expresion
already

An expected event or activity will be in


the past

I,We,You,They He,she,It
will have worked.

(infinitive +
-ed)

Ill have finished work by five oclock tonght

yet

Will I, You,he,she it, We, ,They have worked?


o

Duration of time will be in the past:

Ill have been here for a year in January.

I,We,You,They He,she,It will not(wont) have w

Future Perfect
Progressive

With for to describe a period of time


which precedes apoint in the future

Well have been living here for two years in


July.

I,We,You,They He,she,It
will(ll)+
have
been+

will have been working.

verb_ing
o

for

To describe an activitywhich leads up


to a point in the future:

Will I, You,he,she it, We, ,They have been working?

Ill be dirty because Illhave been playing


football

I,We,You,They He,she,It

Will not(wont) have been workin

will l,you,he she,it,we they be working?

C
O
N
D
I
T
I
O
N
A
L
S

IF CLAUSE

RESULT CLAUSE
If Baker wins, he will raises the taxes.

FACTUAL
If +present simple

future(GOING TO,WILL)

(B Baker will raises the taxes If he wins


If Baker wins he could raises the taxes.

What will happen under certain conditions.

instead if,unless,ifnot(negative condition)


IF CLAUSE

If he doesnt lower taxes,bussiness wont return.

W Will he lower taxses if he wins?

RESULT CLAUSE

UNREAL

If he loved Marry, he would marry her.


If +past simple
meaning is not past!

would+inf

MODALS

(But I dont love her ,so I wont marry her)


If I had time, I could read more.

If I were you,I d read Twighlight.(giving advice)


not I was

If he didnt love Marry, he wouldnt marry her.


unreal, untrue, imagined,or impossible conditions and their
results.

Would he marry Marry If he loved her?

IF CLAUSE

RESULT CLAUSE
would have+past participle

Past Perfekt
UNREAL

had+past participle

Past unreal conditions and imagined results that never


happened.