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Dynamics MDB 2043

Rectilinear Kinematics: Continuous Motion


Guided Learning Activity

May 2016 Semester

Lesson Outcomes
At the end of this lecture you should be able
to:

DEW

Determine the kinematic quantities (position,


displacement, velocity, and acceleration) of a
particle traveling along a straight path.

Example #1
Given: A particle travels along a straight line to the right
with a velocity of v = ( 4 t 3 t2 ) m/s where t is
in seconds. Also, s = 0 when t = 0.
Find: The position and acceleration of the particle
when t = 4 s.
Plan: Establish the positive coordinate, s, in the direction the
particle is traveling.
Since the velocity is given as a function of time, take a
derivative of it to calculate the acceleration.
Conversely, integrate the velocity function to calculate the
position.

EXAMPLE #1 (continued)
Solution:
1) Take a derivative of the velocity to determine the acceleration.
a = dv / dt = d(4 t 3 t2) / dt =4 6 t
=> a = 20 m/s2 when t = 4 s
2) Calculate the distance traveled in 4s by integrating the
velocity using so = 0:
s
t
v = ds / dt => ds = v dt => ds (4 t 3 t2) dt
so
o
=> s so = 2 t2 t3
2
3
=> s 0 = 2(4) (4) => s = 32 m (in the
direction)

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EXAMPLE #2
Given: Ball A is released from rest at
a height of 40 m at the same
time that ball B is thrown
upward, 2 m from the ground.
The balls pass one another at a
height of 20 m.
Find:The speed at which ball B was
thrown upward.
Plan: Both balls experience a constant downward acceleration
of 9.81 m/s2 due to gravity. Apply the formulas for
constant acceleration, with ac = -9.81 m/s2.

EXAMPLE #2 (continued)
Solution:
1) First consider ball A. With the origin defined at the ground,
ball A is released from rest ((vA)o = 0) at a height of 40 m
((sA )o = 40 m). Calculate the time required for ball A to drop to
20 m (sA = 20 m) using a position equation.
sA = (sA )o + (vA)o t + (1/2) ac t2
So,

20 m = 40 m + (0)(t) + (1/2)(-9.81)(t2) => t = 2.02 s

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EXAMPLE #2 (continued)
Solution:
2) Now consider ball B. It is throw upward from a height of 2 m
((sB)o = 2 m). It must reach a height of 20 m (sB = 20 m) at the
same time ball A reaches this height (t = 2.02 s). Apply the
position equation again to ball B using t = 2.02s.
sB = (sB)o + (vB)ot + (1/2) ac t2
So,

20 = 2 + (vB)o(2.02) + (1/2)(-9.81)(2.02)2
=> (vB)o = 18.82 m/s

EXAMPLE #3
A car passes you at point 1 travelling at an initial velocity of 6 m/s, and then
accelerates at a constant rate to reach a velocity of 30 m/s at point 2. This
occurs over an 8 second period.
1

(a) What is the required constant acceleration during the initial 8 sec period?
(b) Calculate the distance covered by the car in this 8 sec period.
(c) Once the car passes point 2 at t= 8 s, the acceleration becomes a function of
1
8

time given by a(t) t 4 . Determine an equation for the velocity of the car
as a function of time v(t) for t>8 s.

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(a) Using v 2 v 1 a ( t 2 t 1 )

v 2 v1 30 6

3m / s 2
t 2 t1
8

1
(b) Using s s2 s1 v0 ( t 2 t1 ) a ( t 2 t1 ) 2
2

s 6 8

1
3 8 2 144 m
2

(c) When t>8s from point 2

dv
1
t4
dt
8

1
t2
v adt ( t 4)dt 4t C
8
16

(C is a constant)

To determine C, using the initial condition @ point 2 (i.e. t=8 s, v=30 m/s)

30

82
4 8 C
16

C2

1 2
t 4t 2
16

Example #4
A car moves on a straight path. Its velocity, in m/s is given by v (t ) 7

t2
4

If the initial position, s, is 0, find:


(a) The expressions for the position and acceleration
(b) The position, velocity and acceleration of the particle when t =8 s

t2
t3
dt 7t C
4
12
s (0) 0 s (0) 0 0 C 0
t2
d (7 )
4 t
a (t ) v(t )
dt
2
s(t ) 7

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s (t ) 7t

a (t )

t
2

t
12

s (8) 7(8)

83
13.3 m
12

82
9 m/s
4
8
a (8) 4 m/s 2
2

v(8) 7

Making sense of the numerical data..

s(8) 13.3 m

Where is the car along the scale?

v(8) 9 m/s
a (8) 4 m/s

Is the car moving to the left or right?


2

Is the car speed increasing or decreasing?

10

-10

Example #5
A particle moves in a straight line. Its position is given by
s (t ) 4 (1 t )

t2
4

Find:
(a)The expressions for the velocity and acceleration
(b)The position of the particle when t=12 s
(c)The time when the particle momentarily stops
(d)The particle position and acceleration at that time
(e)The displacement and distance travelled from t=5 s to t=19 s.

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Example #5 (cont.)
(a) The expressions for the velocity and acceleration

s (t ) 4(1 t )

t2
4

v(t ) s(t ) 4

a (t ) s(t )

t
2

1
2

(b) The position of the particle when t=12 s


12 2
s(12) 4(1 12)
16 m
4
(c) The time when the particle momentarily
stops
t
v(t ) 4 0 t 8 s
2

Example #5 (cont.)
(d) The particle position and acceleration at that time; i.e. t=8 s.

s(8) 4(1 8)

82
20 m
4

1
a (t ) m/s 2
2

(e) The displacement and distance travelled from t=5 s to t=19 s.

s (5) 4(1 5)

52
17.75 m
4

s (19) 4(1 19)

192
10.25 m
4

Displacement =s (19) s (5) 10.25 17.75 28 m


The particle decelerates as it moves in the positive direction until t=8 s
where it moves in the opposite direction.

s (8) s (5) 20 17.75 2.25 m


Negative Displacement = s (19) s (8) 10.25 20 30.25 m
Total distance travelled = 2.25 30.25 32.5 m
Positive Displacement =

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Summary Questions
3 m/s
5 m/s
t=2s
t=7s
1. A particle moves along a horizontal path with its velocity
varying with time as shown. The average acceleration of the
particle is _________.
A) 0.4 m/s2
B) 0.4 m/s2
C) 1.6 m/s2
D) 1.6 m/s2
2. A particle has an initial velocity of 30 m/s to the left. If it then
passes through the same location 5 seconds later with a
velocity of 50 m/s to the right, the average velocity of the
particle during the 5 s time interval is _______.
A) 10 m/s
B) 40 m/s
C) 16 m/s
D) 0 m/s

Summary Questions
3. A particle has an initial velocity of 3 m/s to the left at
s0 = 0 m. Determine its position when t = 3 s if the
acceleration is 2 m/s2 to the right.
A) 0.0 m
C) 18.0 m

B) 6.0 m
D) 9.0 m

4. A particle is moving with an initial velocity of v = 12 m/s


and constant acceleration of 3.78 m/s2 in the same direction
as the velocity. Determine the distance the particle has
traveled when the velocity reaches 30 m/s.
A) 50 m
C) 150 m

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B) 100 m
D) 200 m

References:

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R.C. Hibbeler, Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics,


SI 13th Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2012.