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Material Science:

The characteristic of electrical, mechanical


and etc

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Lecture Outline:

The characteristic of Electrical

The characteristic of Mechanical

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Electrical Properties
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
How are electrical conductance and resistance
characterized?
What are the physical phenomena that distinguish
conductors, semiconductors, and insulators?
For metals, how is conductivity affected by imperfections,
temperature, and deformation?
For semiconductors, how is conductivity affected by
impurities (doping) and temperature?

* Callister et al., Chapter 18, page 719


3

View of an Integrated Circuit


Scanning electron micrographs of an IC:
Al

(d)

(d)

(a)

Si
(doped)

45 m

A dot map showing location of


Si
(a semiconductor):
- Si shows up as light regions.
A dot map showing location
of Al
(a conductor):
- Al shows up as light
Fig. (d) from Fig. 12.27(a), Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig. 12.27 is
regions.
courtesy
Nick Gonzales, National Semiconductor Corp., West Jordan, UT.)

0.5 mm
(b)

(c)

Figs. (a), (b), (c) from Fig. 18.27, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e.

Electrical Conduction
V=IR

Ohm's Law:

resistance (Ohms)
voltage drop (volts = J/C)
C = Coulomb
current (amps = C/s)

Resistivity, r:
A material property that is
independent of sample size
and geometry

Conductivity, s:

RA

surface area
of current flow
current flow
path length

Electrical Properties

Which will have the greater resistance?


2l
2 l
8l
R1

2D

D

2

D2

l
l
R1
R2
2
2
8
2D D

2

Analogous to flow of water in a pipe


Resistance depends on
sample geometry and
size.
6

Definitions
Further definitions

J=

<= another way to state Ohms law

J current density

current
I

surface area A

like a flux

electric field potential = V/l


J = (V/l )
Electron flux

conductivity

voltage gradient

Conductivity: Comparison
Room temperature values (Ohm-m)-1 = ( METALS
-1

m)

conductors

CERAMICS

Silver

6.8 x 10

Soda-lime glass 10

Copper

6.0 x 10

Concrete

Iron

1.0 x 10

Aluminum oxide

SEMICONDUCTORS

10

-9

<10

-13

<10

-14

POLYMERS

Silicon

4 x 10 -4

Germanium

2 x 10

GaAs

-10-10 -11

Polystyrene
Polyethylene

10

-15-10 -17

10 -6
semiconductors

insulators

Selected values from Tables 18.1, 18.3, and 18.4, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
8

Example: Conductivity Problem


What is the minimum diameter (D) of the
wire so that V < 1.5 V?
l 100 m

I = 2.5 A

Cu wire -

100 m

D 2
4

l
V

A I

Solve to get D > 1.87


mm

< 1.5 V
2.5 A
6.07 x 107 (Ohm-m)-1

Electron Energy Band Structures

Adapted from Fig. 18.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


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Band Structure Representation

Adapted from Fig. 18.3,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

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Conduction & Electron Transport


Metals (Conductors):

For metals empty energy states are adjacent to filled


states.
Thermal energy
Partially filled band Overlapping bands
excites electrons
Energy
Energy
into empty higher
empty
energy states.
band

filled
band

filled states

2) Empty band that


overlaps filled band

partly
filled
band

filled states

2 types of band
structures for
metals
1) Partially filled band

empty
band

GAP

filled
band
filled
band
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Energy Band Structures: Insulators &


Semiconductors
Semiconductors:

-- wide band gap (> 2 eV)


-- few electrons excited
across band gap
Energy
empty
conduction
band

filled states

GAP

filled
valence
band
filled
band

-- narrow band gap (< 2


eV)
-- more electrons excited
Energy

empty
across band gapconduction
band
?
GAP

filled states

Insulators:

filled
valence
band
filled
band
13

Fig. 18.4. The various possible electron band structures in solid at 0K


(a)The electron band structure found in metal such as copper, in which there are available electron
states above and adjacent to filled states, in the same band.
(b)The electron band structure of metals such as a magnesium, wherein there is an overlap of
filled and empty outer bands.
(c)The electron band structure characteristic of insulators; the filled valence band is separated
from empty conduction band by a relatively large band gap (> 2 eV)
(d)The electron band structure found in the semiconductors, which is the same as for insulator
except that the band gap is relatively narrow (< 2 eV)
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Electron Mobility
Frictional force from scattering of electron by
imperfections in the crystal lattice, including
impurity atoms, vacancies, interstitial atoms,
dislocations, even the thermal vibration of the
atoms themselves.
The scattering phenomena is manifested as a
resistance to the passage of an electric
current. Several parameters are used to
describe the extent of this scattering; these
include the drift velocity, vd and the mobility, e
of an electron.

Fig. 18.7 Schematic diagram showing the path of an


electron that is reflected by scattering events

When an electric field is applied, a force is


brought to bear on the free electrons; as a
consequence, they all experience an
acceleration in a direction opposite to that of
the field.
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15

Metals: Influence of Temperature and Impurities on


Resistivity

(10 -8 Ohm-m)

Resistivity,

Presence of imperfections increases


resistivity
-- grain boundaries
These act to scatter electrons so
-- dislocations
that they take a less direct path.
-- impurity atoms
-- vacancies
6
Ni
%
t
Resistivity
2a
3
.
i
3
5
+
%N
increases with:
t
a
Cu
2
1.1
4
+
-- temperature
u
C
i
N
d
t%
me
a
r
-- wt% impurity
3
o
2
f
d
1
.
de
1
-- %CW
u+
C
2
i
u
C

e
r
1
= thermal
Pu

-200

-100

T (C)

Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 18.8 adapted from J.O. Linde, Ann.
Physik 5, p. 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd ed.,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970.)

+ impurity
+ deformation
16

Cont
Which t, i, d represent the individual thermal, impurity and deformation

this equation sometimes known as Matthiessens rule


Influence of Temperature

Influence of Impurity
The impurity resistivity I is related to the impurity concentration ci

Influence of Deformation

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17

Estimating Conductivity
180
160
140
125
120
100
21 wt% Ni
80
60
0 10 20 30 40 50

Resistivity,
(10 -8 Ohm-m)

Yield strength (MPa)

Question:
-- Estimate the electrical conductivity of a Cu-Ni alloy
that has a yield strength of 125 MPa.

wt% Ni, (Concentration C)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50

wt% Ni, (Concentration C)

Adapted from Fig. 7.16(b), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Adapted from Fig. 18.9, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

From step 1:
CNi = 21 wt% Ni

30 x 10 8 Ohm m
1
3.3 x 10 6 (Ohm m) 1

18

Concept check

Hint: you may want to consult the lead-tin phase diagram, Figure 9.8

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19

Charge Carriers in Insulators and


Semiconductors
Two types of electronic
charge carriers:
1) Free Electron
negative charge
in conduction band
2) Hole
positive charge
vacant electron state in
the valence band
Adapted from Fig. 18.6(b), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Move at different speeds - drift velocities


20

Intrinsic Semiconductors

Pure material semiconductors:


E.g., silicon & germanium
Group IVA materials

Compound semiconductors
III-V compounds
Ex: GaAs & InSb
II-VI compounds
Ex: CdS & ZnTe
The wider the electronegativity difference
between the elements the wider the energy
gap.

21

Intrinsic Semiconduction in Terms


of Electron and Hole Migration
Concept of electrons and holes:
valence
electron

electron hole
pair creation

Si atom

No applied
electric field

E
electron hole
pair migration
+ -

Applied
electric field

Applied
electric field

Electrical Conductivity given by:# holes/m3

Adapted from Fig. 18.11,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

n e e p e h

hole
# electrons/m3 electron mobilitymobility
22

Number of Charge Carriers


Intrinsic Conductivity
n e e p e h

For intrinsic semiconductor n = p


= ni

= ni|e|(e + h)

Ex: GaAs

10 6 ( m) 1
ni

e e h (1.6 x10 19 C)(0.85 0.45 m2 /V s)


For GaAs
For Si

ni = 4.8 x 1024 m-3

ni = 1.3 x 1016 m-3

Refer to Example problem


18.1

23

Intrinsic Semiconductors:
Conductivity vs T
Data for Pure Silicon:
-- s increases with T
-- opposite to metals

ni e e h
E gap / kT

ni e
Material
Si
Ge
GaP
CdS

Band gap (eV)


1.11
0.67
2.25
2.40

Selected values from Table 18.3, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


Adapted from Fig. 18.16, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

24

Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Conduction


Intrinsic:
-- case for pure Si
-- # electrons = # holes (n = p)
Extrinsic:
-- electrical behavior is determined by presence of impurities
that introduce excess electrons or holes
-- n p
p-type Extrinsic: (p >> n)
n-type Extrinsic: (n >> p)
Phosphorus atom
4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

n e e

4+ 5+ 4+ 4+
4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

Adapted from Figs.


18.12(a) & 18.14(a),
Callister & Rethwisch
8e.

no applied
electric field

Boron atom
hole
conduction
electron

4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

valence
electron

4+ 4+ 4+ 4+

Si atom

4+ 3+ 4+ 4+

no applied
electric field

p e h

25

Concept check:
Will Zn act as a donor or acceptor when
added to the compound semiconductor
GaAs? Why? (Assume that Zn is a
subtitutional impurity)

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Extrinsic Semiconductors:
Conductivity vs. Temperature

to
excite electrons.
-- For 150 K < T < 450 K:
"extrinsic"

undoped

extrinsic

intrinsic

3
freeze-out

concentration (1021/m3)

extrinsic conduction...
-- Extrinsic doping level:
1021/m3 of a n-type donor
impurity (such as P).
-- For T < 100 K: "freeze-out,
thermal energy insufficient

doped

Conduction electron

Data for Doped Silicon:


-- S increases doping
-- Reason: imperfection sites
lower the activation energy
to
produce mobile
electrons.
Comparison:
intrinsic
vs

0
0

200

400

600

T (K)

Adapted from Fig. 18.17, Callister & Rethwisch


8e. (Fig. 18.17 from S.M. Sze, Semiconductor
Devices, Physics, and Technology, Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1985.)
27

p-n Rectifying Junction


Allows flow of electrons in one direction only (e.g., useful to convert
alternating current to direct current).
Processing: diffuse P into one side of a B-doped crystal.
+ p-type+
+
+
+

-- No applied potential:
no net current flow.
-- Forward bias: carriers
flow through p-type and
n-type regions; holes and
electrons recombine at
p-n junction; current flows.
-- Reverse bias: carriers
flow away from p-n junction;
junction region depleted of
carriers; little current flow.

p-type
+

-n-type
-

+ + +
+ -

+ p-type
+
+
+
+

Adapted from
Fig. 18.21
Callister &
Rethwisch 8e.

n-type
-

n-type
-

28

Properties of Rectifying Junction

Fig. 18.22, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

Fig. 18.23, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

29

Junction Transistor

Fig. 18.24, Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


30

MOSFET Transistor
Integrated Circuit Device

Fig. 18.26, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e.

MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect


transistor)circuits - state of the art ca. 50 nm line width
Integrated

~ 1,000,000,000 components on chip


chips formed one layer at a time
31

Ferroelectric Ceramics

Experience spontaneous polarization


BaTiO3 -- ferroelectric
below its Curie temperature
(120C)

Fig. 18.35, Callister &


Rethwisch 8e.

32

Piezoelectric Materials
Piezoelectricity
application of stress induces voltage
application of voltage induces dimensional
change

stress-free

with applied stress

Adapted from Fig. 18.36, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 18.36 from Van Vlack, Lawrence H., Elements of Materials Science and Engineering,
1989, p.482, Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.)

33

Summary
Electrical conductivity and resistivity are:
-- material parameters
-- geometry independent
Conductors, semiconductors, and insulators...
-- differ in range of conductivity values
-- differ in availability of electron excitation states
For metals, resistivity is increased by
-- increasing temperature
-- addition of imperfections
-- plastic deformation
For pure semiconductors, conductivity is increased by
-- increasing temperature
-- doping [e.g., adding B to Si (p-type) or P to Si (ntype)]
Other electrical characteristics
-- ferroelectricity
-- piezoelectricity

34

Summary
Diffusion FASTER for...

Diffusion SLOWER for...

open crystal
structures

close-packed
structures

materials
w/secondary
bonding

materials w/covalent
bonding
larger diffusing atoms

smaller diffusing
atoms
lower density
materials

higher density
materials
35

Mechanical Properties
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
Stress and strain: What are they and why are
they used instead of load and deformation?
Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
Plastic behavior: At what point does
permanent
deformation occur? What materials are
most
resistant to permanent deformation?
Callister et al., Chapter 6, page 150
* Callister et al., Chapter 12, page 480

36

Elastic Deformation
1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds
stretch
return to
initial

Elastic means reversible!

Linearelastic

Non-Linearelastic

37

Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, s:

Ft

Shear stress, t:

Ft

Area, Ao

Area, Ao
Instantaneou
s load

Ft
Ft
lb
N
= 2f or
=
2
in
m
Ao
original area
before loading

F
Fs

Fs
F
s
=
Ao

Ft

Stress has
units:
N/m2 or lbf /in2

38

Other Common Stress States (I)


Simple compression:

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Balanced Rock, Arches


National Park

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Ao

Note: compressive
structure member
( < 0 here).

39

Engineering Strain
Tensile strain:

Lo

Shear strain:

wo
L

= x/y = tan
90 -

90

Lo

L
L
wo

/2

Lateral strain:

/2

Strain is always
dimensionless.

Adapted from Fig. 6.1(a) and (c), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

40

Linear Elastic Properties


Stress-strain
behavior
Modulus of Elasticity, E:

Strain,

(also known as Young's


modulus)
strain
Hooke's Law:

=E

F
E

stress

Linearelastic

simple
tension
test
41

Example 1:
A piece of copper originally 305 mm long is
pulled in tension with a stress of 276 MPa.
If the deformation is entirely elastic, what
will be the resultant elongation
=E

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Poisson's ratio,
L

Poisson's ratio, n:
L

metals: n ~ 0.33
ceramics: n ~ 0.25
polymers: n ~ 0.40
Units:
E: [GPa] or
[psi]
n:
dimensionless

> 0.50 density increases

< 0.50 density decreases


(voids form)
43

Mechanical Properties

Slope of stress strain plot (which is


proportional to the elastic modulus)
depends on bond strength of metal

Adapted from Fig. 6.7,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
44

Example 2:
A tensile stress is to be applied along the long
axis of a cylindrical brass rod that has a
diameter of 10 mm. determine the magnitude
of the load required to produce a 2.5 x 10-3 mm
change in diameter if the deformation is
entirely elastic

According to Table 6.1, the modulus of elasticity for Brass, is given by


97 GPa
= 5600 N
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Summary
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or
compressive)
uniaxial stress
s y.
Toughness:
The reaches
energy needed
to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at
failure.
46