Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

(25, LSD, .

Lysergsurediethylamid
d- )
.

,
. 1950-

Delysid
: N,N- Sandoz ; N,N-.
[1]
.

: LSD; LSD-25; Lysergide, Delysid.


: C20 H25 N3 O. - 1960- .
- , LSD - ()
, 25.
.

.
, - , , , . , , , , ,
( ) . , , .
, .

1.
, - [2] .
,
. , - ,
, , , ( , New
Age ( )[3] .
,
. , : Turn on, tune in, drop out
(, , ).
.

LSD-25 1938
. 25,
25- ,
. (.
), 1943 . , ,
, . 1

. 2. -
, , ( ).
[19]
2005 - .
(. The British Journal of Psychiatry) - C-5 8 , , - 4- ,
- d-LSD - [20]
- .
, D-LSD [4] . - . , The Lancet - +83 [19] .
- , [5] ; - , . pH The Guardian[6] . - 4 . 4
- 45
- 45 % [20] . ( 2006 - , , 100 )[7] . , - (). [20]
. 323,42
, , -
[19]
/
.
, , - . [20]
[8] ,
, [9] , [10][11] . ,
.
, .
:
,
, , [1] . (. Multidisciplinary Associ, 0,20,5
ation for Psychedelic Studies, . MAPS),
100
1986 , ( , ).
(. Heter Research Institute).
,
Food 510 , [21] .
and Drug Administration (FDA) 1995 2080
( 100 - 200 )[22] , , , 20-30
[12] . 2001 FDA .
(
MDMA)[13] .
3.

[14] ,
[15] . 3.1.
,

FDA
[16] . ,
, [1] .
, - , [17] . , , , - - ,
, (. Beckley (,
, , ).
Foundation), MAPS [18] .
1954
, -

3.3


, ( ), , (
, , .)[23] .

3

, 2000

90 %[25][26] .

3.3.

3.2.

- ,
,
. , , , , [24] .

.
30100 .
.
, , [24] .

. .

, .
,
-
.[20]

60-
,
. , , , .
,
,
[20] .
70- XX
, , 20 500
. . -

4
,
,
, (.
microdot),
1,6 ,
50100 [20] .

4.1.
612 , , [27] ,
[1] . , , , ,
. ,
175 [28] 5
[29] . (Cmax )
3 [29] .

80- 20- .

, ,
.
(0,251 ), 3050 - [30] :
. [20] .
2--
( ), 2-3-- (-)
, , N-- (-)
[20] .
N- (LAE)
13- 14--

4.

4.2.

.
.
G- ,
,
, . , 5-HT3 5-HT4 . ,
[31] . 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , 5-HT2C ,
5-HT5A , 5-HT5B , 5-HT6 .
4
:
LSD 5 [32] ;
LSD 5-2
[33] ;

, 2007

LSD
5--[34] ;
LSD 5-1
[34] .

. . , XX . , ,

, IV
V[35][ ? 859 ] .
DARPP-32,
, , , , PCP,
[36] . (Barry Jacobs) , . ,
,
(dorsal raphe),

(telencephalon).

5.

[37][38][39][1]
,

[1] .

5.1.

MDMA

5.1

0.001

0.002

0.01

0.02

0.1

0.2


[40]

,
[8] . ,
,
. , : , ( ), , , , ( ), , ( ), , , , , , , , .
, , [41] . 1960- () , [42] . , , , ,
, (,
), ( ,
).
.
,
[43] .

. -


, , [44][45] . ,
, .

6
,
,
, . 2006
53-
, ,
[46] . ,

,
,

[47] .

5.2.

) ,
.
,

[48] .
. , , .
,
, ,

, [49] .

. ,
,
[50] , ,
.
1950- , 50%-
[51] , , .

, ( ),
, , , , , , .
. ,
(15000 ) .
. -
,
, .

(. Set and . , Setting, ) - ,
- -
, 1950- 1960- .
,
. - , , - , , , - , , , , .
,
, , - 5.3.
.
,

(, , ) , , , , , ,
, ( -


- , (
)[1] . , .
- ,

7
, ,
, 100%-
[1] .
,
.
, , . , ,
,
, ,
. , ,
[1] .
,

, ,
, . ,
. , -
, , [52][53] .

, , .
( ,
. ashback), , . ,
, ,
[58] . ,

( , ) - ,
- , .
, .
,
-, , , , , .
.

60- ,
5000 25000 ,
1 1,8
( 48 ),
1,2 0,4
[54][55] . ,
, ,
() . , , : , [56] .

,
. ,
LD50
: 9637,
4816, 641, 199,
21. , ,
[59] . [60] .


, , , , . ,
,
, , , [57] .
, : , -

6.1.

6.

7.

.

- .

[61] . (, ) , .

8.

:





[62]

( )

8
1998 3-.

22.06.1998 86-.
, , , , ,
9 1999
840/320/388/472/726/530/585

,
, , , , , , .
,
, ( 681 30
1998 )[68] .



. ,
2008
- [63] .


.
.
, ,
,
9.
-,
[64]
.
1971
.
. , , [64] , [64]
, :
. ,
;
[65] .
2009 , 20 ;
15 ;
:
10 ;
.
228 ,
8 ;
, , , (
7,5 .
0,0001 .) , ( 0,005 .)[66] 10 . - 20 [67] .
. ,

9
, 4 , . , ,
,
, [64] .
, . ,
2 5 [64][69] .
, .
(-, 30 1961 ., 25 1972 .),
, , , - ,
.
,
, [70] .

. ,
,

[72] .

12. .

ALD-52

13.
[1] Hofmann, Albert. LSD My Problem Child.
McGraw-Hill, 1980. ISBN 0-07-029325-2.
[2] San Francisco Chronicle September 20, 1966 Page One
[3] P. G. Stafford and B. H. Golightly LSD The
Problem-Solving Psychedelic Chapter I. The LSD
Crisis (.)
[4] Sessa B. Can psychedelics have a role in psychiatry once
again?. Jun 2005. 186. pp. 457458. ISSN 0007-1250
(.).
[5] Reviving research into psychedelic drugs. The Lancet.
Volume 367, Issue 9518 15 April 2006-21 April 2006,
Page 1214 (.).

10.

[6] James Randerson, Lancet calls for LSD in labs. April 14,
2006.

10.1.

[7] ,
LSD. :
The Guardian (.).
. : LSD 40 (NEWSru.com, 11.01.2006)

10.2.

. , .


, , 2-5 [22] .

11.
, , ,

:
(1962 )

[71] .
(1993 )
-

[8] ., , :
. : ,
. .: , 2004, ISBN 5-17-011168-1;
. : . .: ., 2003, ISBN 5-17-009771-9.
Grof S. 1980. LSD Psychotherapy. Pomona, Cal.:
Hunter House;
Grof S. 1975. Realms of the Human Unconscious:
Observations from LSD Research. NY: Vicing
Press.;
Grof S. 1970. Beyond Psychoanalysis. 1.
Implications of LSD Research for Understanding
Dimensions of Human Personality // Darshana
International. 10:55.;
Grof
S.
1966.
Tentative
Theoretical
Framework for Understanding Dynamics of
LSD Psychotherapy. Preprint for the European
Conference on LSD Psychotherapy, Amsterdam,
Holland.

10

13

[9] R. Andrew Sewell, MD; John H. Halpern, MD, The


Effects of Psilocybin and LSD on Cluster Headache: A
Series of 53 Cases (.).
Sewell RA, Halpern JH, Pope HG. Response of cluster
headache to psilocybin and LSD. Neurology 2006; 66;
19201922. ISSN 1526-632X. Abstract (.).

[23] 2, 736, 728. : 28 1956 . Richard P. Pioch,


Indianapolis, Indiana, assigmor, to Eli Lilly and Co.,
Indianapolis, Indiana, a corporation of Indiana. No
drawing. Application December 6, 1954, Serial No.
473,443. 10 Claims (Cl. 260285.5)

[10] Mangini M. Treatment of alcoholism using psychedelic


drugs: a review of the program of research. J
Psychoactive Drugs. 1998 Oct-Dec;30(4):381-418
(.).

[24] DEA. LSD Manufacture - Illegal LSD Production. LSD


in the United States. U.S. Department of Justice Drug
Enforcement Administration (2007).
29 2007.

[11] Hoffer A. Treatment of Alcoholism with Psychedelic


Therapy. PSYCHEDELICS, The Uses and Implications
of Psychedelic Drugs. 1970 (.).

[25] In-Depth : Kansas Missile Silos. CJOnline.com. 6 2011. 1 2013.

[12] Kurtzweil P. Medical possibilities for psychedelic drugs.


[www.fda.gov/fdac/ FDA Consumer]. Sept, 1995 (.).
[13] Philipkoski K. Long Trip for Psychedelic Drugs. Wired
News. Sep, 27, 2004 (.). FDA
MDMA ()
(Horgan J. Psychedelic medicine:
Mind bending, health giving. New Scientist Print Edition.
26 February 2005 (.).).
[14] Horgan J. Psychedelic medicine: Mind bending, health
giving. New Scientist Print Edition. 26 February 2005
(.).
[15] Frood A. Medicine hope for psychedelic drugs. BBC
News. 15 August, 2004 (.).
[16] LSD: cultural revolution and medical advances. Royal
Society of Chemistry. January 2006 (.).
[17] LSD: cultural revolution and medical advances. Royal
Society of Chemistr. 27 2007.
24 2011.
[18] The Albert Hofmann Foundation. Hofmann Foundation.
27 2007. 24 2011.
[19] Torsten Passie1, John H. Halpern,3, Dirk O. Stichtenoth,
Hinderk M. Emrich1 & Annelie Hintzen1 The
Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A
Review (.) // CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics :
. 2008. No. 14. P. 296.
[20] . ., . . . , , , . , , - . .: -, 2000.
. 142-144. 196 .
[21] The Discovery of LSD and Subsequent Investigations on
Naturally Occurring Hallucinogens.
24 2011.
[22] Couper F. J., Logan B. K. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
(LSD) (.). Drugs and Human Performance Fact
Sheets. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
5 2013.

[26] http://www.scribd.com/doc/22076036/
LSD-Lab-Indictment-Pickard-Apperson. Scribd.com
(21 2007). 6 2011.
1 2013.
[27] . LSD, in TiHKAL
(Berkeley: Transform Press, 1997). ISBN 0-9630096-99.
[28] Aghajanian, George K. and Bing, Oscar H. L. (1964).
Persistence of lysergic acid diethylamide in the plasma
of human subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 5: 6114.
PMID 14209776.
[29] Papac DI, Foltz RL (1990). Measurement of lysergic
acid diethylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas
chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass
spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol 14 (3): 189-90. PMID
2374410.
[30]

. ., . . . , , , . , , - . .: -, 2000. . 146. 196


.

[31] Nichols,
David
Pharmacology &
PMID 14761703.

E.
(2004).
Psychotropics.
Therapeutics 101 (2): 131-81.

[32] Aghajanian G. K., W. E. Foote and M. H. Sheard


Lysergic acid diethylamide: sensitive neuronal units in
the midbrain raphe // Science. 1968. 161.
. 706-708.
[33] Pierce-PA, Peroutka-SJ Antagonist Properties of
d-LSD at 5-Hydroxytryptamine2 Receptors //
Neuropsychopharmacology. 1990. . 3(5-6).
. 503-508.
[34] Glennon-RA Do Classical Hallucinogens Act As 5-HT2
Agonists or Antagonists? // Neuropsychopharmacology.
1990. . 3(5-6). . 509-517.
[35] BilZ0r. The Neuropharmacology of Hallucinogens: a
technical overview. Erowid, v3.1 (August 2005).

11

[36] Svenningsson P. , Nairn A. C., Greengard P. (2005).


DARPP-32 Mediates the Actions of Multiple Drugs
of Abuse.. AAPS Journal 07 (02): E353-E360.
DOI:10.1208/aapsj070235.
[37] Lscher C, Ungless MA (November 2006). The
mechanistic classification of addictive drugs. PLoS
Med. 3 (11): e437. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030437.
PMID 17105338.
[38] Drug Rehabs USA: LSD Facts (.).
23 2012.
[39] Guide to Drugs, Addiction and Treatment (.).
23 2012.
[40] Acute toxicity of drugs versus regulatory status
[41] Schiff PL (2006). Ergot and its alkaloids. American
journal of pharmaceutical education 70 (5): 98. PMID
17149427.
[42] Kast, Eric (1967). Attenuation of anticipation: a
therapeutic use of lysergic acid diethylamide. Psychiat.
Quart. 41 (4): 646-57. PMID 4169685.
[43] Psychedelic Research Around the World: Human
psychopharmacology of salvinorin A
[44] Research into psilocybin and LSD as cluster headache
treatment
[45] Dr. Goadsby Health Report interview
[46] Sewell, R. A.; Halpern, J. H.; Pope, H. G. Jr. (200606-27). Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and
LSD. Neurology 66 (12): 19202. 2006-0718.
[47] Summarized from Research into psilocybin and LSD
as cluster headache treatment and the Clusterbusters
website. Pages accessed 2007-01-31.
[48] Linton, Harriet B. and Langs, Robert J. Subjective
Reactions to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25).
Arch. Gen. Psychiat. Vol. 6 (1962): 352-68.
[49] Cohen, S. (1959). The therapeutic potential of LSD-25. A
Pharmacologic Approach to the Study of the Mind, p251258.
[50] Chwelos N, Blewett D.B., Smith C.M., Hoffer A. (1959).
Use of d-lysergic acid diethylamide in the treatment of
alcoholism. Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 20: 577-90. PMID
13810249.
[51] Maclean, J.R.; Macdonald, D.C.; Ogden, F.; Wilby, E.,
LSD-25 and mescaline as therapeutic adjuvants. In:
Abramson, H., Ed., The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy
and Alcoholism, Bobbs-Merrill: New York, 1967, pp.
407426; Ditman, K.S.; Bailey, J.J., Evaluating LSD
as a psychotherapeutic agent, " pp.74-80; Hoffer, A., A
program for the treatment of alcoholism: LSD, malvaria,
and nicotinic acid, " pp. 353402.
[52] Gary Fisher, Ph.D. Treatment of Childhood
Schizophrenia Utilizing LSD and Psilocybin. The
Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for
Psychedelic Studies MAPS Volume 7 Number 3
Summer 1997 pp. 18-25.

[53] L. Bender, L. Cobrinik, G. Faretra, D.V. Siva Sankar.


The treatment of childhood schizophrenia with LSD
and UML. Biological treatment of mental illness.
Biological Treatment of Mental Illness, Proceedings II
of the International Conference of the Manfred Sakel
Foundation 10/31-11/3/1962, 1966; 2(4):463-91 (.).
[54]

side-effects and comlications. Cohen has published


a thorough study on this subject, giving the results of
a questionnaire from 44 Investigators (10). It involves
almost 5,000 people who received LSD or mescalle on
more than 25,000 occasions. Major adverse reactions
are very rare, as indicatedby the following table taken
from Cohens study; 10. Cohen,
S. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Side Effects and
Complications, " J. Nerv. and Ment. Dis., Vol 130, No.
1, January, 1960

[55] Cohen, Sidney (January 1960). Lysergic Acid


Diethylamide: Side Effects and Complications (PDF).
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 130 (1): 3040.
DOI:10.1097/00005053-196001000-00005.
PMID
13811003.
[56] Willis W. Harman (September-October 1963). The
Issue of the Consciousness-Expanding Drugs. Farreaching consequences of a current controversy.
(HTML). Main currents in modern thought 20 (1): 5-14.,
Considering the enormous scope of the psychic
responses it induces, LSD is an astonishingly safe drug.
S. Cohen, in Horizon, Vol. 5 No. 5, PP.
31; May, 1963.
[57] P.G. Stafford and B.H. Golightly LSD The ProblemSolving Psychedelic Chapter VIII. Guidelines to the Use
of LSD (.)
[58] Faed E. M, McLeod W. R. A urine screening
test of lysergide (LSD-25) (.) // Journal of
Chromatographic Science.. 1973. Vol. 11, fasc. 1.
P. 4-6. DOI:10.1093/chromsci/11.1.4.
[59]
[60] Maintenance page : Wiley Online Library.
Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. 24 2011.
[61] Bonson K. R., Murphy D. L. Alterations in responses to
LSD in humans associated with chronic administration of
tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors
or lithium (.) // Behav Brain Res.. 1996. Vol.
73, fasc. 1-2. P. 229-233. PMID 8788508.
[62] . . .
: , 2007. ISBN 5-902247-11-X.
[63]
[64]
( ) (.). 31
2009. 11
2011.

12

[65] 30 1998 . 681 " ,


,
" ( ) (.).
31 2013.
[66] . 9 2010.
11 2011.
[67] . 228.1., 3
[68] (.). 31
2009.
[69] - (.). 31 2009.
11 2011.
[70] ( 25 1972 .) (.). 31
2009. 11 2011.
[71] ALUN REES. Nobel Prize genius Crick was high on LSD
when he discovered the secret of life (.) (8 August
2004). 24
2011.
[72] Kary Mullis, The Role of Drugs in Society (.). .
: Nobel Laurate & LSD Advocate Kary Mullis on
Drug Policy (.)

14.
. ., . . . , , , . , , - . .: -, 2000. 196 .
. .
. .: , 1998. .
1. 394 . ISBN 5-89720-006-8.

14

13

15. ,
15.1.
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%A1%D0%94?oldid=76814689 : Ramir, Monedula, Torin,
Wulfson, Maxal, Liilliil, SeLarin, , Obersachse, Maxim Razin, Panther, Serguei S. Dukachev, M0d3M, YurikBot, Stassats,
A.I., Kura1, Bezik, Mr. Bot, , Zwobot, Lupus~ruwiki, OckhamTheFox, KVK2005, Terabucks, ,
Volkov, , PlatypeanArchcow, NickShaforostoff, Zimin.V.G., Sirozha, Imz, A5b, Gruzd, Fatal exception, Iv660, Alexandrov,
Even, GD, MaxSem, Lite, Muchok, , Maksim Otstavnov, Yms, The Wrong Man, Dris, I1481, Edwardspec TalkBot, Infovarius,
APL, Isakov, Aqui, Toapole, Biga, 2, CopperKettle, Afinogenoff, Kurukull, Shuba, Escarbot, Bardano, ' ,
ZsergheiBot, Old ivan, Carn, Thijs!bot, . , Prilutsky, JAnDbot, Soulbot, Clarus The Dogcow, GarconN2, Vicpeters,
Cromo4130, Vlad11, Raoul NK, , Impu1se, Huzzlet the bot, LVITN, Alex Smotrov, Rei-bot, Kalan, Shureg, Abatishchev,
L90, DodekBot~ruwiki, Rmih, KDeltaE, Fnaq, Ashik, Pikryukov, ButkoBot, Dvoechnik, TXiKiBoT, Vs64vs, Zwyciezca, Kox, Newt,
Cyd2012, Wormantson, SieBot, Dreamer.mas, Vadim s. sabinich, Alex.ryazantsev, Peni, DaBot~ruwiki, Ermine~ruwiki, Zirnis, Viplux,
Ivan the Knight, Dr.Phyl, Pernambucto, Bau, Avenger911, , HORD, Grebenkov, , DENker,
Jeka3000, Olka85, Alexbot, , Mike.lifeguard, Geanixx, , Purbo T, Odin sapog, Andrey Bondarev il,
Fractaler, Qkowlew, Akim Dubrow, Track13, Waldir, Abiyoyo, Longbowman, Goga312, , Gemini1980, Michaello,
ArturZaratustra, Alchemist90, Pessimist2006, Luckas-bot, VSGI, Rubinbot, Sfmr, JackieBot, Prokurator11, XClear, DmitriyKDV,
Dargin, Execer, Obersachsebot, Gromolyak, TaBOT-zerem, Newtricker, NiGerZ, Wryneck, Jonah.ru, Salvina, Okras, ZeD unknown,
, DSisyphBot, Dilas668, Halferuga, Xqbot, Hairovich, Evgeniy.gurilev, Tutaishy, Nish~ruwiki, Maickellz, Z-Gleb, Alexufo,
- , D'ohBot, Sigwald, Spiridon Svidlov, AntiKrisT, WindBot, , CheriLay, Dageshka, Nazarov S.V.,
, Curious2013, Rotatoria, Sabunero, RedBot, Hesareal, Sssann, Pankratov-p, Kartofl, Feebie, An-Min, Tockman, Alkador,
EmausBot, Ante, Niferon bg, MMH, Animal-wiki, Baccy, , , Damien86, Meddoc13, LankLinkBot,
OneLittleMouse, El-chupanebrej, Ntfs.hard, LarBot, Mentibot, Wikifido, H2Bot, WikitanvirBot, Cinemantique, ZaBOTka, Movses-bot,
, Maksim Fomich, KrBot, Alemann, Shagrad, WebCite Archiver, A-bg78, MerlIwBot, Ilveon, W2Bot, Fifis, KPu3uC B
Poccuu, Soffi pr, Snork095, Vasiliy174, Draa kul, Bonderlogin, HiW-Bot, Subterranean~ruwiki, BattlePeasant, Shal.george,
, 0x0F, VladVD, 762bot, StanTRC, , Stone Heart, Eligatron, RotlinkBot, Dimaniznik, ManFromNord, Mariachix,
Addbot, Samotar s, Kadavr2000, Nesku4ai, Leggecom, Citing Bot, , Ochilov, Q-bit array, Stpukalo, Alex NB IT, ,
Imaginary Rainbow : 445

15.2.
:10_strip.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/10_strip.jpg : Public domain :
OG source indeed. : Coaster420
:Albert_Hofmann_Oct_1993.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Albert_Hofmann_Oct_
1993.jpg : CC BY-SA 2.5 : : Philip H. Bailey (E-mail)
:Commons-logo.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg : Public
domain : This version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions used to
be slightly warped.) : SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier PNG version,
created by Reidab.
:Drug_danger_and_dependence-ru.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Drug_danger_and_
dependence-ru.svg : CC BY-SA 3.0 : : Sssann
:LSD-2D,_3D.png : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/LSD-2D%2C_3D.png : Public
domain : ? : ?
:LSD-clinical-trial-bottle.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/LSD-clinical-trial-bottle.jpg
: CC0 : http://www.maps.org/images/lsdimages.html : Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies
:LSDLabGlassware.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/LSDLabGlassware.jpg :
Public domain : ? : ?
:Mydriase_prononce_2006.jpg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Mydriase_prononc%C3%
A9e_2006.jpg : CC-BY-SA-3.0 : : Raziel
:Pink_Elephants_on_Parade_Blotter_LSD_Dumbo.jpg
:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/
e/e5/Pink_Elephants_on_Parade_Blotter_LSD_Dumbo.jpg : Public domain : :
Psychonaught
:Planned_section.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Planned_section.svg : CC BYSA 3.0 :
Blank_template.svg : Blank_template.svg: Urutseg
:Searchtool.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Searchtool.svg : LGPL : http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz : David Vignoni,
Ysangkok
:Wiki_letter_w.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Wiki_letter_w.svg : CC BY-SA
3.0 : ; Wikimedia Foundation : SVG Jarkko Piiroinen; rights, design and origin Wikimedia
Foundation
:Wikinews-logo.svg : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg : CC BYSA 3.0 : This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. : Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006
(UTC) Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally
uploaded by Simon.

14

15

15.3.
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0