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Safety BASICs

What are the hazards as


you approach
electrical equipment to
perform work?

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Safety BASICs

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Electrical Hazards
Shock
Arc-Flash

Heat
Fire

Arc-Blast

Pressure
Shrapnel
Sound
Example of an arcing fault

Safety BASICs

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Shock
Over 30,000 non-fatal electrical shock
accidents occur each year
Over 600 people die from electrocution each
year
Electrocution remains the fourth (4th) highest
cause of industrial fatalities
Most injuries and deaths could be avoided

Safety BASICs
Shock (Resistance Table)

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Safety BASICs

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Shock

(A) Touch Potential

(B) Step Potential

(C and D) Touch / Step Potential

Current passing through the heart and lungs is the most serious

Safety BASICs

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Shock
Human body resistance (hand to hand)
across the body is about 1000
Ohms Law: I = V / R (Amps.)
I = 480 volts / 1000
= 0.48 amps (480 mA)
The National Electrical Code considers 5
mA to be the safe upper limit for children
and adults.

Safety BASICs

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Arc-Flash
As much as 80% of all electrical injuries are
burns resulting from an arc-flash and
ignition of flammable clothing
Arc temperature can reach 35,000F - this is
four times hotter than the surface of the sun
Fatal burns can occur at distances over 10 ft.
Over 2000 people are admitted into burn
centers each year with severe electrical
burns

Electrical Arc
35,000 F

Molten Metal
Pressure Waves
Sound Waves

Copper Vapor:
Solid to Vapor
Expands by
67,000 times

Shrapnel
Hot Air-Rapid Expansion
Intense Light

Personnel Hazards Associated with


Arc Flash
Heat Burns & Ignition of Materials
Arc
temperature of 35,000 F
Molten metal,
copper vapor, heated air
Second Degree Burn Threshold :
80 C / 175 F (0.1 sec), 2nd degree burn

Third Degree Burn Threshold:


96 C / 205 F (0.1 sec), 3rd degree burn

Intense Light
Damage eyes cataracts

Personnel Hazards Associated with


Arc Flash
Pressures From Expansion of Metals & Air
Eardrum Rupture Threshold
720 lbs/ft2
Lung Damage - Threshold
1728 - 2160 lbs/ft2

Shrapnel
Flung Across Room or From Ladder/Bucket

IEEE/PCIC & NFPA 70E


Arc Flash Hazard

Arc Flash Hazard


Following are some of the tests
run by IEEE Ad Hoc Safety
Committee
All of the devices used for this
testing were applied according to
their listed ratings

Setup Area For Tests


#1 Through #4

Arc-Flash

Close-up of Test Area

Test No. 4

22.6 KA Symmetrical
Available Fault Current
@ 480V, 3 Phase

6 cycle STD
Set @ 6 cycle opening

640A OCPD
Non Current Limiting
with Short Time Delay

Fault Initiated on
Line Side of 30A
Fuse
30A RK-1
Current Limiting Fuse
Size 1 Starter

TEST 4

TEST 4

TEST 4

TEST 4

TEST 4

TEST 4

TEST 4

Results:
Test No. 4

22.6 KA Symmetrical
Available Fault Current
@ 480V, 3 Phase

Opened in
six cycles
No Current
Limitation

Fault Initiated on
Line Side of 30A
Fuse

640A OCPD
Non Current Limiting
with Short Time Delay

30A RK-1
Current Limiting Fuse
Size 1 Starter

Results: Test No.4


Sound

141.5 db @ 2 ft.

P1

T2

>2160 lbs/sq.ft

> 225 C /437 F


T3
50 C / 122 F

T1
> 225 C /
437 F

> Indicates Meter Pegged

Test No. 3

22.6 KA Symmetrical
Available Fault Current
@ 480V, 3 Phase

601A.
Class L
Current Limiting Fuse

Fault Initiated on
Line Side of 30A
Fuse

30A RK-1
Current Limiting Fuse

Size 1 Starter

TEST 3

TEST 3

TEST 3

TEST 3

Results:
Test No. 3
Cleared in 1/4 Cycle
Current-Limitation
Reduced Energy

Fault Initiated on
Line Side of 30A
Fuse

22.6 KA Symmetrical
Available Fault Current
@ 480V, 3 Phase

601A.
Class L
Current Limiting
Fuse

30A RK-1
Current Limiting Fuse

Size 1 Starter

Results: Test No.3


Sound

133 db @ 2 ft.

P1

T2
62 C / 143.6 F

504 lbs/sq.ft.

T3
(No Change
From Ambient)

T1
> 175 C/
347 F

> Indicates Meter Pegged

Test No. 1

22.6 KA Symmetrical
Available Fault Current
@ 480V, 3 Phase

601A.
Class L
Current Limiting
Fuse

30A RK-1
Current Limiting
Fuse

Fault Initiated on
Load Side of 30A
Fuse

Size 1 Starter

TEST 1

TEST 1 Close-up

TEST 1 Close-up

TEST 1 Close-up

TEST 1 Close-up

TEST 1 Close-up

22.6 KA Symmetrical
Available Fault Current
@ 480V, 3 Phase

Results:
Test No. 1

Class L Fuse
Did Not Open,
System was
Selectively
Coordinated

30 A RK-1 Fuse
Cleared Fault in
Less Than 1/4
Cycle

601A.
Class L
Current Limiting Fuse

30A RK-1
Current Limiting
Fuse
Size 1 Starter

Fault Initiated on
Load Side of 30A
Fuse

Results: Test No.1


Sound
(No Change
From Ambient)

T2
(No Change
From Ambient)

T3
(No Change
From Ambient)

P1
(No Change
From Ambient)

T1
(No Change
From Ambient)

Safety BASICs

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Current-Limitation - Arc-Energy Reduction


Available Fault Current

Reduced Fault Current

Non-Current Limiting

Current Limiting

Consider that:
Magnetic Force -- varies with the square of the Peak Current
Thermal Energy -- varies with the square of the RMS Current

Safety BASICsTM
Current-Limitation: Arc-Energy Reduction
Test 4

Test 3

Non-Current Limiting

Reduced Fault Current


via Current-Limitation

Test 1

Safety BASICs

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What are the hazards as you


approach
electrical equipment to
perform work?
Shock
Arc Flash
Arc Blast