Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Second language acquisition

Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn a second


language, second language acquisition is often abbreviated by SLA also refers to the
scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. Second language refers to any
language learned in addition to a persons first language, although the concept is
named second language acquisition, it can also incorporate the learning of third,
fourth or subsequences language.
Stages
Second language acquisition can be divided up into five stages; preproduction, early
preproduction, speech emergency, intermediate bfluency, and advanced fluency.
The first stage is preproduction, also known as the silent period leaners at this stage
have a receptive vocabulary of up to 500 words. Other may be required to speak
from the start as part of a language course. For learners that to go through as silent
period. Learners at this stage can function at a level close to native speakers.
Comparisons with first-language acquisition
Adults who learn a second language differ from children learning their first
language a number of way one of the most striking of these is that very few adult
second-language learners reach the same competence as native speaker of that
langguage.when learners speech plateaus in this it is known as fossilization. Also.
When people learn a second language, the way they speak their first language
changes in subtitle ways. These changes can be with any aspect of language, from
pronunciation and syntax to gestures the learners make and the things they tend to
notice. For example, french speakers who spoke english as a second s=language
pronounced the /t/ sound in frenchh differently from monolingual french speakers.
This kind of change in pronunciation has been found.
There are three processes that influence the cretion of interlanguages:
-language transfer learners fall back on their mother tongue to help create their
language system.
-overgeneralization. Learners use rules from the second language in a way that
native speaker would not. For examples a learners may say i goed home
overgeneralizing the english rule os adding ed to create past tense verb forms.
-simplification. Learners use a highly simplified form of language, similar to speech
by children. This may be related to linguistic universal the concept of interlanguage
has become very widespread in SLA research, and is often a basc assumption made
by researchers.
Language transfer

One important difference between first language acquisition and second language
acquisition is taht the process of second language acquisition is influenced by
languages that the learner already knows. This influence is known as language
transfe.