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Gas well deliverability

Gas well deliverability

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WILLIAM HURST

WILLIAM C. GOODSON'

RUSSelL E. LEESER

MEMBERS AIME

ABSTRACT

Three aspects of gas deliverability are presented in this

paper. The first treats with the gas deliverability or availability of a normal depletion-type dry gas field. Such

encompasses not only the period of stabilized constant

rate, but more so, the "tailings" when a fixed abandonment pressure is reached and the rate by necessity must

decline. A comprehensive work plot is offered, developed

from mathematics herein included, that removes the tria iand-err"r computatiol1S that attended such undertakings in

the past.

The second part treats with the discount factor of the

open flow potential constant from what is observed initially

in testing a gas well to what is evidenced when stabilization

is reached. This prevails in tight formations, such as the

Kansas Hugoton field which is offered as the example.

The means of establishing this factor are pressure build-up

curves which, as sustained by analytical deductions, reproduce this entire period of transient flow under conditions

of a constant rate inflUX.

Finally, what is offered in this paper is the deliverability

performance of an exceedingly rich gas condensate field

producing from a tight formation. The example shown is

the Knox Bromide field in Oklahoma, producing from

the Bromide formations. The results are ominous, showing

early reduction in permeability to gas flow, due to the

retrograde condensate forming in the pore space, with

the attending early logging-up of these wells. The analytics

of lowered permeability are incorporated in the gas deliverability formula along with the PVT data that gives the

increased condensate liquid saturation as the gas flows to

the wellbore.

This paper would not be complete without a critique

offered at the end. With the many gas wells now in production and those that have completed their life, there has

been no factual information collected by any source as to

what constitutes that permeability range where a gas well

would be unimpaired in its gas deliverability by the presence of rich condensate content, and the lowered range

where such would be harmful. This question confronts all

producers.

INTRODUCTION

Various aspects of gas deliverability are presented in

this paper that includes depletion-type reservoirs, deterioraOriginal manuscript received in Society of Petroleum Engineers office

Feb. 6, 1962. Revised manuscript received Jan. 24, 1963. Paper pr.esented at Economics and Valuation Symposium, March 15-16, 1962, In

Dallas, Tex.

':'Now partner in Fraser, Goodson and Willits, Dallas, Tex.

668

SPE 262

PETROLEUM CONSULTANT

HOUSTON, TEX.

REPUBLIC NATURAL GAS CO.

DALLAS, TEX.

THE BRITISHAMERICAN OIL PRODUCING CO.

DALLAS, TEX.

performance of a rich gas condensate reservOir producmg

..

from a tight sand.

.

With respect to the presentation of gas dehv~rabIhty

and its tailings for depletion-type gas ~eservOlrs, one

notes that this is essentially the informatIOn offered .by

every gas transmission company and producer appearmg

before the Federal Power Commission for Letters of

Conveyance in the dedication of reserves.

.

In the ordinary procedure, as many engage upon t~IS

study, trial-and-error calculations are included, particularly as apply to the tailings. For. many years one of

the writers has employed mathematical analyses to. perform this step and avoid the complexities so assocIated.

In the preparation of this paper these analyses have been

amplified to include any slope n fo~. the open flow

potential relationship for which the taIlmgs can be determined from Fig. 1.

With reference to the deterioration or discount factor

of the open flow potential constant as such occurs in the

gas deliverability formula, this for the .most part has been

an unexplored subject. Although the Issue first appe~red

in the Kansas Hugoton field, where such was surml~ed

but only recently resolved, this situation of a deterioratIOn

of the gas deliverability constant can occur wherever dry

gas production from a tight sand is encountered.

The first concerted attacks upon this problem were the

presentations of Hurst' and Goodson' befo~e the ~ansas

Corporation Commission to show that .translent. flUId flow

and unsteady-state flow formulas prevaIled. ThiS. ",:as .amplified later before the Federal Power C?mm.lssIOn" to

show that this deterioration factor could be IdentIfied from

pressure build-up curves. This has. been repor~ed by

McMahon.' Its importance to the mdustry merIts the

review of these essential features in completing the program on the aspects of gas deliverability.

Finally, as illustrated here, for a low permeability formation such as the Knox Bromide field where the gas

is rich representing some 165 bbl of condensate per

MMcf 'of effluent gas, the gas deliver ability can be .of

limited extent in the life of the field, leaving substantial

amounts of condensate and gas unrecovered. In cases such

as this, gas cycling is mandatory. This is particularly !evealed by the fluid mechanics introduced here, employm.g

factual field as well as laboratory data, to show thiS

restriction upon gas deliverability.

PRESSURE DEPLETION

What will now be offered is the study of gas deliverlReferences given at end of paper,

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

be stated as

dry gas reservoir. Not only is such information presented

before the Federal Power Commission, but it is of equal

importance in the evaluation of property in observing

yearly incomes.

In connection with such presentations, contractual agreements often stipulate that gas will be sold on a ratio of

1 :8, meaning that 1 MMcf of gas will be produced each

day for every 8 billion cu ft of recoverable reserves initially in place. This is usually to encompass a 20-year

period. Although this exact ratio is 1 :7,300, the use of

the smaller ratio is to include the tailings that represent

the decline in rate of gas production when a fixed BHP

is reached, or its abandonment pressure, that all told will

approximate this 20-year period.

With respect to the stabilized rate of gas production

over most of this time, no particular problem is involved,

as such is straight numerical calculations, contingent on

the accuracy of the reserves and the open flow potentials.

However, when the tailings are encountered with the

decline in the rate of gas production, problems do arise.

To determine these production increments many use a

trial-and-error procedure, in which a rate is assumed

over one of the declining years; and such must be balanced by the total gas that could have been produced for

that year as evidenced by the decline in formation pressure

to reflect the corresponding pressure in the open flow

potential relationship to yield the rate involved.

Such is time consuming. For this reason a mathematical

procedure, based on the calculus, has been employed for

many years that automatically takes into account the

decline in formation pressure as represented by the material balance equation, and the lowering in rate incurred

as associated with the open flow potential relationship.

With this paper in the offering, it was suggested that

this method be amplified to include any slope for the

open flow potential curve. Such is incorporated in the

graphical presentation shown in Fig. 1, and a brief description of the analytics with a factual example follow.

With respect to any pressure depletion study treating

with the deliverability of gas, two basic equations are

involved; namely, the material balance of the gas voided

from the reservoir with its resulting reduction in formation

pressure, and the open flow potential relationship that

relates rate of gas production.

0.60

r1f (PS/Pf,n)

0.40 r - -

~(/v

0.20

"c

o~

0.5 0

0

0.05

0.15

0.10

G dpF

Pi dt

0.20

0.25

(2)

dG p

dt

(3)

where the term on the right is nothing else but the open

flow potential for a single well, represented by Eq. 2,

but now multiplied by v the number of wells involved

in producing the field. This is expressed by the relationship

G dpF =V C('

PF-PS ')" .

(4)

p,

t

and collecting those terms that will be manifested as

variables when a fixed abandonment bottom-hole flowing

pressure Ps is reached, give

---~d

- dp"

vCp,dt

-G--

(p.,' - Ps')"

f (PS/Pf,n)

3. 50

I

I

3. 00

I

I

:::

8

-'---

~I~

r - -:-::-=-t i

L

n=0.90J'l,.

~~

.--

0.30

2. 00

I. 00

F--t::-:

--t:::= ~ ~ ~:::c

n = 0.95

2. 50

I. 50

~ ~~

I!~~~

n=0.80

I--- ~~ ::-~ ,..-;:::.

--,....-

rl1

4. 00

/'

O. 50

n = I. 00

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

VIr.. J-DEG.lNE IN GAS DELIVERABlLITY WITH TIME.

JIJNIi, L963

(5)

To recapitulate, while the field is producing at a stabilized or constant rate, both the formation pressure P. and

flowing BHP ps will decline as expressed by Eqs. 1 and 2.

However, when this fixed abandonment pressure Ps is

reached, still expressed in this symbolism as not to become

too involved in terminology, the lowered formation pressure PFD can be calculated that will still yield this stabil-

./

--

::::::::::--=

C(p/ - Ps')"

-~~

VI

.......:::: ~

which is determined from the plotting of p/ - Ps', absolute pressure squared difference of the prevailing formation pressure and the flowing BHP PH, vs the rate of gas

production expressed in MMcf/D, performed on a log-log

graph. The slope of n, which many consider for practical

purposes as equal to unity, is here specifically identified as

revealed by this plotting.

To proceed, the differentiation of Eq. 1, with respect to

time t in days, yields

./

qg

I'"

V /

~

(I)

Pi

P

where G is the gas originally in place corrected to standard

conditions, and G p is the cumulative gas produced. The

pressures so identified are the initial pressure p" with the

resulting formation pressure PF, for the voidage so incurred. Where gas deviation factors are involved such will

be related for the conditions specified.

The second of these relationships is open flow potential

expressed as

Cc

/1 ~71

0.10

/"

V

~~~

~ ~<'r

"

c

,%';'

0.30

1.0

0.50

=G

G(p, - PF)

0.80 0.85

0.90

0.95

1.00

_Eq. 1, gives the cumulative gas G,> that will be produced

over this period of stabilization, which in turn divided by

this fixed rate for all producing wells gives that time tn

that the tailings will start to occur.

Thus the introduction of these limits in Eq. 5, yield

liFD

)iF

,dp" , ,,=vCp;(t-tn ).

(PI' - p, )

G

(6)

wherc p" < Pl"D' and t > tn, with ps now fixed, the abandonment pressure. Where n equals unity as developed

in the Appendix, Part I, Eq. 6 takes the form

PF +P, - Iog PFD + ps} = --=--=--::0:----vCp; Ps(t - if)

- 1 {' log 2

PI'-PS

PFD-PS

(7)

as shown in Fig. 1, the generalized expression for Eq.

6 is the form

VCpi p,""-' (t - to)

G

(8)

the start of the tailings, PF can be explicity determined.

This introduced in Eq. 1 gives the cumulative gas production. Thus the association of the cumulative gas produced

over any current year yields the average rate of gas production.

Such will be illustrated by the factual example, but it

is equally important to discuss certain aspects of Eq. 8.

One such observation is the gas deviation factor that

particularly was omitted from Eq. 1 to make it simple.

If this entire process is followed through, accepting that

the gas deviation factor at the lowered formation pressure

pp is no different from that of PH since they are both

now of the same order of magnitude, then what is involved is to subscribe for pressure on the right-hand

side of Eq. 8, the corresponding terms p'/z; and Pslzs

the argument as appears in the <p-function and shown

in Fig. 1, is unaffected.

Next is the analytics expressed by this <p-function,

which is the integration shown in Eq. 6. When n is other

than unity, this integration cannot be expressed by any

transcendental function; rather, a series expansion is involved. The integration as so deduced is fairly rapid

convergent up to a value for PslpF equal to 0.70; beyond

this the convergency is slow, meaning that by the Abel's

theorem of inequality over 40 terms would be involved

to realize summability.

The authors, not being imbued with this spirit for

scientific endeavor, but recognizing that this is a paper

of practical significance with time the essence in its preparation, have encompassed the latter steps for Psi PF from

0.75 to 0.98 by numerical integration employing Simpson's Rule.

For a comparison of the excellent check of the series

expansion for n equal to unity with its analytical expression Eq. 7,<p-function values are shown in Table 1.

Fig. 1 is the graphical representation of these values.

Likewise, a detailed work graph on a large scale has been

prepared that can be made available to the interested

reader.

The factual example now offered is a reserve in South

Texas, representing 97,355 MMcf of full well stream gas,

corrected to standard conditions. The original pressure is

3,195 psia, with an abandonment pressure of 500 psia.

There are 10 wells involved, with a contractual deliverability of 15 MMcf of dry gas per day. The gas shrink670

deliverability of this field over the ensuing years?

The study of the individual well deliverability, compatible with Eq. 2, shows that C = 1.28978(10)-' MMcf/

Dlpsi squared difference, with the slope n equal to unity.

On an individual well basis, taking account of full well

stream, the stabilized rate is 1.545 MMcf of gas per day

per well. This employed in Eq. 2 for PH = 500 psia,

yields PFD = 1203.3 psi a formation pressure when the

production ceases to be stable and the decline sets in.

Introducing this formation pressure in Eq. 1 for the

reported reserves in place, gives 60,689.2 MMcf of full

well stream gas produced to date. This divided by yearly

production shows that the field can be produced at a

stabilized rate for 10.76 years.

To take now into account the tailings, we refer to

Eq. 8 and the constants involved. Thus

<p(Psl PF, 1.00) - <p(Psl PFD' 1.00) = 0.077249 (t - to)

(9)

where

365 VCPiPS (t - to)

G

(365) (10)( 1.28978) (10)-' (3195)(500)(t - 10.76)

97,355

= 0.077249 (t - 10.76)

and <p(Psl PFD' 1.00) = 0.4420, with Psi PFn = 50011203.3,

or 0.41552.

The application and use of Eq. 9 is illustrated by the

values listed in Table 2, with the last column being the

introduction of the material balance.

Finally, Table 3 is self-explanatory as to the deliverability schedule that will prevail in this field for the ensuing 25 years.

DETERIORATION FACTOR

The deterioration or discount factor of the open flow

potential constant, as such pertains to Eq. 2, has been

TABLE l-q,.FUNCTION

n=l

PS/Pl<'

0,05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

0.55

0.60

0.65

0.70

0.75

0.80

0.85

0,90

0,95

0.98

Analytical

0.05004

0.10034

0.15114

0,20273

0.25543

0,30953

0,36545

0.42366

0.48470

0.54931

0,61839

0,69315

0.77531

0.86732

0.97296

1,09861

1.25616

1.47222

1.83178

2,29757

Series

0.05004

0.10034

0.15114

0.20273

0,25541

0.30952

0.36545

0.42365

0.48470

0.54931

0.61838

0.69314

0.77529

0.86728

0.97293

1.09858

1.25611

1.47217

1.83172

2.29750

= 0.95

Series

o

0.07501

0.14029

0.20283

0.26418

0,32519

0.38651

0.44874

0.51246

0.57831

0.64701

0.71949

0.79694

0.88093

0.97373

1.07881

1.20180

1.35347

1.55689

1.88484

2.29165

= 0.90

Series

= 0.85

Series

o

0.11386

0.19862

0.27562

0.34855

0.41922

0.48873

0.55798

0.62773

0.69874

0.77183

0.84790

0,92812

1.01398

1.10760

1.21212

1.33267

1.47855

1.67008

1.96924

2.32461

0.17555

0.28567

0.38049

0.46721

0.54904

0.62783

0.70491

0.78126

0.85787

0.93559

1.01543

1.09851

1.18630

1.28075

1.38472

1.50280

1.64320

1.82355

2.09649

2.40698

= 0.80

Series

o

0.27633

0.41943

0.53619

0.63933

0.73410

0.82343

0.90919

0.99281

1.07542

1.15808

1.24188

1.32794

1.41770

1.51298

1.61640

1.73206

1.86718

2.03700

2.28604

2.55738

t

(yrs.)

il.00

12,00

13.00

14.00

15.00

16.00

17.00

18.00

19.00

20.00

21.00

22.00

23,00

24,00

25,00

t -

10.76

~

0.24

1.24

2.24

3.24

4.24

5,24

6.24

7.24

8.24

9.24

10.24

11.24

12.24

13,24

14,24

q, (PS/PF, 1.00)

0.46054

0.53779

0.61504

0.69229

0.76953

0.84678

0.92403

1.00128

1,07853

1.15578

1.23303

1.31028

1.38753

1.46478

1,54203

pp

Gp

PH/PI-'

(psia)

(MMcf)

0.4310

0,4918

0.5485

0.5995

0.6449

0.6880

0.7271

0,7625

0.7921

0.8191

0.8429

0.8638

0.8818

0.8982

0.9125

1160.1

1016.7

911.6

834.0

775,3

726.7

687.7

655.7

631.2

610.4

593.1

578.8

567,0

556.7

547,9

62,005.5

66,375.1

69,577.6

71,942.1

73,730.8

75,211,7

76,400.0

77,375.1

78,121.7

78,755.4

79,282,6

79,718.3

80,077.9

80,391.7

80,659,9

example illustrating gas deliverability where the permeability is significant, and it results from the limited time

permitted in establishing the open flow potential relationship.

In a tight formation, transient fluid flow effects become

markedly evident to denote drainage by and/or interference between wells, and thus establish when the reservoir pressure will fall simultaneously and the depletion

of the field proceeds under a stabilized rate.

This particularly applies to the Kansas Hugoton field

and reservoirs of similar nature, since in that field (with

the wells tested after being opened to production for 72

hours against 80 per cent of the shut-in pressure) it can

take days, even weeks, to adjust to the performance that

constitutes the stabilized C in the open flow potential

relationship. Thus, it is the identification of the deterioration or discount factor expressed by the ratio of the

stabilized C to what is observed for 72 hours, that is

discussed in the following.

With respect to the earliest presentation before a regulatory body, 1,' this deterioration factor has been portrayed

exactly as this 72-hour test indicated; namely, transient

fluid flow in the formation subject to the constant terminal

pressure case at the wellbore.

Without entering into the mathematics of transient fluid

flow, which is well publicized, the case of particular interest is given in one of the author's papers' as a plot of

what constitutes G', the equivalent of a productivity index

for a producing gas well vs the dimensionless time that

comes into effect for transient fluid flow. This is the

representation shown in Fig. 2, reproduced exactly as

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

ll.

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

'YearlY

IMMcf/yr., FWS)

IMMcf/D)

Gp

Time

Iyrs.)

IMMcf, FWS)

5,639.3

5,639.3

5,639.3

11,278.6

5,639.3

16,917.9

5,639.3

22,557.2

5,639.3

28,196.5

5,639.3

33,835.8

5,639.3

39,475.1

5,639.3

45,114.4

5,639.3

50,753.7

5,639.3

56,393.0

5,612.5

62,005.5

4,369.6

66,375.1

3,202.5

69,577.6

2,364.5

71,942.1

1,788.7

73,730.8

1,480.9

75,211.7

1,188.3

76,400.0

975.1

77,375.1

746.6

78,121.7

633.7

78,755.4

527.2

79,282.6

435.7

79,718.3

359.6

80,077.9

313.8

80,391.7

268.2

80,659.9

Rate FWS/365 X 1.03 = Daily Rate Sales Gas.

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

15.000

14.929

11.623

8.518

6.289

4.758

3.939

3.161

2.594

1.986

1.686

1.402

1.159

0.957

0.835

0.713

such as the Kansas Hugoton field.

Since the identification and a detailed discussion of this

phenomenon, as well as the mathematics, can be found

in the transcripts cited,'-3 what is entered here is a brief

synopsis in discussing these various aspects of gas deliverability.

In a tight formation with permeability in the order of

5 to 10 md and less, the C factor is subject to a discount

factor to establish stabilization under pressure depletion

in gas deliverability. This is different from the previous

.0

'" "'"

"'"

.........

'

..... .....

10

1

RATE OF PRODUCTION

...............

10

t'-.......~

CONSTANT

.........

r-.......

= 6PG'

~~

G'

..........

...........

......... ........

..........

I.o

1.0

---

"'"

--

i--

t

II

10-1

10

FIG.

JUNE, 1963

r-

2-G'

FUNCTION

5).

671

.pressure case is given in the insert, showing the relationship between the rate of gas production vs the fixed

cumulative pressure drop from the shut-in pressure that

occurs at the well. Since this rate is at static reservoir

pressure conditions, the reader can establish by mathematical manipulation that the pressure squared differences

familiar to most for gas flow are included in converting

this rate to standard conditions.

The significance of this curve is that G', which is the

equivalent of C in the open flow potential relationship,

reflects a deterioration with increased times, compatible

with what is observed in the field. This is to be expected

as the analysis for transient fluid flow conforms exactly

to field conditions, with the drainage radii extending farther removed into the formation, and the pressure held

constant at the well, to the extent that these G' factors

can be related at various reference times to define this

deterioration factor.

Thus the G' for the 72-hour period can be identified

from this plot, as well as the G' that constitutes the interference between wells in this field where the formation

pressures will start to fall simultaneously to reveal the

pressure depletion in the field associated with a stabilized

rate of production induced by this voidage of the reservoir as a whole.

The dimensionless time, per se, bears little discussion

as it is often quoted in the literature, except to say that

its employment here has the same context as the paper"'

shortly to be referred to. The permeability in this argument is established from pressure build-up.

Therefore the dimensionless time for 72 hours can be

specifically identified, as well as that established for the

maximum radius of drainage where interference can

occur. With respect to the Kansas Hugoton field, since

the spacing is one well to the square mile, the interference

can be expected to occur on the average of n mile

removed from the well.

In this connection a recently published paper" relates

drainage radius with flow time, employing the same parameters that appear in dimensionless time. This is the

expression

kPot

(l0)

lh mile, in its corresponding units, permits the immediate

identification of time, which introduced in the dimensionless time, permits the reading G' in Fig. 2 at this later

period.

Thus in conformance of what has been stated for these

G' factors with the deterioration of the C in the open

flow potential relationship, the ratio of G' for this extended time to that at 72 hours, constitutes this deterioraion or discount factor.

At a later hearing; and now reported by McMahon:

the concepts as here introduced have been extended to

apply to the pressure build-up curve.

In this connection, and reflection upon the part of the

reader, the pressure build-up curve denotes from the

superposition principle a constant rate problem that represents the replenishment of the gas that. has been voided

immediate to the well bore and its domain. Because of

this, the build-up curVe has specfic application since it

is independent of the vicissitudes in producing a well,

and attempting to hold a well pressure constant. Therefore, the pressure build-up represents the ideal case to

672

associated in producing a well.

Since rate is now the constant, the pressure for any

point on the build-up curve minus that observed upon

closing-in a well, constitutes the cumulative pressure buildup that is the variable in this constant rate case. Such

automatically includes well damaging as reflected by pressure build-up.

In its conformance to C in the open flow potential relationship as now discussed, then the reciprocal of this cumulative pressure build-up is compatible with G' to define

the deterioration factor.

For 72 hours of build-up, which represents this reference point in the Kansas Hugoton field, this cumulative

pressure build-up can be read directly from the straightline portion of the Lord Kelvin effect as plotted on a

semilogarithmic graph. For a n -mile drainage radius,

and employing Eq. 10, the corresponding time of buildup can be found that permits extrapolating this straightline and reading this cumulative pressure build-up. Thus

the ratio of the cumulative pressure build-up at 72 hours

divided by the cumulative pressure build-up at the later

time when interference takes place, gives this deterioration

or discount factor.

In essence what this cumulative pressure build-up represents at this later time is static pressure build-up. Thus

in the paper" referred to, an incremental pressure build-up

of small order is involved to realize this static pressure

build-up, although this fact was not used to obtain the

results presented in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 portrays the deterioration factor established from

pressure build-up on some 49 wells in the Kansas Hugoton field, constituting 94 tests in all. Such represented

all the data available, and in itself tells a unique story

which, although surmised, has never been as vividly exhibited as indicated by this plot.

In Fig. 3 the trend or norm for this cluster of points,

illustrated by the smooth curve, shows that for a high

capacity well this discount factor approaches unity; however, as the capacity is greatly reduced this deterioration

factor approaches zero. Fig. 3 is applicable to the conditions studied in Kansas Hugoton, and it is not implied

that this same curve can be employed in other fields.

Nevertheless, these data point up that for determining

open flow potential, the manner of testing a high capacity

well, say, in Louisiana and elsewhere, is valid; but as the

capacity of a well is greatly reduced, the deterioration

factor can piay a role.

In the next section it will be shown that the deterioration factor likewise appears in the consideration of gas

deliverability; but here, instead of being induced by the

transient conditions for dry gas as now defined, it is

effected by the equations of state and the deposition of

condensate in the formation in the movement of gas to

the well.

GAS CONDENSATE

This section treats the deliverability of a rich gas COlldensate reservoir wherein, by introducing a relative permeability concept, the effect of retrograde condensation on

gas deliverability is expressed mathematically.

The example presented, the Knox Bromide pool located

in Grady and Stephens Counties, Okla., is an extremely

tight sand reservoir with an average permeability of

some 5 md producing a fluid which yields as much as

165 bbl of condensate per MMcf. The equations of

state of the fluid, namely its deviation from the ideal gas

JOURNAl. OF PETROLEUM TECHNOI,OGY

as obtained from the laboratory data, are presented in

Figs. 4 and 5. These are composite data from the three

sands encountered in the reservoir. The relative permeability concept using condensate saturation was introduced

because relative permeability studies on Bromide sand

cores, from both the Knox and Bradley fields in Oklahoma, show that permeability to gas flow is essentially

zero once the liquid saturation approaches 50 per cent.

It is important that the reader realize that any applicable

relative permeability relationship can be introduced in

solving problems of this type.

2" ~

~

qg =

([ - 2S,.)

I'

dp

dr

(Ts,.)

z

(14)

,,~(TN')fJ'

['

(I -

2S,)

1'.,

(11)

dp ~ !i'-log':

Iz

I' '"

(12)

CORRECTION FACTOR

2" kh

(s +

(TTN)

log

(15)

1', )

1'"

for S, and unity for z, the integration is that of pdp

which results in the pressure squared difference form

commonly used in gas deliverability work.

The relationship for the movement of condensate, if

such already exists in the pore space, can also be expressed

using Darcy's law

k

dp

27l'h-S,r- =q,

(16)

d I'

fL'

where q, is the rate of condensate movement toward the

well. As expressed in Eq. 16, for 100 per cent condensate saturation the permeability for liquid movement is

1.0

11

I

J.... i-

.9

r--

kh

EMPIRICAL RELATION

vs CORRECTION FACTOR

.8 f--

MARCH 1960

r.7

(s + IOg~)

cfP,.; ([ - 2S,) dp

l.L y

where k is the permeability of the formation, ft,! the viscosity of the gas, S, the condensate saturation in the pore

space, I' the distance in the formation removed from the

well, p absolute pressure in atmospheres, and T the absolute formation temperature.

The integration of Eq. 11 with distance r yields the

relationship

r1

with

f'g

I)"

2S,)~ dp = ~

(l -

Ps

the formation under steady-state conditions and introducing this relative permeability concept, one may write

'2

T_~

( 13)

where I' w is the wellbore radius, Ps the flowing bottomhole pressure, and log implies natural logarithms.

Assigning an effective drainage radius I'M a formation pressure P". and collecting constants,

DEVELOPMENT

27l'~

[1)

Ts,.

r--

Voo

PRESSURE BUILO - UP STUOY

HUGOTON KANSAS FIELO

..

'"

oL

4

0/

1/

0 0

0

!o

I-"""

1

!

,

!

0/

01/

.6

. .

0

[...A' ~

~~

V

.

0

V+--1'

.2

~

.1

....V V

--

10

FIG. 3-DETERIORATION

JUNE,1963

1000

100

kh,Md-Ft.

FACTOR vs kh (REPRODUCE[)

10,00 o

673

150'---~--,----,-----,----r---'--'-~--1-:-;1

30

rH

lAO

!I

1.20

20

Ij----

'--i---'

l.00 -----------!-t---------:------

----

.-----~-

------~i

.15

--+--c--

oeo~o-~~~~~N>~~~5POOonO~6,~OO~O~7~,OOhlO-,8~,OOOOO~9~,O~OO,-~IOPOOOOO~II,OOO

qc

T fLo

Sc

qy - - T - 1 - 2S,

p

Se

fLo

(17)

The rate qc then is a function of saturation and pressure for each point under consideration, and Eq. 17 expresses this rate as defined by the equations of state of

the reservoir fluid.

The essential mathematics have now been presented to

determine the effect of liquid logging on the deliverability

of rich gas condensate reservoirs as expressed through

the equations of state of the fluid, namely the PVT

analysis. An associated problem, that of liquid blocking

of the formation, is treated in Part II of the Appendix.

8,000

7,000

6,000

~

!

!

5,000

I

I

no condensate to be moved. This is again a relative

permeability concept as applied to the condensate.

The identification of the condensate movement toward

the well from any point in the formation is obtained by

the ratio of Eq. 16 to Eq. 11 since identical pressure

gradients exist in each or,

i

I

.05

J. --.......

!

I,

.L

.10

PRESSURE, PSIA

FIG. 4--GAS DEVIATION FACTOR.

!----t--

0.90----;

II

JL

.25

110-

FRACTION INITIAL PORE SPACE

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

PRESSURE, PSIA

of 40 MMcflD. The field rate required for this deliverability varies with the shrinkage, but is approximately 47

MMcf of well stream per day. Two adverse events

are evident from Fig. 7, namely the substantial lowering

of the bottom-hole flowing pressure and the rapid rate of

raw condensate production at the well bore over a short

time interval.

Practical experience dictates that this amount of raw

condensate entering the wellbore will cause liquid logging

with termination of gas production near the end of 1961.

This in turn will cause substantial amounts of gas and

its associated condensate to be unrecovered if normal

depletion of this reservoir is undertaken.

EXAMPLE

to determine the gas deliverability in the Knox Bromide

field are presented in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 depicts the

gas deviation factor as a function of pressure at constant

reservoir temperature. Fig. 5 shows the retrograde condensate saturation in the formation as a function of pressure at constant reservoir temperature.

Using these data a work plot of the function (1 - 2S,)

pi z vs pressure has been prepared. This function is then

integrated with respect to pressure to yield

J

p

pI,OOO

(1 - 28 c ) J!.....dp

Z

In calculating the curve presented in Fig. 6 a lower limit

of 1,000 psi is chosen for the sake of convenience only,

and the integration has been performed mechanically.

Once the work plots were available, actual field flow

tests were used to determine the value of C in Eq. 14.

These were stabilized flow tests which were taken early in

the life of the field when retrograde condensate was

little or non-existent. For the wells considered in the Knox

Bromide field, the average value of C is 0.44211 X 10-"

MMscf of effluent gas per day per psia squared when

weighted on the basis of rate. This production information and the resulting value of C is presen.ted in Table 4.

Fig. 7 presents the results of the deliverability calculation for the Knox field, using the weighted C value and

674

NOMENCLATURE

C = proportionality constant of the open flow potential, L't'/m'

G = gas reserves initially in place, corrected to

standard conditions, L"

G p = gas produced, corrected to standard conditions,

L"

fABLE 4-DELIVERABILITY FORMULA-DATA, AUG., 1960; PI-'

8.125 PSIA-PROGRAM FOR JULY 1, 1961,40 MMcf/D, 10 PRODUCING WElLS

pcc8125

Cc

qg, Rate

(MMcf/D)

Well

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

~

c_

6.392

7.350

6.392

4.184

4.057

0.866

2.830

2.100

4.020

3.058

41.249

Formula, q" = C

(psia)

(I -

2Sc) p/z . dp

C

PH

6789.1

6862.5

6789.1

6414.4

6272.1

6026.4

6274.0

6362.7

6199.7

6352.5

~

7.98 (10)'

7.57110)"

7.98110)"

10.09110)'

10.91 (10)(;

12.28 (10)(;

10.90 (10)'

10.43 (10)(;

11.31 (10)'

10.47(10)'

- 99.92 (10)"

0.80100

0.97093

0.80100

0.41466

0.37186

0.07052

0.25963

0.20134

0.35543

0.29207

(10) "

(10)-"

(10)-"

(10)-'

(10)-0

(10)-'

(10)-"

(10)-G

(10)-';

(10)-"

PI-'

(I -

25,.) p/z . dp

ps

= 0.41282 (10)-'

~

likewise,

q"

PF (I -

PS

25,) p/z . dp

__ _

2.qy

JOVR.'\,AL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

9,00

r::~~1-2SC)PIZ

dP X I~ PSIAZl

2

00

16

12

)/i YI

1__V

1,000

2,000

I

3,000

4,000

5,000

PSIA

I~)P/'I

6,00

llJ-ZS c ) PI,

1,000

dP~tI

4,00

IPf fORMATION

1,000

I

!

8,000

9,000

I

10,000

0

11,000

= condensate

= water

REI<'ERENCES

1961

4 00

300

200

~I

!

I

I00

1963

1962

AIME (1943) 151,263.

6. Hurst, William, Haynie, Orville K. and Walker, Richard W,:

"Some Problems in Pressure Build-Up", Pet. Eng. (Aug.,

1962) 34.

APPENDIX

PART I

integration shown by Eq. 6 as pertains to the gas deliverability for a depletion-type reservoir.

The first problem to be treated is for the open flow

potential relationship, corresponding to a slope n equal

to unity. This is to be followed by the generalized relationship for any slope.

In its simple context, the equation shown in the body

of the report can be expressed as

dp"

(p/ -

Ps')

=

J{

dPF

(PF - P,,)(PF

Pi>' - Ps

+ Ps)

B

flh'

+ Ps

}dPl

(1-1)

given in this integrand.

This is the method of partial fractions to establish the

integration, for which its sum must equal the integrand.

Thus,

---+----

p/

ps

PF

and

p"

or

1J{ I I }

+

-2PN

Pl' - Ps

--

Pi'

P,

dp"

= -

2. Goodson, W. c.: Testimony Before Kansas Corporation Com

mission Market Demand Hearing (Sept., 1959).

3. Hurst, William: Exhibit 3, FPC. Docket G-20570 (June,

1960).

4. McMahon, James J.: "Determination of Gas Well Stabilization

Factors from Surface Flow Tests and BuildUp Tests", Paper

SPE 144, presented at 36th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE,

Dallas, Tex. (Oct. 8-ll, 1961).

5. Hurst, William: "Water Influx Into a Reservoir and Its ApJUNE, 1963

pi>'(A + B) + Ps(A - B) = 1

where A + B = 0 and (A - B)lps = 1, so as to maintain the status quo for the constants so defined. Therefore

A = 1l2ps, and B = - 1/2ps.

This reintroduced in Eq. 1-1, gives

SURSCRIPTS

= gas

- - 500

1,00

pay thickness, L

= absolute permeability, L'

= slope of open flow potential relationship

P = pressure, ml Lt

PF = formation pressure, miLt'

PFn = formation pressure for cease of stabilization,

miLt'

PI = initial reservoir pressure, miLt'

Po< = flowing bottom-hole pressure, miLt'

q = rate of production, L'/t

r = radial distance, L

ro = drainage radius, L

r, = external boundary radius, L

r w = well radius, L

S = saturation expressed as a fraction

T = reservoir temperature, T

T" = temperature, standard conditions, T

t = time, t

tv = time of stabilization, t

z = gas deviation factor

fL = viscosity, miLT

v = number of producing wells

cp = porosity expressed as a fraction

f'.,

700

'-600

= net

800

:

7,000

.1---

I,~

/r-"'<...

-tfl

.........

17

3,0 00

2,000

t-- t---

2,000

PRESSURE I

I---.

00

3,00

EMPLOYING EQUATIONS OF STATE.

6,0

PRESSURE

PRESSURE. PSIA

h

k

n

7,000

I rCONOENSATE

PROOUCTIOril

(Q) WELL BORE

I

vi

I--,....

5,000

6,000

8,000

4,0

A 1/

8~!

9,000

5,00

II

~/

epO

(1-2S C)Plz.

1,000

I(a)CONDENSATE

PRODUCTION h

WEll BORE, BBlS.! DAY 90

PSIAI

rH'PRESSURE.

/

/

10,000

I log :....:..-~

P" - PH

2

Pi>' + PM

(1-2)

in Eq. 6 with the limits so expressed, yields

-1 {Iog Pi>' + Ps - Iog P"n + PB}

2

Pi>' - ps

P"n - p.,

VCPIPS (t -

to)

G

(1-3 )

The simplification as so entailed no longer applies when

n is other than integer. Thus, the integration expressed by

Eq. 6 takes the form

675

into 10 equal parts as expressed by Simpson's Rule. Such

are the summarized data given in Table 1 and illustrated

in Fig. 1.

PART II

n(n

1) (~)4

Ph'

2!

+ ...... +

(n + k - I)!

(n-1)!k!

(~:.)'"}dPF

(1-4)

which is the expansion of the binomial series for the integrand, with Psi PF< 1 that will sustain this convergence.

Its integration with respect to PF between these limits,

yields

(n

-en -

+k

- 1)!

I)! k!(2n

+ 2k

(PR

P;

1)

)',,+'1,-'

much worse than that shown in Fig. 7, as this work treats

only the instantaneous S, depicted by the equations of

state. Actually there is a liquid blocking effect as shown

in the following.

For any distance r in the formation, the cumulative

condensate travel across that lateral surface is

q,dt.

If one takes an increment distance r + Sr out in the formation, the cumulative influx is expressed as

r(q,.

3~' Sr ) dt .

lJ p

accumulation of condensate due to its own movement toward the well or,

_ r O~q,

t

=~--

PH

PF

/,

cc

.) 0

(n + k - I)!

(ps)'h

I)! k!(2n + 2k - 1) pp

(II-I)

This differentiated with respect to time yields

I oq,

h

as,

(II 2

-- tar

= 2Tr

cp(l - Su,) 3t

-)

1)1,'

(n -

or'

l}PD

iJ!(pslp,-,n) - <P(pslpFD,n)

VCpi PR'"'' (t - to)

G

where

<P(PHlpF,n)

(-,,-"-.)2",'

pp

k - 1)!

(n +

(n - 1)! k!(2n

+ 2k

- 1)

(1-5 )

,,=

(PB)2Ic

pp

(1-6)

which is likewise convergent for Psi Ph' < 1 as substantiated between these limits.

As mentioned in the report, this convergent is rapid for

Psi Ph':::; 0.70 but for larger values it is slow. Thus for

Psi Ph' = 0.98 forty terms at least are indicated by the

Abel's theorem of inequality to realize this summability

within 0.10 of its true value.

Practical expediency naturally has dictated the finalization of these calculations by other means. This is the

numerical method, employing Simpson's Rule, extended

for the data Psi Ph' > 0.70. Thus for the integral

=

I"

(~:r

Pslph', gives

dp,.

1

U,,,2

(p/ - Ps')" = - p/n-1 (1 _ u')" du

and the extension from the last computed value <P (0.70,n)

hy the series expansion, yields

i's/}'I"

u'n"

<I>(pslpp,n) -- <1>(0.70,n) t

, tlu

0.70

(1 - u)"

(1-7)

with the numerical calculation performed on the integral.

This is taken in increments of 0.05 for psi Ph' to the

676

related by Eq. 13, this in turn gives the variation in rate

of condensate with distance as expressed through Eq. 17.

Thus the differentiation of rate of condensate with radius

for the Knox Bromide field, as expressed in Eq. 1I-2,

shows that once condensate reaches the wellbore the rate

for the increase of condensate with time is significant to

reach 50 per cent saturation in a short interval, when gas

will cease to flow. This is liquid blocking.

CRITIQUE

The situation that prevails in the Knox Bromide field

although ominous, is not unusual. Many do not realize

this in their dedication to the concept that wherever gas is

found it must be dedicated to a pipeline for the immediate

sale of gas and the cash revenue so accrued.

This was particularly evident in the early study of

Knox Bromide, since in canvassing the industry for factual field data, apparently no one had kept any physical

records as to how a rich gas condensate well performed

under pressure depletion.

The lack of interest so exhibited in not acquiring these

data for post mortem studies was, to say the least, surprising to the authors, since this interpretation could mean

the difference between realizing all the physical assets of

a property or leaving large portions of recoverable hydrocarbons unproduced.

To do credit to those contacted, this interest has now

heen evidenced, and factual field reporting on gas condensate wells can become part of the published literature.

To conclude, the authors wish to acknowledge the

gracious help rendered by Jack R. Fraser, vice-president

of the Republic Natural Gas Co., Dallas, Tex. and Jan

J. Arps and John C. Thrash, Jr., vice-president and district

engineer, respectively, of The British-American Oil Producing Co., DaHas, Tex.

***

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