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Within a downstream processing system, several stage are used to
further isolate and purify the desired product. The overall structure of the
process including pretreatment, solid-liquid separation, concentration,
and purification and formulation. Evaporation fall into the concentration
stage of downstream processing and is widely used to concentrate foods,
chemical, and salvage solvent. The goal of evaporation is to vaporize
most of the water from a solution will usually still contain 85-98% water.
This is not suitable for industry usage because of the cost associated with
processing such a large quantity of solution, such as the need for large
Water can be removed from solution in ways other than
evaporation, including membrane process, liquid-liquid extraction,
crystallization and precipitation. Evaporation can be distinguished from
some other drying methods in that the final product of evaporation is a
concentrated liquid, not a solid. It is also relatively simple to use and
understand since it has been widely used on large scale. In order to
concentrate a product by water removal, an auxiliary phase is used which
allows for easy transport of solvent rather than the solute.
Heat is needed to provide enough energy for the molecules of the
solvent to leave the solution and move into air surroundings the solution.
The energy needed can be expressed as an excess thermodynamic
potential of the water in the solution. Leading to on big problem in
industrial power plan.
When designing evaporator engineers must quantify the mount of
steam needed for every mass unit of water removed when a
concentration is given. An energy balance must be used based on an
assumption that a negligible amount of heat is lost to the system
surroundings. the heat that need to be and vaporized the water. Another
consideration is the size of the heat exchanger which effects the heat
transfer rate.
Q=UA (T1-T2) where
U=overall heat transfer coefficient
A=heat transfer area

q=overall heat transfer rate

Referring to the table of mass bled in chapter 1 where the mass flow
is 2% if the total steam flow entering the turbine, the heat transfer (q) is
found to be; q=3394.5KW = 11583000Btu/hr.
From equation 8-2, pp.351 by POTTER, the heat transfer area;
A=q/U m where (qm) is the heat head and is equal to 27.8 a 50
as obtained in chapter 1.
Looking at the fig. 8-34, pp. 391 by POTTER, for a saturation
m=50 . the heat transfer coefficient U is
temperature T s =285
founded to be U= 555 Btu/fthr-

knowing these value, the resulting

heat transfer area is A=39 m .

B. Make-up Water treatment

The make-up water is treated in a demineralizing plant capable of

producing 46.32kg/s of treated water. The raw water should pass
coagulation after which is filtered by stages of mechanical filters; this is to
make sure that it is free from impurities. By then it is ready for cationic
and anionic filtration.
The result should have the following quality.

Total hardness not more than 1 ppm;

Total salt content not more than 1 ppm;
Total alkalinity not more than 3 ppm;
Silica content not more than 3 ppm;
These limits of tolerance are based on the table 13-5, pp.527 by the
book of MORSE.


The feed water used in the steam boiler is a means of transferring

heat energy from the burning fuel to the mechanical energy of the
spinning steam turbine. The total feed water consists of recirculated
condensed steam, referred to as condensate, from the steam turbine plus
purified make-up water. Because the metallic materials it contact are
subject to corrosion at high temperature and pressure, the makeup water
is highly purified before use. A system of water softeners and ion
exchanger demineralizer produces water pure that it coincidentally
become an electrical insulator, with conductivity in the range of 0.3-1.0
micro Siemens per centimeter. The make-up water in a 500Mwe pant
amounts perhaps 20 Us gallons per minutes (1.25 L/s_) to offset the small
losses from steam leaks in the system.
The feed water cycle begins with condensate water being pumped
out of the condenser after kilometer through the steam turbine. The
condensate flow rate at full load in a 500 Mwe plant is about 6000 US
gallons per minutes (0.38 m /s). The water flows through a series of six
or seven