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# EC6501 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

## UNITS II, III & V QUESTION BANK

PART - A
1. Define hamming distance.
2. What is meant by transparency with respect to line codes?
3. What is a matched filter?
4. Give two applications for eye pattern.
5. Draw the PSK waveform for 011011.
6. What is a non-coherent detection system? What is meant by distortionless transmission?
7. Define Hamming distance and calculate its value for two code words 11100 and 11011.
8. Draw the NRZ and RZ code for the digital data 10110001.
9. What is the need for a demodulator in case of baseband signaling when the received
waveforms are already in pulse like form?
10. How does pulse shaping reduce inter symbol interference?
11. Define QAM and draw its constellation diagram.
12. A binary frequency shift keying system employs two signaling frequencies f1 and f2. The
lower frequency f1 is 1200 Hz and signaling rate is 500 Baud. Calculate f2.
13. Mention the properties of cyclic code.
14. Draw the RZ-Bipolar line code format for the information {10110}.
15. State Nyquist criterion for zero ISI.
16. Bipolar pulse waveforms gi(t)(i=1,2) of amplitude V 1 are received in the presence of
AWGN that has a variance of 0.1 V2. Find the optimum detection threshold of MAP
detector, if the a priori probability is p(g1) =0.5.
17. Why is PSK always preferable over ASK in coherent detection?
18. Differentiate between coherent and non-coherent detection.
PART - B
1. (i) Assume a (2,1) convolutional coder with constraint length 6. Draw the tree diagram, state
diagram and trellis diagram for the assumed coder.
(ii) Find the (7,4) linear systematic block code word corresponding to 1101. Assume a
suitable generator matrix.
2. Derive the power spectra of polar codes and on-off codes. Discuss their characteristics.
3. Derive the expression for bit error probability due to a matched filter.
4. Discuss on signal design for ISI elimination.
5. Derive the bit error probability due to coherent ASK, PSK and FSK systems. Compare the
performance of these systems.
6. Discuss QPSK signaling; derive the bit error probability of QPSK receiver. Compare the
7. For ( 3 , 6 ) systematic linear block code, the code word comprises I1 , I2 , I3 , P1 , P2 ,
P3 where the three parity check bits P1 , P2 and P3 are formed from the information bits as
follows : P1 = I1 I2 P2 = I1 I3 P3 =I2 I3 . Find the parity check matrix, the
generator matrix, all possible code words, minimum weight, minimum distance and the error
detecting and correcting capability of the code, if the received sequence is 100000, calculate the
syndrome and decode the received sequence.
8. Explain how encoding is done by convolutional codes with a suitable example. Explain tree
diagram, trellis diagram and state transition diagram of convolutional codes.
9. Define a matched filter and compare its functioning with a correlator. Explain how a matched

## filter can maximize SNR for a given transmitted symbol.

10. What does the term equalization refer to? Explain how it is carried out by using transversal
filters.
11. Distinguish coherent and non-coherent detection. Explain non-coherent detection methods of
binary frequency shift keying scheme.
12. Explain Binary PSK and QPSK with corresponding equations and constellation diagrams.
Obtain the probability of bit error for coherently detected BPSK and compare its probability of
bit error performance with QPSK scheme.
13. Construct a single error correcting (7, 4) linear block code and the corresponding decoding
table. Briefly describe the concept of error-free communication.
14. List and explain the properties of line codes. Determine the generator polynomial g(x) for a
(7, 4) cyclic code, and find code vectors for the following data vectors 1010, 1111, and 1000.
15. In a certain binary communication system that uses Nyquist criterion pulses, a received
pulse pr(t) has the following values at the sampling instants : pr(0)= 1, pr(Tb)=0. 1, pr(-Tb)=0.3,
pr(-Tb)=-0.02 and pr(-2Tb)=0.07. Determine tap settings of a three - tap equalizer. Explain the
working principle of maximum likelihood detector.
16. Derive the expression for error probability of on-off and polar signaling.
17. Explain the concept of coherent BPSK with transmitter and receiver block diagrams and
obtain the expression for probability of error.
18. A set of binary data is sent at the rate of Rb = 100 kbps over a channel with 60 dB
transmission loss and power spectral density = 1012 W/Hz at the receiver. Determine the
transmitted power for a bit error probability Pe = 10 3 for the following modulation schemes
(i) Coherent ASK (ii) Non-coherent ASK (iii) FSK (iv) PSK (v) DPSK (vi) 16
QAM.