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IS 7396-1 (1985): Criteria for hydraulic design of surge


tanks, Part 1: Simple, restricted orifice and differential
surge tanks [WRD 14: Water Conductor Systems]

! $ ' +-
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Invent a New India Using Knowledge

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IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


( Reaffirmed 2000
1995 )
( Reaffirmed
)

Indian Standard
CRITERIA

FOR HYDRAULIC
OF SURGE TANKS

DESIGN

APART 1 SIMPLE RESTRICTED ORIFICE


DIFFERENTIAL
SU-RGE TANKS
(

AND

First Revision )
First Reprint JUNE 1998

UDC

627.846

: 624.04

0 Copyright 1986
BUREAU
MANAK

Gr 6

OF

BHAVAN,

INDIAN

STANDARDS

9 BAHADUR
SHAH
NEW DELHI 110002

ZAFAR

MARG

September 1986

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985

Indian Standard
CRITERIA
PART

FOR HYDRAULIC
OF SURGE TANKS

SIMPLE,
RESTRICTED
DIFFERENTIAL
SURGE

DESIGN

ORIFICE
TANKS

AND

( First Revision )
Water Conductor Systems Sectional Committee, BDC 58
Chair man
SHRIP. M. MANE
39, Shivaji Co-operative Housing Society, Pune
Members
Rep resenting
Mukerian Hyde1 Project Design, Chandigarh
CHIEF ENGINEER
DIRECTOR( Affernate )
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Coimbatore
CHIEF ENGISEER(HP)
S[!PZI:INTINL)I~GENGINEER( Alternate )
Public Works Department, Madras
CHIEF ENGINEFR(General)
CHIEF E%GI\EER (IRRIGATION) (Alternate )
Karnataka
Power Corporation
Limited,
CHIEF ENGINEER(CIVIL DESIGNS)
Bangalore
SHRI P. R. MALLI KARJUNA ( Alternate )
Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh
CHIEFENGINEER
SHI~I SU[)EKSHANKUMAR ( Alternate )
CHIEF ENGINEER( IRRIGATIONSours ) Public Works and Electricity Department, Mysore
SUPFRINTENDIFGENGINEER( Alternate )
In personal capacity ( P.O. Mufturla, Trivandrum )
SHRI C. ETTY DARWIN
Central
Soils and Materials Research Station,
DJRECTOR
New Delhi
DEPUTY DIRECTOR( Alternufe )
Central Water Commission. New Delhi
DIRECTOR( HCD-I )
DEPUTY DIRECTOR( HCD-I.) ( Alternate )
Central Mining Research Station Unit, Roorkee
DR A. K. DUBE
DR J. L. JETHWA( AIternate )
WateeoR;;Trces
Development Training Centre,
DR B. PANT
( Continued on page 2 )

BUREAU

0 Copyright 1986
OF INDIAN STANDARDS

b I

This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957 ) and I
reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the
publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the zaid Act.
I

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


( Continuedffompuge

1)
Representing

Members
SHRI J. P.

Power

GUPTA

House Designs,
Irrigation Department,
Government of Uttar Pradesh, Roorkee

SHRI A. P. GUPTA ( Alternate )


The Hindustan Construction Co Ltd, New Delhi
SHRI M. V. S. TYENGAR
SHKI M. G. KHAN ( Alternate )
JOINT DIRECTORRESEARCH( GE-II ) Research, Designs and Standards Organization,
Lucknow
National Hydroelectro
Power Corporation
Ltd,
SHRI P. N. KHAR
New Delhi
National
Projects
Construction
Corporation
SHRI A. K. MEHTA
Limited, New Delhi
SHRI S. C. BALI ( Alternate )
Kerala State Electricity Board, Trivandrum
MEMBER ( CIVIL )
~Geological Survey of India, New Delhi
SHRI G. PAN-I
&RI N. K. MANDWAL( Alternate )
In personal capacity ( 147, Garodiunugor, Bombay ) I
SHRI A. R. RAICHUIC
Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board, Hyderabad
SHRI Y. RAMA KRISHNA RAo
SUPERINTENDING
EKGINEER
(DESIGN AND PLANNING ) ( AIternate )
General Designs Organisation, Nasik
SHRI G. V. SATMAYE
General Electricity Authority, New Delhi
DR H. R. SHARMA*
Assam State Electricity Board, Gauhati
SHRI S. C. SF.N
SHRI N. K. DAS ( Alternate )
Himachal
Pradesh
State
Electricity
Board,
SHRI A. K. SRIKAN?TAH
Sundernagar
SHRI RANJODHSINGH ( Alternate )
Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune
REPRESENTATIVE
SHRI A. V. GOPALAKRISHNA ( Alternate )
Director General, IS1 ( Ex-officio Member )
SHRI G. RAMAN
Director ( Civ Engg )
Secretary
SHRI HEMANTKUM~R
Assistant Director ( Civ Engg ), ISI

Panel

for Surge Tanks,

BDC 58 : P4

Convener

DR H. R. SHARUA

Central Electricity

Authority,

New Delhi

Members
Karnataka Power Corporation Ltd, Bangalore
DESIGNS>
Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh
SHRI O.-P. DAT~A
SHRI J. S. KHURANA( Alternate )
Institute of Hydraulics
and Hydrology, Public
DIRPC~OR
Works Department, Poondi
Central Water Commission, New Delhi
DIRECTOR ( HCD-I )
DEPUTY DIRECTOR( HCD-I ) ( Alternate )

CHIEF ENGINEER ( CIVIL

*Chairman

for the meeting.


( Continued on page 21 )

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985

Indian Standard
CRITERIA
PART

FOR HYDRAULIC
OF SURGE TANKS

DESIGN

SIMPLE,
RESTRICTED
ORIFICE
DIFFERENTIAL
SURGE TANKS

AND

( First Revision )
0.

FOREWORD

0.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian
Standards Institution on 31 December 1985, after the draft finalized by the
Water Conductor Systems Sectional Committee had been approved by the
Civil Engineering Division Council.

0.2 The surge tank absorbs the water hammer or elastic shock waves coming from the pressure pipe line or tunnel on closure or opening of the valve
or turbine gates and also to supply/store additional water during load
acceptance/rejection during load demand/rejection until the conduit velocity
has accelerated/decelerated
to the new steady state value. Surges or mass
oscillations occur in the surge tanks, the hydraulic design of which is so
done as to keep the surges within reasonable limits.
0.3 This standard is being prepared in parts.
are as follows:

Other parts of this standard

Part 2 Tail race surge tanks


Part 3 Special surge tanks ( under prepration

Part 4 Multiple surge tanks


0.4 This standard was first published in 1974. This revision has been made
in view of the experience gained during the course of these years in use of
this standard.
Mannings formula has been added in this revision for
calculating the friction losses.
1. SCOPE
1.1 This standard ( Part 1 ) lays down the criteria

simple, restricted orifice and differential surge tanks.


3

for hydraulic design of

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


2. TERMINOLOGY
2.0 For the purpose

of this standard, the definitions given in IS : 4410


( Part 10 )-1969* and the following shall apply.
2.1 Simple Surge Tank - A simple surge tank is a shaft connected to
pressure tunnel directly or by a short connection of cross-sectional area not
less than the area of the head race tunnel ( Fig. 1 ).

FIG.

1 SIMPLE SURGE TANK

2.2 Restricted Orifice Surge Tank -

A simple surge tank in which the inlet


is throttled to improve damping of oscillations by offering greater resistance
and connected to the head race tunnel with or without a connecting/
communicating shaft ( Fig. 2A and 2B ).
SURGE SHAF 1

28

2A

FIG. 2

RESTRICTEDORIFICE SURGE

TANK

*Glossary of terms relating to river valley projects: Part 10 Civil works of hydroelectric generation system including water conductor system.
4

IS : 7396( Part I ) - 1985


2.3 Differential Surge Tank - Differential surge tank is a throttled surge
tank with an addition of a riser pipe may be inside the main shaft, connected to main shaft by orifice or ports as shown in Fig. 3A. The riser may
also be arranged on one side of throttled shaft as shown in Fig. 3B. In case
of type shown in Fig. 3A port holes are generally at the bottom of the riser
at the sides.
Z

_I-.. *,
t

Zl

RL

OF THE
: TANK

36

3A

FIG. 3

2.4 Load Acceptance power station.


2.5 Load Rejection -

DIFFJXRENTIAL
SURGETANK

It is a sudden

It is a sudden

increase in electric load upon the

decrease in electric load upon the

power station.
2.6 Speed-No-Load - It is a condition where the turbine is put on the
line and-is synchronized but its power output is insignificant and is ready
to pick up any load that may come.
3. NOTATIONS
3.1 For the purpose of this standard, the following notations shall have the
meaning indicated against each:
Ao =

Area of orifice or ports

AP = Cross-sectional

area of penstocks

At = Area of riser of differential surge tank


A, = Net cross-sectional area of surge tank
A, = Cross-sectional area of head race tunnel
5

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


J&h

Thoma area of surge tank

c = Velocity of propagation

of pressure wave

Cd = Coefficient of discharge of orifice or ports


CSP= Coefficient of discharge of riser spill
Diameter of head race tunnel
D=
E = Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material

of the conduit

wall (steel)
El = Youngs modulus of elasticity of concrete
Es =

Youngs modulus of elasticity of the rock

Ew = Youngs modulus of elasticity of water

Friction factor governing


4880 ( Part 3 ) - 1976 ]

f=

head loss [to be taken from IS :

F, = Factor of safety over Ath

g=

Acceleration due to gravity

H=

Gross head on turbines

Ho = Net head on turbines


hr = Total head loss in head race tunnel system

hrp = Total head loss in penstock system


ho, = Head loss in orifice for restricted orifice surge tank
hod = Head loss due to orifice for differential surge tank
K =

Ratio of total power generated by the


grid

station

to that of

Km = A constant depending upon the efficiencies of turbine and


generator
L=
Ls,

Length of head race tunnel


=

Length of riser spill in crest

m=

Reciprocal of Poissons ratio for rock

P=

Power generated

Code of practice for design of tunnels conveying water: Part 3 Hydraulic design.

IS:7396(Part1.)-1985
Ph =

Pressure due to
surge tank

water

hammer

in the conduit

upstream

of

Discharge through turbines

Q=

Qd =

Maximum discharge supplied by the surge tank in case of


specified load acceptance

Qo =

Maximum discharge through the turbines

R, =

Internal radius of the pressure conduit

R, =

Outer radius of the pressure conduit

t=
V

Time, reckoned from the start of transient


=

Volume of water in surge tank corresponding

= Volume

of water in the conduit


At = V,At. At

yl,

to Z

in a given time interval

vo* =

Velocity of flow in tunnel corresponding


steady flow, upstream of surge tank

v,* =

Velocity of flow in tunnel at any instant,


tank

v,* =

Velocity of flow in conduit


surge tank

at any instant,

of flow in tunnel corresponding


charge upstream of surge tank = vl-vr

*=

of flow in tunnel
flow (upsteam of surge tank)

w=

corresponding

of surge

downstream

to change

Velocity of flow in tunnel corresponding


flow (upstream of surge tank)

VP = Velocity

maximum

upstream

y* -_ Velocity
Vl

to

of

in dis-

to initial steady
to final steady

Specific weight of water

yo = Difference

between

reservoir

level and the centre

line of

the pipe
Z=
znl =

Water level in surge tank


level

measured

positive above reservoir

Maximum surge level above maximum reservoir level

*To be taken as positive when the flow is downstream

and negative when flow is

upstream.

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985

Maximum or minimum surge height measured


steady state level in surge tank

from final

Height of riser top measured positive above reservoir


Surge height corresponding
friction and orifice losses
2,

=Vo
li

to change in discharge
L
-F-A,

level

neglecting

At

Water level in riser of differential


positive above reservoir level

surge tank measured

Coefficient df hydraulic losses such that hr = 8 V,


Coefficient of resistance for orifice such that
ho, = ?j (V, - VA2
Overall efficiency of the station,

inclusive of pipe-line losses

Overall efficiency of the station inclusive of pipe line losses


at maximum discharge through the machines
Ratio
NOTE -

of area of surge tank to that ofconduit

= -$

Whenever units are used the equation shall be balanced.

4. DATA -REQUIRED
4.1 The following data are required for the hydraulic design of surge tanks:

a>Length,

diameter and maximum discharge of head race tunnel;

b) Length, diameter, number of penstocks and discharge of each;


cl Geometrical details of entry control structures, bends, transitions,
etc, which contribute to hydraulic losses;

4 Gross head on generating units;


e) Operating water levels of reservoir;
f-1 Power generated by the station;

d Total power in the grid;


h) Normal variation of load in the grid and the percentage shared by
the station;

*To be taken
upstream.

as positive

when

the flow is downstream

and negative when flow is

IS:7396(Partl)-1983
j) Number of machines along with their characteristics,
efficiency, time-closure/opening of gate or deflector;

including

k) Critical load changes;


m) ,Boundary friction factor and other coefficients for hydraulic losses
for maximum, minimum and average conditions; and
n) Provision of pressure relief valves, if any, and their characteristics.
5. DESIGN
5.1 Design Conditions
5.1.1 The surge tank shall be designed to accommodate
the maximum
and minimum water levels anticipated under worst conditions ( see 6.1.3 ).
The conditions given in 5.1.1.1 and 5.1.1.2 shall be considered for design.

5.1.1.1 The maximum upsurge level in the surge t&k


out correspondiilg to:
a) the fd

shall be worked

load rejection at the highest reservoir level, land

b) where considered necessary specified load acceptance followed by


full load rejection at the instant of maximum velocity in the head
rape tunnel and higher of the two shall be adopted.
5.1.1.2 To obtain minimum downsurge level the worst of the following
two conditions shall be considered:

a) Full load rejection at minimum reservoir level followed by specified


load acceptance at the instant
head race tunnel, and

b) SpCcified load

of maximum negative velocity in

acceptance at load or speed-no-load


minimum reservoir level.

condition at the

NOTE - This presumes that the load acceptance by different turbines


the station shall be such so as not to create superposition of surges.

5.2 Coefficient of Hydraulic

Losses

5.2.1 For tunnels flowing full, friction loss may be calculated


using Ma!,-;ings formula or Darcy-Weisbach formula.

either by

5.2.1 i :,i I) :~,v~sformda


.The formula is given below:
hr

in

V2 N2 L
. . . . . . .

&I

IS : 7396( Part 1) - 1985


where
hr = head loss due to friction in metres,
V = velocity of water in tunnel in m/s,
N = rugosity coefficient,
L =

length of the tunnel in metres, and

R =

hydraulic radius.

5.2.1.2For concrete lined tunnels, the value of N varies from 0,012 $0


0,014.
5.2J.3 For unlined tunnels, the value of N depends upon the nature of
rock and quality of trimming. Recommended values of N for various rock
surface conditions are given below:
Value
r--__h--_

of N

Minimum

Maximum7

Very rough

o-04

0.06

Surface trimmed

o-025

0.035

Surface trimmed and invert


concreted

0.02

o-03

Surface Characteristics

5.2.1.4The value of p shall then be determined


formula:
gvS

=-__ v2 N2 L

PI3

from the following

other losses in tunnel system

. . . . . . (2)

5.2.2 Darcy- Weisbach Formula


The formula is given below:
jjr

= $!$

. . . . . . (3)

5.2.2.1The value of p shall then be calculated


formula:

fZv2

B r2 = 2gD

from the following

+ other losses in the tunnel system


10

. . . . (4)

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


5.2.3 As the minimum coefficient gives the worst upsurge while the
maximum gives the worst downsurge. These value; shall be used for
relevant conditions.
In case of combination of load variations both the
values of coefficient shall be taken into account and the one which gives
the worst, shall be adopted.
5.3 Area of Surge Tank
5.3.1 To ensure the hydraulic stability of surge tank, its arc
governed by Thoma criteria. Considering a station in isolation,
criteria is:

Ath =
NOTE -

L At
@VI Ho

VI

hs

I I~~_.~..

......

2 g

(5)

The minimum value of p shall be used in the above formula.

5.3.2 If the reservoir level varies significantly,


Ath may vary appreciably
between maximum and minimum reservoir levels and in such cases the
maximum value of Ath shall be adopted.

5.3.3 If it can be ensured that the power station is to always operate in


a grid, the stabilizing effect of the grid may be taken into account and the
area of surge tank in that case may be calculated from the following
formula:
A, = Ata [l--1*5

(Z--K)]

._. . . . . (6)

Area of surge tank calculated by equation (5) or


(6) gives the minimum area of surge tank. The following minimum factor
of safety on the area shall be used to secure rapid rate of damping required
in practical operation:

5.4 Factor of Safety -

Type of Surge Tank

Factor of Safety

Simple

2.0

Restricted orifice or differential

l-6

5.5 Extreme Surge Level


5.5.1 The extreme water levels in the surge tank for the conditions
enumerated in 5.1 are determined by integrating the equations of mass
As
oscillations fo,r the respective tanks. These equations are non-linear.
such they are integrated either graphically ( for example, Schoklitshs
method, see Appendix A ) or numerically ( for example, Pressels method ).

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


Simple Surge Tank -

5.52

The following equations

of

AOW

should be

sat&i&:
L

dV,
dt

7
NOTE -

Positive

-:- 2 f

P VI2 + -L

-3 0 (dynamic equation ) . . . . (7)

2g

value of p y12 and

$-

shall be used when the flow is from

reservoir to surge tank,, negative when the fiow is towards the reservoir.

At V,

dZ
A, dt

P=KmQ

Q (continuity
__VI
2g -

H+Z+

equation)

hf,

>

.. .. ..

(power equation)

. . . . (9)

The maximum surge level for the case of complete load rejection
be determined from the following formula:
I;
2 g+ @YOL -

55.3

zm --$ V-02

2 g 9 B voa

e-

L$

Restricted Orifice Surge

resistance offered by the orifice.


should be decided first.

(2,

A- @ Vo2) ] = 0

. . . . . . (10)

Tank - The surges will depend on the


As such the size and shape of the orifice

5.5.3.1 The resistance offered by the orifice of area A, shall


calculated from the following formula:
h,, =

may

Q02
-cd2. A,a. 2 g

be

......

The values of the coefikient of discharge Cd usually vary between 0.6


and 0.9 depending on the shape, size and number of orifices. The area
of the orifice is so chosen as to satisfy the condition given by Calame and
Gaden for maximum flow which is as follows:
$2:

4 hr <

k,

&=

+ +

hf

. . . . . . (12)

5.5.3.2 It is desirable to provide .area of orifice such that the pressure


in the tunnel at orifice due to water hammer caused by total load rejection
is nearly equal to the pressure due to maximum rise of water level in the
surge tank at the time of worst upsurge. Fbr any area of the orifice
the maxifium surge and the water hammer pressure are determined
5.
from 5.5.3.3 and 5.5.3.4.

12

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985

5.5.3.3 The maximum surge above the reservoir level shall be derived
from the equation:
L
2g~@-tqY~,
+

zln
(p+?)
vo2
L
-2 g Q (B + q) vo2

1
~[e-y(p+
rl)
Zm+PVoz)]
B
(Q + 9)

I--

L-

0 . . .. ..

(13)

The curves given in Fig. 4 may also be used for calculation of maximum
surge. These values may be checked by numerical integration of the
following equations:
L
dV1
g*-iigNOTE

+ 2 f p v,z f ?j (VI -

The values of p VI2 and i$

with Note under 5.52 whereas


and negative tor VI < V,.
At

VI = -4

A, +=
P=Km

(VI -

A,

42

H + Z + -;$-

= 0 . . . . . . (14)

shall be positive or negative in accordance


VS)%shall be taken as positive for VI > V,

......(IS)

-F
cd

v2 )2 + qg

ho,
-

.
hfp zk ho,

. . . . . . (17)

5.5.3.4 The water hammer pressure in the conduit upstream of surge


tank shall be calculated from the following equation:

A2.4

XT@--

VCl
c

. . . . . . (18)
NOTE-This
formula is approximate in as much as it does not consider time
closure characteristics of valves [ see 4.1 ( j ) ] but is considered accurate enough for
the purpose in view here.

The assumed area of the orifice should be so altered that the values
of water hammer pressure and the pressure due to upsurge are nearly the
same.
13

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985

2-o

f-0

1a+w2
z,
FIG. 4

MAXIMUMUPSURGE
FOBTOTALREJECTION

5.5.3.5 The velocity of propagation

of a pressure wave c is computed

as below:
a) For a thin pipe the thickness of which is small as compared
diameter,
14

to its

IS:7396(Partl)-1985

g/w

C=

111
1

Ww

E.e

. . .

b) For a thick walled pipe,

C=

1s

glw

l/Ew + (2/E) {(h2 + &*)/(& - &*)}

. . . . . . (20)
c) For a steel and concrete lined tunnel,

g/w
C

l/E,, + 2

(1 -

. . . . . . (21)

A)

where

x =

2;

+ &+&la

* d

2 1

5.5.3.6 For preliminary designs of thin-walled


table gives sufficiently accurate values:
yo, m
c, m/set

10
665

. . . . . . (22)

(m+mz Rt

pipes the following

30

60

100

140

300

717

777

837

883

1 000

600
1 110

5.5.3.7 Any shape of the orifice may be adopted but a circular shape
is preferable.
If the gates are to be provided in the surge tank, the gate
slots generally function as orifices and additional area as necessary may be
provided in the form of a circular hole at the top of the tunnel in the riser.
5.5.3.8 The orifice should be kept as near to the head race tunnel
periphery as possible. Suitable shapes and streamlinings shall be provided
at the top and bottom of orifice to obtain the desired coefficients for the
up and down surges.
5.5.3.9 It is recommended that model tests should be conducted to
determine the required streamlinings on the top and bottom of the orifice
and the coefficient of discharge for entry and exit. Model experiments
should test the behaviour for same range possible in these values between
model and prototype.
5.5.4 Diflerential Surge Tank - The surges that occur in a differential
surge tank will depend on the-design of riser and orifice.
15

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


5.5.4.1 Riser - The area of the riser shall not be less than threefourths of the area of the conduit to avoid rapid changes in the water
level and facilitate proper governing of machines. The top of the riser
should be so chosen that the maximum level of the water spilling over the
riser is less than or equal to the maximum surge level in the main tank.
The rapidity of change in water levels should be related to characteristics
of turbine governor and minimum area acceptable to turbine governor shall
be provided.
5.5.4.2 OriJce - The orifice
case of specified load demand.
may be kept as small as possible
riser. The area of the orifice
formula:

is primarily designed to supply water in


In case of rejection the area of the orifice
because the upsurge is restricted by the
can be determined from the following

A, = -___Qd___
Cd &z2g

. . . . . . (23)

5.5.4.3 The equations of flow to be satisfied are as follows:


L
-

dV,
dt

+ Z1 f

pV12+ -F$

0 (dynamic

equation)

. . . . (24)

Positive values of BV, and - VI2 shall be used when the flow is from
2g
reservoir to surge tank, negative when flow is towards the reservoir.
NOTE -

K,Q

H+Zr+T-

(power equation) . . . . (25)


hf,
>
2g
Continuity equations for the various conditions of flow in surge tank
are as follows_ P =

a) For Zr greater than Z,, and Z


At VI = A,
+

$r

+ CS, Lsp ( Zl -

Zqp
. . . . (26a)

CdAodWZI-Z+Q

b) For Zr equal to Z and greater than ZSp


At

V, =- A, %L

dz

A, -;li-

-tQ

. . . 1 WW

c) For Zr and Z less than ZSp

4 2 si.3
16

--I

+Q

. . . . (26~)

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


NOTE- Positive values of cd A0 2/ 2 g/z, _ 2,
than Z and negative when Z1 is smaller than 2.

shall be taken when 2, is greater

d) For Z1 less than Z,, and 2 greater than Zrp


At

vt =
-

6. HEIGHT

A,
cd

da

- d

cs, Lap (Z -zsP)33


+ Q

A, %b(Z---d

. . . . . . . . . (2W

OF SURGE TANK

6.1 The top of the surge tank may be kept 1.5 m above the highest water
level while the bottom of the surge tank may be kept 2.0 m below the
lowest surge level determined by calculation or by model experiments ~for
the worst conditions.
The extra provision at the top may be in the form
bf a solid retaining wall wherever surge tank is brought to the surface and
is covered all around by such a wall.
It should be ensured that there is a
sufficient water cover over the tunnel to avoid vortex formation even at the
lowest water level in the surge tank. If likelihood of vortex formation is
established by model experiments, vortex-suppression devices may be considered. Model and prototype behaviour in respect of vortex formation
can differ substantially.
Therefore adequate allowance should be given
while fixing the minimum water cover.
6.1.1 If the topography near the surge shaft area permits, suitabe arrangements for spillover may be considered so as to restrict the surge height
[ see IS : 7396 ( Part 3 )* 1.
7. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
7.1 In orifices and ports where the velocities are so high as to cause erosion
and cavitation damage, steel lining should be provided at these locations.
7.2 For all important works, it is recommended that the results are verified
by model studies.
7.3 With the availability of high capacity computer analysis of surges is
now easier by mathematical model and should be adopted as far as
practicable.
7.4 Surge tank water level indicators-or recorders should be provided in the
controlyoom for controlling the-load acceptance.
*Criteria for hydraulic design of surge tanks : Part 3 Special surge
preparation ).

17

tank3 (under

IS: 7396 ( Part 1 ) -1985

APPENDIX

( Clause 5.5.1 )
SURGE ANALYSIS

BY SCHOKLITSCH

The main graph consists of a curve

GRAPHICAL

relating

METHOD

Z to VI; the time t is

treated as a variable parameter so that the curve relating Z to t follows


easily ( Fig. 5 ).
The origin 01 of VI Z plane of coordinates is fixed at the static
water surface ( reservoir level ). The Z scale is the same as that of surge
tank.
The parabola of hydraulic losses ( hf = -& ~V1z ) is plotted taking hf
along the Z-axis and VI as abscissa, Izf is plotted downwards if VI > 0
( curve 1 ).
Assuming a constant value of time interval At, the straight line representing the equation:

Avl=

j+. z

. . . ...(i)

is plotted which also passes through the origin 01. A V1 is plotted along
Vi-axis and has the same scale ( curve 2).
Another

straight

line

is drawn

connecting Vi as abscissa with Vt as

ordinate according to the relation:


Vt =

vi At

. . .. (ii)

At

This also passes through the origin O1. It is convenient to plot Vi


tive downwards for VI > 0 ( curve 3).

posi-

A curve is drawn, with Oz as origin connecting the volume of surge


tank, V to the elevation, Z. V is plotted as abscissa and Z as ordinate
( curve 4 ). The origin of the cuxve which represents the equation

A~

= A,. AZ

( iii)

is selected at a level below the lowest water level anticipated in the surge
tank.
With origin as 03, curve ( curve 5 ) is drawn with Z as ordinate
Q. bt as abscissa from the relatlon ( governing equation ):

and

. . . . .. (iv)
18

.,

------L
s

IS : 7396 ( Part 1) - 1985


The starting point of calculation is at the steady state condition so that
Via and Za (---_PVI~)are known. A straight line al b, drawn through point
al on curve 1 parallel to curve 2. At the initial instant &,,the quantity of
water flowing through the turbine is Qa. At and is known from curve 5.
The value of Vt at the initial stage is known from curve 3. Graphical
subtraction yields:
Qa.nt

I VI
By plotting AVla on curve 4, point b, is obtained. Point b, is obtained
by intersection of the horizontal straight line through b, and the sloping
line through al. Point bl lies vertically below b, on curve 1. This point
bl represents the starting point for a similar process to obtain points c4 on
curve 4, and c,, cl, etc.
AV,

= Vta -

Point b, lies on the curve of Z plotted against ~1, with its coordinate
VI, + AVl and Zb = Za + AZ.
The curve representing the
oscillation may be drawn through points al, b,, c, and d,. The corresponding value oft is always known, and curve 7 may be plotted which relates Z
and t.
Vlb

==

NOTE In Schoklitsch method the coordinates 2 and V, of a point a,, b,, c,. . . .
relate to the beginning of the time interval n t and are not mean values as are used
in Pressels analytical method.
This fact is responsible for the simplicity of the
Schoklitsch method, but it demands that small time intervals At be employed to
yield accurate results.

20

rs:73%(Fartl)-1985
(Continaedfrompage

2 )
Representing

Members

Irrigation Department,
Government of Punjab,
Chandigarh
SENIORDESIGN ENGINEER( PENSTOCKS) ( Alternate )
Central Water and Power
Research
Station.
SHRI A. V. GOPALAKRISHNA
Pune
Irrigation
Department,
Government
of Uttar
SHRI J. P. GIJPTA
Pradesh, Roorkee
SHRI KAMAL KUMAR JAM ( Alternate )
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bhopal
SHRI J. L. KHOSA
SHRI R. P. GOEL ( Alternate )
Kerala State Electricity Board, Trivandrum
SHRI K. RAMABHADRANNAIR
SUPERINTENDING
ENGINEER( PHE ) Irrigation
Department,
Government
of Maharashtra, Nagpur
EXECUTIVEENGINEER( HDD ) 1 Alternate )
DIRECTOR(T&P)

21

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