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Generic Specification

Optical Ground Wire Cables (OPGW)


for Installation on High Voltage Power Lines

Test OPGWCCC

Table of Contents
1

Scope

Standards

OPGW Cable Design

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4

General
Optical fiber
Cable core: aluminum central buffer tube
Cable armoring
Standard OPGW design families
Tests

4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.8
4.3.9
5

General
Tests on wires
Diameter
Tensile strength
Elongation at break
Wrapping test
Conductivity
Thickness of Al-cladding
Torsion test
Tests on finished OPGW
Quality of surface
Diameter of cable
Diameter of buffer tube
Laylength
Position of wires
Fiber excess length
Cable weight
DC resictance
Special type tests

Packaging

6
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10

Annex A1: Standard OPGW Cable, Single Layer Design


Annex A2: Standard OPGW Cable, Double Layer Design
Annex B: Reel sizes and maximum delivery length

CCS PLM EU
Document: Generic_Spec_OPGW
Date: August 2001

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Scope

This specification covers Optical Ground Wire Cables (OPGW) for the installation on high
voltage overhead power lines. The cable contains optical fibers for data transmission
and telecom purposes and is installed instead of an ground wire.
The specification describes the basic design of an OPGW-cable with its main
components: the fibers, the central buffer tube and the cable armoring. Furthermore this
specification contains information concerning the quality assurance during
manufacturing, the final acceptance tests, the type tests and the packaging. Any
technical data mentioned in this product specification serve for describing the product
only and should not be understood as an assurance of properties.

Standards

The specification generally refers to the following standards:


IEC 60794-4-1: Optical fiber cables

Aerial optical cables for high-voltage power

lines
IEEE Std1138: IEEE standard construction of composite fiber optic overhead ground
wire (OPGW) for use on electric utility power lines
IEC 61089:

Round wire concentric lay overhead electrical stranded conductors

IEC 60104 A:

Aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy wire for overhead line conductors

IEC 61232 20SA: Aluminum-clad steel wires for electrical purposes


EIA/TIA 598:

Color coding of fiber optic cables

IEC 60793-1:

Optical fibers - Part 1: Generic Specification

IEC 60793-2:

Optical fibers - Part 2: Product Specifications

ITU-T Recommendation G.650:

Definition

and

test

methods

for

the

relevant

parameters
of single-mode fibers

ITU-T Recommendation G.652: Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable

ITU-T Recommendation G.655: Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion shifted singlemode optical fiber cable

CCS PLM EU
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OPGW Cable Design

3.1

General

OPGW having the dual performance functions of a conventional ground wire with optical
fiber
telecommunication capabilities.
Hence, the main components of an OPGW-cable are such as follows:
a) the optical fibers,
b) the aluminum central buffer tube,
c) the cable armoring consisting of one, two or more layers of armoring wires.

a) typical single layer design

b) typical double layer design

Fig. 1 : Principle cross sections of OPGW with central aluminum buffer tube
The following chapters give a description of these main components of an OPGW-cable.
3.2

Optical fiber

The OPGW cable are designed for different types of fibers, e.g. Standard Single-Mode
Fibers
(E9, SSMF) and Non-zero Dispersion Shifted Fibers (E10, LEAF) or other.
The fibers meet all requirements according to IEC 60793-2 and relevant ITU-T
Recommendations G.652 and G.655 .
Attenuation coefficient and chromatic dispersion are the most important fiber
parameters.
The values of these parameters are stated in the special cable description.
Other fiber parameters (stated in fiber data sheets) can be provided on request.

CCS PLM EU
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Fiber color coding


The fibers are marked by a code of 12 different colors according to TIA/EIA-598:
fiber
fiber
fiber
fiber
fiber
fiber

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:

blue
orange
green
brown
slate / gray
white

fiber
fiber
fiber
fiber
fiber
fiber

7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:

red
black
yellow
violet
rose / pink
aqua / turquoise

The color used for fiber color coding does not inhibit the operation of LID (Local Injection
and Detection) devices (splicing devices, attenuation measuring systems etc.). The
color is made of an UV-cured acrylate material.
The optical fiber colors are stable during temperature cycling and do not subject to
fading or smearing onto each other or into the gel filling material.
With fiber counts more than 12 fibers the individual fibers are bundled up into single
groups of for instance 12 colored fibers. These groups are held together by colored
yarns, which follow the same color code as described for the fibers. By color coding of
both, the fibers and the yarns, an unmistakable identification of each fiber in the buffer
tube is ensured. Thus each fiber is individually accessible. It can easily be separated and
fused at joints using conventional splicing machines.
3.3

Cable core: Aluminum central buffer tube

The cable design is based on a central aluminum buffer tube, that means the application
of the well known loose buffer tube technique.
This buffer tube usually contains several fibers, the identification of which is ensured by
the color code described in chapter 3.2. The fibers lie loosely in the tube. Apart from the
fibers, the buffer tube is filled with a non-hygroscopic, non-nutritive to fungus,
electrically non-conductive, homogenous, paraffin oil based gel in order to prevent
water penetration and migration. The gel is free from dirt and foreign matter and can be
readily removed with conventional non-toxic solvents.
One outstanding feature of the central aluminum buffer tube is the fact, that, by means
of a special manufacturing method, the optical fibers are housed helically in the central
tube. As a result the fibers are longer than the cable. The standard fiber excess length
(FEL) is > 0,3 %.
This FEL ensures a suitable operating window, without any fiber strain, up to 50 % RTS
of
the
cable.
That means, if a tensile force is applied to the cable and hence to the central buffer
tube, a wide range of cable- / buffer tube-elongation will not lead to fiber strain, that
means no increase in attenuation.
A closer look at the fibers in case of very strong cable elongation (more than 50 % RTS)
reveals the main advantage of the central buffer tube design. Even if the cable is
stressed up to its breaking load the fibers stay in the center of the buffer tube. That
means, attenuation increase due to microbending effects between the inner wall of the
central buffer tube and the fibers will not occur.
Due to the central aluminum buffer tube with its FEL, the whole cable design is, within a
wide range, insensitive to external influences. The central buffer tube is showing best
performance at temperature induced contractions or tensile stressing of the cable.
These OPGW can even survive storms and severe icing without fiber elongation. The
central buffer tube is a good protection against lateral compression as well.
CCS PLM EU
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3.4

Cable armoring

In order to protect the optical fibers within the central buffer tube from external
influences, OPGW cables are made up of one or more layers of armoring wires for strain
relief and protection against buckling. The armoring consists of aluminum-alloy wires
(AA)
and
/
or
aluminum-clad
steel wires (ACS).
The cross-section of the individual material depends on the electrical and mechanical
requirements and is tailored to suit the needs of the customer.
The used armoring wires are described in the following standards:
-

AA

wires according to

IEC 60104 A

ACS

wires according to

IEC 61232 20SA/A

The standard stranding direction of the outer layer is right hand lay. The other layers
change from right hand lay to left hand lay, starting from the outer layer to the inner
core.
However on request other lay directions are possible.
Regarding environmental conditions the OPGW meet the following temperature ranges:
Transport and Operation :

-40C to +80C.

Installation :

-10C to +50C.

3.5

Standard OPGW design families

Cable design standardization provides the following advantages:


-

well tested cable design


shorter delivery times
serial production

The tables in annex A show the standard OPGW design families:


A1: Single Layer Design
A2: Double Layer Design

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Tests

4.1

General

There are different test series to assure the quality of the OPGW:
Routine test (in-process testing according to internal quality plan)
Factory acceptance test (FAT, witnessed by customer)
Type test (only in case of a basic new design, repetition in exceptional cases only)
As a general rule the tests will be performed according IEC 60794-4-1.
However, if necessary tests according IEEE Std1138 are possible.
In all cases the actual test items to be performed and the criteria for each test have to
be determined in accordance with agreement between purchaser and manufacturer.

Routine Test
The optical attenuation coefficient on all production cable lengths is measured according
to
IEC 60793-1-C1C (Back-scattering technique, OTDR ).
Standard single-mode fibers are measured at 1310 nm and at 1550 nm.
Non-zero dispersion-shifted single-mode (NZDS) fibers are measured at 1550 nm.

Factory Acceptance Test


Factory acceptance tests are carried out on two samples per order in the presence of
the customer or his representative. The requirements for the quality characteristics are
determined by relevant standards and the agreed quality plans.

Type Test
Type tests are intended to verify the basic design concept.
Repeat of these or selected tests are necessary if there is a significant change in the
optical
unit
or material used in the OPGW.
General results from type tests on OPGW of similar design may be evaluated.
In case of no acceptance of similar type test reports, the tests can be performed to the
appropriate costs.

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The following table shows the three different test programs:

Routine

FAT

Type Test

Test Procedure

X
X
X
X
X
X

IEC 60793-1-C9B
IEC 60793-1-A2X
IEC 60793-1-C1C
IEC 60793-1-C1A
IEC 60793-1-C5A
IEC 60793-1-C7B

See
See
See
See
See
See
See

Test on fibers
Mode field diameter
Geometric parameter
Attenuation (OTDR)
Spectral attenuation
Chromatic dispersion
Cut-off wavelength (cable cut
off)

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Test on wires before


stranding
Diameter
Tensile strength
Elongation at break
Wrapping test
Conductivity
Thickness of Al-cladding
Torsion test

chapter
chapter
chapter
chapter
chapter
chapter
chapter

5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7

Tests on OPGW
Quality of surface
Diameter of cable
Diameter of buffer tube
Laylength
Position of wires
Fiber excess length
Cable weight
DC-resistance
Stress Strain Test
Tensile performance test

Sheave test

Aeolian vibration simulation

Galloping test

Creep test

Temperature cycle test

Water penetration

Short circuit current test

Lightning test

CCS PLM EU
Document: Generic_Spec_OPGW
Date: August 2001

Rev.: 2

See chapter 5.3.1


See chapter 5.3.2
See chapter 5.3.3
See chapter 5.3.4
See chapter 5.3.5
See chapter 5.3.6
See chapter 5.3.7
See chapter 5.3.8
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.1
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.2
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.3
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.4.
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.5
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.6
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.7
IEC 60794-4-1 clause
8.8
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause
8.9
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause

7 / 13

8.10

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4.2

Tests on wires

The wires are tested before stranding according to the following standards.
Aluminum magnesium silicon alloy wires (AA)
Aluminum-clad steel wires (ACS)

IEC 60104 A
IEC 61232 20SA/A

The tests are performed according to an internal random test plan.


4.2.1 Diameter
The wire diameter is the average value derived from two measurements at the same
point under an angle of 90. The measurements are carried out with a micrometer
screw.
4.2.2 Tensile strength
The tensile strength test is performed with a tension and elongation device, regulated
and recorded by a computer.
4.2.3 Elongation at break
The elongation at break test is performed with a tensile and elongation device,
regulated and recorded by a computer. Test Method on unarmored wire (incoming test).
4.2.4 Wrapping test
The test is performed in accordance with the required wire specification (specified
number of windings, turned around a mandrel with wire diameter).
4.2.5 Conductivity
The conductivity is measured on a sample of 1m in an electric DC resistance bridge. The
measured value then is converted into the resistance value at a temperature of 20C by
a computer.
4.2.6 Thickness of Al-cladding
The thickness of Al-cladding (ACS-wires only) is measured with a profile projector on a
polished cross-section of the wire.
4.2.7 Torsion test
The test is performed in accordance with the required wire specification (specified
number of turns on the wire in axial direction)

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4.3

Tests on finished OPGW

4.3.1 Quality of surface


Visual inspection if there are no scratches and damages for example loose and
upstanding wires.
4.3.2 Diameter of cable
The diameter of the cable is measured with a diameter measuring tape.
4.3.3 Diameter of buffer tube
The diameter of the buffer tube is measured with a diameter measuring tape or with a
slide caliper rule.
4.3.4 Laylength
The laylength is measured on a straight length of the OPGW. This measurement is
carried out in the armoring line while the cable is under some tensile load.
4.3.5 Position of wires
Witness test, comparative with the OPGW data sheet.
4.3.6 Fiber excess length
The optical fibers are housed helically in the central tube, so that the fiber is longer than
the cable. For determining the FEL the fibers are separated from a cable sample (e.g. 5
m) and the difference of the length (fiber cable) is measured mechanically.
The fiber excess length is defined as the ratio : (fiber length cable length) / cable
length.
4.3.7 Cable weight
The cable weight is measured on a sample of approx. 1m with a balance.
4.3.8 DC resictance
The conductivity is measured on a sample of 1m in an electric DC resistance bridge. The
measured value then is converted into the resistance value at a temperature of 20C by
a computer.
4.3.9 Special type tests
These special tests are intended to verify the basic design concept.
Repeat of these or selected tests are necessary if there is a significant change in the
optical
unit
or material used in the OPGW.
General results from type tests on OPGW of similar design may be evaluated.
In case of no acceptance of similar type test reports, the tests can be performed to the
appropriate costs.
Stress strain test
Tensile performance test
Sheave test
Aeolian vibration simulation
Galloping test
Creep test
Temperature cycle test
Water penetration
Short circuit current test
Lightning test
CCS PLM EU
Document: Generic_Spec_OPGW
Date: August 2001

IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.1


IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.2
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.3
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.4.
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.5
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.6
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.7
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.8
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.9
IEC 60794-4-1 Clause 8.10
Rev.: 2

10 / 13

Reel size
140
160
180
200
220
250

Flange
diameter
(mm)

Barrel
diameter
(mm)

Total width
(mm)

1400
710
890
1600
800
1100
1800
1000
1120
2000
1250
1382
52240 Packaging
1400
1482
2500
1400
1482
The cables are supplied on a
wound on a separate drum.

Bore
diameter
(mm)

Tare
weight
(kg)

+4,0

Wood
lagging
(kg)

80
170
+4,0
80
260
+4,0
80
335
+5,5
125
525
+5,5
125
705
+5,5
125
840
non-returnable wooden

50
70
80
110
130
150
drum. Each length of cable is

Fig. 2 : Main dimensions of standard OPGW delivery drums


The standard lagging consists of flexible packaging and causes only a minimal increase
of
weight.
If required, wooden lagging can be used.
Depending on the cable diameter there are different lengths for each cable design,
which can be delivered on a certain drum. An overview about the reel sizes and the
maximum delivery lengths for a variety of standard cable designs is given in annex B.
The standard delivery lengths are between 4000 m - 5000 m.
The minimum delivery length is 1000 m.
In exceptional cases delivery length up to 6000 m are possible.
The ends of the OPGW are sealed with shrinking caps and fastened tightly. A protective
wrap is applied to the outer layer of the cable on each reel.
Marking plates, attached to the outer side on each drum flange, contain the following
information :
Type and size of cable
Cable length in meters
Gross weight in kilograms
Reel number
Manufacturers name
Date of releasing
Project name and number
Arrow showing roll direction
The plates are made of a non-corrosive material.

CCS PLM EU
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Date: August 2001

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Product Specification for Optical Ground Wire Cables

Annex A1: Standard OPGW Cable, Single Layer Design


OPGW Code

e.g.:
S20: Single Layer Armoring & Short Circuit Type
15/29: AA/ACS Cross Section (mm2)
24E9 : Max. Fiber Count & Fiber Type
(E9 = Standard Single Mode Fiber; E10 = LEAF)
(or 12E9): Other possible Fiber Counts & Fiber Types

S20 - 15/29 - 24E9 (or 12E9)


S20 - 00/44 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
S20 - 00/49 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S20 - 00/57 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
S20 - 25/25 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S20 - 28/28 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
S20 - 29/20 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S40 - 00 68 - 36E9 (or 24E9;12E9)
S40 - 00/59 - 96E9 (or 84E9;72E9;60E9;48E9)
S40 - 29/29 - 96E9 (or 84E9;72E9;60E9;48E9)
S40 - 34/34 - 36E9 (or 24E9;12E9)
S40 - 00/81 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S40 - 42/21 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S60 - 41/41 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S60 - 31/61 - 84E9 (or 72E9;60E9;48E9;36E9;24E9)
S60 - 51/26 - 60E9 (or 48E9;36E9;24E9;12E9)
S80 - 61/20 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
S100 - 61/31 - 84E9 (or 72E9;60E9;48E9;36E9;24E9)
CCS PLM
Document: GS OPGW
Date: August 2001

Rev.: 2

It
Weight
RTS
UTS
RDC
Modulus Thermal
Load
[kg/km] (Rated (Ultimate [Ohm/km
Short
of
Coefficien Bearing
OPGW
Circuit
Tensile
Tensile
]
Elasticity t [10-6/K]
Cross
[mm]
Capacity
Strength) Strength)
[kN/mm
Section
Tinit=40C
[kN]
[kN]
]
[mm]
[kA s]

17
17
23
25
27
30
30
35
35
42
43
47
48
58
62
68
78
94

10.0
10.0
10.8
11.0
10.8
11.0
10.8
12.1
12.4
12.4
12.1
13.2
12.0
13.2
14.4
13.1
13.2
14.4

280
340
385
425
285
310
265
510
475
360
375
605
315
445
570
380
360
450

39
53
59
68
36
42
32
80
71
44
50
93
37
58
78
45
40
52

13/13

44
59
65
75
40
47
35
89
78
49
55
103
42
64
87
50
45
58

0.92
1.22
1.06
1.04
0.72
0.68
0.68
0.88
0.82
0.57
0.57
0.75
0.53
0.48
0.48
0.45
0.41
0.38

127
162
162
162
110
110
99
162
162
110
110
162
92
110
127
92
83
92

14.5
13.0
13.0
13.0
15.6
15.6
16.5
13.0
13.0
15.6
15.6
13.0
17.1
15.6
14.5
17.1
18.1
17.1

44
44
49
57
49
57
49
68
59
59
68
81
64
81
92
77
81
92

Annex A2: Standard OPGW Cable, Double Layer Design

OPGW Code
e.g.:
D120: Double Layer Armoring & Short Circuit Type
074/44: AA/ACS Cross Section (mm2)
24E9 : Max. Fiber Count & Fiber Type
(E9 = Standard Single Mode Fiber; E10 = LEAF)
(or 12E9): Other possible Fiber Counts & Fiber Types

D120 - 074/44 - 24E9 (or 12E9)


D140 - 079/49 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D140 - 088/29 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
D160 - 103/15 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
D160 - 092/44 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
D160 - 098/29 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D180 - 108/20 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D180 - 088/59 - 96E9 (or 84E9;72E9;60E9;48E9)
D180 - 107/29 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
D180 - 099/49 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D200 - 121/15 - 24E9 (or 12E9)
D220 - 124/25 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D240 - 118/29 - 96E9 (or 84E9;72E9;60E9;48E9)
D260 - 127/42 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D320 - 148/21 - 48E9 (or 36E9;24E9;12E9)
D380 - 154/51 - 60E9 (or 48E9;36E9;24E9;12E9)
D460 - 180/26 - 60E9 (or 48E9;36E9;24E9;12E9)

CCS PLM
Document: GS OPGW
Date: August 2001

Rev.: 2

It

Short
OPGW
Circuit
Capacity [mm]
Tinit=40C
[kA s]

111
131
132
154
154
162
178
177
179
184
205
229
230
266
311
383
450

15.0
15.8
15.0
15.0
16.0
15.8
15.8
17.4
16.0
16.8
16.0
16.8
17.4
18.0
18.0
19.7
19.7

Weight
[kg/km]

545
605
485
425
595
525
485
725
535
660
480
560
605
695
610
835
735

RTS
UTS
RDC
Modulus Thermal
Load
(Rated (Ultimat [Ohm/km]
of
Coefficie Bearing
Tensile e Tensile
Elasticity nt [10Cross
6
Strength Strength
[kN/mm]
/K]
Section
) [kN]
) [kN]
[mm]

74
82
61
47
80
64
55
96
66
88
53
65
69
88
68
105
82

83
91
68
53
89
71
61
107
74
97
59
73
77
98
76
117
91

0.33
0.31
0.31
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.17

96
97
83
70
91
81
73
99
80
92
68
74
78
83
70
83
70

14/13

16.7
16.6
18.1
20.1
17.2
18.4
19.6
16.5
18.6
17.1
20.4
19.4
18.8
18.1
20.1
18.1
20.1

118
128
118
118
136
128
128
147
136
148
136
148
147
170
170
205
205

Annex B: Reel sizes and maximum delivery length

OPGW Code
(without Fiber Code)
S20 - 15/29 S20 - 00/44 S20 - 00/49 S20 - 00/57 S20 - 25/25 S20 - 28/28 S20 - 29/20 S40 - 00 68 S40 - 00/59 S40 - 29/29 S40 - 34/34 S40 - 00/81 S40 - 42/21 S60 - 41/41 S60 - 31/61 S60 - 51/26 S80 - 61/20 S100 - 61/31 D120 - 074/44 D140 - 079/49 D140 - 088/29 D160 - 103/15 D160 - 092/44 D160 - 098/29 D180 - 108/20 D180 - 088/59 D180 - 107/29 D180 - 099/49 D200 - 121/15 D220 - 124/25 D240 - 118/29 D260 - 127/42 D320 - 148/21 D380 - 154/51 D460 - 180/26 -

CCS PLM
Document: GS OPGW
Date: August 2001

Rev.: 2

Reel
size
(mm)
1400
and
maximu
m5200
cable
delivery
5200
length
4200

4200
4200
4200
4200
3500
3500
3500
3500
2900
3500
2900
2900
2900
-

( in m )

1600

1800

2000

2200

2500

6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
5400
5400
5400
5400
4500
5400
4500
3700
4500
4500
3700
-

6000
6000
6000
6000
4900
6000
4900
4100
4900
4900
4100
3700
3300
3700
3700
3300
3300
3300
3300
3300
-

6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
5400
4800
5400
5400
4800
4800
4800
4300
4800
4300
4800
4300
4300
3800
3800
-

6000
5600
6000
6000
5600
5600
5600
5100
5600
5100
5600
5100
5100
4400
4400
3500
3500

6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000

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