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THE iBWAVE
CERTIFICATION
PROGRAM
Student Manual

PROFESSIONAL

iBwave Design , iBwave Field , iBwave Plan, iBwave Assure, Propagation, Optimization,
Collection and Modelling Modules are trademarks of iBwave Solutions, Inc. All other
trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. In
recognition of its continued commitment to product improvement, iBwave Solutions,
Inc. reserves the right to change the information contained herein without notice.
MATERIAL USE RESTRICTIONS
The information contained in this document is the property of iBwave Solutions, Inc.
Except as specifically authorized in writing by iBwave Solutions, Inc., the holder of this
document shall keep the information contained herein confidential and shall protect
same in whole or in part from disclosure and dissemination to third parties and use
same for evaluation and training purposes only.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any
information storage or retrieval system, without prior written consent from iBwave
Solutions, Inc.

Should you have any questions or comments regarding this course,


please write to us at certification@ibwave.com

Printed in Canada
Copyright 2009 iBwave Solutions Incorporated. All rights reserved

iBwave Solutions Inc.


T +1 514 397 0606
F +1 514 409 2499
7075, Robert-Joncas, Suite 95
St-Laurent, Qc H4M 2Z2 Canada
info@ibwave.com
www.ibwave.com

Copyright 2009, iBwave Solutions Inc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER1 ...............................................................................................................10
COURSE INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 1-0

CHAPTER2 ...............................................................................................................21
IN-BUILDING REVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................ 2-1
ADDITIONAL NOTES:THE IN-BUILDING WIRELESS WORLD ............................................................................................... 2-3
THE IN-BUILDING WIRELESS WORLD ................................................................................................................................ 2-4
IN-BUILDING WIRELESS APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 2-8
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES EVOLUTION ............................................................................................................................. 2-8
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES ................................................................................................................................................ 2-34
PASSIVE DAS .................................................................................................................................................................. 2-46
HYBRID DAS................................................................................................................................................................... 2-50
IN-BUILDING DESIGN TOOLS ........................................................................................................................................... 2-50
IN-BUILDING COMPONENTS............................................................................................................................................. 2-52
LINK BUDGETS ................................................................................................................................................................ 2-64
NOISE MODELING ............................................................................................................................................................ 2-78
PROPAGATION BASICS ..................................................................................................................................................... 2-84

CHAPTER3 ...............................................................................................................31
PROJECT DEPLOYMENT PROCESS....................................................................................................................................... 3-1
COLLECTING INFORMATION............................................................................................................................................. 3-10
DESIGN AND ENGINEERING.............................................................................................................................................. 3-34
SOLUTION IMPLEMENTATION .......................................................................................................................................... 3-70
DOCUMENTATION ............................................................................................................................................................ 3-80

CHAPTER4 ...............................................................................................................41
INTRODUCTION TO IBWAVE DESIGN .................................................................................................................................. 4-1
AIMS OF THIS TOPIC........................................................................................................................................................... 4-1

CHAPTER5 ...............................................................................................................51
PROJECT PROPERTIES AND SETTINGS................................................................................................................................. 5-1

CHAPTER6 ...............................................................................................................61
IBWAVE DESIGN PLANS ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-1
DESIGN PLAN..................................................................................................................................................................... 6-4
LAYOUT PLAN ................................................................................................................................................................. 6-42
PICTURE PLAN ................................................................................................................................................................. 6-76

CHAPTER7 ...............................................................................................................71
IBWAVE DESIGN REPORTS ................................................................................................................................................. 7-1
AIM OF THIS TOPIC ............................................................................................................................................................ 7-2

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CHAPTER8 ...............................................................................................................82
PROBLEM BASED WORKSHOP ............................................................................................................................................ 8-2
AIM OF THIS TOPIC ............................................................................................................................................................ 8-2

CHAPTER9 ...............................................................................................................92
DATABASE EDITOR ............................................................................................................................................................ 9-2

CHAPTER10 ...........................................................................................................101
APPENDIX ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10-1

CHAPTER11 ...........................................................................................................111
GLOSSARY ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11-1

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Chapter 1
Course Introduction

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Course Introduction

Introduction
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Certification Roadmap
Professional Level (3-day course): Master the iBwave Design software tool to create and
manage in-building wireless networks design projects. Understand in-building projects, floor
plans and site surveys, learn the fundamentals of in-building radio testing and having the
knowledge to create picture plans, design plans, layout plans, and generate reports. Students
are required to perform hands-on workshops and exams to obtain certification to Level 1 and
enter Level 2.
Expert Level (3-day course): Acquire the fundamentals of in-building propagation models
and conduct propagation predictions using the Propagation Module in iBwave Design.
Perform in-building radio testing using the Collection Module in iBwave Design. Students will
learn how to characterize building partitions using advanced AutoCAD and floor plan features
and plan an in-building measurement campaign. Students will understand how to conduct an
empirical measurement campaign in order to tune in-building propagation models.

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Course Introduction

Welcome

You are here:

Course Introduction

Meet and Greet


Instructor and Participant Introduction
Logistical Orientation
Course Agenda
Learning Objectives
About iBwave

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Certification Roadmap

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Course Introduction

Professional Level objectives:


Understand the in-building project deployment process
Acquire the knowledge necessary to create and design in-building
systems to meet given requirements using iBwave Design
Prepare for progression to Level 2

Expert Level objectives:


Develop our knowledge of in-building radio propagation
Improve our skills on issues related to propagation
Enhance our in-building design abilities using these skills
Gain expertise in the iBwave Design modules
Collection Module
Propagation Module
Optimization Module

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Additional Notes:

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Course Introduction

Learning Objectives
Professional Level Outline
At the end of Day 1, the participants will have an understanding about the in-building
deployment process and how iBwave Design fits into every phase of the project deployment
lifecycle. iBwave Design facilitates project management by allowing all project related files to
be updated automatically and accessed within the same platform. iBwave Design is the glue
to designing an in-building project due to its involvement in the initial phase of data collection,
extrapolation, design and finally the reporting features to generate customized data for the
different stakeholders that are involved in the process.

At the end of Day 2, the participants will have an in-depth understanding of the iBwave
Design software application. Workshops for each section helps to test and apply the
knowledge to better understand the practical application of the various iBwave Design
features.

At the end of Day 3, the participants will have completed the written and practical exam. The
lecture on the Database Editor is covered after the written exam and this information will be
applied in the practical exam that follows.

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Course Introduction

Learning Objectives

You are here:

Course Introduction

By the end of this level, you will be able to:


Understand the overall in-building design process.
Create in-building projects added from floor plans and site surveys.
Understand the role of in-building radio testing.
Use iBwave Design to create efficient in-building designs, for buildings
with regular morphology, single operator system requirements, 10s to
100s of occupants, low interference constraints and generic coverage
requirements.
Assess in-building designs against specific key performance indicators
to ensure a cost-effective outcome.

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Notes:

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Chapter 2
In-Building Review

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In-Building Review

Aims of this Topic


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Content
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Aims of this Topic

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In-Building Review

Understand the overall in-building design process


Acquire knowledge in the basic characteristics and components of
in-building design

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Page 2

Content

You are here:

In-Building Review

In-Building Wireless World


In-Building Wireless Technologies
System Requirements
Building Architectures
System Architectures
DAS
In-Building Design Tools
In-Building Components
Link Budgets
Noise Modeling
Propagation Basics

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Additional Notes:

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In-Building Review

In-Building Review

The In-Building Wireless World


Where are the Users?
Wireless personal communications is nowadays one of the fastest industries in the world, with
millions of new customers signing in for new services and applications. In particular, most of
these users are inside buildings, with the exception of those who are on the move: in their
offices, at home, at ports of entry (airports, railway stations, etc.), at shopping centres,
university campuses, etc. Rarely, the majority of the users are outdoors, except when they
are going from one place to another, travelling or commuting. Also, the effect that many
users are concentrated into small areas is also commonly seen.
Due to the evident importance of in-building systems which serve users inside buildings,
many questions arise from these observations. How much effort shall we devote to
guarantee sufficient coverage levels inside buildings? Is the signal from external cells enough
to penetrate inside the buildings? How do the radio waves travel and behave in such
environments? These and other questions are the subject of our study as part of this
certification program.

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Where are the users?

In-Building Review

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In-Building Review

They move!
In their offices
At home
Ports of entry
Airports
Railway stations

Shopping centres
Uni campuses
Many users
concentrated into
small areas
But rarely outdoors!

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Notes:

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In-Building Review

Motivation for Small Cells


To provide wireless coverage inside buildings, smaller cells have been proposed, if sufficient
coverage is not achieved from external cells. Amongst the motivations for using small cells
are the following:

Hot desking

Seamless outdoor-indoor transitions, since users should not be aware of when they
are handing over to a different type of cell when they enter or leave a building

Need for uniform user environment with a single terminal, in line with the overall
system integration seen worldwide in the last years

Higher data rates which can support interactive and streaming applications

Small invisible antennas, better suited for portable devices

Maximum electromagnetic (EM) exposure issues, to comply with Health & Safety
recommendations

Private systems and special billing

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Personal Area Networks (PAN)

Building space efficiency and reconfiguration costs

Better interference management

Location-based services

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Motivations for In-Building Cells

In-Building Review

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In-Building Review

Hot desking
Seamless outdoor-indoor transitions
Need for uniform user environment with a single
terminal
Higher data rates which can support interactive and
streaming applications
Small invisible antennas
Health & Safety issues
Private systems and special billing
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Personal
Area Networks (PAN)
Building space efficiency and reconfiguration costs
Better interference management
Location-based services
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Notes:

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In-Building Review

In-Building Wireless Applications


Applications and Services
Various wireless applications are well known and have been around in the market for many
years, providing voice and data services to users at different data rates. From 2G systems
where voice traffic was predominant over other applications and limited data transfers were
available, to the more demanding mobile broadband applications which demand large
bandwidth usage and faster data transfers. Hot desking, video streaming, file sharing, web
browsing, mobile TV, interactive gaming and mobile e-commerce are becoming nowadays a
reality in modern wireless systems.

Wireless Technologies Evolution


Since the first cellular technology deployed in the 80s, new wireless technologies were
developed by different standardisation organisations and were implemented by operators.
For cellular technologies, First Generation phones (AMPS) were launched in 1983, supporting
only basic mobile voice, and were the only technology until the late 80s early 90s, with the
advent of Second Generation (2G) phones, in the quest for capacity and coverage. Many
standards such as IS-136 (TDMA), GSM and IS-95 (CDMA) appeared around 1993. In 1995
the quest for data and higher speeds drove the creation of Third Generation (3G) systems,
which for many years provided evolution technologies such as GPRS and EDGE until full
capability could be achieved around 2001. Other standards such as UMTS, IMT-2000
emerged. Beyond 3G in quest for broadband wireless multimedia services is emerging now,
seeing technologies such as OFDM and MIMO, and standards such as HSDPA, 3GPP2, etc.
For WLANs, Wi-Fi became very popular since 2001, and around 2005 wireless mesh
networks were deployed. WiMAX has emerged as a broadband wireless technology around
2007. The tendency is to see low-power networks as well as embedded ones in the near
future.

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Applications and Services

In-Building Review

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In-Building Review

Voice
Hot desking
Video streaming
File Sharing: faster data transfers
e-mail
Web Browsing (Internet and Intranet)
Location-based services
Mobile TV
Interactive gaming
Mobile e-commerce

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Wireless Technologies Evolution

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In-Building Review

Evolutionofwirelessaccesstechnologies
1G:basic
mobilevoice

2G:questforcapacity 3G:questfordata
andcoverage

Beyond3G:questforhigherspeedbroadband
wirelessmultimediaservices

AMPS

TDMA(IS136)

GSM>GPRS>EDGE>UMTS>HSDPA>HSUPA >LTE>LTEAdvanced

CDMA(IS95)>1xRTT>1xEVDORev.0>1xEVDORev.A >OFDMMIMO

WiFiWiMAX IEEE802.16e

1983199319952000

>

WiMAX IEEE802.16m

200520062007200820092010 2013

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Note that by 2010 it is expected that Long Term Evolution (LTE) takes over an important
sector of the market, having larger channel bandwidth and data rates which exceed all the
other technologies.

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In-Building Review

First Generation (1G)


The First Generation (1G) cellular technology regroups analogue technologies which support
voice traffic only. In America, AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) was launched in
1983, having a channel bandwidth of 30 MHz only, sufficient for voice, and using Frequency
Division Multiple Access (FDMA) as the multiple access technology.

Second Generation (2G)


The Second Generation (2G) includes digital technologies that provide an increased voice
quality over the first generation and circuit-switched data services.
Examples of 2G systems are:

iDEN (Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network) / ESMR / TETRA / TETRAPOL,


launched in 1994, use a channel bandwidth of 25 kHz and 12.5 kHz, and TDMA as
multiple-access technology (Time Division). TETRA and TETRAPOL were standards
used for police and emergency services.

GSM (Global System for Mobile), was launched in 1992 in Europe, and it has become
the most widely used cellular standard worldwide. It has a channel bandwidth of 200
kHz and uses TDMA.

CDMA one, using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) as multiple access
technology, was launched in 1996 in America. It uses a channel bandwidth of 1.25
MHz, and QUALCOMM registered its name for its original CDMA products.

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First Generation (1G)

You are here:

In-Building Review

The first wireless technology generation regroups


analog technologies that support voice traffic only
AMPS
Advanced Mobile Phone
System (1983, America)
Channel Bandwidth: 30 MHz
Multiple access technology:
FDMA

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Second Generation (2G)

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In-Building Review

Digital technologies
Increased voice quality over 1G
Circuit-switched data services
iDEN / ESMR / Tetra / Tetrapol
Integrated Dispatch Enhanced
Network / Enhanced Specialized
Mobile Radio (1994)
Channel Bandwidth: 25 kHz /
12.5 kHz
Multiple access technology:
TDMA
Source: Motorola (Proprietary
technology) / Nokia / EADS

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GSM
Global system for mobile
communication (1992, Europe)
Channel Bandwidth: 200 KHz
Multiple access technology:
TDMA
Source: ETSI/3GPP

CDMA one
Code Division Multiple Access
(1996)
Multiple access technology:
CDMA
Channel Bandwidth: 1.25 MHz
QUALCOMMs registered name
for its original CDMA products.
Source: TIA/EIA-95-A TIA/EIA95-B
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In-Building Review

In-Building Review

2.5G
The 2.5G wireless technology generation is a step between 2G and 3G. It includes 2G
systems that have been upgraded to support packet switched services. An example of this is
GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service), launched in 2001, which is seen as a GSM evolution,
having the same channel bandwidth as GSM (200 kHz) and TDMA as multiple access
technology.

2.75G
The 2.75G generation is an unofficial term to categorize wireless technologies that do not
meet the 3G requirements but were marketed as if they do. Examples of this standard
include: CDMA2001x (1xRTT), which is a direct evolution of CDMA one, and was launched in
2000. It uses a channel bandwidth of 1.25 MHz and CDMA as multiple access technology.
EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) is another example of 2.75G. EDGE was
launched in 2001-2002, it is an evolution of GSM towards 3G, having the same channel
bandwidth of 200 kHz and using the same multiple access technology as GSM.

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2.5G

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In-Building Review

Step between 2G and 3G


It includes 2G systems
that have been upgraded
to support packet
switched services
GPRS
Global Packet Radio Service
(2001)
GSM Evolution
Channel Bandwidth: 200 KHz
Multiple access technology:
TDMA
Source: ETSI/3GPP

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2.75G

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In-Building Review

Further evolution of 2.5G


technologies towards 3G

CDMA2000 1x (1xRTT)
Direct evolution of cdmaOne
(2000)
Multiple access technology: CDMA
Channel Bandwidth: 1.25 MHz
Source: 3GPP2

EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for Global
Evolution (2001-2002)
GSM Evolution
Channel Bandwidth: 200 KHz
Multiple access technology: TDMA
Source: ETSI/3GPP

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Additional Notes:

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In-Building Review

In-Building Review

Third Generation (3G)


Third Generation (3G) regroups digital networks that offer increased voice capacity and
provide higher data rates than 2G and 3G technologies.
WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), also known as UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System), was deployed in Europe around 2002. It occupies a channel
bandwidth of 5 MHz, and uses wideband CDMA as the multiple access technology. On the
other hand, CDMA2000 1xEVDO (1x Evolution Data Optimized) was launched in 2002 in
America, as a data-optimized evolution of CDMA2000. It occupies a channel bandwidth of
1.25 MHz and also uses CDMA as multiple-access technology.

Other standards which have emerged for 3G include the ones listed in the next slide. In
general, there have been evolutions of others which were deployed prior to them.

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Third Generation (3G)

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In-Building Review

Digital networks that offer increased voice capacity


3G provides higher data rates than 2G and 2.5G technologies
WCDMA/UMTS
Wideband CDMA / Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System
Channel Bandwidth: 5 MHz
Multiple access technology: CDMA
Source: 3GPP

CDMA2000 1xEVDO
1x Evolution-Data Optimized (2002)
Data-optimized evolution of the CDMA2000
Channel Bandwidth: 1.25 MHz
Multiple access technology: CDMA
Source: 3GPP2

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Third Generation (3G)

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In-Building Review

CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. A

CDMA 1xEVDV

Evolutionary step in the


CDMA2000 1xEV-DO progression
(2006)
Channel Bandwidth: 1.25 MHz
Multiple access technology: CDMA
Source: 3GPP2

CDMA2000 1X Evolution Data


and Voice
This technology wont be
developed by network equipment
manufacturers.
Multiple access technology:
CDMA
Source: 3GPP2

CDMA2000 NxEV-DO Rev. B


Further development in the
CDMA2000 roadmap beyond Rev.
A
Channel Bandwidth: Multiple of
1.25 MHz
Multiple access technology: CDMA
Source: 3GPP2

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HSDPA / HSUPA
High-Speed Uplink Packet
Access
Evolution of WCDMA
Channel Bandwidth: 5 MHz
Multiple access technology:
TDMA/CDMA
Source: 3GPP
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In-Building Review

Fourth Generation
Fourth Generation (4G) is a term used for International Mobile Telecommunications
Advanced (IMT-Advanced), which is also known as Beyond 3G. 4G systems aim to upgrade
existing communication networks and are expected to provide a comprehensive and secure
IP-based solution where facilities such as voice, data and streamed multimedia will be
provided to users on an Anytime, Anywhere basis and at much higher data rates compared
to previous generations.
The baseband techniques for 4G are OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), to
exploit the frequency-selective channel property; MIMO (Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs) to
attain ultra-high spectral efficiency; and a turbo principle to minimize the required SNR
(Signal-to-Noise Ratio) at the receiver.
The principal 4G technologies include: adaptive radio interface; modulation, spatial
processing including MIMO; and relaying, including fixed relay networks (FRNs), and the
cooperative relaying concept, known as multi-mode protocol.

4G: OFDM
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a frequency-division multiplexing
(FDM) scheme utilized as a digital multi-carrier modulation method. A large number of
closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers are used to carry data. The data is divided into several
parallel data streams or channels, one for each sub-carrier. Each sub-carrier is modulated
with a conventional modulation scheme (such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, QAM or
Phase Shift Keying, PSK) at a low symbol rate, maintaining total data rates similar to
conventional single-carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth.
The property of orthogonality observed in OFDM prevents demodulators from seeing
frequencies other than their own.
Some of the benefits of this technology in wireless communications are: high spectral
efficiency; more resilient to interference than other technologies; and lower multipath
distortion.
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Fourth Generation (4G)

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In-Building Review

International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT Advanced),


better known as 4G, 4th Generation or Beyond 3G
Aim at upgrading existing communication networks
Are expected to provide a comprehensive and secure IP-based
solution
voice, data and streamed multimedia will be provided to users on an "Anytime,
Anywhere" basis
much higher data rates compared to previous generations

Baseband techniques:
OFDM: To exploit the frequency selective channel property
MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency
Turbo principle: To minimize the required SNR at the reception side

Principal technologies:
Adaptive radio interface
Modulation, spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO
Relaying, including fixed relay networks (FRNs), and the cooperative relaying
concept, known as multi-mode protocol
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4G: OFDM

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In-Building Review

Distributes the data over a large number of carriers that are spaced apart at
precise frequencies
Orthogonality prevents the demodulators from seeing frequencies other than
their own
Benefits:
high spectral efficiency
resiliency to RF interference
lower multipath distortion

In a supplement to the IEEE 802.11 standard, the IEEE 802.11 working group
published IEEE 802.11a, which outlines the use of OFDM in the 5.8-GHz band

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In-Building Review

4G: MIMO-OFDM
Multiple-input and multiple-output or MIMO is the use of multiple antennas at both the
transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance. It is one of several forms of
smart antenna technology.
MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications, since it offers
significant increases in data throughput and link range without additional bandwidth or
transmit power. It achieves this by higher spectral efficiency (more bits per second per hertz
of bandwidth) and link reliability or diversity (reduced fading).
When used in conjunction with OFDM, is called MIMO-OFDM. It will allow service providers
to deploy a Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) system with Non-Line of Sight (NLOS)
functionality. In addition, since data is transmitted both in the same frequency band and with
separate spatial signatures, this technique uses spectrum very efficiently.

WiMAX
WiMAX, or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications
technology which enables wireless transmission of voice and data in two ways: point-to-point
links and full mobile access. Limited availability of spectrum worldwide makes mobile WiMAX
a particularly attractive technology thanks to an elaborate air interface (Scaled-OFDMA)
combined with high modulation schemes (up to 64QAM) and smart antennas (dynamic
bemforming, MIMO), all contributing to provide mobile users with an enhanced experience of
high data rate services such as web browsing or video streaming. In addition, Mobile WiMAX
brings us one step nearer to the convergence of fixed and mobile broadband access by way
of a single and unique air interface and a network architecture based on an all-IP approach.
In a certain way, mobile WiMAX can be regarded as a complement to Wireless Local Area
Networks (WLAN), having comparable data rate with better radio coverage; and to 3G cellular
systems, improving the data rate at comparable coverage. Nevertheless, it has also been
considered as a competitor to both technologies.
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4G: MIMO-OFDM

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In-Building Review

Multiple Input, Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing


It is a technology that uses multiple antennas to transmit and receive radio signals
(spatial multiplexing)
MIMO-OFDM will allow service providers to deploy a Broadband Wireless Access
(BWA) system that has Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) functionality
High spectral efficiency, since all data is transmitted both in the same frequency
band and with separate spatial signatures

Serial-to- Transmit
parallel
beamformers

Receive
beamformers

Parallelto-serial

Input
bitstream

Output
bitstream

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WiMAX

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In-Building Review

Worldwide Interoperability for


Microwave Access
IEEE 802.16 standard
(Broadband Wireless Access,
BWA),with specific profiles and
interoperability specified by
WiMAX Forum
Point-to-point links and full
mobile access
Scaled OFDMA high
modulation schemes (up to 64QAM)
Smart antennas, dynamic
beamforming, MIMO
Aim to provide high data rate
services
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Complement to cellular 3G
and WLAN networks
Mobile WiMAX:
convergence of fixed and
mobile broadband access
Licensed bands:
2.3 GHz
2.5 GHz
3.5 GHz

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Long-Term Evolution (LTE)


LTE (Long Term Evolution) LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a set of enhancements to the
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), which will be introduced in the 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), Release 8.
Much of 3GPP Release 8 will focus on adopting 4G mobile communications technology,
including an all-IP flat networking architecture.
LTE provides downlink peak rates of at least 100Mbit/s, 50 Mbit/s in the uplink and RAN
(Radio Access Network) round-trip times of less than 10ms.

LTE Features
LTE has the following features defined in the standard:

Data rates
In the uplink, it is estimated a data rate of 50 Mbps, whereas twice this data rate for the
DL; i.e. 100 Mbps. Both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division
Multiplex) modes are supported.

Bandwidth
A flexible carrier bandwidth is anticipated for LTE, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz.

Goals
LTE has been designed to improve spectral efficiency while maintaining low cost, as
well as to improve service offering. The idea is to make use of new spectrum and
reformed spectrum, ensuring a much better integration with other wireless standards.

Architecture
It uses EPS (Evolved Packet System) and comprises E-UTRAN (Evolved UTRAN) on
the access side and EPC (Evolved Packet Core) on the core side.

Advantages

LTE has higher throughput, low latency, plug and play, FDD and TDD in the same platform,
improved end-user experience and simple architecture resulting in low operating
expenditures; seamless support connection to existing networks such as GSM, cdmaOne, WCDMA (UMTS), and CDMA2000.
iBwave Design Professional Certification Revision 2
2-20

Long-Term Evolution (LTE)

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In-Building Review

Enhancements to the Universal Mobile


Telecommunications System (UMTS) in
3GPP Release 8 (published March 2009)
Focus on adopting 4G mobile
communications technology, including
an all-IP flat networking architecture
LTE characteristics:
Downlink peak rates of at least 100Mbit/s
50 Mbit/s in the uplink
RAN (Radio Access Network) round-trip
times of less than 10ms

Extensions (higher data rates via higher


order MIMO and wider bandwidths,
higher capacity via new topologies)
planned in LTE-Advanced

21/01/2010

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LTE features

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In-Building Review

Data rates:

Architecture:

DL: 100 Mbits/s


UL: 50 Mbits/s

Flexible carrier bandwidth


From 1.4 MHz up to 20 MHz

FDD and TDD supported


Goals for LTE:
Improve spectral efficiency
Lower costs
Improve service offering
Make use of new spectrum
and reformed spectrum
opportunities
Better integration with other
standards

21/01/2010

EPS (Evolved Packet System) and


comprises E-UTRAN (Evolved
UTRAN) on the access side and
EPC (Evolved Packet Core) on the
core side

Advantages:
high throughput, low latency, plug
and play, FDD and TDD in the
same platform, improved end-user
experience and simple architecture
resulting in low operating
expenditures
seamless support connection to
existing networks such as GSM,
cdmaOne, W-CDMA (UMTS), and
CDMA2000
Page 20

Additional Notes:

iBwave Design Professional Certification Revision 2


2-21

In-Building Review

Should you have any questions or comments regarding this course,


please write to us at certification@ibwave.com

iBwave Solutions Inc.


T +1 514 397 0606
F +1 514 409 2499
7075, Robert-Joncas, Suite 95
St-Laurent, Qc H4M 2Z2 Canada
info@ibwave.com
www.ibwave.com