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HSE STANDARD

MODULE 06
SCAFFOLDING AND
ACCESS

THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS


ONE
MODULE IN A SET
COMPRISING
HSE STANDARDS
FOR THE
BRUNEI SHELL JOINT
VENTURE COMPANIES

BSP-02-Standard-1644

Revision
3.1

Approved:
Document Author:

Mohd-Bayzuie B. Abd-Razaksidi, SCO/4


Mohd Hasyim Bin Abdullah, SCO/4x

BSP Scaffolding and Access

Module 06

Document Control
DOCUMENT TYPE
DOCUMENT OWNER
Standard
SCO/4
DOCUMENT REFERENCE
AUTHOR
TMS 1644
SCO/4x
KEY WORDS
Scaffolding, inspection, SCAFFTAG, procedure

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
Unclassified
APPROVED BY
SCO/4

Revision Record
REV
1.0
2.0
3.0

3.1

REVISION DESCRIPTION

DATE

st

1 Issue
2nd Issue
No material changes changed to newly assigned doct owner post transition
March 2001; converted from PageMaker to MS-Word; Updated to include details
on scaffolders job descriptions & capabilities at various levels
Incorporate recommendation from incident
2.8.8 change incorporating prior discussion between scaffold and requestor wrt
the number of ladder access required .

May 1997
June 2001

May 2003

Incorporate minor comments from BLNG-EME.

Distribution Control
Distribution of this document is controlled by the Document Owner. The document is made available
on the BSP Intranet> Homepage>Corporate>HSE> HSE Documents

Notice and Warning


Copyright 2001, Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad
This document is the property of Brunei Shell Petroleum Sendirian Berhad (BSP), KB3534, Negara
Brunei Darussalam. Circulation is restricted to BSP and its designated associates, contractors and
consultants. It must not be copied or used for any other purpose other than which it is supplied,
without the expressed written authority of BSP.
Except where provided for purposes of contractual requirements, BSP disclaims any responsibility or
liability for any use or misuse of the document by any person and makes no warranty as to the
accuracy or suitability of the information to any third party. Any misuse of the document is
redressable by BSP.
This module is one of a series produced by the Brunei Shell JV Companies, which represent minimum
acceptable HSE standards for a wide variety of operations. Individual operating procedures and/or
task specifications should reflect these minimum standards and should be consulted, where
appropriate, prior to start of work.
Comment and feedback from users of this module is encouraged, in order that the series may be
updated as appropriate to reflect current requirements.

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Module 06

Contents
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION...................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 2 REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................... 6
2.1
Scaffolder Personnel .................................................................................................................................. 6
2.1.1
Scaffolders............................................................................................................................................. 6
2.1.2
Personnel Records................................................................................................................................. 6
2.2

Requests for Scaffolding ............................................................................................................................ 7

2.3

Materials...................................................................................................................................................... 9

2.4
Design......................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.4.1
Design Requirements .......................................................................................................................... 10
2.4.2
Design Types....................................................................................................................................... 11
2.5

General Access Scaffold........................................................................................................................... 11

2.6

System Scaffold......................................................................................................................................... 13

2.7
Ancillary Equipment................................................................................................................................ 13
2.7.1
Gin Blocks........................................................................................................................................... 13
2.7.2
Safety Chairs ....................................................................................................................................... 13
2.7.3
Cradles................................................................................................................................................. 13
2.8
Tower Scaffolds ........................................................................................................................................ 14
2.8.1
Loading................................................................................................................................................ 14
2.8.2
Foundations ......................................................................................................................................... 14
2.8.3
Vertical and Horizontal Members ...................................................................................................... 15
2.8.4
Ties and Stability ................................................................................................................................ 15
2.8.5
Working Platforms.............................................................................................................................. 16
2.8.6
Guard Rails.......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.8.7
Toe Boards .......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.8.8
Access.................................................................................................................................................. 17
2.9
Activity Controls....................................................................................................................................... 17
2.9.1
Inspections........................................................................................................................................... 17
2.9.2
SCAFFTAG System ........................................................................................................................... 17
2.9.3
Handover ............................................................................................................................................. 18
2.9.4
Modifications ...................................................................................................................................... 18
2.9.5
Protection from Falls........................................................................................................................... 21
2.10
2.10.1
2.10.2
2.10.3

Working Over Water ........................................................................................................................... 21


Lifelines and Flotation Devices ...................................................................................................... 21
Standby Boats.................................................................................................................................. 21
Work during Hours of Darkness ..................................................................................................... 21

2.11
2.11.1
2.11.2
2.11.3
2.11.4

Ladders .................................................................................................................................................. 22
Securing a Ladder............................................................................................................................ 22
Safe Use of Ladders ........................................................................................................................ 23
Care and Maintenance..................................................................................................................... 24
Inspection and Colour Coding ........................................................................................................ 25

2.12
2.12.1
2.12.2
2.12.3
2.12.4
2.12.5

Power-operated Mobile Work Platforms .......................................................................................... 25


Operators ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Work Areas...................................................................................................................................... 26
Work Platforms ............................................................................................................................... 26
WP Controls .................................................................................................................................... 27
Control of WP Use .......................................................................................................................... 27

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2.12.6
2.12.7
2.12.8
2.12.8

Module 06

WP Hazards ..................................................................................................................................... 28
WP Operations................................................................................................................................. 28
Maintenance .................................................................................................................................... 29
Maintenance .................................................................................................................................... 30

REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................................ 31

APPENDIX 1 - EXAMPLE JOB SPECIFICATIONS .................................................. 32


1.1

Trainee Scaffolder .................................................................................................................................... 32

1.2

Basic Scaffolder ........................................................................................................................................ 32

1.3

Advanced Scaffolder ................................................................................................................................ 33

1.4

Scaffold Inspector..................................................................................................................................... 34

2.1

Scaffolds..................................................................................................................................................... 35

2.2

Towers ............................................................................................................................................................ 37

APPENDIX 3 - GLOSSARY OF TERMS ................................................................... 38


3.1

Types and Dimensions of Scaffolds ........................................................................................................ 38

3.2

Tubular Members and Beams ................................................................................................................ 38

3.3

Scaffold Couplers and Fittings................................................................................................................ 40

3.4

Other Terms in General Use ................................................................................................................... 40

APPENDIX 4 - CHECKLIST FOR EXAMINATION OF LADDERS........................... 42

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CHAPTER 1

Module 06

INTRODUCTION

In day to day operations, there are many occasions when otherwise inaccessible places or
equipment have to be reached to carry out work and it would be impossible to carry out some
construction and maintenance work without providing a suitable means of access.
Access equipment comes in a variety of types and is often the place from which work is carried
out and not just the means of gaining access to the work place. The simplest type is the
ladder which is often the cheapest and quickest way to get a job done. More complex is a
scaffold which can be constructed using conventional tube, fittings and boards, or by using
proprietary systems based on prefabricated frames. Another type is the powered mobile work
platform that is becoming a more and more common feature in activities such as the
maintenance of street lighting.
Regardless of the type of equipment and what it is used for, there are inherent risks
associated with it and it is essential that access systems are both provided and used safely.
The contents of this document address these risks and their application will ensure
appropriate controls are in place to ensure safe operations.
This standard covers all aspects of scaffolding and access, both onshore and offshore, and
follows the basic structure shown below:

the people involved

the materials used

design and construction

use of equipment

activity controls

special situations

Note:
Contractors wishing to use scaffolding for their own purposes, to facilitate painting works, etc. must
adhere to all regulations, specifications and protocols specified within this HSE Standard whenever
the work is performed on-site.

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CHAPTER 2 REQUIREMENTS
2.1 Scaffolder Personnel
2.1.1

Scaffolders
Only competent scaffolders employed by a scaffolding company on contract to BRUNEI SHELL
JV COMPANIES shall normally carry out scaffolding work on behalf of BRUNEI SHELL JV
COMPANIES.
Training shall be carried out to standards approved by BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES.
All personnel employed for the purpose of erecting, modifying or dismantling scaffolding on
BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES assets will belong to one of the categories listed in Table 1
which details the requirements for those personnel.
Exceptions to the above requirements, e.g. the erection of proprietary system scaffold by
JOB CATEGORY
Scaffold Inspector

Advanced Scaffolder

Basic Scaffolder

Trainee Scaffolder

QUALIFICATIONS
NVQ LEVEL-2 or
NVQ LEVEL-3
Certificate of Competency.
Additional Credit Unit AR-18
Certificate of Competency
(Inspection)
NVQ Level 3
Certificate of Competency
Levels 1-2-3
Plus two additional
Untis of Credit
NVQ Level 2
Certificates of Competency
Levels -1-2
Plus one additional
Unit of Credit
NVQ Level 1
Certificate of Competency Level-1
NVQ Registration

EXPERIENCE
Must have at least five years
Experience in the Scaffolding
Industry.

Minimum 12 months on-site


experience as a Basic Scaffolder
Level-2.
Working towards Level-3
Minimum 12 months on-site
Experience as a Basic Scaffodler
Level-1.
Working towards Level-2.
Minimum 6 months on-site
experience under the Supervision
of a Level-2 Scaffolder with a
Certificate Of Competency.
Working towards Level-1.

unqualified personnel, etc. are identified at the relevant places in the document.
Table 1 - Personnel Requirements
Outline Job Specifications for Scaffold Inspectors, Advanced Scaffolders, Basic Scaffolders and
Trainee Scaffolders and the requirements for supervision are contained in Appendix 1.
Note, the concession in the September 1995 version of this module whereby scaffolders may
have been assessed for competence by a BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES Scaffold Advisor or a
BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES-approved independent assessor has been withdrawn.
Scaffolders assessed and appointed under the concession may continue to carry out
scaffolding activities until December 1997 but from 1st January 1998, compliance with the
requirements above shall be mandatory.

2.1.2

Personnel Records
Personnel records of scaffolders shall be maintained and kept up to date by the contractor and
be available for inspection by BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES Contract Holders. They shall
show:
Full Name of Employee
Date of Birth
Job Category

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Training Record (original certificates or certified copies thereof)


NVQ Registration Number
Brunei IC or Passport Number
Offshore Pass Number (if relevant)

2.2 Requests for Scaffolding


A BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES engineer or relevant operating authority shall raise requests
for erection, modification or dismantling of scaffolding. Requests for scaffolding works shall be
made on a Scaffold Request Sheet (Figure 1) and will accompany any Engineering Work Order.
Scaffold Request Sheets are available from the HSE forms warehouse. Note that these request
sheets are not used in BLNG, as scaffolding is organized though the electronic Maintenance
Management System, however, a safety certificate is also required for scaffold erection within all
BLNG live process, utilities, storage and jetty areas.
Note: Contractors wishing to use scaffolding for their own purposes, e.g. to facilitate painting
works on a drilling tender, are expected to follow a similar process.
The requester shall clearly describe the intended purpose, use and loading requirements of the
scaffold or proposed modification and the Scaffold Request Sheet is the basis of the agreement
between BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES and the Scaffolding Contractor in this respect.
When a scaffold of unusual or particular design is required and one of the standard scaffold
types (see Table 3) is not appropriate, the requester shall ensure complete and specific details of
the BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES user requirements are entered on the Scaffold Request. In
such cases, sufficient lead-time shall be given to the Scaffolding Contractor for preparation of a
suitable design.

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Figure 1 - Scaffold Request Sheet

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2.3 Materials
In all cases access equipment, whether tube and fittings, proprietary systems or special
equipment, shall be suitable in all respects for its intended application. For the majority of
applications this will entail the use of steel tube, fittings and board in accordance with Table 2.
However, there are certain circumstances where the use of proprietary systems manufactured
from steel or aluminium or the use of special equipment is indicated.
Typical indications for the use of such systems and equipment are general access purposes for
inspection or cleaning of street lights, high ceilings, guttering, etc. where the access is required
for a short period only or is required to be easily moveable and there is a firm footing. In these
circumstances, the use of proprietary systems or special equipment may show substantial cost
savings over conventional steel tube.
Before a decision is made on the type of access equipment to use, the nature of the intended
task must be fully examined and the compatibility of the intended task and its location with the
equipment application must be assessed.

Material

Table 2 - Scaffold Material Standards


Standard
Additional Requirements

Steel tube

BS 1139
Parts 1 and 2

Fittings

BS 1139
Parts 1 and 2

Boards

BS 2482

Only galvanised tube to be used. Used tubes to


be regularly inspected and cleaned. All tubes to
be checked before use for corrosion and general
condition. Defective tubes to be discarded. Buttwelded tubes may be used on condition that the
welding has been carried out to an approved
procedure.
All fittings to be examined before use for damage
and wear. Damaged or worn fittings to be
discarded. No heat to be applied to fittings.
Moving parts to be lubricated.
To be clean and free of nails, free of warping and
significant cracks. Not to be painted.

When scaffolding is erected in areas where high levels of radiated heat are unavoidably
encountered, e.g. where high temperature pipework is in close proximity, timber scaffold boards
may be exposed to the risk of burning or charring. In these circumstances, the use of pressed
steel staging boards is an acceptable alternative.
Note, aluminium tubes, fittings, components and proprietary system frames are vulnerable in
the case of fire and are potentially spark producing. If they are to be used where flammable
atmospheres could be present during normal operations, or within the fenced boundaries of the
BLNG site, their use shall be controlled under the work permit system and precautions specified
to ensure a safe atmosphere is provided. If a safe atmosphere cannot be reliably provided,
equipment manufactured from steel shall be used.

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2.4 Design
2.4.1

Design Requirements
The access and working scaffolds listed in Table 3, with their construction criteria, shall be
designed by the contractor in accordance with appropriate British Standards.
All other scaffolds, and all scaffolds which are the subject of a specific user request outside
the pre-specified format of Table 3, shall be designed by the contractor to the requirements set
out in BS 5973.
Table 3 - Loads and Dimensions for Tube and Fittings Scaffold
Use of scaffold

Scaffold
Loading
per m2

Very light duty


Independent

Inspection,
access and
painting

75 kg

Light duty
Independent

Power cleaning,
painting, light
engineering

General
purpose
independent

Type of
Scaffold

Maximum
number of
working
Platforms
1 working
platform

Maximum
spacing
between
Standards
2.7 m

1 man +tools. No materials

150 kg

2 working
platforms

2.4 m

2 men + tools. No materials

Light
engineering,
e.g. welding
or electrical

200 kg

2 working
platforms +
1 at very
light duty

2.1 m

2 men + 175 kg of materials

Heavy duty
Independent

Heavy
engineering,
e.g. large
pipework or
structural

250 kg

2 working
platforms +
1 at very
light duty

2.0 m

2 men + 250 kg of materials

Special purpose

To be stated on design drawings

Scaffolding and Access - Rev 3.1

Typical load examples per


bay

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2.4.2

Module 06

Design Types
In all cases, the following scaffold types are to be subject to specific design by the contractor,
which BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES may require to approve in detail prior to erection:

Offshore overside scaffolds.

Access scaffolds above 50m in height.

Hanging or slung scaffolds.

External freestanding scaffolds.

Scaffolds required to withstand wind speeds >39m/s.

Falsework and support scaffolds.

Extra heavy duty scaffolds in excess of the heavy duty specification in Table 3.

Loading platforms for loads exceeding 2.5 kN/m2.

Lifting gantries.

Public access scaffolds

Temporary roofs.

Note:

Hanging or slung scaffolds for onshore application do not normally provide the facility
of conducting a lightning strike to earth and during the design of such scaffolds,
consideration shall be given to suitable earthing arrangements.
For further
information and details of earthing methods, refer to HSE Standard Module 13 General Electrical Safety and BS 6651 - Code of practice for protection of structures
against lightning.

For scaffold of the types listed above, the contractor shall produce a work specification
together with all the necessary drawings for the proposed scaffold work, which BRUNEI
SHELL JV COMPANIES may require to approve prior to erection.

2.5 General Access Scaffold


General access, or conventional, scaffolding is constructed using steel tube, fittings and boards.
The main elements of conventional scaffolding are shown in Figure 2 on the following page.
Construction requirements are as follows:
Foundations shall be adequate for the load imposed at each standard and for the weight of the
whole scaffold. Sole boards shall be used under steel base plates if there is any chance of the
plate otherwise sinking into the surface or where baseplates are unavoidably located over
grating.
Standards shall be vertical and generally pitched on steel base plates not more than 2.7 m
apart. Joints shall be staggered on adjacent standards so that they do not occur on the same
lift.
Ledgers shall be horizontal, placed inside the standards and clamped to them with right angle
couplers. Joints shall be staggered so that in adjacent ledgers they do not occur in the same
bay.
Transoms shall be spaced at no more than 1.5 m. They should be extended inwards and
outwards as necessary to create the necessary work platform support.
Ties shall be provided on all scaffolds to prevent inward and outward movement. Frequency of
ties shall be to BS 5973 and they shall be evenly spread. The type of tie will depend on the
tying requirements and the nature of the structure. Only load bearing fittings shall be used for
ties.
Bracing shall be installed on all scaffolds to ensure rigidity. The following minimum
requirements apply:

Bracing shall be fixed as near as possible to node points.

Bracing shall be erected progressively with the scaffold.

Bracing must be at an angle of 45, or as near to that angle as possible.

All bracing shall start from base plate level.

Only load bearing fittings shall be used.

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Boards shall be securely fastened and be supported to meet the requirements set out in Table 4.

Nominal Thickness of
Board (mm)
38
50
63

Table 4 - Maximum Span of Scaffold Boards


Minimum Overhang
Maximum Span Between
Supports (m)
(mm)
1.5
2.6
3.25

50
50
50

Maximum Overhang
(mm)
150
200
250

Guardrails and Toeboards shall be fitted to all platforms of 2 m or higher. The upper guardrail
shall be positioned at a level between 0.9 m and 1.15 m above the platform. Toeboards shall be
at least 150 mm high, and the space between the toeboard and the guardrail shall not exceed
0.75 m
Tube end-caps are recommended for all tubes on erected scaffolds where personnel may come
into contact with tube ends and risk injury.

Figure 2 - Typical Independent Tied Scaffold

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2.6 System Scaffold


System scaffolds are proprietary systems fabricated from steel or aluminium alloy and comprise
a complete set of unique components capable of assembly into a scaffold structure without the
use of any other equipment.
Using such systems, structures under 3.0 m in height and not exceeding 18 m3 in volume may
be erected by personnel not qualified as scaffolders. They are not be subject to the SCAFFTAG
system (see 2.8.2)
Structures higher than 3.0 m or exceeding 18 m3 in volume shall be erected by qualified
scaffolders and shall be subject to the SCAFFTAG system. In the case of wireline operations
access, structures may be erected and inspected by Advanced Scaffolders with at least one year
experience in that category.
Personnel erecting system scaffold shall be able to read and fully understand the
manufacturers instructions and shall follow these instructions at all times. If instructions are
not available, work shall not proceed unless under the supervision of a qualified person.
When using system scaffold, particular attention is drawn to the following:
Instructions shall be obtained from the system manufacturer when deviations outside the
normal system parameters are required, or when sheetings or fans are added, or other changes
made, which will affect the structural loading on the system. When manufacturers instructions
are not available, deviations shall be the subject of specific designs which BRUNEI SHELL JV
COMPANIES may require to approve prior to erection.
Many vertical joints have a minimum tensile capacity and may not be staggered.
NOTE: On occasion, conventional scaffolding and system scaffolds are used in combination,
with one type interconnected with the other. In such cases, the permissible loading shall be
that of the lesser-rated structure, in most cases the load rating of the conventional scaffolding.

2.7 Ancillary Equipment


2.7.1

Gin Blocks
Gin blocks shall be used to lift materials only when the load to be lifted does not exceed 50kg.
Gin blocks shall never be used for personnel transfer.
A gin block shall be mounted on a cantilever tube projecting outwards from the scaffold at a
maximum distance that shall not exceed 750mm. This supporting tube shall be attached to
two standards.
Ring type gin blocks should be used when possible. If a hook type gin block is used it should
be wire lashed to the supporting tube and not hooked into a tube or into a fitting, and the
mouth of the hook is to be securely moused. A coupler should be placed on either side of the
ring or lashing to prevent movement (see Figure 3).
Ropes shall be of a size compatible with the gin block in use, and shall comply with
appropriate British Standards (see References).

2.7.2

Safety Chairs
Safety chairs (Boatswains Chairs) shall be used only where it is impracticable to use a
suspended or other form of scaffold. Safety chairs must comply with BS 2830 and a safety
factor of at least 4 is required.

2.7.3

Cradles
Cradles (or suspended scaffolds) can be raised or lowered on ropes or wires by means of
manual or powered lifting appliances. Where powered lifting devices are required to be used,
the user shall discuss with the operating authority, e.g. the Asset Holders representative, the
suitability of the proposed equipment for the intended area. Cradles shall comply with BS
5974.

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Figure 3 - Gin Block Fixings

2.8 Tower Scaffolds


Tower scaffolds are 4-legged structures which may be tied to a building or be free-standing
Free-standing towers may have vertically adjustable legs and may be mounted on castors to
make them mobile.
The various types of tower scaffold are grouped as follows:

prefabricated from aluminium alloy

prefabricated from steel

systems scaffolds made from steel

tube and fittings made from steel or aluminium

The different types of prefabricated tower available are erected in different ways and users shall
ensure that adequate manufacturers instruction manuals or guides are available before
construction of a tower commences. Regardless of the type of tower to be erected, care shall be
taken not to impede access and egress routes in the vicinity of the tower.
Simple tower scaffolds of the prefabricated or system type may be erected, altered or dismantled
by persons not qualified as scaffolders and do not need to be inspected and certified under the
SCAFFTAG system (see section 2.9.2). However, any tower structure more extensive and
sophisticated than a simple, 4-legged layout or a tower constructed from tube and fittings shall
only be erected by qualified scaffolders and shall be subject to the SCAFFTAG system.

2.8.1

Loading
For prefabricated and systems towers the manufacturers instructions will specify the
maximum permitted loads on the structure and these load restrictions shall be taken into
account when selecting the type to be used. For towers constructed from tube and fittings,
the maximum loading is 75 kg/m2.

2.8.2

Foundations
The tower foundation shall be capable of sustaining the total load at all times during its
erection and use so that a stable condition is maintained. Towers shall not be erected directly
on recently made up ground or on lightweight manhole covers and timber spanning
excavations. The legs of static towers shall always rest on metal baseplates or castors and the
load spread by timber soleplates at least 225 mm wide by 40 mm deep and long enough to
ensure no undue ground settlement.
Castors on mobile towers shall be at least 125 mm in diameter and shall be stamped with
their maximum permissible loading. They shall be capable of being locked in position so the
tower cannot move while in use. Castors shall only be used on hard level surfaces or on
temporarily laid level bases or runways.

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Adjustable legs may be needed to ensure that the tower is vertical. These legs shall not be
used to extend the height of the tower and the maximum extension specified by the
manufacturer shall not be exceeded. Adjustable legs and castors shall be prevented from
falling out of the vertical tubes and if locking devices are used, they shall be correctly engaged.

2.8.3

Vertical and Horizontal Members


The vertical members on system towers are normally joined by socket and spigot connections.
These shall be properly seated and any locking pins correctly engaged. Vertical members shall
be maintained upright to prevent critical effects on stability and structural stresses.
Connections shall be properly tightened, latching hooks correctly seated and fittings correctly
applied. All components shall be examined before use for damage that might adversely affect
their load carrying ability. Prefabricated components shall be checked for broken welds,
cracks, looseness of fit or other damage, and where members are connected by latching hooks,
these shall be examined to ensure that the spring and release trigger are operating correctly.
Non-compatible components shall not be used.
All towers, regardless of the type of component used, shall be adequately braced in all three
dimensions. For prefabricated towers, this bracing may be provided by the interlocking
arrangements of the frames but as each type may have different bracing arrangements,
reference to manufacturers instructions shall always be made. Towers constructed from tube
and fittings need facade bracing on all four sides and plan bracing, and a similar approach
shall be adopted for systems towers unless the manufacturer specifies otherwise.

2.8.4

Ties and Stability


Aluminium Alloy Prefabricated Towers
Alloy towers are very light in weight and their centre of gravity is near the top platform level.
Care shall therefore be taken to ensure their stability and that they cannot overturn during
use or be blown over when left unattended.
Manufacturers instructions normally specify either the maximum height to which the tower
should be erected or the maximum height to smallest base ratio for free-standing towers.
These limitations shall always be followed and in the absence of such information, the ratios
shown in Figure 4 shall apply.
Stabilisers or outriggers may be used to increase the effective base dimension so that more
sections may be added to increase the tower height. Stabilisers (which have pad feet) and
outriggers (which have castors) shall be rigidly fitted to the tower and shall be in firm contact
with the ground or base. Adjustable stabilisers/outriggers shall be positioned to make the
effective base dimension as large as possible. Stabilisers shall normally only be used on static
towers; if they are used on a mobile tower, they need to be raised slightly before moving the
tower or alternatively, the tower reduced to its free-standing height. Outriggers need plan
braces, as specified by the manufacturer. Where scaffold tubes are used as rakers, the foot of
each raker shall be tied back to the tower to ensure that the raker cannot slip.
Wherever possible, alloy towers shall be securely tied to the structure they serve. Ties shall be
connected at, or adjacent to, positions where standards join horizontal members and care
shall be taken to ensure that the ties restrain the tower from moving in any direction. Where
the tower cannot be tied to a structure, the use of guy ropes, ground anchors and ballast
weights shall be considered.
Before a mobile tower is moved, its path shall be checked for ground obstructions, overhead
power lines, holes and soft areas. No personnel or materials shall be on the tower during
movement and when the movement is complete, the tower shall be checked for verticality and
the castors locked.
Steel Towers
The requirements for alloy towers also apply to steel towers but stability considerations differ
because of the greater weight of steel. For prefabricated steel towers, manufacturers
instructions shall be followed whereas for tube and fittings towers using standard tube, the
free-standing height to smallest base ratios shown in Table 5 shall be applied.
Table 5 - Height to Smallest Base Ratios for Free-Standing Steel Towers
Tower Type
Internal
External
Static
4:1
3.5:1
Mobile
3.5:1
3:1

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Module 06

Working Platforms
Platforms shall be at least 600 mm wide; full details of minimum widths for various types of
use are shown in Table 6. Working platforms may be made from various materials such as
platform boards, scaffold boards or stagings. They shall be examined before use and
prevented from tipping or sliding by being properly supported, of sufficient length and by the
use of cleats on the underside, or by the design of the system. Where 38 mm or 63 mm timber
scaffold boards are used, they shall be supported at least every 1.5 m or 3.2 m respectively.
Loads shall be evenly distributed on platforms.

Purpose

Table 6 - Working Platform Widths


Minimum width

Working platform only (no deposit of


materials)
Passage of materials
Deposit of materials (a 430 mm
passageway must be maintained)

600 mm

Practical widths using 225 mm


nominal width boards
3 boards

600 mm
800 mm

3 boards
4 boards

Scaffold boards, stagings or platform boards shall be used; loose laid plywood sheets are not
permitted.
Where platform boards are used, any trapdoor or hatch in the platform shall be closed while
the platform is in use and any latching hooks connecting the platform board to the tower shall
be seated properly.

2.8.6

Guard Rails
Tower platforms from which a person could fall more than 2 m shall be fitted with guard rails
between 1 m and 1.2 m above the platform level.

2.8.7

Toe Boards
Toe boards are required on all working platforms, gangways or runs from which a person or
materials could fall more than 2 m. Toe boards shall normally be placed inside the standards,
shall be fixed to prevent movement and shall be at least 150 mm high. The gap between toe
board and guard rail shall not exceed 750 mm.
Figure 4 - Height to Smallest Base Ratios

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Figure 5 - Tower Access

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2.8.8

Module 06

Access
The platform shall have a safe means of access which shall always be on the narrowest side of
the tower. Access may be achieved in the following ways:

By vertical ladders attached internally to the narrow side (see Figure 5) Clear hand and
foot holds shall be provided, by blocking pieces if necessary. Where vertical ladders rise
more than 9 m, an intermediate landing shall be provided.

By internal stairways or inclined ladders.

By ladder sections integral with the frame members. These are to be climbed from inside
the tower. Rungs shall be no more than 300 mm apart and the stiles no more than 500
mm apart.

Climbing the tower by using the horizontal members is not permitted.


With a prefabricated tower, access to a platform made of scaffold boards is difficult when the
tower is climbed from the inside. Platform boards incorporating a trapdoor or hatch are
therefore preferred. With tube and fittings towers, scaffold boards may be used and the
platform constructed so that there is a permanent access opening adjacent to the ladder. This
opening shall be as small as possible to allow safe access and provided there is adequate
support, a loose cover may be used to protect the opening while people are on the platform.
With a tube and fittings steel tower, the ladder shall, where possible, be lashed to the inside.
If it has to be lashed to the outside, the access opening in the guard rail shall be protected by
a hinged section or some other equally effective means. With all other towers, the ladder shall
be fixed on the inside.
Ladders shall never be placed on the platform to extend the height of the tower, nor shall they
be leaned against the side of a tower.
Tools and heavy loads shall not be carried but hauled up or lowered down by a person on the
platform within the confines of the tower.
Note:
The scaffolder shall discuss with the requestor (user) to determine the number and type of
access required prior to the erectiion of scaffold.

2.9 Activity Controls


2.9.1

Inspections
It shall be the responsibility of the Scaffolding Contractor to inspect, record and maintain
records of scaffolding and related equipment. BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES retain the right
to audit scaffold and equipment inspection reports.
Inspections shall be carried out by Scaffold Inspectors who will either accept the scaffold or
reject it and detail deficiencies to be corrected. In either case, the SCAFFTAG system will be
used to visually indicate the result of inspection.
Inspections of scaffolds in regular service shall take place every 7 days, i.e. a scaffold approved
for use on a Monday must be reinspected and recertified each subsequent Monday, or
immediately after severe or adverse weather. Both copies of the SCAFFTAG inserts shall be
signed and dated after each inspection.

2.9.2

SCAFFTAG System
SCAFFTAGs allow an immediate visual indication of the condition of a scaffold structure (see
Figure 7).
The system comprises:

A holder which fits over a scaffold tube and displays DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD in red on
a white background.

Insert for the holder, one side white on green to indicate, when showing, that the scaffold
is certified for use and giving details, the other side black on yellow to indicate, when
showing, that the scaffold is under inspection and must not be used. An exact duplicate
of the insert is retained in a SCAFFTAG rack in an appropriate location, e.g. Authorities
Office, Control Room, etc.

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NOTE: The only person authorised to fix or change a SCAFFTAG is a Scaffold Inspector
appointed by the Scaffolding Contractor. Removal of a SCAFFTAG may be carried out
by the Performing Authority where he is of the opinion that a scaffold is unsuitable for
its intended application, in which case he shall remove the insert to display the DO
NOT USE SCAFFOLD message and request the Scaffolding Contractor and/or
Inspector to rectify/recertify the scaffold. A SCAFFTAG may also be removed by any
person required to work off a scaffold which he considers unsafe; in such a case, the
person removing the tag should immediately inform his supervisor for remedial action
to be taken.

2.9.3

Handover
The Handover Procedure flowchart shown in Figure 6 shows graphically the responsibilities of
the Scaffolding Contractor and Scaffold Inspector.

2.9.4

Modifications
Modifications to SCAFFTAG-certified scaffolds shall be undertaken only by a BRUNEI SHELL
JV COMPANIES-approved scaffolding contractor with the authority of the worksite supervisor.
After a modification has been made, inspection and recertification shall be carried out.
If unauthorised modifications are observed, they shall be reported to the worksite supervisor
and the insert removed from the SCAFFTAG holder to reveal the DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD
warning.

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Figure 6 - Handover Procedure

SCAFFOLD CONTRACTOR

SCAFFOLD INSPECTOR

Fit SCAFFTAG holders to


scaffold at access points
showing
DO NOT USE

Complete green side of two


SCAFFTAGS for each holder
and file in Control Room/Site
Office with yellow side out

Completed scaffold

Inform authorised requester of


scaffold completion

Rectification work

Inspect scaffold

No

Scaffold
accepted

Yes

SCAFFTAG yellow sides signed


and dated
2

SCAFFTAG remains
in Control Room/Site
Office (green side out)

SCAFFTAG placed
in holder on scaffold
(green side out)

WEEKLY

No

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Scaffold
accepted

Yes

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Figure 7 - SCAFFTAG System

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2.9.5

Module 06

Protection from Falls


There are many activities which require riggers and scaffolders to work in positions where it is
reasonably foreseeable that they may fall. In all such cases, suitable fall arrest or prevention
devices must be worn. It is strongly recommended that whenever it is necessary to use a fall
arrest or prevention device, it is used in conjunction with a full body, parachute type harness.
The use of single waistbelt type harnesses is not recommended.
For detailed information on fall arrest and prevention devices and harnesses, refer to HSE
Standard Module 02 - Personal Protective Equipment.

2.10 Working Over Water


When scaffolding personnel are exposed to the possibility of falling into water, they are
considered to be "working over water". This is obvious when their work location is offshore,
either underneath or over the side of a structure, but can also apply onshore at harbour or river
locations.

2.10.1 Lifelines and Flotation Devices


All personnel engaged in the erection, modification or demolition of scaffolding which requires
working over water must wear a flotation device and a fall arrest or prevention device.
The harness is to be a full body parachute type equipped with a single tail type harness and
used with an inertia reel. The use of single belt type harness is not recommended. At least
one member of the scaffold team must at all times be in radio contact with a control point
where the work is taking place.
Personnel engaged in abseiling operations must conform fully with previously approved safe
operating procedures, must wear a flotation device and be in visual contact with the Team
Leader. The Team Leader must remain in attendance at the abseiling operations at all times
and be in radio contact with a control point.

2.10.2 Standby Boats


In all cases of overside scaffolding or abseiling work offshore, a standby boat shall be
nominated to be the first response vessel. The standby boat shall remain in general
attendance and not engage in any duties which would interfere with its ability to respond and
be capable of performing rescue duties. The standby boat must be capable of responding and
to render assistance within:
10 minutes

for overside scaffolding operations where the scaffolders are wearing and
using full body harness and single tail safety lines.
NOTE:

30 minutes

a 10 minute response time means, in effect, a dedicated vessel


stationed in the immediate vicinity at all times while work is in
progress.

for overside abseiling operations where the abseiling work conforms fully
with a previously approved safe operating procedure.

The standby boat may be the dedicated area standby vessel nominated by Services Transport
and Logistics Department (STL) or alternatively may be another craft nominated by STL.
Standby vessels which meet the above criteria will satisfy the Permit to Work Abseiling
Certificate requirement for a safety boat.

2.10.3 Work during Hours of Darkness


Overside abseiling or erection and/or demolition of scaffolding during the hours of darkness is
only permitted in cases of extreme urgency and when no other practicable alternative can be
identified. In this context, financial expediency is not considered sufficient justification.
The worksite and the area of water below must be properly illuminated and offshore a standby
boat must be nominated and able to render immediate assistance.
Overside work during the hours of darkness which is carried out from properly erected and
certified scaffold, and where the workplace and the area of water below is properly illuminated,
is not restricted.

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2.11 Ladders
A ladder is a simple, portable, versatile and relatively inexpensive piece of equipment which may
either be used to gain access to a workplace or may itself be the workplace. Various types of
ladder are available and they may be made of wood, steel, aluminium alloy or fibreglass.
There are three classes of wooden ladder, with only Class 1 ladders suitable for industrial use.
From July 1997, all new wooden ladders purchased for or on behalf of BRUNEI SHELL JV
COMPANIES shall be Class 1 and from January 2000, the only wooden ladders permitted for
industrial use at BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES locations shall be Class 1.
Note: aluminium ladders and their components are potentially spark producing and their use
in hazardous areas is at the discretion of Asset Holders. If they are to be used where
flammable atmospheres could be present, their use shall be controlled under the work
permit system and precautions specified to ensure a safe atmosphere is provided. If a
safe atmosphere cannot be reliably provided, ladders of different materials shall be used.
For use of scaffold ladders at BLNG, refer to BLNG Specific HSE Module (HSEQ-209)
A working platform, or staging, is inherently safer than a ladder and often ensures that work is
done more efficiently and quickly. Other factors which have a bearing on the appropriateness of
a ladder for doing work include:

whether the ladder can be securely fixed to prevent slipping outwards or sideways

the conditions at the worksite, e.g. exposure, weather, movement of people or vehicles

whether the user has a safe hand and foothold and is close enough to the work

whether the ladder is so long or flexible that sway or vibration could cause loss of balance

the ability, training and experience of the user

the strength, surface condition and type of structure against which the ladder is to rest

the nature of the work, the tools to be used and the weight of equipment involved

2.11.1 Securing a Ladder


The foot of the ladder shall be supported on a firm and level surface and shall not rest either
on loose material, or on other equipment to gain additional height. Attachments for leveling
the feet on sloping surfaces shall be properly fixed and used. At no time shall the bottom rung
of the ladder be placed so that the total weight is carried on the rung; only the stiles are
designed for this purpose.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the ladder cannot slip and wherever practicable, the top
shall be securely fixed. Slip may be prevented by the use of a lashing, strap or proprietary clip
secured to both stiles (see Figure 8) or where suitable by equipment such as tie restraining
straps or tensioned guy ropes. On slippery floor surfaces, special care shall be taken to
prevent the foot of the ladder from moving.
A ladder may be fitted with a proprietary spreader arm provided that:

the ladder is in good condition

the ladder is of suitable quality for industrial use

the ladder is fitted with non-slip feet

the inclination of the ladder conforms with the one out for four up rule (see Figure 8)

If the surface on which the foot of the ladder rests is not firm and level and does not provide
adequate purchase for the non-slip feet, additional precautions shall be taken to prevent
outward movement at the foot of the ladder.
The head of the ladder shall rest against a solid surface capable of withstanding the imposed
loads. Where the surface cannot stand such loads, equipment such as ladder stays shall be
supplied and used.
Where securing at the top is impracticable, arrangements shall be made to prevent the ladder
from slipping outwards or sideways. These arrangements include fixed blocks or cleats,
sandbags or stakes driven into the ground and are in addition to pads, caps or sleeves which
are generally available.
Where fixing the ladder at the top and foot is impracticable, a person shall be stationed at the
foot with each hand gripping a stile and one foot on the bottom rung to prevent slipping. Note,
however, that this is only effective with ladders up to 5 m in length.

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Figure 8 - Positioning and Security of a Ladder

2.11.2 Safe Use of Ladders


Leaning Ladders
Wherever practicable, a ladder shall be positioned so that the stepping off rung is level with
the platform against which it rests (see above). A ladder shall extend to a height of at least
1.05 m above the landing place, or above the highest rung on which the user has to stand,
unless there is a suitable handhold to provide equivalent support.
The ladder shall be placed at a suitable angle, ideally at 75o to the horizontal, i.e. 1 m out for
every 4 m in height, known as the one out for four up rule. The user shall face the ladder
when climbing or descending. Ladders more than 4 m in length shall be braced at
intermediate points to prevent sagging.
A ladder shall be used only for the load and purpose for which it is designed. For example, a
ladder shall not have scaffold boards laid on its rungs and shall not be used as an upright of a
ladder scaffold unless it is a special heavy duty ladder capable of carrying the loads imposed.
Only one person at a time shall be on a ladder.
A ladder with wire reinforced stiles or rungs shall have the reinforcement on the underside
when in use. Alloy ladders, ladders with metal reinforcement and wet ladders shall not be
used where any electrical hazard exists.

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Footwear shall be clean, i.e. no mud, oil or grease on the soles, before any attempt is made to
use a ladder. Where ladders become contaminated they shall be taken out of service and
cleaned. There shall be sufficient space behind rungs to provide a proper footing.
The user of a ladder shall always ensure that both hands are free when climbing or
descending. Light tools shall be carried in a belt holster or shoulder bag, other tools and
materials shall be raised or lowered on a rope.
Extension Ladders
Sections of extension ladders shall overlap by the following minimum amounts:

up to 5 m closed length

- 11/2 rungs

between 5 m and 6 m

- 21/2 rungs

over 6 m closed length

- 31/2 rungs

The user shall raise and lower the ladder from the base and ensure that the hooks are
properly engaged. The rung 1.05 m from the top of a single section or an extension ladder is
the highest to be used for climbing.
Long Ladders
Ladders greater than 11 m in length are extremely difficult to handle and careful consideration
shall be given to the work location, the type of work and the physical efforts necessary before
deciding to use a long ladder. Slipping or sliding of a long ladder cannot be prevented by a
single person footing the ladder and other safe methods such as guying or bracing shall be
employed.
Step Ladders
Step ladders and trestles are not designed to take side loads and imposing side loads shall
therefore be avoided. Step ladders and trestles shall be spread to their full extent, properly
leveled for stability and placed at right angles to the work, on a level surface. Work shall not
be carried out from the top platform of a step ladder, unless a handhold extension is a design
feature of the ladder, and work which requires overreaching shall be avoided. The rear parts
of a step ladder shall not be used for foot support.
Step ladders are prevented from spreading too far by means of stays, chains or cords. These
shall be of sufficient and equal length, kept in good order and renewed if found to be defective.
Only one person shall be on a step ladder at any one time and if steps are used in a doorway,
the door shall be firmly wedged open.
Trestles
Trestles are made with a swing back similar to step ladders but both halves have heavy cross
bearers to support a working platform. Platforms should be made of lightweight staging and
access to them provided by means of a step ladder.
Roof Ladders
There are two types of roof ladder, described as follows:

single section timber or aluminium, fitted at the top with a ridge iron used to pass over
the roof ridge tile to give support. The top should be fitted with a pair of wheels so that
the ladder may be pushed more easily up the roof.

timber or aluminium sections that can be socketed and locked together so that longer
slopes can be tackled. This type is also fitted with a ridge iron.

Pads of resilient material shall be fitted to the underside of roof ladders to minimise damage to
the roofing material and prevent sudden movement.
Note:

it is essential that the ridge hook is properly positioned over the roof ridge so that it is
supported on the opposite slope and that ladders are of sufficient length for the slope
involved. Sections must be correctly engaged.

2.11.3 Care and Maintenance


All types of ladder shall be inspected before being put into service and only ladders which have
a current colour code marking shall be used (see sub-section 2.11.4 below).
Ladders shall be treated carefully and not dropped or jarred. Timber ladders receiving a heavy
blow may suffer compression damage, distortion, loosened rungs or cracked stiles.

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Ladders shall be stored in easily accessible areas and preferably on purpose-built racks which
will prevent sagging. Ladders may be hung on their stiles with sufficient support points
provided to prevent sagging; they shall not be hung from the rungs. Storage areas should give
weather protection and be well ventilated.
Ladders carried on vehicles shall be properly supported to prevent sagging and tied to support
points to minimise rubbing and the effects of road shock. Other equipment shall be loaded
carefully to prevent shock and abrasion.
Timber ladders may be treated with a transparent non-conductive finish such as clear
preservative or varnish but not with paint. Aluminium ladders may be given a proprietary
protective coating if they are to be exposed to the effects of strong acids, alkalis or corrosive
substances.
After use, ladders shall be inspected for damage before being returned to storage. Any ladder
suspected of being damaged shall be taken out of service, a thorough examination carried out
and appropriate action taken to either arrange repair by a competent person or consign it to
scrap.

2.11.4 Inspection and Colour Coding


All ladders shall have a means of individual identification and owners of ladders shall keep
and maintain a register of their ladders.
All ladders used at BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES locations shall be periodically inspected
and colour coded using the same procedure as for lifting equipment. This procedure is
described in the document BSP Procedures for In-Service Inspection and Certification of
Lifting Equipment Owned and Operated by BSP and Its Contractors, commonly referred to as
the PLI. To satisfy the intent of the PLI, ladders shall be examined every 6 months by a
competent person . This examination shall include checking rungs, treads, crossbars and
stiles for defects (especially the presence of compression creases in timber), rung to stile
connections, ropes, cables and all fittings, locks, wheels, pulleys, rivets, screws and hinges. A
suggested checklist of examination items is set out in Appendix 4.
Ladders which are in acceptable condition shall be passed fit for use and given a current
colour code (see HSE Standard Module 28 - Safety Signs and Colour Codes for details of the
four colour coding system used). The colour coding shall be applied by painting a band of the
appropriate colour at the foot of one of the stiles.
Ladders which are found to be defective shall be suitably labelled or marked and withdrawn
from service until repaired. A record of inspections, examinations and repair work carried out
shall be kept in the ladder register.

2.12 Power-operated Mobile Work Platforms


Power-operated mobile work platforms (WPs) are used as temporary work places and give access
to localised areas both above and below ground level. They are known by a variety of names
which include: extending work platforms, powered access platforms, aerial work platforms,
mobile access platforms, cherry pickers, tower wagons, hydraulic platforms and scissor lift work
platforms.

2.12.1 Operators
Only persons who have been authorised to do so shall work from a WP and only persons who
have been trained and authorised to do so shall operate a WP. Operators shall be trained to
the level of skill necessary to work a WP efficiently and with care for the safety of themselves
and others, and the appliance.
Training should be carried out in three stages:

Stage 1, covering the basic skill and knowledge required to operate a WP safely and
efficiently, and carry out routine checks. Competence is to be established and the
necessary range of skills and knowledge built up gradually to contend with more
demanding operations. The training should ensure progression from learning to operate
the smaller, simpler type of WP to the operation of larger, more complex machines.

Stage 2, covering specific job training, which should include:


-

knowledge of operating principles and controls of the WP to be used and routine


inspection and servicing in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

training and practice in use of the WP in conditions the operator will encounter, e.g.
sloping, uneven and soft ground, awkward areas, bad weather conditions, etc.

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training and practice in the work to be undertaken.

Stage 3, after successful completion of the other stages, covering familiarisation at a place
of work under supervision.

2.12.2 Work Areas


The surfaces on which WPs are used should be level and firm and shall be within the
manufacturers specifications. Some WPs are designed to operate on rough terrain but before
doing so, checks shall be carried out to ensure the machine is suitable for the conditions.
When the ground is soft and the use of outriggers is required, manufacturers advice on
minimum ground support requirements shall be followed. In these circumstances, suitable
metal or timber load spreaders shall be made available.
Special precautions shall be taken when WPs are used in the vicinity of live electrical
conductors. Normally, these precautions will entail the isolation of the electrical supplies but
where this is not possible or practicable, a detailed work plan with comprehensive safety
controls shall be prepared and agreed with all persons involved before work is undertaken.
If the work area is traversed by other vehicles, arrangements shall be made to divert traffic if
possible or alternatively erect temporary barriers, warning cones, lights or signs and arrange
for traffic to be diverted around them. Where necessary, other adjacent operations or
activities shall be stopped and if the worksite is accessible by the public, temporary barriers
shall be erected.
Where the operating area is close to fixed obstructions such as buildings, stanchions and roof
trusses, the operator shall check that clearances are adequate and that there is no danger of
any part of the WP colliding with an obstruction. Alternative arrangements shall be made to
ensure stability if the WP is so close to a building or other structure that full use of the
outriggers cannot be made.
If operations are to be carried out during darkness, adequate illumination shall be provided
and barriers or other warnings shall be of the flashing illuminated type.

2.12.3 Work Platforms


A WP consists of three distinct parts, namely:

a platform capable of supporting persons, tools and equipment

a structure which supports the platform and a powered mechanism which manoeuvres it
relative to the chassis

a mobile chassis on wheels which may be self-propelled

There are two types of WP. One type allows the platform to be manoeuvred universally relative
to the chassis and incorporates telescoping or articulating jibs or booms. The other type
usually has only vertical movement of the platform although the facility to rotate the platform
or extend it horizontally is sometimes provided.
Before being put into service for the first time or following any major repair or alteration, a WP
shall be tested over its range of duties with a proof load at least 1.5 times the safe working
load. During such testing, the machine shall be operated from ground level and no person
shall be permitted to be on the platform of the machine. A certificate of test and thorough
examination giving details of the results of the safe working load and range of duties of the WP
shall be issued.
Periodic examination and certification of WPs shall generally be carried out in accordance with
the document BSP Procedures for In-Service Inspection and Certification of Lifting Equipment
Owned and Operated by BSP and its Contractors, usually referred to as the PLI, with
particular reference to PLI 004, section 3.5 on Mobile Cranes Onshore and Excavators.
The following information shall be conspicuously displayed on the platform of a WP:

the safe working load and the maximum number of persons allowed on the platform

the maximum permissible wind speed in which the platform may be operated or remain
raised or extended

the maximum gradient on which the WP may operate

Inclinometers, spirit levels or other suitable devices with scales, bands or other markings shall
be provided so that the operator can easily see the tilt of the machine and whether it is within
specified limits.
The floor of the platform shall be slip resistant and designed to prevent the accumulation of
water.
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Safety devices shall be fitted to prevent the unwarranted movement of any part of the WP, for
example through failure of the powered mechanism which manoeuvres it and of mechanisms
controlling travel, steering or outriggers. Such safety devices shall fail to safety.
A suitable safety or limiting device shall be fitted, if necessary, on multi-jib WPs to prevent an
over centre condition being reached. The design of the linkage arrangement which maintains
the platform in a horizontal position shall not allow any part of the linkage to reach an over
centre position.
A safe means of access to the platform when at ground level shall be provided. This may be a
short fixed ladder, or control arrangements which allow the platform to be brought down to
ground level.
If structural members are made from special steels or other alloys, the specification of the
materials shall be marked on the platform to ensure that any repairs, especially welding or the
replacement of a member, are compatible with the materials.
All external power supplies, electric, hydraulic or pneumatic, shall be connected to the chassis
and not taken directly to the platform. This reduces the risk of the weight of trailing cables or
pipes affecting stability and being caught by passing vehicles with the consequent danger of
overturning.
Provision shall be made for securing safety harnesses; properly secured guard rails provide
suitable anchorages.
Outriggers shall only be secured in the stowed or fully extended position. Angular adjustment
of the outriggers which might affect the rated stability of the WP shall be avoided.
A captive wedge or block shall be fitted to hydraulically operated WPs where there is any risk
of trapping in the event of hydraulic failure while servicing or maintenance is being carried
out. The wedge or block shall be capable of being inserted or removed without risk.

2.12.4 WP Controls
It is preferable for a person on the platform to be in control of all the movements of a WP.
Where travelling controls are at ground level, as in the case of a road vehicle type chassis, a
suitable system of communication between the person on the platform and the ground
controller shall be used. If the controls are sophisticated, e.g. selectors to switch control
between the platform and chassis, it is preferable for only one station to be operable at any
one time and only the person operating that control station shall transfer control to the
alternative station. However, this arrangement shall not be applied to controls for emergency
lowering, outrigger positioning and under-bridge positioning but these controls at the ground
level shall be encased or otherwise protected to prevent inadvertent operation.
Controls shall be:

clearly marked to indicate their function and mode of operation

of the dead mans handle type, i.e. operation stops when the handle is released

arranged so that inadvertent operation is prevented

such that movement of the controls is in the same direction as the intended movements of
the platform

Where emergency lowering controls are not provided at ground level, other means shall be
provided, e.g. inertia reel devices, to enable persons on the platform to reach the ground
safely.

2.12.5 Control of WP Use


Wherever possible, WPs shall be parked in a designated secure area which denies access to
unauthorised persons. Keys shall be kept in a secure place when WPs are not in use and
shall only be issued to authorised operators and retained by them until the end of the work
period.
On completion of work, WPs shall be parked in the designated area with the engine or motor
switched off, the platform lowered to its parking position and the brakes applied.

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2.12.6 WP Hazards
Some of the more common hazards associated with the use of WPs are as follows:

persons, tools or equipment falling from the platform

persons becoming trapped in the WP mechanism

persons becoming trapped between the platform and fixed obstructions

overturning due to:


-

overloading

gradients

wind loading

travelling over rough terrain with the platform raised

outriggers not used

the effects of acceleration forces

collision with buildings or other fixed objects, other appliances or vehicles

failure of the supporting structure or powered operating mechanism

inadvertent movement, e.g. misapplication of controls, brake failure, etc.

persons becoming stranded on a raised platform due to power or control circuit failure

contact with live electrical conductors

persons being struck by a moving WP or by the jib when sluing

hazards associated with use during darkness

2.12.7 WP Operations
The following rules shall be observed during the use of WPs:

Never exceed the safe working load (except for the purposes of testing).

Ensure that the WP is properly positioned and that outriggers (when fitted) are fully
extended with sole plates and spreaders as necessary to level the WP within
manufacturers specified limits.

Ensure that all necessary arrangements to make the worksite safe have been made.

Never initiate travelling motions unless the way is clear.

Do not travel with the platform raised unless the WP has been designed to permit this.

If travel with a raised platform is permitted, ensure any safety interlocks are in place.

Do not use a WP as a prop or tie.

Do not tow another vehicle or item of plant unless the WP has been designed to do so.

Do not modify the WP with panels or sheeting which will affect wind loading and
consequently its stability.

If the platform is replaced by one of a different design, arrange proof load, stability and
dynamic testing before putting it back in service.

Wherever possible, carry out work from within the area bounded by the guard rails; do not
lean out.

Never use hydraulic emergency controls for lowering other than in an emergency.

Ensure that air is bled out of hydraulic systems.

Special Applications
1.

If a WP is to be located on a vessel, the tilt of the vessel with the WP fitted, allowing for
any necessary fixings, shall be determined by calculation. The calculated tilt shall not
exceed the values contained within the following requirements:

The appliance shall be securely fixed to the vessel in the manner assumed in the
calculations.

The WP shall be subjected to proof load and stability tests on the vessel and the safe
working load specified in accordance with the following:

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2.

3.

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the list of the vessel shall not exceed 3o with the safe working load applied

the list of the vessel shall not exceed 5o with the proof load applied

the tests shall be made with the vessel in its least stable condition, i.e. no fuel and
only fixed ballast

due regard shall be given to anticipated sea and weather conditions

manufacturers advice should be obtained

WPs shall not be mounted in tandem or joined with a bridge unless:

the control mechanism is so arranged that the platforms and bridge remain horizontal
at all times

each appliance is plumb and level

where a bridge is fitted, it is interlocked with both appliances

the appliances automatically correct for any misalignment between them

the WPs are de-rated by at least 25% over and above the de-rating necessary due to
the weight of the bridge

When a WP is to be operated in conjunction with a crane or some other appliance, it is


important that before operations commence the work is properly planned, a safe system of
work developed and that it is clearly understood by all persons involved in the operation.
Each person shall be clearly aware of his individual duties and how to deal with any
foreseen emergencies. Arrangements shall be made to enable clear communications
between operators.

2.12.8 Maintenance
Only qualified and authorised persons shall carry out adjustments and repairs to WPs. If an
appliance is hired, the contractual arrangements shall include proper inspection, maintenance
and servicing in accordance with manufacturers instructions. The scope of periodic checks is
given below.
At the beginning of each work period, the operator shall check:

pneumatic tyres are inflated to the correct pressure and tyres are free from cuts and
damage

the operation of the brakes

the operation of any lights

lubricant, coolant and fuel levels

the integrity of the supporting structure

for leaks in hydraulic/pneumatic systems

correct functioning of powered mechanisms, e.g. raising, sluing, etc.

correct functioning of communications systems between platform and ground

At weekly intervals (or every 50 operational hours/manufacturers recommended intervals) an


authorised maintenance person shall carry out:

all checks made at the beginning of each work period and a full operational check of the
appliance

a check of the condition of the chassis, support structure, platform and powered
mechanisms

A written report shall be made on the condition of the appliance and any faults rectified
immediately or the appliance withdrawn from service. Copies of the report shall be retained.
At six monthly intervals (or 1000 operational hours/manufacturers recommended interval) a
thorough examination shall be carried out by an authorised person. This type of examination
shall also be carried out after an accident, major repair or modification. A certificate shall be
issued by the persons involved in the operation. Each person shall be clearly aware of his
individual duties and how to deal with any foreseen emergencies. Arrangements shall be
made to enable clear communications between operators.

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2.12.8 Maintenance
Only qualified and authorised persons shall carry out adjustments and repairs to WPs. If an
appliance is hired, the contractual arrangements shall include proper inspection, maintenance
and servicing in accordance with manufacturers instructions. The scope of periodic checks is
given below.
At the beginning of each work period, the operator shall check:

pneumatic tyres are inflated to the correct pressure and tyres are free from cuts and
damage

the operation of the brakes

the operation of any lights

lubricant, coolant and fuel levels

the integrity of the supporting structure

for leaks in hydraulic/pneumatic systems

correct functioning of powered mechanisms, e.g. raising, sluing, etc.

correct functioning of communications systems between platform and ground

At weekly intervals (or every 50 operational hours/manufacturers recommended intervals) an


authorised maintenance person shall carry out:

all checks made at the beginning of each work period and a full operational check of the
appliance

a check of the condition of the chassis, support structure, platform and powered
mechanisms

A written report shall be made on the condition of the appliance and any faults rectified
immediately or the appliance withdrawn from service. Copies of the report shall be retained.
At six monthly intervals (or 1000 operational hours/manufacturers recommended interval) a
thorough examination shall be carried out by an authorised person. This type of examination
shall also be carried out after an accident, major repair or modification. A certificate shall be
issued by the authorised person stating that the WP is safe to continue in use and the date of
the next thorough examination. Copies of the certificate shall be retained.

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REFERENCES
SIEP HSE Manual EP 95 - 0270 General Workplace Practices, Section 4 - Access to the
Workplace

Shell Safety and Health Committee publication Scaffolding Safety

UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) publications


Guidance Note GS 15

General access scaffolds

Guidance Note GS 31

Safe use of ladders, step ladders and trestles

Guidance Note GS 42

Tower scaffolds

Guidance Note PM 30

Suspended access equipment

Booklet HS(G)19

Safety in working with power-operated mobile work platforms

British Standards Institution


BS EN series
131-1

Ladders: Specification for terms, types and functional sizes

131-2 Ladders: Specification


requirements

for

requirements,

testing

696

Fibre ropes for general service - polyamide

697

Fibre ropes for general service - polyester

698

Fibre ropes for general service - manila and sisal

699

Fibre ropes for general service - polypropylene

700

Fibre ropes for general service - polyethylene

701

Fibre ropes for general service - general specification

1261

Fibre ropes for general service - hemp

methods

and

performance

BS series
1139

Metal Scaffolding Parts I to 5

2482

Specification for timber scaffold boards

5973

Code of practice for access and working scaffolds and special scaffold structures in
steel

5974

Code of practice for temporarily installed suspended scaffolds and access equipment

1692

Specification for gin blocks

2830

Specification for suspended access equipment, etc.

BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES HSE Standard Modules


02 - Personal Protective Equipment
28 - Safety Signs and Colour Codes

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APPENDIX 1 - EXAMPLE JOB SPECIFICATIONS


NOTE: Scaffolding Contractors are responsible for development of their own job specifications
which should at least meet the standard outlined below.

1.1 Trainee / Basic Scaffolder NVQ Level -1


Responsible for carrying out his duties in a manner conducive to that laid down in BRUNEI
SHELL JV COMPANIES HSE Standards and BSP Scaffolding Guidelines.
His duties are to assist in the erection of scaffolds under the supervision of basic or advanced
qualified scaffolders and to assist the labourer in his duties when necessary.
He must attend Safety Meetings pertaining to his function and take part in any training
necessary.
He must be trained in the following duties:

Identify the requirement for General accessing equipment.

Assembling General Access equipment.

Removing of General accessing equipment..

Prepare power tools and equipment for use.

Run and operate power tools.

Shut down and carry out post stop checks on power tools and equipment.

Operating safely in the work place.

Responding to emergencies.

Assistance in the security of the work place.

Maintenance of a clean and tidy work station.

Maintenance of tools and equipment.

Organisation of own work and maintenance of standards.

Install, maintain and remove protection and safety equipment for the work area.

Prepare and sling loads for lifting.

Signal, direct and control the movement and placing of loads.

A trainee scaffolder must not under any circumstances be permitted to work unsupervised while
erecting, modifying or dismantling a scaffold.

1.2 Basic Scaffolder NVQ Level-2


Responsible for carrying out his duties in a manner conducive to that laid down in BRUNEI
SHELL JV COMPANIES HSE Standards and BSP Scaffolding Guidelines.
His duties are to assist the Advanced Scaffolder in erection, dismantling and alteration of
scaffolds.
He is to assist with the ongoing site training of Trainee Scaffolders and labourers whenever
possible.
He must attend Safety Meetings pertaining to his function and take part in any training
necessary.
He must be capable of carrying out and may work unsupervised on all work listed in trainee
operations plus:

Setting up and securing and removing lifting and suspension apparatus.

Developing and maintaining effective working relationships.

Organising his own work maintaining all relevant standards.

Erection and dismantling of Basic access Indepedants/support scaffolds.

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Erection and dismantling of Basic access Birdcages/support scaffolds.

Erection and dismantling of Basic access Towers/support scaffolds.

Erection and dsimantling of Basic access Cantilevers/support scaffolds.

Erection and dismantling of Baisc Pavement/Roof/support scaffolds.

Identifying operational safeguards and environmental protection requirements for


scaffolding.

Fitting, securing and removing the safeguards for environmental protection to scaffolding.

Interpreting the requirements for the proteciton and safety of the work and surrounding
environment.

Establishing and maintaining the protection and safety of the work and surrounding
environment.

Dismantling and removing all protection and safety arrangements for the work and the
surrounding environment.

Determine the requirements for using cradle access.

Set up erect and dismantle cradle access arrangements.

Preparation for the inspection of the Scaffolding.

Inspection, maintenance, safety and security of the scaffolding.

A Basic Scaffolder shall not be allowed to work on scaffolds other than those listed above unless
an advanced scaffolder is in attendance.
A Basic Scaffolder will not have more than one Trainee Scaffolder working with him while
performing the tasks listed above.

1.3 Advanced Scaffolder NVQ Level -3


Responsible for carrying out his duties in a manner conducive to that laid down in BRUNEI
SHELL JV COMPANIES HSE Standards and BSP Scaffolding Guidelines.
He is responsible to his supervisor for carrying out erection, alteration, modification and
dismantling of scaffolds as directed by the BRUNEI SHELL JV COMPANIES representative on
site.
He is responsible for pre-planning work schedules and material movements to ensure smooth
movement of tasks and to liaise with his team to inform them of their role.
He is to ensure all operatives under his control are competent in fulfilling the tasks he sets them
in a safe manner.
He is responsible for creating a standard of performance in his team which will comply with BSP
Scaffolding Guidelines.
He must be capable of carrying out all work listed in the trainee and basic scaffolder sections
plus:

Interpreting designs for accessing requirements.

Measuring and setting out the accessing to the desing.

Planning all resources and a programme to erect the accessing.

Assisting with the selection and deployment of all required plant and equipment.

Assisting with the selection and deployment of all materials and components.

Contributing to the organisation of the operational area.

Contributing to, implementing and maintaining health, safety and welfare systems.

Contributing to the control of supplies.

Determining the requirements for complex overhead access and support scaffolds.

Erection and dismantling of Complex overhead access support scaffolds.

Determining the requirements for complex access falsework support scaffolds.

Erection and dismantling of complex access falsework support scaffolds.

Determining the requirements for complex access shoring support scaffolds.

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Erection and dismantling of complex access shoring support scaffolds.

An Advanced Scaffolder will not have more than two Basic Scaffolders and two Trainee
Scaffolders working with him at any time. Any more than this number will require a supervisor
to take charge.
He must have a good working knowledge of the Construction (Working Places) Regulations
1966, The Offshore Installation (Operational Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations 1976 (SI
1976 No. 1019) and the BS 5973 Code of Practice for Access and Working Scaffolds and Special
Scaffold Structures in Steel.

1.4 Scaffold Inspector NVQ Level 2/3


He must be capable of performing the duties specified in 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 in addition to the
following:

Checking that standards are correctly aligned and properly supported at their bases.

Checking that there is no undue deflection in ledgers and transoms.

Checking that all essential members of the structure are present.

Checking that all ties and braces are effective in stabilising the scaffold.

Checking that all couplers are properly tightened.

Checking that all boards are in sound condition, correctly supported and, where
appropriate, tied down.

Checking that all guardrails and toeboards are in place.

Checking that all ladders are in good condition and properly secured.

Signing the SCAFFTAG, ensuring that it is properly displayed with the appropriate category
of tick for the scaffold.

Checking that appropriate documentation is in place.

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APPENDIX 2 - SAFETY CHECK LISTS


2.1 Scaffolds
1.

Base soundness; adequate spread of load; avoidance of manhole covers, etc;


no nearby excavation

2.

Line of standards and ledgers, verticality of standards

3.

Ledgers horizontal, joints staggered.

4.

Spacing of transoms

5.

Sway bracing complete to top, every 30 m

6.

Guardrails and toeboards properly fastened, stop and boards in place.

7.

Longitudinal and ledger bracing

8.

Means of access

9.

Ties: number, positions, security

10. Security of boards, toeboards and guardrails.

11. Security and correct use of all fittings (couplers), particularly on transoms and bracing

12. Condition of tubes and fittings

13. Damage by loads swinging from cranes or by falling material

14. Overloading

15. Security of stacked materials

16. Walkways clear of stored material and waste

17. Holes and openings fenced off

18. Lighting adequate

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19. Wheels locked correctly when a mobile tower is in use

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Towers
1.

Manufacturers instructions followed for proprietary systems

2.

Working platform: smaller base to height ratio external 3:1 internal 3.5:1

3.

Working platform: size within base dimension.

4.

Working platform: close boarded and evenly supported

5.

Working platform: guardrails and toeboards if above 2.0m

6.

Correct fittings used

7.

Ladder access properly secured and clear of ground if on mobile tower

8.

Overloading

9.

Security of stacked material

10. No riding on tower when being moved

11. Wheels locked or raised when a mobile tower is in use

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APPENDIX 3 - GLOSSARY

OF

TERMS

Some of the more common definitions used in connection with scaffolding are listed below.

3.1 Types and Dimensions of Scaffolds


Bay

Space between the centrelines of two adjacent standards along the


face of a scaffold.

Foot lift

The lift erected nearest to the ground.

Free-standing scaffold

A scaffold which is not attached to any other structure and is


stable against overturning on its own account or, if necessary,
assisted by guys or rakers and anchors.

Independent tied scaffold

A scaffold which has two lines of standards, one line supporting


the outside of the deck and one the inside. The transoms are not
built into the wall at the structure. It is not free standing, but is
tied into the structure to prevent overturning.

Lift

The assembly of ledgers and transoms forming each horizontal


level of a scaffold.

Scaffold

A temporary structure which provides access, or from which


persons work, or which is used to support materials, plant or
equipment.

Slung scaffold

A scaffold hanging on tubes, ropes or chains from a structure


overhead. It is not capable of being moved or lowered.

Suspended scaffold

A scaffold hanging on ropes which is capable of being suspended,


or raised and lowered.

3.2 Tubular Members and Beams


Brace

A tube placed diagonally with respect to the vertical or horizontal


members of a scaffold and fixed to them to afford structural
strength.

Bridle

A horizontal tube fixed across an opening or parallel to the face of a


structure to support the inner end of a putlog, transom or tie tube.

Bolted tie

Assembly of nuts, bolts, anchors, rings or tubes fixed into the


surface of a structure.

Butting transom

Transom extended inwards to butt the structure to prevent


scaffolding moving inwards.

Facade brace

A brace parallel to the face of a structure.

Guardrail

A member incorporated in a structure to prevent the fall of a


person from a platform or access way.

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Knee brace

A brace across the corner of an opening in a scaffold to stiffen the


angles or to stiffen the end support of a beam.

Ledger

A longitudinal tube normally fixed parallel to the face of a structure


in the direction of the larger dimensions of the scaffold. It acts as a
support for the putlogs and transoms and frequently for the tie
tubes and ledger braces and is usually joined to the adjacent
standards.

Ledger brace

A brace at right angles to a structure.

Lip tie

An assembly of tubes forming an L- or J-shaped hook round an


inside surface of a structure.

Longitudinal brace

A brace generally in the plane of the longer dimension of the


scaffold, particularly in bird-cages.

Movable tie

A tie which may be temporarily moved for the execution of work.

Non-movable tie

A tie which will not be moved during the life of a scaffold, as


agreed between the user and the scaffold erector.

Plan brace

A brace in a horizontal plane.

Prop tie

An assembly of telescopic props and/or scaffold tubes jacked or


wedged between the floors inside a structure and including a tie
tube.

Push/pull tie

A tie which only acts to prevent the scaffold moving either towards
or away from the structure.

Raker

An inclined load-bearing tube.

Standard

A vertical or near vertical tube which carries scaffolds weight, and


loads imposed to the supporting structure.

Sway transom

A transom extended inwards in contact with a reveal or the side of


a column to prevent the scaffold moving sideways.

Through tie

A tie assembly through a window or other opening in a wall.

Tie or tie assembly

The components attached to an anchorage, or the structure, or


framed around a part of it, or wedged or screwed into it with a tie
tube. Used to secure the scaffold to the structure.

Transom

A tube spanning across ledgers to form the support for boards or


units forming the working platform, or to connect the outer
standards to the inner standards.

Transverse brace

A brace generally in the plane of the shorter dimension of the


scaffold.

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Wire tie

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An assembly of a ring anchor and wire or steel banding used to tie


the scaffold to the structure or building. Also known as a band tie.

3.3 Scaffold Couplers and Fittings


Adjustable base plate

A metal base plate embodying a screwjack.

Base plate

A metal plate with a spigot for distributing the load from a standard or
raker or other load-bearing tube.

Brace coupler

This coupler, whilst primarily designed for securing putlogs and


transoms to ledgers, also conforms to the requirements for a bracing
coupler.

Check coupler

A coupler added to a joint under load to give additional security to the


coupler(s) carrying the load. Also known as safety coupler.

Coupler

A component used to fix scaffold tubes together.

Joint pin

An expanding fitting placed in the bore of a tube to connect one tube


to another coaxially.

Parallel coupler

A coupler used to join two tubes in parallel.

Right-angle coupler

A load-bearing coupler used to join tubes at right angles.

Sleeve coupler

An external coupler used to join one tube to another coaxially.

Sole plate

A timber, concrete or metal spreader used to distribute the load from a


standard or base plate to the ground.

Swivel coupler

A coupler used for joining tubes at an angle other than a right angle.

3.4 Other Terms in General Use


Brick guard

A metal or other fender filling the gap between the guardrail and
toeboard, and sometimes incorporating one or both of these
components.

Buttressing

The fixing of additional tubes at 450 between the ground and the
corner or side of a structure to increase the stability of the
structure. Also known as stabilising.

Kentledge

Dead weight built in or added to a structure to ensure adequate


stability.

Protection fans

Devices attached to scaffolding to intercept anything which may fall


from the scaffold structure. Fans may be made of netting, canvas
or plastic sheeting, corrugated iron or special purpose panelling.
There are 4 classes:
Class A - light duty to protect pedestrians from paint or cement
droppings

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Class B - medium duty for protection against falling aggregate and


bricks from a height not exceeding 10 metres
Class C - for catching objects larger and heavier than bricks or for
bricks falling from a height greater than 10 metres and designed
specifically for this application
Class D - for arresting the fall of a person or similar weight from a
height of 6 metres or the distance of 2 building stories
Stagings

Prefabricated, longitudinal platforms made from selected timber,


reinforced with metal tie-rods and wires. They are used as working
platforms.

Toeboard

An upstand at the edge of a platform, intended to prevent materials


or operatives feet from slipping off the platform.

Working platform

The deck from which building operations are carried out.

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APPENDIX 4 - CHECKLIST

ITEM
Identity markings

Surface finish

Rungs, steps and


crossbars

Stiles

Fittings

Scaffolding and Access - Rev 3.1

FOR

EXAMINATION

OF

LADDERS

CHECKS
Identification marking legible and containing as a minimum:
a unique registration number (as entered in ladder register)
current PLI colour code
Other markings may include:
name of manufacturer
type of ladder
year and month of manufacture
maximum permissible load
Edges, corners and protruding parts chamfered or rounded and free of burrs and
splinters
Corrosion protection, e.g. galvanising, of metal parts intact
Surface treatment of wooden ladders in good condition
No visible cracks or breaks
Secure with no twisting or sideways movement between rungs and stiles
Reinforcement intact
Non-slip coated surfaces intact and adhering firmly
No more than one rung above a tied or reinforced rung at either end (this check
only applies to wooden ladders)
No cracks or breaks, or visible compression creases in wooden stiles
Reinforcement undamaged and secure with no stranding or protrusions
Anti-skid plugs for metal ladders secure in stile ends
No protruding rung end security fasteners, e.g. screws, nails
Tie rods secure with all fasteners tight
Rivets and rivetting on metal ladders tight with no free movement
Ropes in good condition with no fraying
Hinge pins secure and free-opening
Opening restraints (rope, chain) in place and securely attached
Rope-operated extending ladder locking devices operable
Rollers, wheels and pulleys freely rotate

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