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Chemistry

Chapter 8 : salts

SPM Form 4 Chemistry Chapter 8 Salts


1.
2.
3.

Understanding salts
Solubility of Salts
Preparing Salts
a.
Preparing Soluble Salts
i.
Preparing Salts of Potassium, Sodium and Ammonium
ii.
Preparing Salts of Non-"Potassium, Sodium and Ammonium"
2. Preparing Insoluble Salts
2. Qualitative Analysis
1. Colour of Ions
2. Heating Effect
i.
Heating Effect on Carbonate Salts
ii.
Heating Effect on Nitrate Salts
iii.
Heating Effect on Sulphate Salts
iv.
Heating Effect on Chloride Salts
2. Identifying Gases
3. Identifying Anions
i.
Carbonate
ii.
Sulphate
iii.
Chloride
iv.
Nitrate
2. Identifying Cations
i.
Test with Sodium Hydroxide and Ammonium Solution
ii.
Test with Chloride Ions
iii.
Test with Sulphate Ions
iv.
Test with Carbonate Ions
v.
Iodide Solution
vi.
Tests to Distinguish Iron(II) and Iron(III) ions.
2. Mind Map

Understanding Salts

1.

A salt is an ionic compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid is partly or completely
replaced by a metal ion or ammonium ion.

2.

All salts are chemically and electrically neutral.

Example

Diagram above shows that when the hydrogen ion in nitric acid is replaced by Na+, Ca2+, NH4+ or
Al3+ ions, salts are formed.

Example:
State whether the following chemical are salt or not salt..
i. barium nitrate _______
ii. zinc sulphate _______
iii. aluminium oxide _______
iv. carbon dioxide _______
v. tin nitrate _______
vi. glucose _______

vii. ethanol _______

Answer:
Barium nitrate, zinc sulphate and tin nitrate are salts.

Aluminium oxide, carbon dioxide, glucose and ethanol are not salts.

There are 4 types of salt that you need to know in the SPM syllabus:
Four type of Salt, there are:

1. Nitrate,
2. Chloride,
3. Sulphate,
4. Carbonate,

Solubility Of Salts
1.

Solubility is the ability of a compound to dissolve in a solvent.

2.

Table below shows the solubility of the salts of nitrate, sulphate, chloride and carbonate.

Salt

Solubility

Salt of potassium, sodium


and ammonium

All soluble in water

Salt of nitrate

All soluble in water

Salt of sulphate

Mostly soluble in water except:


(Pb) Lead sulphate
(Ba) Barium sulphate
(Ca) Calcium sulphate

Salt of chloride

Mostly soluble in water except:

(Pb) Lead chloride


(Ag) silver chloride
(Hg) mercury chloride
Salt of carbonate

Mostly insoluble in water except:


Potassium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Ammonium carbonate

Notes:
Lead halide such as lead(II) chloride (PbCl2), lead(II) bromide (PbBr2) and lead (II) iodide
(PbI2) are insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water.

Solubility of oxide and hydroxide


Oxide and Hydroxide

Solubility

Oxide

Mostly insoluble in water except: K2O and Na2O.

Hydroxide

Mostly insoluble in water except: KOH and NaOH

Preparing Soluble Salts


1.

There are 2 things to be considered when preparing a salt:


a.

What are the chemical used?

b.

How to separate the salt from other substance?

2. Method used to prepare salt depends on the solubility of the salt.


3. Soluble salts are prepared from the reactions between an acid with a metal/ base/ metal
carbonate.
4. Diagram below shows the chemical reaction that can be used to prepare the soluble salts.

Example:
Write chemical equation(s) for the reaction that can be used to prepare the following salts.

1. Sodium Chloride
2. Ammonium Nitrate
3. Potassium sulphate
4. Zinc Sulphate (3 equations)
5. Lead(II) nitrate(3 equations)
6. Copper sulphate(2 equations)
Answer:
a. Sodium Chloride
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

b. Ammonium Nitrate
NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3

c. Potassium sulphate
KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + H2O

d. Zinc Sulphate (3 equations)


ZnO + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O
Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2
ZnCO3 + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2O + CO2

e. Lead(II) nitrate(3 equations)


PbO + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
Pb + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2
PbCO3 + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2

f. Copper sulphate(2 equations)


CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O
CuCO3 + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O + CO2

Preparing Salts Of Potassium, Sodium And Ammonium

1.

Potassium, sodium and ammonium salts are usually prepared through the reactions of
acids with alkalis.

2.

Reaction acid with alkali will produce salt and water.


Acid + Alkali Salt + Water

3.

The salt is prepared by titration method of acid and alkali using an indicator.

Steps to Prepare the Salts of Potassium, Sodium and


Ammonium through Titration

Step 1 Titration to Find the End Point

1.

The end point is the point in a titration at which the 2 reactants have completely reacted.

2.

An endpoint is often marked by a color change.

Step 2 Titrate Without Indicator

1.

The product obtain in step 1 is contaminate by the indicator.

2.

The reaction is repeated by using the same amount of reactants as in step 1, without
using any indicator.

Step 3 Crystalisation

Step 4 Filtration and Drying

Preparing Salts Of Non-"Potassium, Sodium And Ammonium"


1.

The salt non-potassium, sodium and ammonium is prepared by reacting acid with
insoluble metal/metal oxide/metal carbonate:
a. Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen (Displacement reaction)
b.

Acid + Metal oxide Salt + Water (Neutralisation Reaction)

c.

Acid + Metal carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

2. Below is the steps in preparing the soluble non-potassium, sodium and ammonium salts.

Step 1 The Reaction

Add metal/metal oxide/metal carbonate powder until excess into a fixed volume of the heated
acid

Step 2 Filtration 1 to Remove Excess


Reactant

Filter the mixture to remove excess metal/metal oxide/metal carbonate

Step 3 Crystalisation

1.

Evaporate the filtrate until it becomes a saturated solution

2.

Dip in a glass rod, if crystals are formed, the solution is saturated.

Step 4 Filtration 2 to Collect the Solid Salt

1.

Cooled at room temperature

2.

Filter and dry the salt crystals by pressing them between filter papers.

Preparing Insoluble Salts


1.

Insoluble salts can be made by ionic precipitation (is also called double
decomposition/double displacement).

2.

This involves mixing a solution that contains its positive ions with another solution that
contains its negative ions.

Example:
Write the equation of the reaction that can be used to prepare the following salt:

1. Calcium sulphate
2. Lead chloride
3. Copper carbonate

Answer:
a. Calcium sulphate
CaCl2 + NaSO4 CaSO4 + 2NaCl
Ca(NO3)2 + ZnSO4 CaSO4 + Zn(NO3)2

b. Lead chloride
Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl PbCl2 + 2NaNO3

c. Copper carbonate
CuSO4 + Na2CO3 CuCO3 + Na2SO4
CuCl2 + K2CO3 CuCO3 + 2KCl
Cu(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 CuCO3 + 2NaNO3

Qualitative Analysis
Identification of Ions
There are 10 cations and 4 anions to be studied in our syllabus:
Cation
Sodium

Na+

Iron (II)

Fe2+

Calcium

Ca2+

Iron (III)

Fe3+

Magnesium

Mg2+

Lead(II)

Pb2+

Aluminium

Al3+

Copper (II)

Cu2+

Zinc

Zn2+

Ammonium

NH4+

Anion

Chloride ion

Cl-

sulphate ion

SO42-

nitrate ion

NO3-

carbonate ion

CO3-

Steps in qualitative analysis

Colour Of Ions
Colour of Ions
Salt or metal oxide
Salt of Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, zinc, Lead, ammonium
Salt of Chloride, sulphate, nitrate, carbonate

Salt of Copper(II).Copper(II) Carbonate


Copper(II) sulphate, Copper(II) nitrate, Copper(II) chloride
Copper(II) oxide
Salt of Iron (II):
Iron(II) sulphate; Iron(II) nitrate; Iron(ID chloride
Salt of Iron (III):
Iron(III) sulphate; Iron(III) nitrate; Iron(III) chloride
Zink oxide
Lead(II) oxideMagnesium oxide, Aluminium oxide
Potassium oxide, Sodium oxide, Calcium oxide

Iron (II) ion

Heating Effect On Carbonate Salts


1.

All carbonates salts except potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate can be
decomposed by heat to produce carbon dioxide gas.

2.

Table below shows the effect of heating on metal carbonate.

Carbonate Salt
Potassium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Calcium carbonate
Magnesium carbonate
Aluminium carbonate
Zinc carbonate
Iron (III) carbonate
Lead(II) carbonate
Copper(II) carbonate
Mercury(II) carbonate
Silver carbonate
Aurum(II) carbonate
Ammonium carbonate

Equation of The Reaction


Will not decompose by heat
Calcium carbonate
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
Aluminium carbonate
Al2(CO3)3 Al2O3 + 3CO2
Copper carbonate
CuCO3 CuO + CO2
Silver carbonate
2Ag2CO3 2Ag + 2CO2 + O2
(NH4)2CO3 2NH3 + 2CO2 + H2O

Heating Effect On Nitrate Salts


1.

All nitrates salts decompose when heated.

2.

Table below shows the products formed when different nitrate salts are heated.

Nitrate Salt

Equation of The Reaction

Ammonium nitrate

Ammonium nitrate decompose to nitrogen monoxide and water vapour


when heated.
NH4NO3 N2O + 2H2O

Potassium nitrate

Potassium nitrate

Sodium nitrate

2KNO3 2KNO2 + O2
Sodium nitrate
2NaNO3 2NaNO2 + O2

Calcium nitrate
Magnesium nitrate

Magnesium nitrate
2Mg(NO3)2 2MgO + 4NO2 + O2

Aluminium nitrate

Iron(III) nitrate

Zink nitrate

4Fe(NO3)3 2Fe2O3 + 12NO2 + 3O2

Iron (III) nitrate

Lead(II) nitrate

Lead(II) nitrate

2Pb(NO3)2 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

Copper(II) nitrate
Mercury(II) nitrate
Silver(I) nitrate

Silver nitrate
2AgNO3 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2

Aurum(II) nitrate

Heating Effect On Sulphate Salts


1.

Most sulphate salts do not decompose by heat. For instance, sodium sulphate,
potassium sulphate, and calcium sulphate are not decomposable by heat.

2.

Only certain sulphate salts are decomposed by heat when heated strongly.

3.

For instance:
a.

Strong heating of green crystal iron (II) sulphate will release steam, sulphur
dioxide, sulphur trioxide and leave behind a reddish solid iron (III) oxide residue.
The steam released comes from the hydrated water of the crystallize salt.

2FeSO47H2O Fe2O3(p) + SO2(g) + SO3(g) + 14H2O(g)

b.

Meanwhile, zinc sulphate, copper (II) sulphate, and iron (III) sulphate decompose
when heated strongly to evolve sulphur trioxide gas and form a metal oxide.
Example

Zinc sulphate

ZnSO4 ZnO + SO3

Copper (II) sulphate

CuSO4 CuO + SO3

Iron (III) sulphate

Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2O3 + 3SO3

c.

When ammonium sulphate is heated strongly, this white solid sublimate and is
decomposed to form ammonia gas and sulphuric acid. vapour

(NH4)2SO4 NH3 + H2SO4

Preparing Salts Of Potassium, Sodium And Ammonium


1.

Potassium, sodium and ammonium salts are usually prepared through the reactions of
acids with alkalis.

2.

Reaction acid with alkali will produce salt and water.


Acid + Alkali Salt + Water

3.

The salt is prepared by titration method of acid and alkali using an indicator.

Steps to Prepare the Salts of Potassium, Sodium and


Ammonium through Titration

Step 1 Titration to Find the End Point

1.

The end point is the point in a titration at which the 2 reactants have completely reacted.

2.

An endpoint is often marked by a color change.

Step 2 Titrate Without Indicator

1.

The product obtain in step 1 is contaminate by the indicator.

2.

The reaction is repeated by using the same amount of reactants as in step 1, without
using any indicator.

Step 3 Crystalisation

Step 4 Filtration and Drying

Identifying Gases
Oxygen (Glowing wooden splinter)
A glowing wooden splinter is inserted into the test tube that contain the gas.
The gas rekindles the glowing wooden splinter.

Hydrogen (Lighted Wooden Splinter)


A lighter wooden splinter is brought close to the mouth of the test tube that contain the gas.
A pop sound is produced.

Carbon dioxide (Lime Water)


The gas is directed to flow through lime water.
The lime water turn chalky.

Sulphur Dioxide (Potassium Dichromete(VI))


The gas is directed to flow through potassium dichromate(VI) solution.
The orange colour of potassium dichromate(VI) solution become green.

Chlorine (Moist Litmus Paper)


Moist blue litmus paper is inserted into the test tube that contain the gas.
The blue litmus paper turn red and then white.

Ammonia Gas (Moist litmus paper)


Moist red litmus paper is inserted into the test tube that contain the gas.
The red litmus paper turn blue.

Identifying Anions

1.

In form 4 chapter 7, Acids and Bases, you should have learned that the carbonate salts
react with acid produce carbon dioxide and water. This chemical property of carbonate is
used to test the presence of carbonate in a salt.
CO3 + 2H H2O + CO2
2

2.

During the test, some dilute hydrochloric acid / nitric acid /sulphuric acid is added to
the carbonate salt.

3.

If the salt contain carbonate, effervescence occurs.

4.

If the gas given off is passed through lime water, the lime water will turns chalky.

5.

This indicates that the gas is carbon dioxide, and hence the salt contain carbonate.

Identifying Anions - Sulphate


1.

We have learned that, all salts of sulphate are soluble in water, except lead(II) sulphate,
barium sulphate and calcium sulphate.

2.

The insolubility of barium sulphate is used to test for the presence of sulphate in a salt.

3.

2 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric / nitric acid is added to 2 cm3 of sulphate solution. This is to
check whether carbonate is presence in the solution or not because carbonate may give
the same result as sulphate.

4.

If not effervescence, then 2 cm3 of barium chloride is added into the solution.

5.

If sulphate ions are presence, a white precipitate will form. The precipitate is barium
sulphate.

6.

This is actually the double decomposition reaction that you have learned in preparation
of insoluble salt.
Ba + SO4 BaSO4
2+

Identifying Anions - Chloride


1.

You should have learned that, all the salts of chloride are soluble in water except lead(II)
chloride, silver(I) chloride and mercury chloride.

2.

The insolubility if silver(I) chloride is used in the test of presence of chloride.

3.

2 cm of dilute nitric acid is added to 2 cm3 solution of chloride ions. This is the check if
carbonate ions are presence because carbonate ions may give the same result.

4.

If there is no effervescence, 2 cm of silver nitrate solution is then added into the mixture.

5.

A white precipitate will form if chloride is presence in the salt.

6.

The precipitate is silver chloride


Ag + Cl AgCl
+

Identifying Anions - Nitrate


Test 1
Add dilute sodium hydroxide and a little aluminium powder. If a nitrate is present, ammonia gas
is produced. The gas can be identified as it turns moist red litmus paper blue.

Test 2
1.

About 2cm3 of dilute sulphuric acid is added into the solution that wants to be tested and
then followed by 2cm3 iron (II) sulphate solution.

2.

A few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid are carefully drop through the inclined side of
the test tube without shaking the test tube.

3.

A brown ring will form in the middle of the solution.

4.

Explanation: Iron (II) sulphate reduce nitric acid (from the reaction between nitrate ion
and concentrated sulphuric acid) to nitrogen monoxide. Afterwards, nitrogen monoxide
combines with iron (II) sulphate to form the compound FeSO4.NO which is brown in colour
(brown ring).

Identifying Cations - Test With Sodium Hydroxide And


Ammonia Solution
1.

Cations can be identified by their reaction with aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous
ammonia.

2.

Sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia produce hydroxide ion which will react with
most anion to form precipitate.
NaOH + H2O Na + 2OH + H
+

NH3 + H2O NH4 + OH


+

3.

Different cations like aluminium Al , calcium Ca , copper(II) Cu , iron(II) Fe , iron(III)


3+

2+

2+

2+

Fe , lead(II) Pb , zinc Zn produce different coloured precipitates, which may or may not
3+

2+

2+

dissolve in excess alkali.


4.

Zn(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and Pb(OH)3 dissolve in excess NaOH solution, this is because
Zn(OH)2, Al(OH)3 and Pb(OH)3 are amphoteric, they can react with NaOH to form salt and
water.
Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH Na2ZnO2 + 2H2O
Al2(OH)3 + 3NaOH Na3Al2O3 + 3H2O
Pb(OH)2 + 2NaOH Na2PbO2 + 2H2O

5.

Table below shows the summary of the precipitate form by different cation.
NaOH(ak)
Na

NH3(ak)
-

Ca

2+

Mg

2+

White precipitate.

White precipitate.

White precipitate.

White precipitate.
Al

Dissolve in excess NaOH

3+

White precipitate.

solution.
White precipitate.
Zn

2+

Dissolve in excess NaOH


solution.

White precipitate.
Dissolve in excess NH3 solution.

White precipitate.
Pb

2+

Dissolve in excess NaOH

White precipitate.

solution.
Fe

2+

Dirty green precipitate.

Dirty green precipitate.

Fe

3+

Red brown precipitate.

Red brown precipitate.


Blue precipitate.

Cu

2+

Blue precipitate.

Dissolve in excess NH3 solution and form a blue


solution.

NH4

Identifying Cations - Test With Chloride Ions


1.

Out of the 10 cations, only lead(II) ions will form a precipitate with chloride ions.

2.

This is because lead(II) chloride is insoluble in water.

3.

The chemical reaction is a double decomposition reaction.


Pb + 2Cl PbCl2
2+

4.

Lead(II) chloride will dissolve in hot water.

HCl or NaCl
Na+
Ca2+

Mg2+
Al3+
Zn2+

.White precipitate.
Dissolve in hot water

Pb2+
Fe2+
Fe3+
Cu2+
NH4+

Identifying Cations - Test With Sulphate Ions


1.

Out of the 10 cations, only calcium ions and lead(II) ions will form a precipitate with
sulphate ions.

2.

This is because both calcium sulphate and lead(II) sulphate are insoluble in water.

3.

The chemical reaction is a double decomposition reaction.


Pb + SO4 PbSO4
2+

2-

Ca + SO4 CaSO4
2+

2-

H2SO4 or Na2SO4
Na

Ca

White precipitate.

2+

Mg
Al

2+

3+

Zn

2+

Pb

White precipitate.

2+

Fe

Fe

2+

3+

Cu

2+

NH4

Identifying Cations - Test With Carbonate Ions

1.

All ions, except sodium ions and ammonium ions will form precipitate with carbonate.

2.

This is because sodium carbonate and ammonium carbonate are soluble in water.

Na2CO3
Na

Ca

White precipitate.

2+

Mg
Al

White precipitate.

2+

White precipitate.

3+

Zn

White precipitate.

2+

Pb

2+

White precipitate.

Fe

2+

Green precipitate.

Fe

Brown precipitate.

3+

Cu

Blue precipitate.

2+

NH4

Identifying Cations - Test With Iodide Ions


1.

Iodide ions will form precipitate with lead(II) ions and copper(II) ions.

2.

However, in SPM you only need to know the reaction between lead(II) ions and iodide
ions.

3.

The yellow precipitate formed will dissolve in hot water.


Pb + 2I PbI2
2+

KI
Na

Ca

2+

Mg
Al

2+

3+

Zn

2+

Pb

Yellow precipitate. Dissolve in hot water

2+

Fe

2+

Fe

A red brown solution formed.

3+

Cu

White precipitate form in brown solution

2+

NH4

Identifying Cations - Tests To Distinguish Iron(II) And Iron(III)


Ions.
Some Tests to Distinguish Fe ion From Fe Ion
2+

1.

3+

The presence of Fe ion and Fe ion in a salt can be confirmed by using solution of
2+

3+

potassium hexacyanoferrate (II), solution of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) and


potassium thiocyanate.
2.

Table below shows the observation of the tests.

Reagent
Solution of potassium

Observation

Ion presents

Light blue precipitate

Fe

2+

Dark Blue precipitate

Fe

3+

Dark blue precipitate

Fe

2+

Greenish brown solution

Fe

3+

Pinkish solution

Fe

2+

Blood red solution

Fe

3+

hexacyanoferrate (II)

Solution of potassium
hexacyanoferrate (III)

Potassium thiocyanate