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Law and order

As a teacher, you will often find yourself tied up in the nittygritty atomistic side of language; the verb endings and the
prepositions, the schwas and the falling intonation patterns.
But try to keep hold of the whole as well. Dont lose touch
with the fact that people need language to communicate
with other people. Remember this in class, and let it sound
an occasional warning bell in your head. Dont only hear the
mistakes and the verb tenses and the adverbs; try to hear the
people using the language. Education is too important to be
lost amid a constant focus on smaller problems.
Jim Scrivener
Learning Teaching, 2005, p380
Macmillan Books for Teachers


Part 1: pages 42 & 43

To learn about law
To read about fake medicine
To talk about illegal business
perfect in all its
To use the past perfect in all its forms to talk about a past
action that took place before another
before another


Getting started

4 What do you think made Detective Benson join the SVU?

5 What kind of crime is committed in the episode
6 What kind of evidence did the neighbours give the
7 Did the situation get worse for Ann? Justify.
Make sure students understand that a crime is any illegal
activity or action as different from murder, which is the
crime of killing somebody deliberately.
Ask the class to mention different crimes and discuss
possible punishments for each.



Teach unknown vocabulary through definition and context.

You may find these definitions and collocations useful:
- witness: someone who sees a crime (appeal for
witnesses; witnesses for the defence/the prosecution)
- trial: the process of examining a case in a court of law
and deciding whether someone is guilty or not (the case
comes to trial; the accused has to stand trial)
- verdict: an official judgment made in a court (reach/
deliver a verdict of guilty)
- court: a place where trials take place and legal cases are
decided (appear in court; take somebody to court)
- jury: a group of people, usually 12, who judge a court
case (the jury are still out; the jury returned its verdict)
- statement: a formal written account of a crime
sentence: a punishment given by a judge (receive/serve/
pass/pronounce a sentence)
- fine an amount of money that you have to pay because
you have broken the law (a heavy/substantial fine; pay/
get/receive a fine)
- judge: the person whose job is to make decisions in a
court of law (go before a judge; the judge dismissed her
- arrest: take a person to the police station because they
are believed to have committed a crime (be under arrest;
make an arrest)
Have the class complete the crossword with the words
Check students answers on the board.

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Ask the class if they have ever watched the TV series Law
& Order SVU and if they liked it or not. Read the following
text about the series for students to listen and then
answer the questions below:
Law & Order Special Victims Unit is a series that
chronicles the life and crimes of special victims in New
York. This SVU is an elite squad of detectives who
investigate different crimes but especially the sexually
based ones.
This series was created by Dick Wolf and features
Christopher Maloni in the lead role of a veteran of the unit
who has seen it all, together with Mariska Hargitay as
Detective Olivia Benson, who joined the unit because she
had a difficult past herself. Hargitay has been nominated
for several international awards and finally got the Golden
Globe in 2005 and her first Emmy Award in 2006.
In one of the 2011 episodes, the SVU was investigating
the rape of one woman, Debbie, and the physical attack
of her partner, Ann, inside their flat. Neighbours across
the street had taken pictures of the attack through the
window. Detectives Benson and Stabler looked at the
photos and saw the attacker was wearing a mask during
the assault. When detective Benson headed for the
hospital to check on Ann, the woman who was physically
attacked, she discovered that Debbie was Anns doctor
and she was operating on her roommate. Eventually, the
situation got worse when the SVU realized their main
suspect was Anns brother.
1 What does SVU mean?
2 Who are the two protagonists?
3 What kinds of stories are featured in the series?


1 arrest; 2 jury; 3 sentence; 4 verdict; 5 judge; 6 court; 7 trial;
8 statement
Not in the puzzle: witness, fine

In England, a distinction is made between

public law, which governs the relationship
between individual citizens and the state,
and private law, which governs relationships between
individuals and private organizations. Similarly, another
distinction is made between civil law and criminal law.
Civil law covers such areas as contracts, negligence,
family matters and employment. Criminal law defines
the boundaries of acceptable conduct.

Minor offences such as speeding are heard by

Magistrates Courts. Many towns in England and Wales
have their own Magistrates Court, where cases are
heard by three magistrates. Magistrates do not need any
legal qualifications and they are advised by a Clerk, who
is a qualified lawyer. Magistrates do not state reasons for
their decisions.
Very serious offences such as murder and rape
are heard in the Crown Court. The Crown Court is
based in about 90 centres throughout England and
Wales. A jury consisting of 12 people chosen at random
from the local population will decide, without giving
reasons, whether the defendant is guilty of the offence
or not.

Have students work in pairs to decide what they would

ask Dora if they had the chance to meet her and what they
think she would answer. Discuss different alternatives.

Have the class find a word in the text in Exercise 3 for
each definition.
Check students answers on the board.
1 kidnap; 2 unscrupulous; 3 smuggler; 4 toxic; 5 trustworthy

Ask students what they know about fake medicine in

their town/country. You may wish to ask these guiding
1 Where does the process of production of fake
medicine start? How?
2 Where is fake medicine sold?
3 Do the authorities try to make people aware of this
4 What can be done to solve this problem?

Ask students to complete the sentences with some of the
words in Exercise 1.
Check their answers orally


1 arrest; 2 statement; 3 trial; 4 jury ; 5 sentences, fine; 6 verdict
jury ; 5 sentences,

For further information, you may visit this website:



13 page 44
Exercises 13


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Ask different students to tell their classmates about

crimes they have witnessed or been told about Encourage
them to use the words presented in Exercise 1.
Alternatively, you may invite the class to talk about an
important unsolved local murder case.


Make sure students understand the meaning of get

away with (manage to do something bad without being
2.01 Play track 2.01, if possible with books closed, for gist
listening. Ask students to summarize the article in two
sentences to check global comprehension, eg:
80% of the medicines in Nigeria were counterfeit.
Dora fought to get fair trials and sentences.
Play track 2.01 again for students to read, listen and
describe Dora Akunyili.

Read the three sounds aloud and then ask the class to
look at the letters in bold.
Have students write the words in the correct column.
2.02 Play track 2.02 for students to listen, check their work
and repeat the words.
Audio cript/Answers
\\ burn, work, verdict

\\ drugs, smuggler, products

\I\ kidnap, criminal, illegal

Give the class three minutes to go through the units they

have covered up to now and write other words in each
column. Check orally.
Possible answers:
\\ turned, personally, circulating, permanent, ergonomic,
\\ drums, but, trouble, comfortable, productive, sculpture
\I\ kidnap, will, difficulties, with, gives, built, think, impact,
visitors, mix

Possible answer
Dora is an honest woman in a corrupt country./Dora is a 55-yearold Nigerian mother who struggled against fake medicine showing
courage, respect for the law and perseverance.

Ask students to read the text in Exercise 3 again, if
necessary. Then have them answer the questions.
Check their answers orally.


1 Criminals have tried to shoot her, burn her offices and kidnap her
children. Because she knows that fake medicine is big business;
2 He knew he needed somebody trustworthy and Dora had been
personally affected by the problem when her sister died; 3 Dora
fought corruption by using a team of women inspectors because
she believed they were less corruptible than men; 4 Yes, she has.
Now the amount of fake medicine on sale in Nigeria is only 20% of
what it was.

Exercises 4 & 5, page 44

Invite the class to work in pairs to ask and answer the
questions. Alternatively, this may be conducted as a class



Use the text in Exercise 3 to contextualize the presentation
of the past perfect. Teach the affirmative form first. Write
an example on the board and elicit form (had for all
persons + past participle) as well as meaning (an action
that happens before another one in the past). Do the same
with the interrogative and negative forms.
Draw students attention to the sentences in the grammar
table. Then ask them to circle the correct words.
Check their answers orally.
1 another past action; 2 past participle

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The board is undoubtedly one of the most

useful resources most teachers have. Whether
it be black, green, white or interactive, it clearly
reflects what the class was like. An organized,
neat board usually shows careful planning and
an organized teacher


Remember that a lot of our learning depends

on visual impact, so make sure the use of the
board is purposeful and practical Avoid long
teacher writing times and bear in mind that not
only teachers can write on the board. Students
may well be invited to write their answers
there for group correction, for example.


Exercises 69, page 45

Communication focus
Have students work in pairs to ask and answer the
questions giving a reason in the past perfect simple. Ask
a student to answer the first question as an example.
Alternatively, you may conduct this as a whole-class
activity, accepting different past perfect answers to each
question, eg:
Teacher: Why didnt you want to see the film?
Student A: I didnt want to see the film because I had
already seen it before.
Student B: Because my friend had already told me it was
Student C: Because I had read in the papers that the
acting was bad.

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Have the class complete the sentences with the correct

form of the verbs in brackets. Ask a student to complete
the first sentence as an example.
Check students answers on the board.
1 had not rung; 2 had finished; 3 had died; 4 had made;
5 hadnt taken
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1 he had done; 2 had left; 3 had read it; 4 had read Julias email,
deleted it


Refer students to the Grammar focus section on page

133 for further notes and practice.


Have the class rewrite the sentences given using the

past perfect. Ask a strong learner to complete the first
sentence as an example.
Check students answers orally.

Giving instructions is a very important teaching

skill. Instructions should be short and have
very simple language. They should always be
followed by an example elicited from a strong

Ask students to write down ten actions they did yesterday

using the infinitive form. These actions should be listed at
random. Then have students exchange lists and work in
pairs to ask past perfect questions, eg:
(have a shower / go to the club / drink mineral water)
Student A: Had you already drunk mineral water before
you went to the club?
Student B: Yes, I had.
Students should take down notes to put the actions in
order and then write the corresponding sentences, eg:
Student A: He had already drunk mineral water when he
went to the club.

Invite different students to say the beginning of a

sentence using the verb in the past perfect form. Other
students have to complete it, eg:
Student A: I had just drunk...
Student B: You had just drunk a cup of coffee when your
parents got home.
Alternatively, you may guide students by whispering the
verb you want them to use, eg:
Teacher: play
Student A: I had just played
Student B: You had just played your favourite computer
game when the lights went out.

Part 2: pages 44 & 45

Write these clues on the board:

1 to sit for an international exam? (ready)
2 about space exploration? (curious)
3 for the programme? (late)
4 of winning an international competition? (capable)
5 of any crime? (guilty)
6 about anything in particular? (angry)
7 of your friends? (jealous)
8 to tobacco? (addicted)
9 about your next holiday trip? (excited)

To learn adjective + preposition combinations
To talk about crimes and punishment
To read about Criminal Minds
To use be able to in its different forms
Extra materials: set of cards (Getting started)

Getting started





2.03 Play track 2.03 for students to listen and check their


about: excited about, curious about, angry about, certain about
of: aware of, capable of, guilty of, jealous of
for: ready for, suitable for, late for
to: polite to, addicted to, sensitive to

Have students rewrite the sentences using the adjectives
in brackets and the corresponding preposition.
Check their work orally.
Possible answers
1 The people were angry about the judges sentence; 2 He didnt
hear his alarm clock ring, so he was late for court; 3 My friend loves
computer games and he is addicted to them; 4 He isnt suitable for
working in this place; 5 Peter is excited about some very good news.
Exercises 15, page 46


When teaching lexis, we ought to bear in mind

that not all the items we teach are going to
become an active part of students everyday
language. There is productive and receptive
vocabulary. We all understand many more
words than those we actually use regularly. So
the best way to help learners increase their
vocabulary is to offer different opportunities for
them to practise it in different contexts.

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Read the adjectives in the box aloud and make sure

students know what they mean.
Ask the class to write the adjectives in the correct

Have students ask and answer using the clues given and
the adjective in brackets, eg:
Student A: Are you ready to sit for an international exam?
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Write these questions on separate cards:

1 What did you realize when you got home last night?
2 Why was your friend sick this morning?
3 Were your friends waiting for you at the station when
you arrived?
4 Why didnt the teacher want you to read Animal
5 Was there anybody at home when you arrived back
from school yesterday?
6 Why couldnt you find your trousers last Saturday?
Invite different students to take turns to pick up a card
at random and answer it using the past perfect. It is
important, for the sake of practice, to have them give full
answers, eg:
Student A: Were you tired when you arrived at school
this morning?
Student B: Yes, I was tired when I arrived at school this
morning because I had not slept properly.

Ask the class to look at the pictures and describe them,

eg: In the first picture, a young man wearing a hooded
sweatshirt is spraying graffiti on a wall. Make sure
students understand, in this case, it is not a work of art but
an act of vandalism. Get students to imagine the message
the young man is going to write. The second picture shows
a phone box that has been vandalized and its window has
been smashed
smashed.. Students may also notice that the box has
been moved to a rural area. Ask them who, in their opinion,
could have done that.
Have students work in pairs to ask and answer the


Possible answers
1 These are considered minor offences, so the people who commit
these crimes may be fined, sentenced to community work or go to
prison for just a few days; 2 Young offenders do not usually go to
prison and often stand special trials in young offenders courts;
3 Very often these punishments are not severe enough and young
offenders are likely to relapse into crime.

2.04 Play track 2.04, if possible with books closed, for

students to answer these general questions:

1 What kind of programme is Criminal Minds?
2 Who are the protagonists?
3 What is the main characteristic of the profilers team?
Play track 2.04 again for students to read, listen and
answer the questions.

Check their work orally.

Check students answers orally.

1 It has been on TV since 2005; 2 They are an elite unit that analyzes
the countrys most twisted criminal minds before they are able to
strike again; 3 Penelope Garcia is the teams computer technician.
She joined the Bureau to avoid going to prison. Dr Reid is a genius,
he has many titles and after being kidnapped he was rescued by the
FBI; 4 They work as a team to analyze human behaviour and profile
murderers as well as possible victims.

1 ability; 2 an infinitive without to

Ask the class to find a word in the text in Exercise 5 for
each definition.
Check students answers orally.
1 premiered; 2 criminal; 3 painkiller; 4 disorder

Invite students to describe what kind of man Penelope

may fall in love with: probably somebody who is extremely
intelligent, somebody who is sensitive because she has
suffered a lot, a man who lives by the law because she
has had enough trouble with it, and somebody who is
patient as well as independent to respect her unusual job.

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Ask students to complete the sentences with the correct

form of be able to and the verb in brackets.
Check their answers orally.
1 will be able to travel; 2 were able to catch; 3 Have, been able to
finish; 4 was, able to clean up; 5 will, be able to do

Personalize the previous activity by asking students

these questions at random:
1 What have you already been able to do this year?
2 What do you think man will be able to do in ten
years time?
3 What have you been able to do this week?
4 Do you think we will be able to live in space in the
next fifty years?
5 What interesting inventions has man been able to
come up with?

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It is important to exploit a text because this

gives students the chance to remember
the information presented in the text and to
use the vocabulary in it over and over again
in different contexts. How can you do this?
For example, by asking students to imagine
situations that are not described in the original
text, to make inferences, to learn more
vocabulary related to the specific semantic
area, to look for more information on the
Internet and share it with their partners and/or
to debate the issue in class.


Exercises 69, page 47

Invite students to imagine what Reid was like as a

teenager: he was probably a nerd, who didnt get along
with his classmates, whom everybody found weird and
who used to be studious and extremely clever.


Refer students to the Grammar focus section on page

134 for further notes and practice.

Use the text in Exercise 5 to contextualize the presentation

of be able to in the affirmative form. Use L1 to check
students understand the meaning. Then teach the negative
and interrogative forms. Write an example of each form on
the board.
Insights into grammar: be able to is used in tenses
where the modal auxiliary can cannot be used, eg: in
perfect or future tenses, but it is also used for ability in the
past. In this case, it is not the same as could. While could is
used for actions that could be repeated, was/were able to
refers to one specific occasion, eg:
1 I could eat chicken very fast when I was a baby.
2 Because the bones had been removed, I was able to
eat the chicken very fast.
Have the class go through the grammar table and then
circle the correct words.

Have the class read the words in the box and use them to
predict the interview they will listen to in Exercise 10.
Teach the word stab if necessary through definition: kill or
hurt somebody by pushing a knife into their body.

2.05 Play track 2.05 for students to listen to the interview and

correct the wrong information.

Check their work orally.

Helen Wright from the Bristol-based organization Safe Streets is

here to answer questions about knife crime. Helen, can you give
us the figures?

Helen Wright Well, they vary according to the source, of course. Police figures
are lower than those from the hospitals.

Is that because the police want us to think that its crime fighting
is effective?

Helen Wright Well, one problem is that many victims of stabbings go to hospital
but not to the police. And many more dont go to hospital.

So do we know how many people are stabbed each year?

Helen Wright Last year over 300 people were stabbed to death and nearly 50 of
those were teenagers. Officially, over 4,000 people were stabbed
and injured, some seriously injured. Over 1,000 of the people
injured were teenagers.

Thats over ten stabbings a day. And you think that this might be
an underestimate?

Helen Wright Unofficial sources people who work in the community and know
whats really happening on the street give higher numbers. Some
even say that the real figure could be more than 20,000 a year.
Obviously, the worst areas are big cities like London.

Why are so many teenagers carrying knives?

Helen Wright Some carry them to get respect, others to defend themselves if
theyre attacked. Its a vicious circle, but we definitely need to get
rid of the knives. In many places, gangs of youths rule the streets
and drug dealing is a serious problem too.


What are the police doing about it?

Helen Wright I t is now a criminal offence to carry a knife and the police can
stop and search anyone. The courts are getting tougher too.
Many offenders are sent to prison and others are sentenced to
do community work or are fined.

And are these measures effective?

Helen Wright Theyre not effective on their own. Local communities must help
and parents must be more responsible. They shouldnt let their
kids roam the streets at night.

What about violent videos and music? Are they partly responsible
for the amount of aggression in teenage gang culture?

Helen Wright Many peoples fingers point at hip hop culture, because the
lyrics are sometimes violent. It could have an influence,
especially because these singers are role models for many kids.
Fortunately, some rap stars, like Tricky and Tinie Tempah are
speaking out against knife crime.

So things are moving in the right direction, then?

Helen Wright Definitely. But we must remember that there are a lot of
social problems that contribute to the violence, things like the
breakdown of family values, poverty, lack of opportunity

So do you think that anti-social teenage behaviour and knife

culture are symptoms of a sick society, then?

Helen Wright Yes. Tougher policing is necessary but it cant solve the problem.
A cultural change is needed before our streets become safe
again. Theres a long way to go.

Thank you for speaking to us today, Helen.


1 Last year nearly 50 teenagers we
e victims of stabbings; 2 Official
teenagers we e
sources underestimate the knife crime figures; 3 Some teenagers
crime figures;
are carrying knives to get respect and others to defend themselves;
and others to
4 Some offenders are sentenced to community work; 5 Helen
community work; Helen
Wright thinks parents should not allow their
their hildren to go out
hildren to go out
at night; 6 Some rap stars speak out against knife crime; 7 Helen
against knife crime; 7 Helen
agrees that tougher policing is necessary.



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Invite the class to go through the text in Exercise 11 again

and then answer the questions.
Check students answers orally.
1 In my opinion, I feel strongly that, I believe, I think, I really dont
agree; 2 really, perfectly, strongly; 3 For reasons: because;
For results: As a result, consequently.
Exercise 12, page 47

Rounding up
Ask the class to imagine their local community has chosen
them to make a speech in Parliament about what can be
done to stop crime in their town.
Give students two minutes to state their point of view.
Then have students work in groups to organize their ideas
and finally share their speeches.
Debates are fluency activities in which the
main aim is to get students to speak with as
little contribution from the teacher as possible.
This is why clear instructions are essential.
Walk around and monitor students work while
they are organizing their ideas and choosing
the spokesperson. Help only when you are
asked to. Once the debate has started, avoid
interrupting. When everybody has finished
their talk, you may write on the board a list of
mistakes they have made and encourage class

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Exercises 10 & 11, page 47
10 & 11, page 47

When doing a listening task, it is advisable to

play the audio once for gist listening and ask
the class what it is about, or ask students to
just mention three things they can remember.
Then play the audio again for students to
complete the task itself. Do not worry if you
have to play the audio a third time. It is never
a waste of time to expose the class to native
Invite the class to write five questions about the
interview. Then have students work in pairs to ask and
answer the questions.
Invite the class to debate the following:
1 Is community work effective?
2 What connection is there between music and

Ask students to read the text and answer the questions.
Check their work orally.
1 In his opinion, it is perfectly valid for individual citizens to fight
crime; 2 He speaks of the pink sari gang.



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