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Aspects of Gas Deliverability

WILLIAM HURST
WILLIAM C. GOODSON'
RUSSelL E. LEESER
MEMBERS AIME

ABSTRACT
Three aspects of gas deliverability are presented in this
paper. The first treats with the gas deliverability or availability of a normal depletion-type dry gas field. Such
encompasses not only the period of stabilized constant
rate, but more so, the "tailings" when a fixed abandonment pressure is reached and the rate by necessity must
decline. A comprehensive work plot is offered, developed
from mathematics herein included, that removes the tria iand-err"r computatiol1S that attended such undertakings in
the past.
The second part treats with the discount factor of the
open flow potential constant from what is observed initially
in testing a gas well to what is evidenced when stabilization
is reached. This prevails in tight formations, such as the
Kansas Hugoton field which is offered as the example.
The means of establishing this factor are pressure build-up
curves which, as sustained by analytical deductions, reproduce this entire period of transient flow under conditions
of a constant rate inflUX.
Finally, what is offered in this paper is the deliverability
performance of an exceedingly rich gas condensate field
producing from a tight formation. The example shown is
the Knox Bromide field in Oklahoma, producing from
the Bromide formations. The results are ominous, showing
early reduction in permeability to gas flow, due to the
retrograde condensate forming in the pore space, with
the attending early logging-up of these wells. The analytics
of lowered permeability are incorporated in the gas deliverability formula along with the PVT data that gives the
increased condensate liquid saturation as the gas flows to
the wellbore.
This paper would not be complete without a critique
offered at the end. With the many gas wells now in production and those that have completed their life, there has
been no factual information collected by any source as to
what constitutes that permeability range where a gas well
would be unimpaired in its gas deliverability by the presence of rich condensate content, and the lowered range
where such would be harmful. This question confronts all
producers.

INTRODUCTION
Various aspects of gas deliverability are presented in
this paper that includes depletion-type reservoirs, deterioraOriginal manuscript received in Society of Petroleum Engineers office
Feb. 6, 1962. Revised manuscript received Jan. 24, 1963. Paper pr.esented at Economics and Valuation Symposium, March 15-16, 1962, In
Dallas, Tex.
':'Now partner in Fraser, Goodson and Willits, Dallas, Tex.
668

SPE 262

PETROLEUM CONSULTANT
HOUSTON, TEX.
REPUBLIC NATURAL GAS CO.
DALLAS, TEX.
THE BRITISHAMERICAN OIL PRODUCING CO.
DALLAS, TEX.

tion factor of the gas deliver ability consta~t, and !he


performance of a rich gas condensate reservOir producmg
..
from a tight sand.
.
With respect to the presentation of gas dehv~rabIhty
and its tailings for depletion-type gas ~eservOlrs, one
notes that this is essentially the informatIOn offered .by
every gas transmission company and producer appearmg
before the Federal Power Commission for Letters of
Conveyance in the dedication of reserves.
.
In the ordinary procedure, as many engage upon t~IS
study, trial-and-error calculations are included, particularly as apply to the tailings. For. many years one of
the writers has employed mathematical analyses to. perform this step and avoid the complexities so assocIated.
In the preparation of this paper these analyses have been
amplified to include any slope n fo~. the open flow
potential relationship for which the taIlmgs can be determined from Fig. 1.
With reference to the deterioration or discount factor
of the open flow potential constant as such occurs in the
gas deliverability formula, this for the .most part has been
an unexplored subject. Although the Issue first appe~red
in the Kansas Hugoton field, where such was surml~ed
but only recently resolved, this situation of a deterioratIOn
of the gas deliverability constant can occur wherever dry
gas production from a tight sand is encountered.
The first concerted attacks upon this problem were the
presentations of Hurst' and Goodson' befo~e the ~ansas
Corporation Commission to show that .translent. flUId flow
and unsteady-state flow formulas prevaIled. ThiS. ",:as .amplified later before the Federal Power C?mm.lssIOn" to
show that this deterioration factor could be IdentIfied from
pressure build-up curves. This has. been repor~ed by
McMahon.' Its importance to the mdustry merIts the
review of these essential features in completing the program on the aspects of gas deliverability.
Finally, as illustrated here, for a low permeability formation such as the Knox Bromide field where the gas
is rich representing some 165 bbl of condensate per
MMcf 'of effluent gas, the gas deliver ability can be .of
limited extent in the life of the field, leaving substantial
amounts of condensate and gas unrecovered. In cases such
as this, gas cycling is mandatory. This is particularly !evealed by the fluid mechanics introduced here, employm.g
factual field as well as laboratory data, to show thiS
restriction upon gas deliverability.
PRESSURE DEPLETION
What will now be offered is the study of gas deliverlReferences given at end of paper,
JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

In its simplest form, the material balance equation can


be stated as

ability or availability for a normal pressure depletion-type


dry gas reservoir. Not only is such information presented
before the Federal Power Commission, but it is of equal
importance in the evaluation of property in observing
yearly incomes.
In connection with such presentations, contractual agreements often stipulate that gas will be sold on a ratio of
1 :8, meaning that 1 MMcf of gas will be produced each
day for every 8 billion cu ft of recoverable reserves initially in place. This is usually to encompass a 20-year
period. Although this exact ratio is 1 :7,300, the use of
the smaller ratio is to include the tailings that represent
the decline in rate of gas production when a fixed BHP
is reached, or its abandonment pressure, that all told will
approximate this 20-year period.
With respect to the stabilized rate of gas production
over most of this time, no particular problem is involved,
as such is straight numerical calculations, contingent on
the accuracy of the reserves and the open flow potentials.
However, when the tailings are encountered with the
decline in the rate of gas production, problems do arise.
To determine these production increments many use a
trial-and-error procedure, in which a rate is assumed
over one of the declining years; and such must be balanced by the total gas that could have been produced for
that year as evidenced by the decline in formation pressure
to reflect the corresponding pressure in the open flow
potential relationship to yield the rate involved.
Such is time consuming. For this reason a mathematical
procedure, based on the calculus, has been employed for
many years that automatically takes into account the
decline in formation pressure as represented by the material balance equation, and the lowering in rate incurred
as associated with the open flow potential relationship.
With this paper in the offering, it was suggested that
this method be amplified to include any slope for the
open flow potential curve. Such is incorporated in the
graphical presentation shown in Fig. 1, and a brief description of the analytics with a factual example follow.
With respect to any pressure depletion study treating
with the deliverability of gas, two basic equations are
involved; namely, the material balance of the gas voided
from the reservoir with its resulting reduction in formation
pressure, and the open flow potential relationship that
relates rate of gas production.
0.60

r1f (PS/Pf,n)

0.40 r - -

~(/v

0.20

"c

o~

0.5 0
0

0.05

0.15

0.10

G dpF
Pi dt

0.20

0.25

(2)

dG p
dt

(3)

where the term on the right is nothing else but the open
flow potential for a single well, represented by Eq. 2,
but now multiplied by v the number of wells involved
in producing the field. This is expressed by the relationship
G dpF =V C('
PF-PS ')" .
(4)
p,
t
and collecting those terms that will be manifested as
variables when a fixed abandonment bottom-hole flowing
pressure Ps is reached, give
---~d

- dp"

vCp,dt
-G--

(p.,' - Ps')"

f (PS/Pf,n)

3. 50

I
I

3. 00

I
I

:::
8
-'---

~I~

r - -:-::-=-t i
L
n=0.90J'l,.

~~

.--

0.30

2. 00

I. 00

F--t::-:
--t:::= ~ ~ ~:::c
n = 0.95

2. 50

I. 50

~ ~~
I!~~~
n=0.80
I--- ~~ ::-~ ,..-;:::.

--,....-

rl1

4. 00

/'

O. 50

n = I. 00

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

Ps I PF , RATIO FLOWING WELL TO FORMATION PRESSURE


VIr.. J-DEG.lNE IN GAS DELIVERABlLITY WITH TIME.
JIJNIi, L963

(5)

To recapitulate, while the field is producing at a stabilized or constant rate, both the formation pressure P. and
flowing BHP ps will decline as expressed by Eqs. 1 and 2.
However, when this fixed abandonment pressure Ps is
reached, still expressed in this symbolism as not to become
too involved in terminology, the lowered formation pressure PFD can be calculated that will still yield this stabil-

./

--

::::::::::--=

C(p/ - Ps')"

-~~

VI

.......:::: ~

which is determined from the plotting of p/ - Ps', absolute pressure squared difference of the prevailing formation pressure and the flowing BHP PH, vs the rate of gas
production expressed in MMcf/D, performed on a log-log
graph. The slope of n, which many consider for practical
purposes as equal to unity, is here specifically identified as
revealed by this plotting.
To proceed, the differentiation of Eq. 1, with respect to
time t in days, yields

./

qg

I'"

V /
~

(I)

Pi
P
where G is the gas originally in place corrected to standard
conditions, and G p is the cumulative gas produced. The
pressures so identified are the initial pressure p" with the
resulting formation pressure PF, for the voidage so incurred. Where gas deviation factors are involved such will
be related for the conditions specified.
The second of these relationships is open flow potential
expressed as

Cc

/1 ~71

0.10

/"

V
~~~
~ ~<'r
"
c
,%';'

0.30

1.0

0.50

=G

G(p, - PF)

0.80 0.85

0.90

0.95

1.00

ized rate as expressed through Eq. 2. This introduced in


_Eq. 1, gives the cumulative gas G,> that will be produced
over this period of stabilization, which in turn divided by
this fixed rate for all producing wells gives that time tn
that the tailings will start to occur.
Thus the introduction of these limits in Eq. 5, yield

liFD
)iF

,dp" , ,,=vCp;(t-tn ).
(PI' - p, )
G

(6)

wherc p" < Pl"D' and t > tn, with ps now fixed, the abandonment pressure. Where n equals unity as developed
in the Appendix, Part I, Eq. 6 takes the form
PF +P, - Iog PFD + ps} = --=--=--::0:----vCp; Ps(t - if)
- 1 {' log 2

PI'-PS

PFD-PS

(7)

and when n is other than unity, to values as low as 0.8


as shown in Fig. 1, the generalized expression for Eq.
6 is the form
VCpi p,""-' (t - to)
G
(8)

What is evidenced by Eqs. 7 and 8 is that following


the start of the tailings, PF can be explicity determined.
This introduced in Eq. 1 gives the cumulative gas production. Thus the association of the cumulative gas produced
over any current year yields the average rate of gas production.
Such will be illustrated by the factual example, but it
is equally important to discuss certain aspects of Eq. 8.
One such observation is the gas deviation factor that
particularly was omitted from Eq. 1 to make it simple.
If this entire process is followed through, accepting that
the gas deviation factor at the lowered formation pressure
pp is no different from that of PH since they are both
now of the same order of magnitude, then what is involved is to subscribe for pressure on the right-hand
side of Eq. 8, the corresponding terms p'/z; and Pslzs
the argument as appears in the <p-function and shown
in Fig. 1, is unaffected.
Next is the analytics expressed by this <p-function,
which is the integration shown in Eq. 6. When n is other
than unity, this integration cannot be expressed by any
transcendental function; rather, a series expansion is involved. The integration as so deduced is fairly rapid
convergent up to a value for PslpF equal to 0.70; beyond
this the convergency is slow, meaning that by the Abel's
theorem of inequality over 40 terms would be involved
to realize summability.
The authors, not being imbued with this spirit for
scientific endeavor, but recognizing that this is a paper
of practical significance with time the essence in its preparation, have encompassed the latter steps for Psi PF from
0.75 to 0.98 by numerical integration employing Simpson's Rule.
For a comparison of the excellent check of the series
expansion for n equal to unity with its analytical expression Eq. 7,<p-function values are shown in Table 1.
Fig. 1 is the graphical representation of these values.
Likewise, a detailed work graph on a large scale has been
prepared that can be made available to the interested
reader.
The factual example now offered is a reserve in South
Texas, representing 97,355 MMcf of full well stream gas,
corrected to standard conditions. The original pressure is
3,195 psia, with an abandonment pressure of 500 psia.
There are 10 wells involved, with a contractual deliverability of 15 MMcf of dry gas per day. The gas shrink670

age is 3 per cent; the question proposed-what is the


deliverability of this field over the ensuing years?
The study of the individual well deliverability, compatible with Eq. 2, shows that C = 1.28978(10)-' MMcf/
Dlpsi squared difference, with the slope n equal to unity.
On an individual well basis, taking account of full well
stream, the stabilized rate is 1.545 MMcf of gas per day
per well. This employed in Eq. 2 for PH = 500 psia,
yields PFD = 1203.3 psi a formation pressure when the
production ceases to be stable and the decline sets in.
Introducing this formation pressure in Eq. 1 for the
reported reserves in place, gives 60,689.2 MMcf of full
well stream gas produced to date. This divided by yearly
production shows that the field can be produced at a
stabilized rate for 10.76 years.
To take now into account the tailings, we refer to
Eq. 8 and the constants involved. Thus
<p(Psl PF, 1.00) - <p(Psl PFD' 1.00) = 0.077249 (t - to)
(9)

where
365 VCPiPS (t - to)
G
(365) (10)( 1.28978) (10)-' (3195)(500)(t - 10.76)
97,355
= 0.077249 (t - 10.76)
and <p(Psl PFD' 1.00) = 0.4420, with Psi PFn = 50011203.3,
or 0.41552.
The application and use of Eq. 9 is illustrated by the
values listed in Table 2, with the last column being the
introduction of the material balance.
Finally, Table 3 is self-explanatory as to the deliverability schedule that will prevail in this field for the ensuing 25 years.

DETERIORATION FACTOR
The deterioration or discount factor of the open flow
potential constant, as such pertains to Eq. 2, has been
TABLE l-q,.FUNCTION
n=l
PS/Pl<'

0,05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0,90
0,95
0.98

Analytical

0.05004
0.10034
0.15114
0,20273
0.25543
0,30953
0,36545
0.42366
0.48470
0.54931
0,61839
0,69315
0.77531
0.86732
0.97296
1,09861
1.25616
1.47222
1.83178
2,29757

Series

0.05004
0.10034
0.15114
0.20273
0,25541
0.30952
0.36545
0.42365
0.48470
0.54931
0.61838
0.69314
0.77529
0.86728
0.97293
1.09858
1.25611
1.47217
1.83172
2.29750

= 0.95
Series

o
0.07501
0.14029
0.20283
0.26418
0,32519
0.38651
0.44874
0.51246
0.57831
0.64701
0.71949
0.79694
0.88093
0.97373
1.07881
1.20180
1.35347
1.55689
1.88484
2.29165

= 0.90
Series

= 0.85
Series
o

0.11386
0.19862
0.27562
0.34855
0.41922
0.48873
0.55798
0.62773
0.69874
0.77183
0.84790
0,92812
1.01398
1.10760
1.21212
1.33267
1.47855
1.67008
1.96924
2.32461

0.17555
0.28567
0.38049
0.46721
0.54904
0.62783
0.70491
0.78126
0.85787
0.93559
1.01543
1.09851
1.18630
1.28075
1.38472
1.50280
1.64320
1.82355
2.09649
2.40698

= 0.80
Series
o
0.27633
0.41943
0.53619
0.63933
0.73410
0.82343
0.90919
0.99281
1.07542
1.15808
1.24188
1.32794
1.41770
1.51298
1.61640
1.73206
1.86718
2.03700
2.28604
2.55738

TABLE 2-FACTUAL FIELD EXAMPLE


t
(yrs.)

il.00
12,00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
23,00
24,00
25,00

t -

10.76

~
0.24
1.24
2.24
3.24
4.24
5,24
6.24
7.24
8.24
9.24
10.24
11.24
12.24
13,24
14,24

q, (PS/PF, 1.00)
0.46054
0.53779
0.61504
0.69229
0.76953
0.84678
0.92403
1.00128
1,07853
1.15578
1.23303
1.31028
1.38753
1.46478
1,54203

pp

Gp

PH/PI-'

(psia)

(MMcf)

0.4310
0,4918
0.5485
0.5995
0.6449
0.6880
0.7271
0,7625
0.7921
0.8191
0.8429
0.8638
0.8818
0.8982
0.9125

1160.1
1016.7
911.6
834.0
775,3
726.7
687.7
655.7
631.2
610.4
593.1
578.8
567,0
556.7
547,9

62,005.5
66,375.1
69,577.6
71,942.1
73,730.8
75,211,7
76,400.0
77,375.1
78,121.7
78,755.4
79,282,6
79,718.3
80,077.9
80,391.7
80,659,9

JOIJR:-iAJ. OF PETROLEUM TECII;\,OLO(;Y

example illustrating gas deliverability where the permeability is significant, and it results from the limited time
permitted in establishing the open flow potential relationship.
In a tight formation, transient fluid flow effects become
markedly evident to denote drainage by and/or interference between wells, and thus establish when the reservoir pressure will fall simultaneously and the depletion
of the field proceeds under a stabilized rate.
This particularly applies to the Kansas Hugoton field
and reservoirs of similar nature, since in that field (with
the wells tested after being opened to production for 72
hours against 80 per cent of the shut-in pressure) it can
take days, even weeks, to adjust to the performance that
constitutes the stabilized C in the open flow potential
relationship. Thus, it is the identification of the deterioration or discount factor expressed by the ratio of the
stabilized C to what is observed for 72 hours, that is
discussed in the following.
With respect to the earliest presentation before a regulatory body, 1,' this deterioration factor has been portrayed
exactly as this 72-hour test indicated; namely, transient
fluid flow in the formation subject to the constant terminal
pressure case at the wellbore.
Without entering into the mathematics of transient fluid
flow, which is well publicized, the case of particular interest is given in one of the author's papers' as a plot of
what constitutes G', the equivalent of a productivity index
for a producing gas well vs the dimensionless time that
comes into effect for transient fluid flow. This is the
representation shown in Fig. 2, reproduced exactly as

TABLE 3-DElIVERABllITY SCHEDULE

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
ll.

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
'YearlY

Yearly Rate *Daily Rate, Sales Gas


IMMcf/yr., FWS)
IMMcf/D)

Gp

Time
Iyrs.)

IMMcf, FWS)

5,639.3
5,639.3
5,639.3
11,278.6
5,639.3
16,917.9
5,639.3
22,557.2
5,639.3
28,196.5
5,639.3
33,835.8
5,639.3
39,475.1
5,639.3
45,114.4
5,639.3
50,753.7
5,639.3
56,393.0
5,612.5
62,005.5
4,369.6
66,375.1
3,202.5
69,577.6
2,364.5
71,942.1
1,788.7
73,730.8
1,480.9
75,211.7
1,188.3
76,400.0
975.1
77,375.1
746.6
78,121.7
633.7
78,755.4
527.2
79,282.6
435.7
79,718.3
359.6
80,077.9
313.8
80,391.7
268.2
80,659.9
Rate FWS/365 X 1.03 = Daily Rate Sales Gas.

15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
14.929
11.623
8.518
6.289
4.758
3.939
3.161
2.594
1.986
1.686
1.402
1.159
0.957
0.835
0.713

observed when gas is produced from a tight formation


such as the Kansas Hugoton field.
Since the identification and a detailed discussion of this
phenomenon, as well as the mathematics, can be found
in the transcripts cited,'-3 what is entered here is a brief
synopsis in discussing these various aspects of gas deliverability.
In a tight formation with permeability in the order of
5 to 10 md and less, the C factor is subject to a discount
factor to establish stabilization under pressure depletion
in gas deliverability. This is different from the previous

.0

'" "'"

"'"

.........

'

..... .....

10
1

RATE OF PRODUCTION

...............
10

t'-.......~

CONSTANT

.........
r-.......

= 6PG'

TERMINAL PRESSURE CASE

~~

G'

..........

...........

......... ........

..........
I.o

1.0

---

"'"

--

i--

t
II

10-1
10

FIG.

JUNE, 1963

r-

2-G'

FUNCTION

(REPRODUCED FRO~I REF.

5).
671

given in that paper. The basic equation for the constant


.pressure case is given in the insert, showing the relationship between the rate of gas production vs the fixed
cumulative pressure drop from the shut-in pressure that
occurs at the well. Since this rate is at static reservoir
pressure conditions, the reader can establish by mathematical manipulation that the pressure squared differences
familiar to most for gas flow are included in converting
this rate to standard conditions.
The significance of this curve is that G', which is the
equivalent of C in the open flow potential relationship,
reflects a deterioration with increased times, compatible
with what is observed in the field. This is to be expected
as the analysis for transient fluid flow conforms exactly
to field conditions, with the drainage radii extending farther removed into the formation, and the pressure held
constant at the well, to the extent that these G' factors
can be related at various reference times to define this
deterioration factor.
Thus the G' for the 72-hour period can be identified
from this plot, as well as the G' that constitutes the interference between wells in this field where the formation
pressures will start to fall simultaneously to reveal the
pressure depletion in the field associated with a stabilized
rate of production induced by this voidage of the reservoir as a whole.
The dimensionless time, per se, bears little discussion
as it is often quoted in the literature, except to say that
its employment here has the same context as the paper"'
shortly to be referred to. The permeability in this argument is established from pressure build-up.
Therefore the dimensionless time for 72 hours can be
specifically identified, as well as that established for the
maximum radius of drainage where interference can
occur. With respect to the Kansas Hugoton field, since
the spacing is one well to the square mile, the interference
can be expected to occur on the average of n mile
removed from the well.
In this connection a recently published paper" relates
drainage radius with flow time, employing the same parameters that appear in dimensionless time. This is the
expression

kPot

ro --- 2. 6408., CPJL(1 - S,v) .

(l0)

with Po. the static pressure. Thus the substitution for rD of


lh mile, in its corresponding units, permits the immediate
identification of time, which introduced in the dimensionless time, permits the reading G' in Fig. 2 at this later
period.
Thus in conformance of what has been stated for these
G' factors with the deterioration of the C in the open
flow potential relationship, the ratio of G' for this extended time to that at 72 hours, constitutes this deterioraion or discount factor.
At a later hearing; and now reported by McMahon:
the concepts as here introduced have been extended to
apply to the pressure build-up curve.
In this connection, and reflection upon the part of the
reader, the pressure build-up curve denotes from the
superposition principle a constant rate problem that represents the replenishment of the gas that. has been voided
immediate to the well bore and its domain. Because of
this, the build-up curVe has specfic application since it
is independent of the vicissitudes in producing a well,
and attempting to hold a well pressure constant. Therefore, the pressure build-up represents the ideal case to
672

establish the C relationship which encompasses all factors


associated in producing a well.
Since rate is now the constant, the pressure for any
point on the build-up curve minus that observed upon
closing-in a well, constitutes the cumulative pressure buildup that is the variable in this constant rate case. Such
automatically includes well damaging as reflected by pressure build-up.
In its conformance to C in the open flow potential relationship as now discussed, then the reciprocal of this cumulative pressure build-up is compatible with G' to define
the deterioration factor.
For 72 hours of build-up, which represents this reference point in the Kansas Hugoton field, this cumulative
pressure build-up can be read directly from the straightline portion of the Lord Kelvin effect as plotted on a
semilogarithmic graph. For a n -mile drainage radius,
and employing Eq. 10, the corresponding time of buildup can be found that permits extrapolating this straightline and reading this cumulative pressure build-up. Thus
the ratio of the cumulative pressure build-up at 72 hours
divided by the cumulative pressure build-up at the later
time when interference takes place, gives this deterioration
or discount factor.
In essence what this cumulative pressure build-up represents at this later time is static pressure build-up. Thus
in the paper" referred to, an incremental pressure build-up
of small order is involved to realize this static pressure
build-up, although this fact was not used to obtain the
results presented in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 portrays the deterioration factor established from
pressure build-up on some 49 wells in the Kansas Hugoton field, constituting 94 tests in all. Such represented
all the data available, and in itself tells a unique story
which, although surmised, has never been as vividly exhibited as indicated by this plot.
In Fig. 3 the trend or norm for this cluster of points,
illustrated by the smooth curve, shows that for a high
capacity well this discount factor approaches unity; however, as the capacity is greatly reduced this deterioration
factor approaches zero. Fig. 3 is applicable to the conditions studied in Kansas Hugoton, and it is not implied
that this same curve can be employed in other fields.
Nevertheless, these data point up that for determining
open flow potential, the manner of testing a high capacity
well, say, in Louisiana and elsewhere, is valid; but as the
capacity of a well is greatly reduced, the deterioration
factor can piay a role.
In the next section it will be shown that the deterioration factor likewise appears in the consideration of gas
deliverability; but here, instead of being induced by the
transient conditions for dry gas as now defined, it is
effected by the equations of state and the deposition of
condensate in the formation in the movement of gas to
the well.
GAS CONDENSATE
This section treats the deliverability of a rich gas COlldensate reservoir wherein, by introducing a relative permeability concept, the effect of retrograde condensation on
gas deliverability is expressed mathematically.
The example presented, the Knox Bromide pool located
in Grady and Stephens Counties, Okla., is an extremely
tight sand reservoir with an average permeability of
some 5 md producing a fluid which yields as much as
165 bbl of condensate per MMcf. The equations of
state of the fluid, namely its deviation from the ideal gas
JOURNAl. OF PETROLEUM TECHNOI,OGY

laws and the retrograde liquid saturation in the pore space


as obtained from the laboratory data, are presented in
Figs. 4 and 5. These are composite data from the three
sands encountered in the reservoir. The relative permeability concept using condensate saturation was introduced
because relative permeability studies on Bromide sand
cores, from both the Knox and Bradley fields in Oklahoma, show that permeability to gas flow is essentially
zero once the liquid saturation approaches 50 per cent.
It is important that the reader realize that any applicable
relative permeability relationship can be introduced in
solving problems of this type.

or if there is a skin effect S, the integration becomes

2" ~
~

qg =

([ - 2S,.)

I'

dp
dr

(Ts,.)
z

(14)

,,~(TN')fJ'
['

(I -

2S,)

1'.,

(11)

dp ~ !i'-log':
Iz

I' '"

(12)
CORRECTION FACTOR

2" kh

(s +

(TTN)
log

(15)

1', )
1'"

With respect to Eq. 14, if one accepts a value of zero


for S, and unity for z, the integration is that of pdp
which results in the pressure squared difference form
commonly used in gas deliverability work.
The relationship for the movement of condensate, if
such already exists in the pore space, can also be expressed
using Darcy's law
k
dp
27l'h-S,r- =q,
(16)
d I'
fL'
where q, is the rate of condensate movement toward the
well. As expressed in Eq. 16, for 100 per cent condensate saturation the permeability for liquid movement is

1.0

11
I
J.... i-

.9

r--

kh

EMPIRICAL RELATION
vs CORRECTION FACTOR

.8 f--

MARCH 1960

r.7

(s + IOg~)

cfP,.; ([ - 2S,) dp

l.L y

where k is the permeability of the formation, ft,! the viscosity of the gas, S, the condensate saturation in the pore
space, I' the distance in the formation removed from the
well, p absolute pressure in atmospheres, and T the absolute formation temperature.
The integration of Eq. 11 with distance r yields the
relationship

r1

with

f'g

I)"

2S,)~ dp = ~

(l -

Ps

Employing Darcy's law for the movement of gas in


the formation under steady-state conditions and introducing this relative permeability concept, one may write

'2

T_~

( 13)
where I' w is the wellbore radius, Ps the flowing bottomhole pressure, and log implies natural logarithms.
Assigning an effective drainage radius I'M a formation pressure P". and collecting constants,

DEVELOPMENT

27l'~

[1)

Ts,.

r--

Voo

STEVENS COUNTY ANO TATE STATION


PRESSURE BUILO - UP STUOY
HUGOTON KANSAS FIELO

..

'"
oL

4
0/

1/

0 0
0

!o

I-"""

1
!

,
!

0/
01/

.6

. .
0

[...A' ~

~~
V

.
0

V+--1'

.2
~

.1

....V V
--

10

FIG. 3-DETERIORATION
JUNE,1963

1000

100

kh,Md-Ft.
FACTOR vs kh (REPRODUCE[)

10,00 o

FROM REF. 3).

673

150'---~--,----,-----,----r---'--'-~--1-:-;1

30

rH

lAO

!I

1.20

20

Ij----

'--i---'

l.00 -----------!-t---------:------

----

.-----~-

------~i

.15

--+--c--

oeo~o-~~~~~N>~~~5POOonO~6,~OO~O~7~,OOhlO-,8~,OOOOO~9~,O~OO,-~IOPOOOOO~II,OOO

qc

T fLo
Sc
qy - - T - 1 - 2S,
p
Se
fLo

(17)

The rate qc then is a function of saturation and pressure for each point under consideration, and Eq. 17 expresses this rate as defined by the equations of state of
the reservoir fluid.
The essential mathematics have now been presented to
determine the effect of liquid logging on the deliverability
of rich gas condensate reservoirs as expressed through
the equations of state of the fluid, namely the PVT
analysis. An associated problem, that of liquid blocking
of the formation, is treated in Part II of the Appendix.

8,000

7,000

6,000

~
!
!

5,000

I
I

the formation permeability and at zero saturation there is


no condensate to be moved. This is again a relative
permeability concept as applied to the condensate.
The identification of the condensate movement toward
the well from any point in the formation is obtained by
the ratio of Eq. 16 to Eq. 11 since identical pressure
gradients exist in each or,

i
I

.05

J. --.......
!

I,

.L

.10

PRESSURE, PSIA
FIG. 4--GAS DEVIATION FACTOR.

!----t--

0.90----;

II

JL

.25

110-

Sc' CONDENSATE SATURATION,


FRACTION INITIAL PORE SPACE

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

PRESSURE, PSIA

FIG. 5-CO"lDENSATE SATURATION.

appropriate fluid viscosities, under a constant sales rate


of 40 MMcflD. The field rate required for this deliverability varies with the shrinkage, but is approximately 47
MMcf of well stream per day. Two adverse events
are evident from Fig. 7, namely the substantial lowering
of the bottom-hole flowing pressure and the rapid rate of
raw condensate production at the well bore over a short
time interval.
Practical experience dictates that this amount of raw
condensate entering the wellbore will cause liquid logging
with termination of gas production near the end of 1961.
This in turn will cause substantial amounts of gas and
its associated condensate to be unrecovered if normal
depletion of this reservoir is undertaken.

EXAMPLE

As previously mentioned, the equations of state used


to determine the gas deliverability in the Knox Bromide
field are presented in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 depicts the
gas deviation factor as a function of pressure at constant
reservoir temperature. Fig. 5 shows the retrograde condensate saturation in the formation as a function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.
Using these data a work plot of the function (1 - 2S,)
pi z vs pressure has been prepared. This function is then
integrated with respect to pressure to yield

J
p

pI,OOO

(1 - 28 c ) J!.....dp
Z

and the results of the integration are plotted vs pressure.


In calculating the curve presented in Fig. 6 a lower limit
of 1,000 psi is chosen for the sake of convenience only,
and the integration has been performed mechanically.
Once the work plots were available, actual field flow
tests were used to determine the value of C in Eq. 14.
These were stabilized flow tests which were taken early in
the life of the field when retrograde condensate was
little or non-existent. For the wells considered in the Knox
Bromide field, the average value of C is 0.44211 X 10-"
MMscf of effluent gas per day per psia squared when
weighted on the basis of rate. This production information and the resulting value of C is presen.ted in Table 4.
Fig. 7 presents the results of the deliverability calculation for the Knox field, using the weighted C value and
674

NOMENCLATURE
C = proportionality constant of the open flow potential, L't'/m'
G = gas reserves initially in place, corrected to
standard conditions, L"
G p = gas produced, corrected to standard conditions,
L"
fABLE 4-DELIVERABILITY FORMULA-DATA, AUG., 1960; PI-'
8.125 PSIA-PROGRAM FOR JULY 1, 1961,40 MMcf/D, 10 PRODUCING WElLS
pcc8125
Cc

qg, Rate
(MMcf/D)

Well
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
~

c_

6.392
7.350
6.392
4.184
4.057
0.866
2.830
2.100
4.020
3.058
41.249

Formula, q" = C

ps, Cal. BHP


(psia)

(I -

2Sc) p/z . dp
C

PH

6789.1
6862.5
6789.1
6414.4
6272.1
6026.4
6274.0
6362.7
6199.7
6352.5
~

7.98 (10)'
7.57110)"
7.98110)"
10.09110)'
10.91 (10)(;
12.28 (10)(;
10.90 (10)'
10.43 (10)(;
11.31 (10)'
10.47(10)'
- 99.92 (10)"

0.80100
0.97093
0.80100
0.41466
0.37186
0.07052
0.25963
0.20134
0.35543
0.29207

(10) "
(10)-"
(10)-"
(10)-'
(10)-0
(10)-'
(10)-"
(10)-G
(10)-';
(10)-"

PI-'

(I -

25,.) p/z . dp

ps

Weighted C = 41.249/99.92 (10)'


= 0.41282 (10)-'

~
likewise,

q"

PF (I -

PS

25,) p/z . dp
__ _

2.qy

9.33(10)"; and C = 41.249/10' 9.33110)" = 0.44211 (10)'


JOVR.'\,AL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

9,00

r::~~1-2SC)PIZ
dP X I~ PSIAZl
2
00

16

12

)/i YI

1__V
1,000

2,000

I
3,000

4,000

5,000

PSIA

I~)P/'I

6,00

llJ-ZS c ) PI,
1,000

dP~tI

4,00

IPf fORMATION

1,000

I
!

8,000

9,000

I
10,000

0
11,000

= condensate

= water
REI<'ERENCES

1961

4 00

300

200

~I

!
I

I00

1963

1962

plication to the Equation of Volumetric Balance", Trans"


AIME (1943) 151,263.
6. Hurst, William, Haynie, Orville K. and Walker, Richard W,:
"Some Problems in Pressure Build-Up", Pet. Eng. (Aug.,
1962) 34.

APPENDIX
PART I

What will be introduced here is the development of the


integration shown by Eq. 6 as pertains to the gas deliverability for a depletion-type reservoir.
The first problem to be treated is for the open flow
potential relationship, corresponding to a slope n equal
to unity. This is to be followed by the generalized relationship for any slope.
In its simple context, the equation shown in the body
of the report can be expressed as

dp"
(p/ -

Ps')
=

J{

dPF
(PF - P,,)(PF

Pi>' - Ps

+ Ps)
B

flh'

+ Ps

}dPl

(1-1)

It is beholden now to define the constants A and B


given in this integrand.
This is the method of partial fractions to establish the
integration, for which its sum must equal the integrand.
Thus,

---+----

p/

ps

PF

and

p"

or

1J{ I I }
+

-2PN

Pl' - Ps

--

Pi'

P,

dp"

= -

l. Hurst, William: Testimony Before Kansas Corporation Com

mission Market Demand Hearing (Sept., 1959).


2. Goodson, W. c.: Testimony Before Kansas Corporation Com
mission Market Demand Hearing (Sept., 1959).
3. Hurst, William: Exhibit 3, FPC. Docket G-20570 (June,
1960).
4. McMahon, James J.: "Determination of Gas Well Stabilization
Factors from Surface Flow Tests and BuildUp Tests", Paper
SPE 144, presented at 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE,
Dallas, Tex. (Oct. 8-ll, 1961).
5. Hurst, William: "Water Influx Into a Reservoir and Its ApJUNE, 1963

pi>'(A + B) + Ps(A - B) = 1
where A + B = 0 and (A - B)lps = 1, so as to maintain the status quo for the constants so defined. Therefore
A = 1l2ps, and B = - 1/2ps.
This reintroduced in Eq. 1-1, gives

SURSCRIPTS

= gas

- - 500

FIG. 7-PRESSURE PERFOR~lANCE AND LIQUID LOGGING.

1,00

pay thickness, L
= absolute permeability, L'
= slope of open flow potential relationship
P = pressure, ml Lt
PF = formation pressure, miLt'
PFn = formation pressure for cease of stabilization,
miLt'
PI = initial reservoir pressure, miLt'
Po< = flowing bottom-hole pressure, miLt'
q = rate of production, L'/t
r = radial distance, L
ro = drainage radius, L
r, = external boundary radius, L
r w = well radius, L
S = saturation expressed as a fraction
T = reservoir temperature, T
T" = temperature, standard conditions, T
t = time, t
tv = time of stabilization, t
z = gas deviation factor
fL = viscosity, miLT
v = number of producing wells
cp = porosity expressed as a fraction

f'.,

700

'-600

= net

800

:
7,000

.1---

I,~

/r-"'<...

-tfl

.........

17

3,0 00

2,000

t-- t---

ooH ps. fLOWING BOTTOM-HOLE ........

2,000

PRESSURE I

I---.

00

3,00

FIG. 6-WORK CURVES OF THE DELIVERABILITY FORMULA


EMPLOYING EQUATIONS OF STATE.

6,0

PRESSURE

PRESSURE. PSIA

h
k
n

7,000

I rCONOENSATE
PROOUCTIOril
(Q) WELL BORE
I
vi

I--,....

5,000

6,000

SAlES,40 MM lOCal PLANT

8,000

4,0

A 1/

8~!

9,000

5,00

II

~/

epO

(1-2S C)Plz.

1,000
I(a)CONDENSATE
PRODUCTION h
WEll BORE, BBlS.! DAY 90

PSIAI

rH'PRESSURE.

/
/

10,000

I log :....:..-~
P" - PH
2
Pi>' + PM
(1-2)

Therefore in the manner this integration is carried out


in Eq. 6 with the limits so expressed, yields
-1 {Iog Pi>' + Ps - Iog P"n + PB}
2
Pi>' - ps
P"n - p.,

VCPIPS (t -

to)

G
(1-3 )

where natural logarithms are implied.


The simplification as so entailed no longer applies when
n is other than integer. Thus, the integration expressed by
Eq. 6 takes the form
675

final value of 0.98, with these increments in turn divided


into 10 equal parts as expressed by Simpson's Rule. Such
are the summarized data given in Table 1 and illustrated
in Fig. 1.
PART II

n(n

1) (~)4

Ph'

2!

+ ...... +

(n + k - I)!
(n-1)!k!

(~:.)'"}dPF

(1-4)

which is the expansion of the binomial series for the integrand, with Psi PF< 1 that will sustain this convergence.
Its integration with respect to PF between these limits,
yields

(n
-en -

+k

- 1)!

I)! k!(2n

+ 2k

(PR

P;

1)

)',,+'1,-'

The problem in the Knox Bromide pool is actually


much worse than that shown in Fig. 7, as this work treats
only the instantaneous S, depicted by the equations of
state. Actually there is a liquid blocking effect as shown
in the following.
For any distance r in the formation, the cumulative
condensate travel across that lateral surface is

q,dt.

If one takes an increment distance r + Sr out in the formation, the cumulative influx is expressed as

r(q,.

3~' Sr ) dt .

lJ p

If the latter is substracted from the former, there is an

accumulation of condensate due to its own movement toward the well or,

_ r O~q,
t

(PH )'''-' en~

=~--

PH

PF

/,

cc

.) 0

(n + k - I)!
(ps)'h
I)! k!(2n + 2k - 1) pp

(II-I)

where cp is the porosity and S., the connate water content.


This differentiated with respect to time yields
I oq,
h
as,
(II 2
-- tar
= 2Tr
cp(l - Su,) 3t
-)

1)1,'

(n -

Srdt = 2TrhrSrcp( 1 - Sw)i::.S,.

or'

l}PD

Therefore its manifestation in Eq. 6, gives


iJ!(pslp,-,n) - <P(pslpFD,n)
VCpi PR'"'' (t - to)
G
where
<P(PHlpF,n)

(-,,-"-.)2",'

pp
k - 1)!

(n +
(n - 1)! k!(2n

+ 2k

- 1)

(1-5 )

,,=

(PB)2Ic
pp

(1-6)

which is likewise convergent for Psi Ph' < 1 as substantiated between these limits.
As mentioned in the report, this convergent is rapid for
Psi Ph':::; 0.70 but for larger values it is slow. Thus for
Psi Ph' = 0.98 forty terms at least are indicated by the
Abel's theorem of inequality to realize this summability
within 0.10 of its true value.
Practical expediency naturally has dictated the finalization of these calculations by other means. This is the
numerical method, employing Simpson's Rule, extended
for the data Psi Ph' > 0.70. Thus for the integral

fep; dp'p.') "- p;" ( 1 and u

=
I"

(~:r

Pslph', gives
dp,.
1
U,,,2
(p/ - Ps')" = - p/n-1 (1 _ u')" du

and the extension from the last computed value <P (0.70,n)
hy the series expansion, yields
i's/}'I"
u'n"
<I>(pslpp,n) -- <1>(0.70,n) t
, tlu

0.70

(1 - u)"

(1-7)
with the numerical calculation performed on the integral.
This is taken in increments of 0.05 for psi Ph' to the
676

Since pressure and distance from the well bore are


related by Eq. 13, this in turn gives the variation in rate
of condensate with distance as expressed through Eq. 17.
Thus the differentiation of rate of condensate with radius
for the Knox Bromide field, as expressed in Eq. 1I-2,
shows that once condensate reaches the wellbore the rate
for the increase of condensate with time is significant to
reach 50 per cent saturation in a short interval, when gas
will cease to flow. This is liquid blocking.
CRITIQUE
The situation that prevails in the Knox Bromide field
although ominous, is not unusual. Many do not realize
this in their dedication to the concept that wherever gas is
found it must be dedicated to a pipeline for the immediate
sale of gas and the cash revenue so accrued.
This was particularly evident in the early study of
Knox Bromide, since in canvassing the industry for factual field data, apparently no one had kept any physical
records as to how a rich gas condensate well performed
under pressure depletion.
The lack of interest so exhibited in not acquiring these
data for post mortem studies was, to say the least, surprising to the authors, since this interpretation could mean
the difference between realizing all the physical assets of
a property or leaving large portions of recoverable hydrocarbons unproduced.
To do credit to those contacted, this interest has now
heen evidenced, and factual field reporting on gas condensate wells can become part of the published literature.
To conclude, the authors wish to acknowledge the
gracious help rendered by Jack R. Fraser, vice-president
of the Republic Natural Gas Co., Dallas, Tex. and Jan
J. Arps and John C. Thrash, Jr., vice-president and district
engineer, respectively, of The British-American Oil Producing Co., DaHas, Tex.

***

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY