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3.

Ring Networks
In a ring network layout, all of the computers are connected to one another in a circle. The data
passes from one computer to the next one and then all the way around the ring layout until it
reaches the destination computer.

Advantages

Transmission of data is
simple as it only travels in
direction

No data collisions

Extra computers can be added easily with little effect on performance - although
you have to shut down the network to be able to do this.

fairly
one

Disadvantages

If a single machine is switched off, the network doesn't work

If a cable breaks, the network doesn't work

Data must pass through every computer until it reaches its destination. This can
make it slower than other network layouts.

If there are any problems with the network, they can be difficult to identify the
cause.

Ring Network
Advantages

Data is quickly transferred without a bottle neck. (very fast, all data traffic is in the same
direction)
The transmission of data is relatively simple as packets travel in one direction only.
Adding additional nodes has very little impact on bandwidth
It prevents network collisions because of the media access method or architecture required.
-Disadvantages
Data packets must pass through every computer between the sender and recipient therefore
this makes it slower.
If any of the nodes fail then the ring is broken and data cannot be transmitted successfully.
It is difficult to troubleshoot the ring.
Because all stations are wired together, to add a station you must shut down the network
temporarily.
In order for all computers to communicate with each other, all computers must be turned on.
Total dependence upon the one cable

A ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which the nodes (workstations
or other devices) are connected in a closed loop configuration. Adjacent pairs
of nodes are directly connected. Other pairs of nodes are indirectly
connected, the data passing through one or more intermediate nodes.
The illustration shows a ring network with five nodes. Each node is shown as
a sphere, and connections are shown as straight lines. The connections can
consist of wired or wireless links.

The ring topology may prove optimum when system requirements are
modest and workstations are at scattered points. If the workstations are
reasonably close to the vertices of a convex polygon (such as the pentagon
shown in the illustration), the cost can be lower than that of any other
topology when cable routes are chosen to minimize the total length of cable
needed.
A break in the cable of a ring network may result in degraded data speed
between pairs of workstations for which the data path is increased as a result
of the break. If two breaks occur and they are not both in the same section of
cable, some workstations will be cut off from some of the others. When
system reliability is a critical concern, a bus network or star network may
prove superior to a ring network. If redundancy is required, the mesh
networktopology may be preferable.
A token ring is a widely-implemented kind of ring network.

Token Ring definition


A Token Ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are
connected in a ring or star topology and a bit- or token-passing scheme is
used in order to prevent the collision of data between two computers that want
to send messages at the same time. The Token Ring protocol is the second
most widely-used protocol on local area networks after Ethernet. The IBM
Token Ring protocol led to a standard version, specified as IEEE 802.5. Both
protocols are used and are very similar. The IEEE 802.5 Token Ring
technology provides for data transfer rates of either 4 or 16 megabits per
second. Very briefly, here is how it works:

What is Ring Topology?


In Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each-other in such a way that they
make a closed loop. Each workstation is connected to two other components on either
side, and it communicates with these two adjacent neighbors. Data travels around the
network, in one direction. Sending and receiving of data takes place by the help of
TOKEN.
Token Passing (in brief) : Token contains a piece of information which along with
data is sent by the source computer. This token then passes to next node, which checks
if the signal is intended to it. If yes, it receives it and passes the empty to into the
network, otherwise passes token along with the data to next node. This process
continues until the signal reaches its intended destination.
The nodes with token are the ones only allowed to send data. Other nodes have to wait
for an empty token to reach them. This network is usually found in offices, schools and
small buildings.

Ring Topology & token

Advantages of Ring Topology


1) This type of network topology is very organized. Each node gets to send the data
when it receives an empty token. This helps to reduces chances of collision. Also in
ring topology all the traffic flows in only one direction at very high speed.
2) Even when the load on the network increases, its performance is better than that
of Bus topology.
3) There is no need for network server to control the connectivity between
workstations.
4) Additional components do not affect the performance of network.

5) Each computer has equal access to resources.

Disadvantages of Ring Topology


1) Each packet of data must pass through all the computers between source and
destination. This makes it slower than Star topology.
2) If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.
3) Network is highly dependent on the wire which connects different components.
4) MAUs and network cards are expensive as compared to Ethernet cards and hubs.

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming
a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data travels from node to node,
with each node along the way handling every packet.
Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring networks may be
disrupted by the failure of a single link. A node failure or cable break might isolate every node
attached to the ring.
Ring Topology
Advantages
Very orderly
network where every
device has access to the
token and the
opportunity to transmit.
Performs better
than a star topology

Disadvantages
One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create
problems for the entire network.
Data packets must pass through every computer between the
sender and recipient therefore this makes it slower.
Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network.

Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more expensive than
Ethernet cards and hubs.
Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load.

under heavy network


load.

A physical ring topology uses a single length of cable


interconnecting all computers and forming a loop. If there is a break in the
cable, all systems on the network will be unable to access the network.
Total dependence upon the one cable.

Can create much


larger network using
Token Ring.
Does not require
network server to
manage the connectivity
between the computers.
Data is quickly
transferred without a
"bottle neck". (very fast,
all data traffic is in the
same direction).
The transmission
of data is relatively
simple as packets travel
in one direction only.
It prevents
network collisions
because of the media
access method or
architecture required.

All Network Interface Cards (NICs) on the ring network must


operate at the same speed.

The MSAU on a logical ring topology represents a single point of


Adding additional failure. If all devices are unable to access the network and there is no
nodes has very little
cable break, it might be that the MSAU is faulty.
impact on bandwidth.
Because all stations are wired together, to add a station you must
shut down the network temporarily.
Difficult to troubleshoot a ring network.
In order for all computers to communicate with each other, all
computers must be turned on.