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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General Overview
In the port operation for environment case, biological and chemical processes cause the

problem in the community of ecosystem on the nutrients and pollutants in port operation area
that mostly come from the physical transports and processes. It meaning that the human activities
are the key role for impact on the coast ecosystems, such as large-scale estuarine and coastal
engineering research which changed local hydro-kinematics and damaged the habitats for the
organisms (J. Zhu, 2006).

Emissions of air pollutants from ships while they are in port represent a small fraction of total
emissions from shipping. However, ports attract traffic sources and form of shipping exhaust
emissions concentrated near populated areas. Corbett et al. (2007) estimated that shipping-related
particulate matter (PM) emissions are responsible for approximately 60,000 cardiopulmonary

and lung cancer deaths annually, with most deaths occurring near coastlines in Europe, East Asia,
and South Asia.

The main pollutants emitted by ships are SOx, because of the high sulfur content of
marine bunkers, also PMx and CO are emitted as a result of incomplete combustion of the low
quality marine fuels and finally NOx that are emitted due to the high temperatures and pressures
inside internal combustion engines. Additionally, as in every hydrocarbon's combustion process,
CO2 is emitted, which is not toxic at current levels; however it is the main greenhouse gas and
contributes to global warming. Gaseous oxides of sulfur produced during combustion of fossil
fuels can be oxidized to particulate sulfates, SOx.

Modification in power engine vessel, totalize the fuel consumption used for each type of
ship and estimation ship berthing in area port is required for prevent the quality of air pollution
that produced during operation.

In chapter 1 will be discussed about the background of the study, statement of the
problem, objective and the scope of the study. Literature review will be discussed in Chapter 2
and research methodology in Chapter 3. While result and analysis in Chapter 4 and last but not
least conclusions and recommendations will be discussed in Chapter 5.

1.2

Background of the study

Over the last thirty years, fuelled by the current globalization process, the maritime
transport industry has experienced technological breakthroughs giving rise to containerization
and other major changes in cargo handling facilities (Olivier and Slack, 2006).

Provision coastal places to the port makes the function into a multi-purpose area with
various activities in which the development takes up to increased activity, and expansion of the
port area often lead to negative impacts on the surrounding environment. Reports of IMO shows
there are some environmental problems that occur in the port area. Activities such as in the
waters of ships that docked in the port generate a lot of waste such as waste oil and other liquid
waste for a day. Industrial activity in the production process also produces waste, either liquid or
gas that can cause contamination of the surrounding area. Land activities including of
warehousing, docking or repair ships, industrial and office also produces a lot of waste every
day.

1.3

Problem Statement of the study

Ports are major hubs of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas and economic
activity in world trade index. Transporting the goods through ports has been steadily increasing
in future due to world trade (B. Diane, 2004). To evaluate air pollution impacts of ports requires
consideration of sources, including heavy-duty equipment, marine vessels, locomotive, and off-

road equipment used to moving cargo Impacts of air quality in ports area are significant, with
particularly lager emission of diesel exhaust, VOCs, PMx, SOx, NOx, CO2, and CO.

Diane (2004) said that The health effects of these air pollutants to worker and resident of
local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer
and premature mortality.

A research done by International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Energy


Agency (IEA) showed that ship which is the biggest mode of transport covers almost 80% of
total world trade and it also contributes to about 1.6 percent 4 percent of world total Carbon
Dioxide (CO2) emissions. In addition, within transport system sector, maritime transport
accounted 10 percent of emission in 2005. IMO expects emissions from international shipping
will increase by 3 percent to 7 percent between 2005 and 2050.

Carbon Dioxide which results from burning of fossil fuel is a well-known contributor to
the myriad environmental issue such as Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. There are
various effects from these environmental issues, such as the rising of the Earths temperature and
sea water level. Moreover, there are other factors surrounding the maritime industry such as basic
material used to build the ship, economic policies and politics that contributes to the rise of
environmental issues. To alter these phenomena to be more environmentally sustainable, we need
to analyse from the beginning the main source that leads to these problems until to establish the
management model for improved port operation

1.4

Objective of the study

The objective of this thesis are include to identify the emission for air pollution from ship
in port area, identify the emission for air pollution from ship in port area and tabulated the risk of
human health in near location port for sustainable.

1.5

Scopes of the Study

The following the scopes of the study of this thesis:

i.
ii.
iii.

1.6

Identify source of air quality that produce by vessel berthing in ports


Analyze and determine the level of the air quality sources from several type of vessel
Comparison from the data with other sources for estimation case

Significance of Study

This thesis will be useful to serve as a source of understanding and information on the
environmental impact assessment, thereby increasing the knowledge, skills and experience in the
field so that it can answer the problems that arise in the community about the environment
around the port; air pollution from ship berthing.

1.6

Conclusion

As conclusion, this research will carrying out the problem of the environment in port
operation. Besides, this research can be applied not only the selected port but also to others.
Hence, this research will help to minimize the factor impact of environment for sustainability,
which is focus for the health purpose.

1.7 Project Schedule

Figure 1.1: Gantt chart for semester 1


week

UGP 1

no

activity

define environment, impacts


and sustainability

literature review of air quality


as environment impact for
sustainability

investigate port operation


method

listing port operation that


implement sustainability

Propose method to manage the


impact of air quality in port

report writing

submission and presentation

10

11

12

13

14

15&16

Figure 1.2: Gantt chart for semester 2

UGP 2

week
no

activity

literatue review in data finding

searching and understanding


the data finding from the
authorities

sustainability concept

integrated the data for


prediction in the future
analysis overall findings

5
6

report analysis

submision and presentation

10

11

12

13

14

15&16