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Flexible Hose

Management
Guidelines
Issue No. 1
January 2003
Co-sponsored by
The Health and Safety Executive
The Institute of Petroleum

Revision 2.4

11/11/02

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD...................................................................................................................................................3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................................................................4
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................................5
1.1 Objective...................................................................................................................................................5
1.2 Scope........................................................................................................................................................5
1.3 Introduction...............................................................................................................................................5
1.4 Application................................................................................................................................................5
1.5 Responsibilities.........................................................................................................................................6
1.6 Personnel Competence.............................................................................................................................7
Definitions
...........................................................................................................................................................8
2.0 LIFE CYCLE MODEL AND MANAGEMENT CONTROLS...................................................................10
3.0 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS............................................................................................................13
4.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN........................................................................................................................14
4.1 Objective................................................................................................................................................14
4.2 Use of A Flexible Hose............................................................................................................................14
Safety 14
4.2.2 Vibration / Movement...........................................................................................................................15
4.2.3 Misalignment .......................................................................................................................................15
4.2.4 Remote Mounting.................................................................................................................................15
4.2.5 Temporary Applications.......................................................................................................................15
4.2.6 Degradation Issues..............................................................................................................................16
4.2.7 Applicability..........................................................................................................................................16
4.2.8 Life-cycle Analysis................................................................................................................................16
4.3 Consultation with Vendors.....................................................................................................................16
5.0 RISK ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................................17
5.1 Objective................................................................................................................................................17
5.2 New Applications....................................................................................................................................17
5.3
Existing Flexible Hose Assemblies.....................................................................................................17
5.4
Risk Evaluation Process....................................................................................................................18
5.4.1 Method................................................................................................................................................18
5.4.2 Actions following Risk Assessment.....................................................................................................20
5.4.3. Recording............................................................................................................................................21
6.0 DETAILED DESIGN...............................................................................................................................22
6.1 Objective................................................................................................................................................22
6.2 Background............................................................................................................................................22
6.3 Selection Guidelines...............................................................................................................................23
6.3.1 Responsibilities....................................................................................................................................23
Hose Length Calculations.............................................................................................................................25
6.5 Certification............................................................................................................................................26
6.6 Marking...................................................................................................................................................27
7.0 CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION & COMMISSIONING.....................................................................28
7.1 Objective.................................................................................................................................................28
7.2 Storage and Transportation...................................................................................................................28
7.2.1 Storage
28
7.2.2 Transportation.....................................................................................................................................28
7.3 Installation..............................................................................................................................................28
7.3.1 Safe Handling of FHAs........................................................................................................................28
7.3.2 Installation of Flexible Hose Assemblies..............................................................................................29
7.3.2 Fixed Applications................................................................................................................................30
7.3.3 Flexing Application...............................................................................................................................31
FHA Routing .............................................................................................................................................33
7.4.1 General...............................................................................................................................................33
7.5 Commissioning........................................................................................................................................35
8.0 OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE, INSPECTION and TESTING............................................................36

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8.1 Objective.................................................................................................................................................36
8.2 Tagging and Documentation...................................................................................................................36
8.3 Inspection Strategies..............................................................................................................................37
8.3.2 Inspection Criteria & Frequency..........................................................................................................37
8.3.4 Inspection Documentation/Reporting ..................................................................................................39
Replacement Strategy...................................................................................................................................40
8.5 Rejection Criteria...................................................................................................................................40
8.5.2 Detailed Examination...........................................................................................................................41
8.6 Pressure Testing of Flexible Hose Assemblies.......................................................................................42
9.0 MODIFICATIONS OR CHANGE OF SERVICE CONDITIONS...............................................................43
9.1 Objective................................................................................................................................................43
9.2 Changing Conditions..............................................................................................................................43
9.3 Risk assessment....................................................................................................................................43
9.4 Change Control......................................................................................................................................43
9.5 Modifications..........................................................................................................................................43
10.0 DECOMMISSIONING...........................................................................................................................44
10.1 Objective...............................................................................................................................................44
10.2 Disposal...............................................................................................................................................44
10.3 Transportation......................................................................................................................................44
10.4 Change Control....................................................................................................................................44
10.5 Partial Decommissioning.......................................................................................................................44
11.0 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................45
12.0 APPENDICES.......................................................................................................................................46
Appendix 1 Personnel Competency Requirements......................................................................................47
Appendix 2 Legal Requirements..................................................................................................................49
Appendix 3 Human Factors Associated with Flexible Hose Assemblies......................................................51
Appendix 4 Hose Construction.....................................................................................................................54
Appendix 5 Hose Failures
56
Appendix 6 Hose Checklist...........................................................................................................................58

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FOREWORD
The purpose of these guidelines is to provide operators of Offshore Installations, Drilling Facilities
and Onshore Plants with a reference framework of management, technical controls and procedures
necessary to ensure the continued integrity of flexible hose assemblies throughout their lifecycle.
These guidelines have been primarily written to address the needs of Offshore Installations
operating in the UK Continental Shelf, but the principles may be widely applied to many onshore
applications.
These guidelines provide an outline approach to lifecycle activities relating to these components,
including management, and sets out issues to be considered, but does not provide a comprehensive
check list or procedure nor state in detail how to design, operate or maintain Offshore Installations
or Onshore Plants.
These guidelines provide the user with information to assist in the development of a robust
technical solution. Economic issues are not necessarily addressed within this document and the user
should use their own internal evaluation processes for the consideration of any economic factors.
It is considered that these guidelines will be of use to managers, design engineers, operators,
technicians, contractors and consultants and all parties concerned with the safety and environmental
issues associated with operating Offshore and Onshore facilities.
Although it is envisaged that the adoption of these guidelines will help to reduce the risk of
incidents, the authors or publishers of this document cannot accept any responsibility of whatsoever
kind for loss or damage or alleged loss or damage arising or otherwise occurring in or about
premises, areas or facilities to which these guidelines have been applied.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This guidance document was instigated by the Hydrocarbon Leak Reduction Committee of
UKOOA and is supported by the Health and Safety Executive and the Institute of Petroleum. A
small working group was formed to develop this document and to collate responses from the
industry, hose suppliers and manufacturers.
We acknowledge the contributions made by all those involved in developing or reviewing this
guidance document, and in particular, the members of the working group ( listed alphabetically ).
Ken Beattie
Steve Bowers
Ron Boyd
Michael Forster
Ron Hindmarch
Colin Honeyman
Rick Kirk
John Nairn
Alan Thompson
Alan Thomson

Phoenix Beattie
Marathon
Shell Expro ( Chairman )
Amerada Hess
RAPRA
Hydrasun
Instrumentation Safety Services
Witzenmann
Health and Safety Executive
Step Change in Safety

We wish to thank the manufacturers and suppliers for the use of their documentation and
illustrations.

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INTRODUCTION
1.1

Objective
To ensure the integrity of Flexible Hose Assemblies ( FHA ) on Offshore Installations,
Drilling Facilities and Onshore Plants is maintained throughout their lifecycle.

1.2

Scope
This document describes the engineering design, construction, operations, maintenance and
inspection management controls necessary to ensure the continuing technical integrity of
flexible hoses.

1.3

Introduction
Flexible Hose Assemblies are complex components used extensively for delivery of
products or hydraulic power on a wide range of process, drilling and service/utility systems.
Failures in their integrity can create hazards such as, leakage of flammable or toxic
substances. Failures or potential defects can compromise the operation of safety and control
systems and impact on the safety of personnel. In addition environmental burdens may be
placed on management through pollution issues.
Flexible Hose Assemblies are often an integral part of pressurised systems carrying
hydrocarbons (liquids and gases), high pressure water, chemicals, fuels, high-pressure
power fluids and are also used in many Drilling / Well Engineering applications. Flexible
hoses are also used extensively during bulk loading and unloading operations.
Effective management, in particular the assurance of personnel competency, is key to
ensuring the quality of the whole lifecycle management of FHAs. To ensure the integrity of
Flexible Hose products, it is necessary to establish a performance based maintenance and
inspection strategy in accordance with approved guidelines and inspection practices.
This guidance has been developed for all personnel involved in the lifecycle of FHAs such
as asset owners, manufacturers, vendors, etc. It will enable them to define safe technical
solutions whilst satisfying regulatory obligations.

1.4

Application
This Guidance Document is applicable to Flexible Hoses and their accessories at all
Offshore locations and its principles are similarly applicable at Onshore applications.
For guidance, the following hose service and types are typically covered by this document,
(this list is not exhaustive and is included for information only);

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Service

Instrument Impulse hoses


Hydraulic hoses
Chemical transfer
Bulk loading
Hydrocarbon Process ( fluids and gases )
Compressed gases ( bottled gas installations )
High pressure fluids ( chemicals, water etc )
Temporary hoses ( including utilities )
Sampling hoses
Steam hoses
Packaged units ( e.g. drilling, generators, fire-pumps, cranes )

Type
The following types of hose are included in this guidance document;

Rubber construction textile and wire reinforced


Thermo-plastic constructions
Stainless Steel Braided without outer covers
Convoluted ( metallic and non-metallic )

Exceptions
The following hoses are largely excluded from this document, as management systems
already exist to ensure their integrity. However, where relevant, examples are used in the
document as illustrations and it is considered that the guidance should be taken into account
as appropriate when working with the following;

1.5

Proprietary hoses integral with vehicles

Fire hoses

Aviation fuel hoses

Breathing apparatus hoses

Offshore floating and submarine hoses, including large diameter cargo offloading hoses

Subsea umbilicals

Subsea jumpers
Flexible Risers, flowlines and pipelines as defined in the Pipelines Safety
Regulations (PSR) 1996

Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Asset Owner in the offshore sector or the Duty Holder of an
onshore installation to ensure that the maintenance and integrity management requirements
of these guidelines are developed and implemented within the engineering design,
construction, operations, maintenance and inspection process and other relevant

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management systems. The responsibilities include personnel competency assurance, the


development, implementation and review of maintenance strategies and controls, the correct
execution of the work and the appointment of responsible personnel.

1.6 Personnel Competence


The integrity of flexible FHAs is very dependent on the correct selection of hose product
and adherence to the installation procedures. Personnel competency is therefore a key issue
and should be considered at all stages of the lifecycle.
The following strategy regarding personnel competence should be applied to ensure the
integrity of FHA installations.
-

All personnel required to install, inspect and maintain FHAs should be formally
authorised, and registered to do so and be fully conversant with the appropriate
installation and maintenance procedures, failure criteria etc.

All personnel required to test FHAs should be formally authorised and registered to do
so and be fully conversant with the relevant test procedure.
Refer to Appendix 1.

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Definitions
ALARP
As Low As Reasonably Practicable
Delivery Hose
A hose or FHA, which has a service duty to convey fluids or gases throughout its useful life.
Examples would include, bulk handling systems, mud, rotary and utility hoses.
Flexible Hose Assembly ( FHA )
A complete hose with end fittings and any associated accessories.
HAZOP
A systematic review of an activity to identify the HAZardous OPerations
Hose
A flexible conduit normally of circular cross-section and usually have an inner lining,
reinforcements and an outer cover.
Hose Assembly
A hose complete with end fittings and bonding wires (where relevant)
Hydraulic Power Hose
A hose, which has been designed to transmit hydraulic power from a source to an actuator.
Examples would include hydraulic power hoses on cranes, valves, engines, and umbilicals.
LSA
Low Specific (radio)Activity
Minimum Bend Radius ( MBR )
The minimum radius of curvature, measured from the straight hose centre line ( or other
manufacturer defined datum ), which the hose can tolerate without sustaining damage,
distortion, excessive load or impaired performance.
Modification
A change in service or use from that for which the FHA was originally specified. Change
may include function, internal environment, external environment, operating limits,

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installation arrangement, flowing versus static conditions etc. Replacement components


must be fully matched ( like for like ) to the original specification in all respects ( including
length ) if it is not to be regarded as a modification.
Temporary Flexible Hose Assembly.
A FHA, which is used for a specific short duration activity, and is covered by a local risk
assessment and normally controlled by the Permit to Work system.
Temporary Equipment.
Equipment including packaged units hired from a supplier to carry out a specific short-term
task. Hoses integral to packaged equipment are the responsibility of the Vendor who should
provide current documentary evidence of hose condition.
Working Pressure
Maximum Working Pressure (MWP)
The maximum working pressure at any given temperature, confirmed by the
manufacturer, to which the flexible hose assembly may be submitted.
Minimum Working Pressure ( Vacuum )
The minimum working pressure ( vacuum ) at any given temperature, confirmed by
the manufacturer, to which the flexible hose assembly may be submitted.

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2.0 LIFE CYCLE MODEL AND MANAGEMENT


CONTROLS
Figure 1 represents a model of the complete life cycle of a flexible hose assembly and provides
the basis for design procedure and the retention of the design integrity. This document has been
structured to comply with this format.
The user of this guidance document should be aware of all sections to enable the continuing
integrity of FHAs.
Table 1 summarises the key aspects of the safety management life cycle objectives and
activities. For each component, the guidance sets out responsibilities, competencies,
development of a maintenance and inspection strategy, documentation and reporting
requirements to achieve lifecycle management.
The model is a simplified representation of many inter-dependant activities and does not attempt
to fully depict the iterative nature of some of them.
The management controls in Table 1, are specific requirements necessary to ensure the integrity
of the FHAs over their life span.
The operations and maintenance element of the lifecycle is included for completeness and
should be implemented by the operations and maintenance teams. However, the maintenance
strategy may initially be developed in the detail design phase.

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Flexible Hose Assemblies


Life-cycle management
Performance Standards
Section 3.0

Conceptual Design
Section 4.0

Risk Analysis
Section 5.0

Detailed Design
Section 6.0

Construction, Installation & Commissioning


Section 7.0

Operations, Maintenance, Inspection &


Testing
Section 8.0

Modification or Change of service


conditions
Section 9.0

Decommissioning
Section 10.0

Life-cycle flow
Information flow

Figure 1: Lifecycle management

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Role
Functional specification
Integrity
Survivability.

Application
Justification
Selection
Vendor consultation

System Classification
Risk assessment
Opportunities for risk reduction

Selection guidelines
Selection & procurement of materials
Certification
Marking

Installation
Storage & Transportation
Safe handling
Routing
Commissioning

Inspection strategies
Inspection frequency
Tagging & documentation
Pressure Testing
Rejection criteria

Risk analysis
Changes to design
conditions
Risk assessment
Change control

Disposal
Change Control
Partial De-commissioning

LIFE CYCLE PHASE

OBJECTIVES /
DELIVERABLES

Conceptual Design
To ensure that the use of a
flexible hose assembly can be
justified as the optimum
technically safe solution, and
that all lifecycle aspects are
considered.
Risk Analysis

Detailed Design

To identify and evaluate any


risks posed by the use of FHA
in any specific application,
that the FHAs are classified
by risk category, and to ensure
that risk reduction measures
have been fully considered.
Detailed design, material
specification, operating
conditions, procurement and
storage.

ACTIVITIES

DOCUMENTS

Safety assessment

These Guidelines

Technical evaluation

ISO 8331

Lifecycle cost analysis


Identification of alternative
methods
Risk assessment

These Guidelines

Identification of opportunities
for risk reduction

Hose performance

These Guidelines

Compatibility

ISO 8331

Operating parameters

ISO 10380

Procurement criteria
Certification
Construction / Installation
/ Commissioning

Operations, Maintenance,
Inspection & Testing

Modification

Decommissioning

To ensure that Flexible Hose


Assemblies are transported,
stored, installed to design, and
that commissioning is
satisfactorily completed.
Development of a
Maintenance and Inspection
Strategy for FHAs. The
strategy should ensure that
Inspection frequencies align
with the FHA criticality and
risk assessment.
To ensure that the integrity of
FHAs is retained both during
and after modification or
change of service conditions.
The integrity of the FHA is
retained during
decommissioning

Installation & testing

These Guidelines

Storage and transportation


ISO 8331
Hose routing
Commissioning
Tagging and documentation

These Guidelines

Inspection strategy
Pressure Testing
Rejection criteria
Risk analysis

These Guidelines

Detailed design

All of the above

Change management
Risk analysis

These Guidelines

Decommissioning/ Removal
Change management
Documentation and close-out

Table 1 : Flexible Hose Assembly Safety Management Life Cycle Objectives and Activities

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3.0 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS


Performance standards for Flexible Hose Assemblies are not normally required, but may be necessary,
where a hazardous situation may arise or be intensified in the event of failure of a FHA. In some
systems the FHA may be considered a critical component, which could compromise the safe operation
of the entire system.
The requirement of a performance standard would normally be applied to the entire system, of which,
the FHA is one contributory component. When quantifying risk, the normal procedure is to design out
the hazard wherever practicable, therefore, demonstrating ALARP.
A typical performance standard for a system containing FHA may be required to specify the
following;
- the role of the installation ( role statement )
- what the installation is required to do under stated circumstances ( functional specification )
- what integrity level is required in these circumstances ( integrity specification )
-any requirements for survivability after a major incident ( survivability specification )
Example;
The flexible hose assemblies used on a diesel fire pump to deliver cooling water should be assessed to
ensure that they do not impact on the overall performance requirements of the fire pump. A maintenance
and inspection strategy will have to be developed to ensure that the hoses are capable of delivering in all
expected operational cases.

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4.0 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN


4.1

Objective.
To ensure that the use of a flexible hose assembly can be justified as the optimum technically
safe solution, and that all lifecycle aspects are considered.

4.2

Use of A Flexible Hose


Due to the additional management controls required to ensure the safe continued operation of
flexible hose assemblies, a full Risk Assessment, should be carried out to fully identify all the
issues relating to a hose in any particular application and to justify the use of this component.
Where applicable, life cycle cost analysis should also be carried out using internal procedures.
NOTE: A flexible hose assembly should normally only be selected if fully justified
considering the criteria set out in 4.2.1 4.2.8 and any other relevant criteria;

Safety
Consider the following issues, which have safety implications;

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FHAs should not be used where it is safer to install permanent pipe work /
instrument tubing

Appropriate fire rating of the application must be considered

Compatible with the piping class of the system and the equipment design
pressures and temperatures.

Compatible with the application, in particular FHAs used in suction applications


should be capable of withstanding a negative pressure.

FHAs should only be used which have been assembled and tested by the
vendor / competent person and for which supporting documentation has been supplied.

Hose assemblies will only be used for duties, for which they are approved, taking
due consideration of the environmental conditions in which the hose is to be used or stored.

Dependant on the application, all metallic or conductive components may be


required to be electrically continuous and in some cases bonded to earth

Hoses should be firmly attached to their end fittings by the hose manufacturer /
approved supplier.

FHAs should be adequately supported and installed to the manufacturer


guidelines as applicable and consistent with the best practice principles contained in this
guidance document.

FHAs should be identified with a suitable unique numbering system

FHAs should be installed, tested and inspected by competent personnel

Length should be kept to a minimum, consistent with flexibility and required


function.

Internal and external effects of chemicals on all components associated with the
FHA.
Electrical continuity requirements must be considered.

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4.2.2

Vibration / Movement
Flexible hose assemblies may eliminate the transmission of vibration or movement in a specific
application.
FHAs will only efficiently eliminate the transmission of vibration, movement or noise if the
adjacent pipe work is properly anchored on downstream side of the hose. In the worst cases,
failure to ensure this can lead to uncontrolled movement of the FHA and premature failure.
Where an existing system requires damping to the extent that the pipe work cannot be
engineered in a way that will reduce vibration to an acceptable level, then, a FHA may be
considered if there is no other suitable or safer alternative solution.

4.2.3

Misalignment
FHAs should not be used as a remedy for poor design or installation, e.g. to correct
misalignment of rigid components.

4.2.4

Remote Mounting
When it is necessary to have instrumentation or other equipment mounted in convenient
locations/ positions remote from the point of measurement, the use of FHAs should only be
considered if the movement couldnt be safely achieved by alternative engineering solutions.
The use of hard pipe should be maximised. Therefore, the length of any flexible hose should be
kept to the minimum, commensurate with proper installation, and should be adequately
supported to prevent mechanical damage.

4.2.5

Temporary Applications
Flexible Hose may be used where it is necessary to carry out specific temporary tasks associated
with normal process production, supported by a risk assessment i.e.:

process sampling

process diversion to closed drain or vent

connection of a process line to import or export point, e.g. boat or vehicle


loading or offloading

hydrotest hook-up for installed system testing

Flexible hose may also be used as a temporary method to transport fluids, after a suitable risk
assessment has been completed, ensuring that the hose is correctly specified and tested for the
application.
Hoses should be clean before use to prevent mixing of dissimilar chemicals within the hose,
especially if the hose has been used in previous applications.
Where FHAs are initially installed as a temporary arrangement, this should normally be for a
pre-defined short period. If periods of use become extended, then the application should be
subject to a critical review process. Use of temporary FHAs for longer periods should be
subjected to a risk review and a suitable permanent solution sought which demonstrates risks are
ALARP. The change process should manage this.

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It is incumbent on the user to ensure that the flexible hose assembly is fit for purpose prior
to each application.
4.2.6

Degradation Issues
Degradation of FHAs can be accelerated due to heat, environmental conditions or
contamination of the outer coverings and braids due to chemicals, ultraviolet light, ozone, salt,
water etc. A competent corrosion engineer and the Manufacturer should be consulted as
necessary, taking due regard to the predicted working environment, and fluid composition. It
should be noted that the fluid composition could change over the expected lifecycle.
NOTE: Heat tracing and insulation can considerably accelerate any corrosion mechanisms

4.2.7

Applicability
Only if the hose application can demonstrate risks are ALARP, and a suitable hose is available,
that meets all the functional specifications, may a hose then be used. Otherwise, an alternative
engineering solution should be applied.

4.2.8

Life-cycle Analysis
It is incumbent on the user to assess if an economic evaluation is required. If considered
applicable, prior to using Flexible Hoses for a specific application, the following may be
considered to enable a total lifecycle cost to be calculated;
(a)

Cost of using a FHA alternative against existing accepted materials and methods (e.g. rigid
pipe work)

(b)

Cost savings derived by quicker installation by using a FHA..

(c)

Cost of an ongoing maintenance and inspection programme for FHA in comparison with
existing maintenance.

(d)

Increase or reduction in risk ( see Section 5.4 )

(e)

Potential cost associated with FHA failure

4.3 Consultation with Vendors


Having carried out a conceptual design study to clearly specify the full service conditions
expected, the input and support of FHA suppliers or vendors should be solicited to ensure that
they tender and supply FHAs with the capability of delivering throughout the service life.
Failure to provide the vendors with a full operational specification could result in a sub-optimal,
or inappropriate hose being supplied.
See section 6.3 for additional information.

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5.0 RISK ANALYSIS


5.1 Objective
To identify and evaluate any risks posed by the use of FHA in any specific application, that the
FHAs are classified by risk category, and to ensure that risk reduction measures have been fully
considered.
FHAs are used to transmit power or convey fluids that may have toxic, corrosive or potentially
explosive properties, in most cases at elevated pressures. Failure of hoses poses a potentially
serious threat to the safety of personnel, damage to the process plant and harmful impact to the
environment if loss of containment occurs. Therefore, a robust risk assessment is required.

5.2

New Applications
All new FHA applications should be assessed to ensure that all risks associated with the
component have been identified using an appropriate risk evaluation technique. For new
applications, this should ideally be carried out during the project HAZOP phase. Where FHAs
are required as new applications on existing plant, assessment may be carried out exclusively on
the FHAs, taking account of the impact on the operating system in its entirety. Competent
personnel should perform the risk assessment with expertise in typically the following areas;
Process control / engineering
Production operations
Corrosion management
Production chemistry ( as required )
Piping
Maintenance / Inspection
Technical safety

A formal Risk Assessment will;

remove uncertainties regarding the safety integrity and cost effectiveness


ensure that designs are to a suitable technical standard.
form a basis for maintenance strategies such as inspection frequencies
provide an audit trail

If a FHA has been identified as the optimum technical solution based on Section 4, then, it
should be classified as detailed in section 5.4.

5.3

Existing Flexible Hose Assemblies


It is recommended that all existing hoses currently in service should be assessed in accordance
with the risk evaluation process detailed in section 5.4 and the results recorded.

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5.4

Risk Evaluation Process


Each FHA should be classified based on the consequence of failure. The following outlines a
method that can be used to apply a structured approach to evaluating risks derived from using
FHAs in potentially hazardous services.

5.4.1

Method
Assess each FHA application against the criteria detailed below and plot the resultant position on
Table 4. If doubt exists between hose classes, then the higher class should be selected. For
example, if failure of the FHA could have consequences affecting both Production & Equipment
(L) and Environmental Impact (E), the higher class rating resulting from plotting each
consequence against human potential injury (S) should be used to select class. The resultant
classification should be recorded and used to determine the maintenance & inspection strategy as
defined in Section 8
To assist in this risk assessment process the following guidelines on interpretation of personnel
safety, production and environmental consequences should be used.
1.

Potential extent of human injury if the hose fails, taking into account the duration that
personnel are in the location;
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4

2.

=
=
=
=
=

No injury
Slight Injury, non-permanent
Severe injury, death of one person
Several fatalities (2-10 fatalities)
Catastrophe, multiple fatalities (> 10 fatalities)

Potential production and equipment loss if the hose fails


L0
L1
L2
L3
L4

=
=
=
=
=

No operational upset, no damage to equipment


Minor operational upset, minor damage to equipment
Moderate operational upset, moderate damage to equipment
Major operational upset, major damage to equipment
Damage to essential equipment causing major operational loss
major loss of containment

For guidance the following table identifies assumptions used in this guide for defining
production and equipment loss.
Production and equipment
loss
Consequence Factor (L)

Cost (Replacement of
equipment and
production loss)

Additional Guidance

L0
L1
L2
L3

< 1K
1K - 100K
100K - 1M
1M - 10M

L4

> 10M

< 3 hour production loss


Up to 3 hours lost production
Up to 1 days lost production
Spared equipment that will reduce
production by 30% or production loss up to
10 days
Non spared equipment essential to
production or loss of production > 10 days

Table 2 : Production and Equipment loss estimations

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3.

Potential environmental consequences

For guidance the following table identifies assumptions used in this guide in defining
Environmental Consequence Factors E0 E4 based on offshore environmental releases.
( Alternative onshore criteria may be substituted for Onshore releases as applicable ).
The Control of Major Hazard Regulations (1999) (COMAH) applies to many onshore major hazard
installations. The regulations specify criteria for reporting major incidents to the European Union which
could provide a basis for defining consequence factors for injuries to persons, property damage, and
damage to the environment.
E0
E1
E2
E3
E4

=
=
=
=
=

No release or release with negligible damage to environment


Release with minor damage to the environment which should be reported
Release with significant damage to the environment
Release with temporary major damage to the environment
Release with permanent damage to the environment

Environmental
Consequence Factor
(E)

Release of Oil, Fuel, NGLs, Drilling Fluids or Gas

E1

Liquids < 1 tonne, <7.5 bbl, < 1 m3


Gas
< 0.04 mln scf, < 0.001 M m3

E2

Liquids 1 100 tonnes, 7.5-750 bbls, 1 100 m3


Gas
0.04 4 M scf, 0.001 0.1 M m3 (st)

E3

Liquids 100 1000 tonnes, 750-7500 bbls, 100 1000 m3


Gas
4 40 M scf, 0.1 1 M m3 (st)

E4

Liquids > 1000 tonnes, > 7500 bbls, > 100 m3


Gas > 40 M scf, >1 M m3 (st)

Table 3 : Environmental Consequences

(st) = standard conditions


(scf) = standard cubic feet

Note that E2 is approximately equivalent to the amount of gas from the blowdown of a large
oil/gas installation in the Northern North Sea. 20Kg/s for 1000 seconds = approximately 20000
m3 (st)
The Environmental impact of any chemical that could be released should be taken into
consideration using factors such as its toxicity and release quantity.

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Hose Classification Table


Production &
Equipment Loss

Environmental
Consequences

Class 5

E3

Class 4

L3 / L4

E2

Class 3

L1 / L2

E1

Class 2

L0

E0

Class 1

S0

E4

S1

S2

S3

S4

Human Injury Potential

Table 4: Flexible Hose Assembly risk classification


5.4.2

Actions following Risk Assessment


The hose classification derived by applying the risk assessment method will enable the
appropriateness of the FHA to be determined, and whether any additional risk reduction
measures are required. Where possible, lower Class applications should be sought to
demonstrate ALARP.
NOTE:

Class 5 FHAs:

Other than in exceptional or specialised circumstances any FHA in existing plant, which has
been assessed as Class 5, should be removed from service immediately, and an alternative
method sought which demonstrates risks are ALARP.
During new plant design, proposed hoses assessed as Class 5 should not be used and an
alternative solution sought which demonstrates risks are ALARP.
Where exceptionally a FHA is demonstrated to be the technically superior and safest solution, a
rigorous monitoring and testing regime is required to ensure integrity. ( Section 8.3 )
Class 4 Hoses:
It is recommended that any existing hose, which has been assessed as Class 4, should preferably
be withdrawn from service and be subject to a detailed challenge process to identify a suitable
alternative method, which demonstrates risks are ALARP. Alternatively, a rigorous monitoring
and testing regime is required to ensure integrity. (Section 8.3)
It is recommended that FHAs assessed as Class 4 for use in new installations should not be used
and an alternative solution sought which demonstrates risks are ALARP. Where exceptionally, a
FHA is demonstrated to be the technically superior and safest solution, a rigorous monitoring
and testing regime are required to ensure integrity is maintained. ( Section 8.3 ).

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5.4.3. Recording.
The resultant classification should be documented against the relevant FHA tag number in the
hose database, where applicable. ( See Section 8.2 )

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6.0 DETAILED DESIGN


6.1 Objective.
To ensure that the design achieves the required performance criteria by application of sound
engineering practice, appropriate material procurement and the development of lifecycle
strategies.

6.2 Background.
In order to optimise the service life of a hose it is important that all the interested parties; user,
manufacturer, buyer and distributor, agree on the full specification, expected life and working
conditions of any hose being considered; it is not reasonable for one party to take responsibility
for, or to dictate to the others. The general requirements for a hose are as follows:
a)

able to meet and be resistant to all the expected service conditions;

b)

manufactured to a standard so that no early failures occur;

c)

robust so that no random unexpected failures occur;

d)

able to meet a predicted and agreed service life and

e)

competitive in price with equivalent products.

With regard to resistance to the service conditions the manufacturer has to know the products
being carried, pressures and temperatures with possible excursions outside the basic envelope.
To gain this the buyer and user must communicate so that all relevant information is given
otherwise the material choice for the lining, in particular, may not be adequate for the
application and service life may then not be achieved.
Early service failures of any product are usually attributable to manufacturing faults. It is
therefore essential that the manufacturer not only provides a valid design for the hose but also
maintains a consistently high standard of production so that faults in manufacturing do not
occur.
Some service conditions are onerous e.g. in North Sea oil and gas operations. It is important
here that external elements of weather, abrasion or fluid spillage do not adversely affect the
protective properties of the outer cover. The manufacturer has therefore to choose carefully the
cover compound and the thickness to mitigate against these operational requirements.
It is in the useful life of the hose that random failures occur. With hoses these typically arise
from abuse e.g. abraded cover not repaired; inappropriate storage conditions, insufficient
inspection, and hose not installed correctly. A healthcare programme would require a very
regular inspection by competent inspectors who are well acquainted with hose problems. The
inspector should advise, remedy or change out so that unexpected failures would be avoided.
Finally, the agreed service life, established by laboratory or long term testing, must be adhered to
with hoses taken out of service as soon as that period has elapsed. It should be understood that

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this is a notional service life which could be reduced by service conditions


8.3.2 )

( see Section

It is incumbent on the FHA manufacturers and vendors to supply their products to recognised
International Standards that are able to perform in the specified service conditions. It is not the
responsibility of the user to define materials and construction to the manufacturer or vendor, but
rather to ensure that all service conditions likely to be encountered are specified.
The following selection guidelines should be used as a checklist for the provision of a detailed
specification to the FHA manufacturer or supplier.

6.3

Selection Guidelines

6.3.1

Responsibilities
When evaluating the performance and safe operational requirements of a FHA, it is important
that a dialogue is established between the Manufacturer/Vendor and the prospective customer.
FHAs should be chosen for their suitability with the proposed service conditions, by means
such as;
(a)
(b)
(c)

Referring to a manufacturers compatibility chart,


Consulting with the manufacturers or vendors representative.
Consultation with a material specialist and/or relevant engineering documents.

The initial parameters are illustrated in Figure 2.

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The following parameters should be considered prior to selection:


Customers Responsibility

Manufacturer / Vendor Responsibility

Dialogue
Media to be carried
Working Environment

Flow Requirements

Pressure Range
Temperature Range
Installation Geometry
Flexibility
Weight
Volumetric expansion
Earth bonding
Fire rating
Piping class
Erosion and abrasion
requirements
End Fittings
Other Requirements

Defines fluid composition and phase


for all foreseeable operating modes
Defines expected minimum and
maximum environmental conditions
including process or environmental
contaminants if relevant
Defines full range of flow conditions
( including pulsating flow, multi-phase
flow, limiting pressure drop
requirements )
Defines maximum and minimum
pressures ( including vacuum ) for all
foreseeable operating modes
Defines minimum and maximum
operating temperatures for all
foreseeable operating modes
Provide details of the proposed
geometry
Ensures the Flexible Hose Assembly is
installed as per Manufacturers
/Vendors recommendations.
Ensures the Flexible Hose Assembly is
installed as per Manufacturers
/Vendors recommendations.
Ensures the Flexible Hose Assembly is
installed as per Manufacturers
/Vendors recommendations.
Defines requirements
Defines requirements
Defines materials and pipe rating of
connecting pipework or equipment.
Ensures the Flexible Hose Assembly is
installed as per Manufacturers
/Vendors recommendations.
Defines requirements, including
materials, thread type and orientation
Specify any other relevant
information, which could affect
lifecycle performance.
If in doubt CONSULT manufacturer

Ensures compatibility of all components


Ensures compatibility of all components with all
specified fluids.
Defines construction requirements and hose bore
size
Ensures compatibility of all components with
specified range
Ensures compatibility of all components with
specified range
Assess geometry and advise customer on
feasibility, including lengthening, torsion etc
Advises minimum bend radius and other
installation limitations ( e.g. creep )
Defines weight and support requirements
Advises expansion performance and installation
requirements based on specified function and
hose properties.
Ensures electrical continuity of all components
Ensures compatibility of all components or
advises on fire resistance
Ensures compatibility of all components with
connected system
Ensures compatibility of all components
Ensures compatibility of all components
Ensures other measures are compatible or
advises user of consequences.

Figure 2 : Customer / Manufacturer / Vendor Interfaces

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Hose Length Calculations


In the majority of installations a hose is required to have at least one bend in its length. It is
essential that to obtain maximum expected life from a hose assembly, undue tension at the end
fittings due to bending must be avoided. The following information is intended to provide a
guide to ensure that the correct hose length is calculated for both static and flexing conditions.
To avoid tension on end fittings a short length of straight hose is required at each end of the unit
so that the bend starts away from the end fitting.
When establishing optimum FHA length, the following factors should be considered;
motion absorption,
flexible hose length due to pressure,
hose and machining tolerances.
The following figures explain how the optimal hose length should be calculated.

The hose immediately adjoining the coupling should


remain un-flexed for a length at each side of not less
than 6 times the outside diameter of the hose.
The formula for calculating the effective length of
the hose assembly is;
L = 2A + B + C + R
Where;
R
= minimum bend radius
A
= 6 x O.D.
B / C = Effective length of attached coupling
L

= Overall Length

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Extra length needs to be added to the hose to allow


for the flexing operation, therefore the extra length
of the hose to be allowed in assembly = M
The formula for calculating the assembly length is
L = 2A + B + C + R + M

6.5

Certification
The FHA should be supplied with a certificate, which includes the following as a minimum;

Manufacturers name
Manufacturers hose batch number
Manufacturing standard
Nominal size
Unique serial number
Actual inside and outside diameters
Materials of construction
Test pressure
Proof and burst pressure
Electrical continuity tests ( if applicable )
Year and month of manufacture

Fire rating

6.6 Marking
End fittings should be marked as specified for fittings and flanges, with the addition of the
manufacturers name and figure number for proprietary hose couplings. Threaded connections
should be marked with the thread form.
FHAs should have at least the following markings;

Manufacturers name
Manufacturers type name or code
Year of manufacture
Latest replacement date ( if applicable )
Maximum and minimum ( vacuum )working pressure
Maximum and minimum working temperature
Minimum bend radius (MBR)
Applicable national document or standard, class and/or type
Manufacturers hose batch number
Service
Nominal size
Unique serial number

7.0 CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION & COMMISSIONING


7.1 Objective
To ensure that Flexible Hose Assemblies are transported, stored, installed to design, and that
commissioning is satisfactorily completed.

7.2

Storage and Transportation

7.2.1

Storage
All FHA should be stored in clean dry conditions and hoses of rubber and composite
construction should be kept in a cool atmosphere protected from direct sunlight. Some hose
linings, if not protected prior to putting into service, have a finite shelf life. This should be
considered prior to use. New hoses should be issued on a first in first out basis to minimise
deterioration in storage
FHA, except when supplied in coiled lengths, should be laid out straight and flat and supported
along their length to prevent flattening, kinking or twisting. Other equipment should not be
stored on top of hoses.
Coiled FHAs should be end sealed to prevent ozone attack in storage.

7.2.2

Transportation
Individual hose wrapping should be used to protect braided FHAs without outer protection from
damage in transit.

7.3

Installation

7.3.1

Safe Handling of FHAs


FHAs should always be handled with reasonable care, and should not be subjected to overstraining. The design of hose supports and saddles should be designed to ensure minimum bend
radius is not compromised. Single rope slings and wires are not suitable for many support
applications since they can lead to local kinking, abrasion or non-compliance with minimum
bend radius requirements.
FHAs should never be forcefully deformed, crushed, twisted or subject to flow shut off by
kinking.
Avoid routing or dragging FHAs over sharp or abrasive surfaces.
FHAs should not be allowed to hang between equipment, or between vessels, plant and
installations or flotels that can move and cause the FHA to become over-bent or trapped.

7.3.2

Installation of Flexible Hose Assemblies


When designing equipment where FHA is to be used, it is important to consider whether the
hose is to be used in static or flexing conditions.
The following points should be noted when planning an installation;
(a)

It is essential that the mating couplings are completely free from foreign matter, burrs etc.
and are otherwise in sound condition.
Damage, corrosion or contamination to the mating surfaces will cause joint failure in
service.

(b)

The installed bend radius of the hose must not be less than the minimum bend radius
specified by the manufacturer during any worst-case conditions.

(c)

Union nuts should be hand tightened at both ends and the hose allowed to adopt its natural
position prior to tightening.
Excessive force should not be applied when tightening end connections i.e., long handled
spanners/wrenches should not be used. Correct tools should always be used which will not
cause damage that could then lead to degradation or failure.

(d)

FHA should not be installed in a twisted condition, since this puts unbalanced tension on
the hose and reduces the working life of the assembly.
The single or double line indicating the wire braiding strips serve as a guide, (or
Manufacturers specific marking system), for installing FHAs correctly.

(e)

The FHA should not be installed in applications where compression could occur. This can
cause the external braiding to birdcage ( i.e. the braided weave expands and opens ) and
result in a reduced pressure retaining capability.

(f)

The FHA should not be installed in applications where axial extension could occur. This
can cause the external braiding to be overstressed and may result in broken braid wires.
This will reduce the pressure retaining capability.

(g)

The FHA should not be installed in applications where torsion of the hose could occur.
This can cause the hose to be subjected to shear stresses for which it is not designed and
can result in premature failure. ( See Figure 3 )

Figure 3 : Hose Torsion

7.3.2

Fixed Applications
a)

Sufficient slack hose should be provided to compensate for any contraction in length,
(when subjected to pressure, braided hose may reduce in length). Clamps of the correct
size should be used to support the FHA where necessary. ( See figure 4 )

Figure 4 : Hose Length


b)

Excessive hose lengths should not be used, since this often results in the FHA being
severely bent into confined spaces. ( See figure 5 )

Figure 5 : Excessive hose length


c)

Should there be a risk of abrasion to the FHA from rough or sharp edges, moving parts etc.
FHA should be re-routed or clamps used where necessary to keep it clear from the
obstruction.

d)

Where sharp changes in direction are required, elbow couplings should be used, as this
avoids space congestion and does not stress the assembly. ( See figure 6 )

Figure 6 : Use of elbow couplings.


7.3.3

Flexing Application
(a)

Sufficient FHA length should be allowed to permit required movement. ( See figure 7 )

Figure 7 : Flexing applications

(b)

FHAs should not be bent to less than its minimum bend radius at any point during flexing.
( See figure 8 )

Figure 8 : Minimum bend radius


c)

Avoid hose bends in two planes whenever possible. Where this is impossible the use of
clamps should be employed. ( See figure 9 & 10 )

Figure 9 : Bends in two planes

Figure 10 : Bends in two planes

FHA Routing
7.4.1

General

FHA routing should have a good appearance, since this will probably ensure good technical
installation, better service functionality, use of less hose, fewer connections and fewer potential leak
sources.
(a) Route FHAs in straight lines following the contours of the equipment on which they are
used.
(b) Use brackets and clamps to secure them in position and to prevent excessive rubbing and
abrasion, whilst still allowing the intended movement of the hose.
(c) Use FHAs of the correct length.
(d) Use elbow couplings to provide more direct routing thus reducing the overall length and
associated bends in the system.
(e) Consider the effects of mechanical loads, such as twisting, kinking, tensile or side loads,
bend radius and vibration, which can significantly reduce FHA life. Use of swivel type
adaptors may be required to ensure that no twist is put into the hose during installation.
Unusual applications may require a special test program prior to final FHA selection.
(f) Avoid routing hoses ( especially temporary hoses ) where they would introduce additional
hazards. Hoses laid across walkways or traffic routes pose tripping hazards and damage
could occur to the hose. If such routing is unavoidable, particular care needs to be paid to the
impact on Emergency Escape Routes or necessary emergency mitigation measures. Hoses

containing flammable or toxic materials should not be routed through safe areas.
7.4.2

Minimum Bend Radius (MBR)


When a hose line is installed into an arrangement where it will be bent, the recommended
minimum bend radius must not be compromised.
Bending beyond the limits of the minimum bend radius is a problem often encountered during
flexing applications. Over bending can lead to damage to one or more of the hose construction
layers, flow impairment due to kinking, general overstress to hose and/or fittings. It should be
noted that for some hose types, over bending could damage the hose (e.g. deformed wire
reinforcement) even though there is no outward appearance of this. Caution is also needed
therefore in the handling of hose prior to installation. Enough hose should be provided to allow
for a movement. Fittings are not a flexible part of the assembly and continuous flexing of a
short hose assembly can tend to wear the hose at the point of connection with the fitting.
MBR is normally expressed as a ratio of bending radius v. hose diameter and is measured from
the hose centre line.

7.4.3

Bends & Clamps


To prevent twisting, the hose should be bent in the same plane as the motion of the item to which
it is connected. This cannot be achieved in a situation where a flexing hose is bent in
intersecting but different planes. At least one bend will be in the wrong plane and the hose will
tend to twist. To correct this the intersecting planes can be separated by using a longer hose
length with a clamp positioned at the point where the planes change. Care must be taken to
ensure that there is sufficient hose length in the flexing portion of the hose to allow the intended
movement. In effect the clamp serves to divide the hose into two assemblies. Provided the
section of hose is bent in the same plane as the movement, the bend will absorb the movement
and the hose will not twist.

7.4.4

Abrasion
Abrasion is a problem encountered in hose installations, constant abrasion at the same point on a
hose may wear through the outer cover and weaken the reinforcement to point of failure.
Abrasion is caused by contact with sharp edges, contact with moving parts, overlapping of hoses
and the improper use of clamps.
To avoid contact with sharp edges, or contact with moving parts, clamps can sometimes be
moved to different locations or attached to different points to move hoses away from the
abrasion area. Note: Any change in clamping arrangement should be assessed as part of a
formal design change procedure before implementation.

7.4.5

Temperature
Exposure to high ambient and service temperatures can drastically shorten the hose life by
affecting the outer cover and weakening the reinforcement. Hose line should be routed away

from hot manifolds or other high outside temperature sources whenever possible. If this is not
practical, a protective sleeve or baffle plate should be installed for protection.
Low ambient or service temperatures can impair the flexibility of the hose.

7.5 Commissioning
The technical requirements for commissioning, (ranging from pre-installation checking through
to commissioning of various types of mechanical equipment and associated systems) or
recommissioning, are dealt with in the subsequent sections under the headings listed below;
7.5.1

Cleaning & Flushing


All components used in a system should be cleaned and flushed prior to use, to prevent debris
being carried to other parts of the system and causing damage.

7.5.2

Pressure Testing
The preferred method of pressure testing ( see section 8.5 ) should be identified, to demonstrate
the integrity of the system prior to the introduction of any process fluids.
Owing to their complex compound structure 'Composite Flexible Pipes' demonstrate unusual
structural characteristics when being hydrostatically tested. Very slight growth, brought about by
relative movement of the various circumferential layers comprising the pipe, takes place with
respect to time, producing a distinct pressure time decay trend.
The volume of test fluid added to maintain test pressure should be accurately measured to
differentiate 'Composite Flexible Pipes characteristics from genuine leakage. Detailed
information should be obtained from the relevant manufacturer or vendor.

7.5.3

Electrical
The installation should be checked for electrical continuity or earthing if applicable.

7.5.4

Loss of Containment
Care should be exercised during commissioning activities, in particular with personnel working
in close proximity to un-tested joints, or joints that have been previously disturbed.
A risk assessment should be carried out prior to commencing commissioning activities to ensure
mitigating actions are in place and that all relevant personnel are fully conversant with the
activities to be performed.

8.0 OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE, INSPECTION and


TESTING
8.1 Objective
Development of a Maintenance and Inspection Strategy for FHAs using these guidelines or
other equivalent basis. The strategy should ensure that Inspection frequencies align with the
FHA criticality and risk assessment.

8.2

Tagging and Documentation


The inspection and maintenance strategy developed in accordance with section 8.3 below should
be documented and retained current. It is recommended that historical inspection and failure data
be recorded in a structured format to allow ready retrieval, as this will influence the inspection
and maintenance strategies.
A complete register of FHAs installed at any Installation should be created and kept current.
This should also include any temporary hoses brought onto the Installation for specific activities
e.g. shutdowns. Vendors supplying packaged units should supply current test certificates for any
hoses installed on their equipment, or used to connect to Installation/Plant services.
A suitably competent person should be nominated at each location to be responsible for
maintaining the hose register. It is recommended that the register should reside within the
locations Maintenance Management System.
The register should as a minimum record the following information:

Unique Identification Number


Year of manufacture
Length
Internal diameter
End connections
Location
Service
Criticality rating
Type of hose
Date of last inspection
Date of next inspection
Status at last inspection ( i.e. satisfactory, scrapped etc )
Latest replacement date

Each FHA should be identified with a unique number applied to the hose. Care should be taken
to ensure that the tag or its fixing, does not promote a local corrosion site, or create a site for
chafing or cutting the hose surface under operating conditions. The tag should align the hose
with the register.

8.3

Inspection Strategies
8.3.1 Strategy
A strategy should be applied jointly by the inspection and maintenance authorities to ensure the
integrity of FHAs and associated fittings installed on critical services such as flammable or
toxic fluids, high pressure water, chemical and high pressure fluid power systems.
The preferred strategy should include routine replacement of FHAs with a new certified
assembly where any doubt of the FHA condition or history exists. Otherwise the design life
defines the replacement date.
The responsibilities for implementing the requirements of this document are detailed below:
It is the responsibility of a competent person e.g. the Head of Maintenance or the
Plant/Installation Senior Maintenance Engineer, to ensure that a risk assessment has been carried
out ( see Section 5.0 ) and that the following criteria are met:

8.3.2

FHAs are classified as applicable. ( Section 5.4 and Table 4 )

All FHAs are recorded in a centralised register

Periodic inspection routines are in place and reviewed routinely in consultation with the
Inspection Department.

The maintenance strategy is reviewed periodically.

Only authorised, competent personnel are permitted to install, inspect and maintain flexible
hose lines.

Accurate informative records are kept. ( Section 8.2 )

Inspection Criteria & Frequency


The inspection frequency and criteria should be developed from the risk assessment derived
from the classification system in Section 5.4.
The expected rate of degradation and the nature of the contents should govern the frequency and
type of inspection of registered systems. This implies a local judgement and in this regard note
should also be taken of the history to date and of the associated scale of activities. Inspection and
replacement cycles are based on a bandwidth, and therefore, providing sufficient documentation
exists local judgement should be used to identify the frequency within the band limits.
Consultation may be made with the appropriate manufacturer/vendor.
The factors to be considered include:
(a) Deterioration rates based on knowledge and experience with the actual FHA, or with the
process or materials of construction on similar systems.

(b)

Materials, method of construction and sophistication of design generally, including novel


or unusual features.

(c)

Support, expansion, contraction characteristics with changes in temperature.

(d)

Line contents at a temperature in excess of the atmospheric boiling point (note also
cryogenic materials).

(e)

Line contents in excess of their auto ignition temperature.

(f)

Line contents, which include toxic or corrosive material.

NOTE: In service, FHAs are subjected to a wide variety of conditions dependent on the
equipment and environment and overall, a general estimate of hose life is not possible.
Consequently it can only be recommended that records be kept with a view to
establishing a working life for each application.
For guidance Table 5 may be utilised to determine Inspection frequency. However, users have a
responsibility to ensure that inspection periods take full account of actual service conditions and
operating history for each FHA and consequence of failure, which may change the general
recommendations contained in this table. Manufacturers advice should be taken into account as
appropriate. Use of inspection frequencies significantly in excess of manufacturers
recommendations should be critically reviewed and justified by the user.
Flexible Hose Inspection Frequency Recommendations
Visual Inspection

Hose Replacement

Frequency *

Frequency *

Up to 5 years

As required

Up to 3 years

Up to 10 years

Up to 2 years

Up to 5 years

Up to 6 months

Up to 2 years

Class

Flexible hose assemblies are not normally suitable in this Class

Table 5: Inspection Frequencies


NOTE; * Maximum frequencies as detailed in Table 5, can only be achieved if justified by
sufficient historical evidence of the hose condition. Asset Teams should inspect and
replace hoses more frequently if abnormal failure rates are detected.

Temporary Hoses.
All FHAs in temporary service should be inspected and tested before use and regularly
monitored during service.
In general temporary FHAs should be inspected on a regular on-going basis, as recommended
in these guidelines. The frequency and degree of the inspection should follow the guidelines.
Periodical Visual Inspection
Visual inspection of the hose body for cuts, kinks, bulges, signs of abrasion, corrosion
products etc. Particular attention should be focused close to the end fitting for signs of overbending. Visual inspection should also be carried out on hose connections, including any
static half coupling to which the hose is to be connected.
A competent person should carry out the inspection. The observations should be logged.
The interval between inspections is dependent upon criticality of service, environment the
FHA is operating in, consequence of failure and hose use (service duration)
8.3.3

Inspection
Inspection may be delegated to a specialist hose management company as appropriate, however,
the operator maintains the responsibility for the inspection work and resultant actions. Whether
in-house personnel or specialist contractors are used to inspect hoses, it is essential that they be
trained to recognise the significance of any defects found.
FHA inspection should include both a physical inspection of actual FHA products and collation
of data for the hose register to provide historical records to enable periodic inspection routines to
be drawn up and planned along with providing an automatic retrieval of data for re-ordering
FHAs.
FHAs should be physically located and visually examined for defects, see Section 8.5.

8.3.4

Inspection Documentation/Reporting
Inspection results should be recorded according to company and/or local site arrangements and
would typically comprise;

Raise Job Card ( as applicable ) to local site procedures for remedial/correcting action for
defective FHAs.

An Inspection Field Summary Report should typically be raised detailing defects and any
issues of immediate concern, and submitted to the local responsible person for action.

An Inspection Technical/Close Out Report should be raised detailing the overall


inspection. This would typically include recommendations to alleviate problems or

defects found and contain the register of the FHAs inspected in the form of data sheets
or drawings.

Replacement Strategy
Where it is considered uneconomic or excessive plant downtime would occur, a replacement
strategy can be adopted where the FHA is exchanged on a like-for-like basis. The hose register
should be consulted to identify if any common mode failures are occurring. Root cause analysis
should be carried out to identify the failure mechanism. This strategy should only be adopted
where it does not increase risk.
Should an alternative FHA be selected, this constitutes a modification and a full risk analysis
should be carried out with reference to sections 5.0. and 9.0 of this document

8.5

Rejection Criteria
As a guide, the FHA should be rejected and removed from service under the class dependant
failure conditions given in Table 6. FHAs displaying developing signs of these criteria, but
judged not yet to warrant replacement might require increased frequency of monitoring to
provide assurance against unacceptable degradation.
8.5.1

Installation Geometry
Initially the FHA should be visually inspected for the installation geometry;
Defect

Action

Over bending

Reject if less than minimum bend radius

Axial extension

Reject

Axial compression

Reject

Clashes or rubbing

Investigate and eliminate

Induced torsion

Reject

Table 6 : Visual Examination - Installation geometry


The first four of the above defects are all the result of either a flexible hose assembly of the
wrong length for the installation, or of a poor design.
Induced torsion is normally due to poor installation practices or of a poor design where torsion is
induced into the hose during movement.

8.5.2

Detailed Examination

This is followed by a more detailed examination of the flexible hose assembly as detailed in
Table 7.

Defect found

Acceptable Levels
Class 1

End fitting corrosion

Bulged braid at fitting


Braid damage

Broken braid wires

Visible leakage
Lack of electrical
continuity
Excessive hardening or
softening of the hose
( aging )
Excessive cuts,
blisters, kinks,
abrasion, mechanical
damage, elongation
under test

Class 2

Class 3 or 4

Class 5

Moderate not
affecting safe
function
10% of hose
diameter
Slight dents or
local disruption
of pattern
10% of total
number evenly
distributed and
with no more
than 2 in any one
carrier
Not permitted

Slight not
affecting safe
function
5% of hose
diameter
Slight dents

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

5% of total
number evenly
distributed and
with no more
than 2 in any one
carrier
Not permitted

Not more than 5


wires in total and
not more than 1
in any one carrier

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted
subject to
judgement on
extent and
consequence of
failure

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted

Not permitted
subject to
judgement on
extent and
consequence of
failure

Not permitted

Not permitted

Table 7 : Rejection Criteria


NOTE :
If any doubt exists on the integrity of the flexible hose assembly, then it should be replaced
as soon as possible, regardless of the criteria in Tables 6 or 7.

8.6 Pressure Testing of Flexible Hose Assemblies


If it has been agreed that a pressure test is to be used to assess the integrity of a FHA, then, insitu pressure testing can be performed to verify the integrity of the complete assembly. The test
pressure should be 110% of the design working pressure unless the hose remains connected to a
system protected by a relief valve, in this case 95% design pressure should be used.
Reference should be made to any relevant local Safety Codes of Practice.
Personnel involved with the control of pressure testing must be aware of the hazards associated
with, and experienced in the procedures and precautions required when, pressure testing any
equipment.
Personnel involved in testing activities of any kind shall be experienced in pressure testing
procedures and shall be fully conversant with the specific requirements, precautions and
procedures specified for relevant tests.
The most sensitive method for a quantifiable leak test is using nitrogen with a helium trace.
Other methods such as a bubble test and other media such as water, diesel, air or inert gas are
also used.
Operators and duty holders should quantify the acceptable leakage criteria for a particular
installation by assessment of its hazard potential, taking into account local factors such as joint
location, toxicity of service fluid, open or closed modules and the operators environmental
policy.

9.0 MODIFICATIONS OR CHANGE OF SERVICE


CONDITIONS
9.1 Objective
To ensure that the integrity of FHAs is retained both during and after modification or change of
service conditions.

9.2 Changing Conditions


The user should be aware of changing conditions, which may move the FHA away from the
original design intent.
Changes can include, but not be limited to the following;

9.3

Process conditions ( e.g. pressure, temperature, flow, fluids )

Functional change

Pipe work configuration

Environmental conditions

Alternative hose type

Risk assessment
If modifications to the system are required or when the process conditions have changed, then, a
full risk assessment in accordance with section 5.3, should be carried out to ensure any proposed
changes do not degrade the functionality of the FHA.

9.4

Change Control
All changes in use or application should be recorded with a justification in the local change
control procedure.

9.5 Modifications
Flexible hose assembly construction must not be modified in any way.

10.0 DECOMMISSIONING
10.1 Objective
To ensure that FHAs are properly decommissioned and do not impact on the integrity of
other systems

10.2 Disposal
FHAs, which have been identified as surplus to requirements, should either be retained as a
usable spare or removed from the location. They should be identified with previous
application, location and service life in the hose register.
FHAs which have been identified as being unfit for purpose should have the end fittings
removed and the main carcass of the hose marked as Scrap . It should then be disposed of
in line with local disposal segregation procedures taking into account any de-contamination
requirements (e.g. LSA, chemicals etc). Failure to decontaminate FHAs that have been in
hazardous service may render them special waste.
The opportunity to test hoses to destruction, after they have been de-contaminated, should
be taken to build up operational knowledge. The hose register should be updated (see
section 8.1)

10.3 Transportation
FHAs should be cleaned prior to transportation and labelled if they contained any
substance, which could be considered hazardous to health ( COSHH ).

10.4 Change Control


All changes in use or application should be recorded with a justification in the local change
control procedure. The local FHA register should be updated to reflect current status.

10.5 Partial Decommissioning


Where FHAs form part of systems that are only being partially decommissioned, care is
required to assess the impact of the decommissioning on the retained plant. Suitable risk
assessments should be conducted as appropriate and recorded as part of the change
procedure.

11.0 REFERENCES
1.

ISO 1307

Rubber and plastic hoses for general purpose Industrial


applications.

2.

ISO 8331

Rubber and Plastics hoses and hose assemblies


Guide to selection, storage, use and maintenance

3.

ISO 7313

High temperature convoluted hose assemblies


in PTFE

4.

ISO 10380

Corrugated flexible metallic hose and hose assemblies

5.

SAE AS 1339 Rev e

Society of Automotive Engineers.


Hose assembly, PTFE, Metallic Reinforced

6.

BS1435

Rubber hoses for Oil Suction and Discharge,


Specifications for the assembly of, and recommendations
for the storage, testing and use of.

7.

API 17 B

American Petroleum Institute, Recommended Practice

8.

IP Guidelines

Institute of Petroleum, Model Code of Safe Practice


Part 1, Electrical Safety Code, 6th Edition ( 1991 ).

9.

BFPA / P47

British Fluid Power Association


Guidelines to the use of Hydraulic Fluid Power Hose and
Hose Assemblies

10.

BS 6501

11.

HSE Guidance Note


GS4 ( Third edition )

Flexible Metallic Hose Assemblies


Part 1. Specification for corrugated hose assemblies
Safety in Pressure Testing

12.0 APPENDICES
Appendix 1

Personnel Competency Requirements

Appendix 2

Legal Requirements

Appendix 3

Human Factors Associated with Flexible Hose Assemblies

Appendix 4

Hose Construction

Appendix 5

Hose Failures

Appendix 6

Hose checklist

Appendix 1
A1.1

Personnel Competency Requirements

General

All personnel that are required to design, specify, install, maintain or inspect systems containing
flexible hose assemblies, should have training commensurate with their responsibilities.
The content of the training should include the general requirements of safety, selection, installation
and inspection.
A1.2

Authorised Personnel

The authorisation process should be implemented by each offshore installation or onshore site.
The content of training should include the general requirements of safety, selection, installation and
inspection.
Each person should be registered and maintain their competency by attending regular training and
have their ability to perform tasks routinely assessed.
A1.3

Competency Matrix

The following matrix provides a typical competence profile;


Activity
Material selection
Material conformance with
design
Internal / external conditions
Reduction of joints
Material handling
Material preparation
Basic installation
Complex installation
Conditions of use ( restrictions )
Inspection and testing
Re-make limitations
Non conformance identification

Designer
S
A

Installer
A
S

Maintainer
A
S

Operator
A
A

Inspector
A
S

S
S
K
K
K
K
K
K
A
K

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
K
K
S

S
K
K
S
S
K
S
K
S
S

A
A
A
K
K
K
S
K
S
S

S
S
K
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

Criteria;
S = Skilled

K = Knowledgeable

A = Aware

A1.4

Competence Assurance, Registration and Training Requirements

There should be a formal competency assurance scheme, which ensures that all personnel (company
and contractor) required for work on FHAs are formally assessed as being competent to carry out
the range of allotted tasks. Such schemes should cover the range of knowledge and task skills
appropriate to the range of flexible hose and components encountered on the installations or plants
to be worked on. The scheme should ensure the long-term retention of competence by the periodic
reassessment of personnel. For guidance purposes, an example of the range of knowledge and tasks
skills specific to FHAs is provided in paragraph A1.3 above.
Personnel assessed as being competent should be registered as being authorised to carry out that
range of tasks. There should be a formal authorisation process, including the retention of a current
register of authorised personnel.
It is recommended that management procedures ensure that vendor personnel employed on shortterm construction or maintenance work are competent to carry out the range of work to be
undertaken and that their competency is recorded in the register of authorised personnel. The work
should be subject to additional supervision and once complete, additional inspection prior to
commissioning.
A1.5

Personnel Training

Only competent personnel should work with FHAs.


Personnel employed on the installation or maintenance of FHAs should have appropriate
background skills and experience, ( e.g. instrument or mechanical discipline technicians with
general engineering skills and experience ).
Installation or maintenance personnel who have not satisfied the competence assurance
requirements should receive supplementary training and/or supervised on the job experience
necessary to meet the competency requirements before being added to the register of authorised
personnel.
Operational personnel should receive training appropriate to their duties.

Appendix 2

Legal Requirements

NOTE: The following section addresses the health and safety regulations relevant to the UK
offshore industry, for which these guidelines have been primarily produced. For onshore locations,
other regulations may apply.
It is a legal requirement under health & safety law that those responsible for work activities ensure
that:

Hazards are adequately identified


Risks are adequately assessed
Suitable control measures are put in place

Measures should be taken to eliminate or control risks unless the cost of doing so is
disproportionate to the level of risk. Where it is not possible to remove the risk, then the
arrangements for managing the activity safely are particularly important.
The main health & safety regulations affecting the use and management of flexible hose assemblies
offshore include the following:
1. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER).
These regulations aim to ensure the provision of safe work equipment and its safe use. They
include general duties for employers covering the selection of suitable equipment,
maintenance, information, instruction and training. They also address the need for
equipment to control hazards. As well as use by duty holders, flexible hoses are often
associated with equipment that may be introduced by other parties who may be affected by
the regulations such as contractors, consultants, suppliers, etc. who employ people.
2. Pressure Equipment Regulations (PER) 1999; Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000
(PSSR);
The PER apply to design, manufacture and conformity assessment of pressure equipment
and assemblies operating at a pressure >0.5 barg.
The aim of the PSSR is to prevent serious injury from the hazard of a release of stored
energy of a relevant fluid because of the failure of a pressure system of any of its
components. The regulations are concerned with equipment in service.
Flexible Hose Assemblies may form part of pressurised systems covered by these
regulations.

3. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR)
The DCR cover requirements for verification of safety critical elements (as defined in the
regulations) by independent competent persons. This may relate to flexible hose assemblies
if they are deemed safety critical.
4. Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 (SCR)
The primary aim of the SCR is to reduce the risks from major accidents to the health and
safety of employees on offshore installations. The safety case produced for offshore
installations is required to demonstrate the provision of a suitable management system to
ensure that relevant statutory provisions are met, that adequate audit and audit reporting
arrangements are made and that major accident hazards are identified, risks are evaluated
and measures taken to reduce the risks to affected people to ALARP.
5. Offshore Installations ( Prevention of Fire and Explosion, and Emergency Response )
Regulations 1995 (PFEER).
Performance standards are required under the PFEER regulations such that operators of
Installations subject to the SCR are required to perform a process of assessment which;

- identifies fire and explosion major accident hazards and major hazards with the
potential to require evacuation, escape or rescue, (EER),
- evaluates the likelihood and consequences of these events,
identifies the measures needed to recover from these events, and
- identifies performance standards for the measures adopted to protect persons from
fires and explosions and ensure effective EER.
The results of the process are summarised in the Safety Case for the Installation.
6. Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWAct)
The HSW Act places duties on employers to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the
health & safety of their employees, and others who may be affected by their undertaking.
These general duties are supported by the requirement in Regulation 3 of the Management
of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MHSWR) for employers to undertake risk
assessments by competent person(s) for the purpose of identifying the measures which need
to be put in place to prevent accidents and protect people

Appendix 3 Human Factors Associated with Flexible Hose


Assemblies
Accidents or failures involving flexible hose assemblies can frequently be traced back, in whole or
in part, to a failure in human understanding, action or response. Operating hoses may pose hazards
to personnel, requiring appropriate control measures such as procedures and use of good practice to
minimise risk.
Human failure may frequently be attributed to:

lack of awareness of hose characteristics, function and limitations, or


operator error or a failure to comply with procedures, or
lack of adequate procedures, or
lack of training or competence.

These Guidelines address many of the good practice issues concerning design, installation,
maintenance, inspection and testing of hoses. In particular, Section 8 contains guidance on
personnel competency and training management and Appendix 1 contains guidance on required
skills level.
The following sub-sections aim to highlight some specific areas affected by human involvement,
some of which may also be further discussed elsewhere in the document. This appendix should not
be regarded as an exhaustive identification of relevant issues.
A3.1

Lack of awareness of hose characteristics, function and limitations.

Flexible Hose assemblies are typically complex structures comprising couplings of various designs
and flexible hose comprising multi-layered material and reinforcements. Each layer serves a
specific purpose that may include chemical or abrasion resistance, structural strength or physical
protection. Only surface layers are normally visible. Hoses may be used in flowing fluid service or
static pressurised service. Hose construction, length, materials, and installation arrangement will
have been carefully considered at the design stage.
Personnel responsible for specifying, using, maintaining or inspecting hoses should be aware of the
elements of construction of a hose assembly and their contribution and application to the specific
use. This is important if they are to avoid incorrect use or recognise when a hose no longer meets
the required integrity.
The scope for hoses to be used in multiple duties is high. If not properly controlled, this can lead to
failures if hoses are subsequently used in services for which they were not originally designed or
specified in all respects. For example, a hydraulic power hose of identical specification to another
failed hose, but of different length, may be used to replace the damaged hose. However, the
difference in length may itself be the cause of failure of the replacement hose due to exceeding
minimum bend radius, excess distortion under operation due to movement, additional loads due to
inadequate or inappropriate support, etc.

A failure to fully appreciate design limitations can lead to a failure to recognise the implications of
a change of service, and the need to reassess the design ( Section 9.2 - management of change).
Changing service conditions (e.g. fluid composition) over the life of equipment could result in a
hose being used in conditions for which it was not originally specified, placing it at increased risk
of failure. It should be remembered that changing conditions can apply to both internal and external
elements of the hose assembly, e.g. subsequent addition of external heat tracing or insulation to a
hose to overcome a process condition changes the external environment and could create a new
corrosion hazard to external reinforcement or affect other layer performance.
A3.2

Operator error or a failure to comply with procedures:

Operator error can occur due to a lack of understanding, inadequate training or competence,
violation of procedures, or poor culture. There is a particular risk when FHAs are used as part of a
temporary arrangement.
It should be recognised that the flexibility offered by a flexible hose assembly is not a remedy for
poor installation. The availability of adaptors for end connections requires control to help avoid
flexible hose assemblies being put to a use for which they were not intended.
A3.3

Lack of adequate procedures:

Suitable procedures are a necessary feature for well managed systems involving hazardous plant.
For permanently installed systems using flexible hose assemblies, there should be appropriate
procedures in place. Where necessary, these should highlight safety critical features concerning
handling and use of those assemblies. The flexible properties of flexible hose assemblies can lead to
the assumption that they may be used in a wide range of applications. This assumption may not
always be justified, even in apparently similar duties.
Particular care is needed with temporary facilities to ensure that, additionally, necessary short-term
procedures are in place. Temporary procedures may be required, linked to the Permit to Work
system or other safety management scheme.
A3.4

Lack of training or competence:

A variety of flexible hose assemblies may be found on any installation fulfilling different functions.
Section 8 of this guidance document outlines necessary requirements for competency and training.
A3.5

Hazards to personnel:

Flexible hose assemblies come in a wide range of sizes and are used in both permanent and
temporary duties. Manual handling of hoses either in the free and uninstalled state or in service
needs consideration if weight (including weight of contents) or bulk is excessive, or if release of
pressurised fluids from nozzles, etc. can cause whiplash movements causing a loss of control of
discharges.
Poorly supported or restrained flexible hose assemblies may present tripping hazards, or impact
hazards from assembly collapse or movement.

The transfer of hot fluids and its potential for operator contact with hot surfaces needs
consideration.
Flexible hose assemblies handled by operators may contain hazardous substances. Care needs to be
exercised to prevent splashes, jets, sprays or other contact with harmful contained fluids when
disassembling or handling hoses. Care is required to ensure that no residues remain in hoses that
could be incompatible with further usage ( See section 10.1 )
Flexible hose assemblies used manually by operators need careful handling since if the hose
becomes blocked as this could suddenly release. Never look into a hose that is connected to a
pressure system, even if the system is believed to be isolated.

Appendix 4
A4.1

Hose Construction

Basic Hose Design


It is important to understand some elements of basic hose design and the function of the
various hose components. This will help explain the reason for some hose failures.
There are three basic layers in any hose construction. First, there is an inner lining or tube,
secondly there is reinforcement and finally there is an outer cover. Each contributes to the
integrity of the hose but may have to be supported in carrying out that role by additional
components in the hose construction.

A4.2

Tube or Inner Lining


The function of the inner lining or tube is to act as a seal against the fluid being conveyed
through the hose. Breakdown of this layer always results in a hose failure and therefore the
tube has to be very resistant both physically and chemically to the materials being conveyed,
throughout the agreed service life.

A4.3

Reinforcing Layers
The reinforcement provides the ultimate strength of the hose i.e. to achieve the designed
working pressure and the final burst pressure. Each type of reinforcement gives different
properties to the finished product. Reinforcement layers can be single, wide spaced, spiral
cords, bias laid fabric, braided constructions of fabric or relatively fine wire. For highpressure constructions several layers that are constructed from spiral laid, heavy duty, wire
cords are normally used. As the reinforcement increases the hose becomes stronger but very
much more rigid, approaching ultimately, an equivalent to a solid pipe; hence the
terminology flexible pipes used to describe some subsea oil carrying hoses.
The angle of application of the reinforcement, cord, textile or wire is extremely important
since it is the angle of lay, which determines how the hose will react under pressure. In
general the hose designer aims to achieve an angle of 54 44 classed as the neutral angle, at
which there would be no movement in length or diameter whilst the hose is under pressure
since the hoop stress, attempting to burst the hose and the axial stress trying to stretch the
hose are balanced when this condition is met.
If the angle of lay is higher than the neutral angle then under pressure the hose will increase
in length and reduce in diameter. If the angle of lay is lower than the neutral angle, then the
hose will shorten and the diameter will increase. Clearly both of these conditions could have
serious implications for hoses in service especially those in a restricted condition i.e. fixed at
both ends prior to pressurising.
In a few cases, the reinforcement is laid axially and radially, so that the length of hose can
be rolled in a lay-flat condition without distressing the construction; fire hoses are of this
type of construction and being free at one end a change in length under pressure is not
critical to their function.
Burst pressures are calculated from the strength of the reinforcement in the hoop direction
where the formulae used take into consideration the method of application and angle of lay
of each layer of reinforcement.

Each hose is designed to work to a pressure safety factor. As a guide ISO 1307 gives factors
4:1 burst pressure to working pressure, for power hoses i.e. those hoses likely to take shock
loads; 6:1 for hoses working with a gaseous medium and 10:1 for those working with steam.
Offshore drilling mud hoses have a safety factor of 2.5:1 and choke and kill system hoses
working at very high pressures i.e. 15000 psi, of 2.25:1. These later safety factors are a
compromise to allow maximum hose flexibility for the expected service conditions.
A4.4

Covers
The outer cover protects the reinforcement layers from the weather, from abrasion in
service, from chemical spillage or from impact damage. These covers must be designed for
resistance to all expected service conditions over the life of the hose including the possibility
of abuse in storage or in their working condition.

A4.5

End Terminations
End terminations convert a hose into a hose assembly. With the smaller bore and power
hoses these are usually based on a crimped fitment. Whilst this reduced the size of the inner
bore, performance is not affected, as such hoses do not deliver fluids but function as a
flexible power transmitter..
For drilling hoses and oil production hoses, terminations have been developed so that they
are built into the body of the hose with no restriction to the flow or reduction in bore size.
These fitments are usually classed as bonded and are fixed in place with an epoxy resin.

Appendix 5
A5.1

Hose Failures

Hose Failures
Almost all hose failures occur in three discrete time scales, early failures where the product
has survived no longer than 10% of its expected life, random failures during service, and
wear down failures where a hose has been used well beyond a reasonable life or has been
exposed to unexpected fluids or service conditions.

A5.2

Early Failures
Manufacturing defects are the main cause of early failures and they are usually associated
with one of the three main hose layers being compromised. Grit or other contamination
within the lining can erode leaving a minimal wall thickness to cope with the internal fluid.
Under service conditions, cracks propagate from the damaged area and breakthrough occurs.
Further manufacturing defects can be caused by leaving fabrics uncovered particularly in the
termination area, which allows ingress of water, then corrosion of the reinforcement and
early failure occurs.
Nitrile lined hoses are not designed to be resistant to ozone, as their anticipated service
would be with oil based products or hydraulic fluids. It is in long term storage that they
break down particularly when they are distorted under the weight of several coils; here the
linings crack even before service life begins.
Another common early failure occurs when hoses are fitted in an over bent condition. This
often occurs when a hose is replaced on an emergency basis following a previous incident.
Reactive procurement will often result in a hose too long for the job being purchased,
because it is readily available. It may then be forcibly fitted into the available space
becoming distorted or over bent. Over bending causes excess movement of the lay angles of
the reinforcement creating unsupported windows in the hose structure and the internal
pressure forces the lining through the gaps causing failure to occur.

A5.3

Random Failures
Random failures of hoses are typically caused by impact damage, abuse and corrosion of
reinforcements.
Offshore environmental conditions are often severe in terms of wind velocity, hoses may
hang unprotected from the elements and where not adequately clamped can come into
impact and abrasion conditions, which damage the outer covers. Once damaged, ingress of
salt water or other fluids causes rapid corrosion of wire cords and weakening of bond
strength to epoxy cement. Safety ratio of burst pressure to working pressure is no longer
maintained and failure occurs.
Many hose failures occur randomly because of misuse. For example, it is not uncommon
for hydraulic hoses designed for transmission of power, not the transfer of fluid, to be used
to deliver a wide range of fluids. Methanol injection is one application where standard
nitrile lined hydraulic hoses have been used and have failed after plasticiser loss has caused
embrittlement and fracture.

Inadequate communication and realisation of the effects of evolving technology has resulted
in FHA failures. For example, the introduction of environmental drilling muds, ester or
vegetable oil based has caused failures to outer covers of hoses. It is common for both
products to use polychloroprene as outer weather protection. However, polychloroprene and
some other rubber types are not resistant to these muds. They swell, weaken, loose
insulation and protective properties then fail.
A5.4

Wear Down Failures


Wear down failures should not occur where FHAs are subject to a rigorous inspection
regime ( Section 8.2 ) and change-out times are not exceeded. Over-extended use may result
in failure from dry linings, caused by plasticiser removal and weakening due to hardening
by amines.

A5.6

Examples of Hose Failures

The following have been included for information only, and show some typical examples of
hose damage.

PICTURE 1
Picture 1:

Outer cover damaged allowing water ingress

PICTURE 2
Picture 2 : Outer cover abraded allowing water ingress and corrosion of the
reinforcements

PICTURE 3
Picture 3 : Damage to external braids
PICTURE 4
Picture 4 : Damage to outer cover allowing severe corrosion to reinforcements

PICTURE 5
Picture 5 : Cover cracked allowing water ingress

Appendix 6 Hose Checklist.


The following is provided as an example of minimum information requirements, where possible the
FHA manufacturer or vendors specification sheet should be used to ensure that all relevant
information is provided and the correct FHA for the application is supplied.

Media to be carried
Working
Environment

Flow Requirements

Pressure Range
Temperature Range
Volumetric
expansion
Earth bonding
Fire rating
Piping class
Erosion and abrasion
requirements
End Fittings
Other Requirements

Customers Responsibility to
define requirements
Defines fluid composition and
phase for all foreseeable operating
modes
Defines expected minimum and
maximum environmental
conditions including process or
environmental contaminants if
relevant
Defines full range of flow
conditions
( including pulsating flow, multiphase flow, limiting pressure drop
requirements )
Defines maximum and minimum
pressures ( including vacuum ) for
all foreseeable operating modes
Defines minimum and maximum
operating temperatures for all
foreseeable operating modes
.
Ensures the Flexible Hose
Assembly is installed as per
Manufacturers /Vendors
recommendations.
Defines requirements
Defines requirements
Defines materials and pipe rating of
connecting pipework or equipment.
Defines any erosion or abrasion
issues
Defines requirements, including
materials, thread type and
orientation
Specify any other relevant
information, which could affect
lifecycle performance.
If in doubt CONSULT
manufacturer