Flow Boiling Heat Transfer on Micro Pin Fins Entrenched in a Microchannel

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Flow Boiling Heat Transfer on Micro Pin Fins Entrenched in a Microchannel

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Yoav Peles

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and

Nuclear Engineering,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,

Troy, NY 12180

Micro Pin Fins Entrenched in a

Microchannel

Flow boiling of 1-methoxyheptafluoropropane (HFE 7000) in 222 m hydraulic diameter channels containing a single row of 24 inline 100 m pin fins was studied for mass

fluxes from 350 kg/ m2 s to 827 kg/ m2 s and wall heat fluxes from 10 W / cm2 to

110 W / cm2. Flow visualization revealed the existence of isolated bubbles, bubbles interacting, multiple flow, and annular flow. The observed flow patterns were mapped as a

function of the boiling number and the normalized axial distance. The local heat transfer

coefficient during subcooled boiling was measured and found to be considerably higher

than the corresponding single-phase flow. Furthermore, a thermal performance evaluation comparison with a plain microchannel revealed that the presence of pin fins considerably enhanced the heat transfer coefficient. DOI: 10.1115/1.4000878

Keywords: micro pin fins, heat transfer coefficient, flow maps

Introduction

The level of device integration and the clock speed of microelectronic devices have been steadily increasing over the last several decades. This has resulted in a continuous increase in the

power density of electronic devices, giving rise to the need for

aggressive and effective cooling solutions. The recent development in microfabrication technology has enabled a new class of

heat sinks for high heat flux applications made of microelectromechanical system MEMS based microchannel. Microchannels

with micro pin fins have been receiving attention because they can

significantly enhance the performance of heat sinks compared

with plain microchannels. As a result, a research on flow boiling

and single-phase flow in micro-pin fin heat sinks has been carried

out by several groups 112. It is well known that heat transfer

during subcooled flow boiling can be significantly enhanced compared with single-phase liquid flow. However, very limited studies

have been performed to elucidate the heat transfer characteristics

of subcooled boiling in micro pin fin configurations.

In conventional scale, subcooled flow boiling has been extensively studied for in-tube systems and various models have been

developed to predict the heat transfer rates. These methods can be

broadly classified into three categories, namely: empirical correlations to predict the wall heat flux 1317, empirical correlations

to predict the partitioning of wall heat flux 14,18,19, and mechanistic correlations for the total heat flux and their partitioning

2022. Warrier and Dhir 23 provided a detailed review on

these various methods and concluded that mechanistic correlations give a better physical insight into subcooled boiling phenomenon and proposed the use of submodels to define the bubble

dynamics. Literature review reveals that boiling in crossflow systems has been extensively studied, but very limited studies have

been reported in subcooled boiling regime for these configurations. Huang and Witte 24,25 studied the effect of liquid flow

and high subcooling across a bank of horizontal tube bundles and

developed a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient using the

methodology by Chen 26 developed for saturated nucleate boiling. Shah 27 compared his correlation for heat transfer coefficient around a single-tube, developed for highly subcooled liquid,

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURHEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 24, 2008; final manuscript

received September 30, 2009; published online February 19, 2010. Assoc. Editor:

Satish G. Kandlikar.

NAL OF

found good agreement. Cornwell 28 studied saturated nucleate

flow boiling in tube bundles and attributed the enhancement in

heat transfer rates to sliding bubbles. Gupta 29 attributed the

enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient during nucleate boiling to the turbulence caused by the presence of bubbles on the

surface.

It has been shown that reduction in length scale has a considerable affect on the bubble dynamics and flow characteristics during flow boiling. For subcooled flow boiling this is especially

important since the heat transfer mechanism is very dependent on

the bubble nucleation process. For example, Lee et al. 30 and

Kuo et al. 31 examined the bubble dynamics for water in a

microchannel and observed considerable differences compared

with conventional scale systems. Cognata et al. 5 performed a

visual study on flow pattern in staggered square micro pin fins and

observed bubbly, slug, and annular flows. Krishnamurthy and Peles 3 investigated flow boiling heat transfer of water across

densely packed staggered micro pin finsprimarily focusing on

saturated flow boilingand found that convective boiling was the

dominant heat transfer mechanism.

Based on previous studies, it can be concluded that knowledge

about bubble characteristics in diminishing length scales is important to elucidate heat transfer mechanisms. In the current manuscript, flow boiling across a single row of inline micro pin fins

entrenched in a microchannel is presented. The microdevice consists of five 200 m wide and 243 m deep microchannels, each

equipped with an inlet orifice, consisting of 24 columns of

100 m diameter circular pin fins, with pitch-to-diameter ratio of

4. This study aims to elucidate the local heat transfer coefficient,

to identify flow patterns, and to decipher the heat transfer mechanisms. Additionally, the performance of the pin fin device was

compared with a plain microchannel device.

Device Design

consisting of five 200 m wide and 243 m deep microchannels

entrenched in a 1800 m wide channel, is shown in Fig. 1. Each

microchannel encompassed 24 inline 100 m diameter micro pin

fins with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 4. Pressure taps were placed

at the inlet and the exit of the microchannel array to enable pressure measurements. A micro-orifice, 400 m long and 20 m

wide, was fabricated upstream of each microchannel to suppress

channel-pin fin section excluding the orifice to provide the requisite heat flux. A thermistor 10 m wide and 300 m long was

placed 3.33 mm from the channel inlet. A Pyrex cover sealed the

device from the top and allowed flow visualization. For details

regarding the experimental set up and microfabrication process

flow, please refer to Ref. 3.

x=

c pTsat Ti

P QlossLx/Lo m

h fg

m

The local heat transfer coefficient for the microchannel with pin

fins was calculated according to

Data Reduction

The voltage and current were used to calculate the input power,

while the local temperature from the thermistor was obtained from

the calibration curve. Assuming 1D steady state conduction

through the silicon block, the local surface temperature of the

device was obtained by

Tx,s = Tthermistor

P Qlossts

k sA p

The local quality was calculated from the known mass flow rate

according to

Uncertainty variable

Measurement range

Error

018 ml/min

040 V

05 A

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

01379 kPa

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

2%

0.5%

0.5%

1 C

1%

0.67%

0.5%

3.4%

0.5 C

3.5 kPa

3%

1216%

1216%

1015%

1015%

3.4%

11%

Flow rate, Q a

Voltage, V

Current, I

Ambient temperature, Tamb

Channel width, w

Channel height, H

Density of liquid, l

Mass flux, G

Average surface temperature, Tr

Pressure, p

Heat flux, qw

Local thermal resistance Rconv

Local heat transfer coefficient, hx

Average heat transfer coefficient, h

Average Nusselt number, Nu

Reynolds number, ReD

Boiling number, Bo

a

The manufacturer provided the flow rate range for water, while experiments were

performed with HFE-7000. The flow meter was calibrated prior to experiments.

bubble interacting BI, c multiple flow region M, and d

annular flow A

Fig. 3 Flow maps based on wall heat flux for all the mass fluxes: a G = 350 kg/ m2 s, b G = 564 kg/ m2 s, c G

= 689 kg/ m2 s, and d G = 827 kg/ m2 s

hx =

P Qloss

AtTx,s T1

temperature Tmx was obtained through an energy balance

P Qloss Lx

Tmx = Tmi +

Cp L

m

At = N f f As,f + Ab + N p pAs,p

where

Rconv =

1

h xA t

and the corresponding Nusselt numbers over all heat fluxes for a

fixed Reynolds number in the single-phase region was obtained by

M

f =

tanhm f H

,

mfH

tanhm pH

p =

,

m pH

mf =

mf =

hx2W + L

,

ksWL

hxDH

D2

ks

4

to obtain the local heat transfer coefficient. Similar methodology

was adopted to obtain the heat transfer coefficient for the plain

channel, but the total surface area was calculated as

Journal of Heat Transfer

h = 1

hx,i

x

M i=1

Nux =

1

Nux,i

M i=1

The uncertainties associated with the measured values were obtained from the manufacturers specification sheets Table 1

while the uncertainties associated with the derived quantities were

obtained by using the propagation of uncertainty analysis, and are

also given in Table 1.

APRIL 2010, Vol. 132 / 041007-3

Fig. 4 Flow map showing the different flow patterns along the

channel

patterns in the device, images were taken at 10 different locations

along the length of the channel. The flow patterns were then

manually classified into bubbly flow, multiple flow M, and annular flow A. The bubbly flow was further categorized into two

regions: isolated bubbles I and bubbles interacting BI. The

isolated bubble region extends over a relatively small section of

the channel, where bubbles nucleated and departed without coalescing with bubbles from neighboring sites Fig. 2a. With increasing nucleation site density, bubbles began to coalesce Fig.

2b, and formed larger bubbles with diameter smaller than the

pin in diameter. Further downstream, these bubbles grew and developed into vapor slugs, which were intermittently sheared by the

pin fins and broken into bubbles again. This region where bubbles

and vapor slugs coexisted was termed multiple flow Fig. 2c.

Eventually, the vapor slugs merged and the flow transitioned to

annular flow, where liquid traversed through the channel walls,

while vapor propagated through the corenucleation was suppressed Fig. 2d. In the channel inlet, only liquid single-phase

was present. As expected, for a given mass flux, all flow patterns

shifted upstream with increasing heat flux. Figures 3a3d

show a flow maps for all mass fluxes as a function of wall heat

flux and normalized axial distance. The hatch regions on the flow

map indicate flow transition regions. Visualization measurements

were repeated three times to obtain a meaningful statistical average transition zone. In order to obtain a more general flow map

using all mass fluxes and heat fluxes, an attempt to collapse the

four flow maps into a single map using the boiling number was

carried out. This was done by first plotting the above flow maps in

terms of the boiling number and normalized axial distance, followed by fitting the data points with a best curve fit, as shown in

Fig. 4. 90% of the transition data points fell within 12% of the

transition lines, as shown by the dotted lines in the figure.

4.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient. The local single-phase heat

transfer coefficient is shown as a function of the wall heat flux for

different mass fluxes in Fig. 5a. The heat transfer coefficient

characteristics followed similar trend to those observed in conventional scale tube bundle systems, i.e., independent of wall heat

flux and increasing with mass fluxes. Figure 5b also shows the

variation in the Nusselt number Nuhdefined based on channel

hydraulic diameteras a function of the Reynolds number ReD.

The local heat transfer coefficients during boiling as a function of

wall heat flux are shown for different mass fluxes in Figs.

041007-4 / Vol. 132, APRIL 2010

Fig. 5 a The variation in single-phase heat transfer coefficient as a function of wall heat flux and b variation in Nusselt

number as a function of the Reynolds number

= 350 kg/ m2 s, the heat transfer coefficient increased linearly

with wall heat flux for qw 45 W / cm2, and subsequently decreased. Similar decrease in the heat transfer coefficient was also

observed for G = 564 kg/ m2 s at qw = 80 W / cm2. For mass fluxes

of 689 kg/ m2 s and 827 kg/ m2 s, the heat transfer coefficient

increased linearly with wall heat flux. Figure 7 shows the variation in the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the local quality for the four mass fluxes. The majority of the datum points

corresponding to two-phase flow are in the subcooled boiling regime. Figure 7 also shows that the heat transfer coefficient during

subcooled boiling is considerably higher compared with the

single-phase heat transfer coefficient. Such an enhancement during heat transfer coefficient in nucleate boiling has been observed

in both conventional scale channels and minichannels 32,33 and

has been attributed to various mechanisms, such as the evaporation of the microlayer beneath a growing bubble, transient conduction through the cold liquid layer replacing the superheated

liquid layer carried away by the departing bubble 21, and sliding

bubbles 28. The contribution of these mechanisms are added

linearly to account for the total heat flux according to 21

10

are the total heat flux, evaporative heat

flux, quenching heat flux, and single-phase heat flux, respectively.

Transactions of the ASME

Fig. 6 Heat transfer coefficients as a function of wall heat flux: a G = 350 kg/ m2 s, b G = 564 kg/ m2 s, c G

= 689 kg/ m2 s, and d G = 827 kg/ m2 s

observed enhancement in the heat transfer is assessed below.

the latent energy carried away by the bubbles per unit area and

bubbles

+ qev,sl

= fVdvNah fg + fVl VdvNah fg

qev = qev,st

the bubble nucleating on the surface, and the sliding bubble is

associated with the heat transfer during bubble growth while moving along the surface. In Eq. 11, the bubble departure frequency

was assumed to be equal to the bubble lift off frequencyan

assumption that is based on observation of many bubbles. Assuming the departing bubble to be spherical, the volume of the departing and lifting bubbles can be calculated as

Vd =

local quality heat flux in W / cm2 in parenthesis

11

D3d

,

6

Vl =

Dl3

6

12

it displaces superheated liquid adjacent to the wall by cold liquid

from the bulk flow. Han and Griffith 34 postulated that the departing bubble carries away with it liquid from an areatermed

area of influencethat is four times the projected area of the

departing bubble. The quenching heat flux was obtained by following the approach adopted by Mikic and Rohsenow 35 assuming pure conduction through the liquid in the area of influence.

For any stationary bubble departing from the site, the total average heat flux over the area of influence is given by

APRIL 2010, Vol. 132 / 041007-5

G

qch

Nwall

N=0

N=180

f wall

f =0

f =180

Dd,wall

Dd,=180

Dd,=0

qev

%

qtr

%

350

350

565

565

689

689

827

827

13

16.05

19.2

20.3

27.1

29.9

36.2

39.5

2

5

5

10

16

20

20

25

2

2

2

3

3

6

4

5

3

4

3

5

4

4

7

12

3511

4300

4712

3472

2550

2819

2260

3805

413

1592

2799

3235

4749

5095

5885

6297

50

445

2175

2233

481

468

250

110

32

34

32.5

40.3

37.7

33.6

41.9

38

18

14

18.5

13

10.02

10.02

9.22

8.9

72

55

74.6

70.6

43

30

42

25

0.62

1.77

2.6

4.8

2.5

2.3

2.8

3.96

8.12

7.38

8.9

12.1

5.2

5.9

7.5

8.9

= 2kc pl fD2dNaTw Tl

qtr,st

13

surface also displaced the liquid from the surface. Assuming transient conduction through the displaced liquid layer, the total average heat flux over the area swept by the bubble is given by

14

kcpl fAslNaTw Tl

15

=f

qtr,st

kTw Tl

AslNa dt

Asl = Davl =

Dd + Dl

l

2

16

l is the sliding distance, which was obtained through flow visualization. The bubble lift off diameter was found to be approximately four times the bubble departure diameter for bubbles

nucleating from the frontal stagnation point = 0 deg and twice

the bubble departure diameter for bubbles departing from the sidewalls.

It should be noted that the use of Han and Griffiths quenching

term might not be entirely adequate to sliding bubbles since a

sliding bubble is merely moving the superheat liquid layer along

the wall rather than displacing it from the surface. However, it can

be argued that because of this the model should overpredict the

contribution of a sliding bubble. The analysis about the heat transfer mechanisms discussed in the paper will later show that the

contribution of the quenching to the total heat flux is insignificant

and therefore, that quenching is not an important heat transfer

mechanism in this study. In other words, the use of the quenching

model by Han and Griffith 34 serves in this study to demonstrate

that it is not an important mechanism rather than to obtain accurate measure of the quenching effect.

The total heat transfer through transient conduction can be

added linearly as

+ qtr,sl

qtr = qtr,st

17

on the heated wall, such as bubble departure frequency, nucleation

site density, and bubble departure diameter are necessary, and

were obtained through flow visualization technique discussed in

Ref. 36. Since clear bubble images were required to obtain the

parameters defining the bubble dynamics, all images were taken in

the isolated bubble region. Figures 6a6d also show the conditions under which the isolated bubbles were observed shown by

arrows. Table 2 gives values of various parameters defining the

bubble dynamics between z = 2.5 mm and z = 3.5 mm. Table 2

also shows the contribution of the evaporative and transient conduction heat fluxes to the total heat flux. Since the bubbles emanated from two angular positions = 0 deg, = 180 deg 36,

the bubble dynamics parameters for these locations were included

in the calculation of the evaporative and transient heat fluxes. The

041007-6 / Vol. 132, APRIL 2010

heat fluxes toward the total heat flux were insignificant. This

shows that another significant mechanism in the form of bulk fluid

agitation is a more potent heat transfer mode than the local heat

removal or just the motion of the superheated layer adjacent to

the wall. Basu et al. 21 stated that for regions between the onset

of nucleate boiling and onset of significant voidthe region

where the bubble interaction begin to dominatethe enhancement

in the heat transfer coefficient was mainly due to single-phase

convection, which was enhanced by up to 30% as a result of the

presence of bubbles on the surface. The enhancement in the heat

transfer coefficient in the current study ranges between 5090% in

the isolated bubble region, which was larger than those observed

in conventional scale systems. Based on the values obtained for

the evaporative and transient conduction heat fluxes in the current

study, it can be concluded that in the isolated bubble region, the

observed enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient is neither

due to microlayer evaporation nor due to the transient conduction

through the liquid layer. It appears that the presence of bubble in

the flow has a more pronounced influence on the heat transfer

characteristics in the current microscale study than in large scale

systems. The relatively large bubble diameter-to-channel hydraulic diameter ratio, compared with conventional scale systems, can

significantly alter the flow characteristics in the channel, and thus,

the heat transfer mechanisms. For example, the Reynolds number

calculated for a bubble of largest diameter approximately

75 m and the highest mean flow velocity in this study

827 kg/ m2 s is 124, which corresponds to laminar flow. It can

thus be postulated that the bubbles growing on the sidewalls and

the pin fins induce wakes downstream the channel very much

similar to the vortex shedding observed in classical fluid dynamics

such as flow across cylinders and spheres, which disrupts the

boundary layer significantly beyond the region immediately adjacent to the bubble resulting in higher heat transfer coefficient. The

small length scale of the channel can significantly amplify the

bubble agitation effect. Additionally, the presence of recirculation

zone upstream and downstream the pin fin can also contribute

significantly toward enhanced mixing, and thus, enhanced heat

transfer. Therefore, at low qualities, the observed enhancement

can be attributed to bubble agitation and perturbation of the

boundary layer. Similar argument was recently made by Donnelly

et al. 37 who studied flow across a sliding bubble on an inclined

surface and concluded that bubble induced wakes contribute significantly toward heat transfer enhancement. At high qualities, the

nucleation site density increased and bubbles began to merge.

This in turn increased the evaporation and transient conduction

contributions to the total heat flux. At higher qualities multiple

bubble interaction region, the heat transfer enhancement might be

due to similar mechanisms observed in a conventional scale.

5.1 Comparison With a Plain Microchannel. To study the

effect of the pin fins on the heat transfer coefficient, experiments

with plain microchannels were also conducted under similar thermal hydraulic conditions and the thermal resistances of the two

devices were compared. The total thermal resistance consists of

Transactions of the ASME

mass flow rate for both devices

different Reynolds numbers

the base of the silicon block to the channel surface; sensible heat

resistance due to heating of the liquid Rheat; and convective resistance Rconv resulting from convection from the channel walls

flow rates for both devices, the resistances due to sensible heating

were the same. Likewise, the conductive resistance was the same

for the two devices. Thus, only the convective resistance was

Fig. 10 Comparison of heat transfer coefficients for a microchannel with pin fins and a plain microchannel for different

mass fluxes: a Gch = 282 kg/ m2 s, b Gch = 345 kg/ m2 s, and c Gch = 413 kg/ m2 s

Fig. 11 Comparison of thermal convective resistances for both devices: a Gch = 282 kg/ m2 s, b Gch = 345 kg/ m2 s, and

c Gch = 413 kg/ m2 s

evaluated and compared. Figure 8 compares the single-phase convective resistance Eq. 7 as a function of mass flow rate for

both microchannel systems. The convective resistance decreases

with increasing mass flow rate for both devices. The lower thermal resistance of the microchannels with pin fins compared with

the plain microchannel is a result of the higher heat transfer coefficient and larger surface area. Figure 9 compares the ratio of the

Nusselt numberbased on the channel hydraulic diameterfor

both devices as a function of Reynolds number ReD defined

based on hydraulic diameter of the channel. The enhancement of

the heat transfer coefficient increased from 1.3 to 3 when the

Reynolds number increased from 84 to 197. Therefore, in addition

to the surface area enhancement Apin = 1.25 Aplain, the presence

of pin fins significantly affects the hydrodynamic characteristics

of the flow resulting in increased heat transfer coefficient. The

enhancement increase with the Reynolds number can be attributed

to the wake interaction between the pin fins. At low Reynolds

number, the wake interaction is less rigorous, and thus, a lower

enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient was observed. But at

higher Reynolds number, the interaction between the wakes increased, promoting advection mixing, and thus, reducing the

thermal resistance. Figures 10a10c show the heat transfer coefficient as a function of mass quality for both devices. The heat

transfer coefficient followed similar trend with respect to quality,

but was quantitatively lower for the plain microchannel for all

mass fluxes. The comparison of the convective resistance as a

041007-8 / Vol. 132, APRIL 2010

resistance is lower for the microchannel with pin fins. It is also

evident that the rate at which the convective resistance decreases

for the plain microchannel is higher compared with that observed

in the microchannel with pin fins. This can partly be attributed to

the more rapid decrease in the fin efficiency of the micro pin fins

compared with that of channel sidewalls. Thus, with increasing

heat flux, the effective surface area of the microchannel with pin

fins decreased more rapidly compared with that of plain microchannel. As a result, the resistance of the microchannel with pin

fins decreases more moderately. Nevertheless, the heat transfer is

still enhanced by convective mixing of the pin fins, which lowers

the convective resistances compared with plain microchannel. The

enhancement in heat transfer coefficient is quantified by an enhancement factor E p defined as

Ep =

hpin fin

hplain

18

Figure 12 shows the variation in the enhancement factor for different qualities. The enhancement in the two-phase heat transfer

coefficient is smaller when compared with the enhancement observed during single-phase. As discussed previously, the enhancement in the two-phase heat transfer coefficient in the isolated

bubble region is due to bubble agitation and the perturbation of

the boundary layer by the bubbles. Unlike in channel with microTransactions of the ASME

Power Microelectronic Systems. The microfabrication was performed in part at the Cornell NanoScale Facility a member of the

National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ECS0335765, its users, Cornell University, and industrial affiliates.

Nomenclature

Ap

At

Asl

Bo

cp

D

Dh

Dd

Dl

Ep

f

G

h fg

hx

H

I

ks

L

m

Na

Nf

Np

Nux

Fig. 12 Enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient for a microchannel with pin fins as a function of mass quality

pin fins, where the presence of pin fins shadows the agitation

affect, in plain microchannel, such agitation can affect extended

regions of the channel. As a result, the heat transfer coefficient for

the plain channel increases at a higher rate compared with microchannel with pin fins in the isolated bubble region. But with increasing heat flux, for the microchannel with pin fins in the multiple bubble interaction region, the heat transfer coefficient

increases significantly due to convective mixing aided by the presence of the pin fins. It follows that the enhancement increases

after reaching a minimum, which was observed for both Gch

= 282 kg/ m2 s and Gch = 417 kg/ m2 s.

Summary

bubbles, bubbles interacting, multiple flow pattern, and annular regions along the channel length. The observed flow

patterns were mapped as a function of the boiling number

along the channel length.

Single-phase heat transfer coefficient for the microchannels

with pin fins was found to be considerably higher compared

with the plain wall channels. This was attributed to a combination of enhanced area and mixing.

Considerable enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient

during subcooled boiling over the corresponding singlephase heat transfer coefficient was observed. In the isolated

bubbles region, this enhancement was attributed to the agitation of the liquid due to bubble protrusion and disruption

of the boundary layer.

The heat transfer coefficient during subcooled boiling for

the microchannel with pin fins was higher than the corresponding value for plain microchannel. But the enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient was smaller in comparison to that observed during single-phase flow, especially in

the isolated bubble region. This was attributed to the reduction in fin efficiency.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research ONR

under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

MURI Award No. GG10919 entitled System-Level Approach

Journal of Heat Transfer

platform area m2

total surface area m2

sliding area swept by bubbles m2

boiling number qch / Gh fg

specific heat capacity kJ/ kg K

diameter of pin fin m

hydraulic channel diameter m

bubble departure diameter m

bubble lift off departure diameter m

enhancement factor

bubble departure frequency Hz

mass flux kg/ m2 s

latent heat of vaporization kJ/kg

local heat transfer coefficient W / m2 K

height of microchannel m

current A

substrate thermal conductivity W / m K

length of the channel m

mass flow rate kg/s

nucleation site density

number of fins

number of pin fins

local Nusselt number based on characteristic

length scale hD / k f ; hDh / k f

power W

evaporative heat flux W / m2

stationary bubble evaporative heat flux

W / m2

sliding bubble evaporative heat flux W / m2

stationary bubble quenching heat flux W / m2

sliding bubble quenching heat flux W / m2

heat loss W

Reynolds number based on channel hydraulic

diameter GDh /

thermal convective resistance K/W

thermal conductive resistance K/W

resistance due to sensible heating of fluid

K/W

liquid temperature K

local fluid temperature K

inlet fluid temperature K

saturation temperature K

local surface temperature K

temperature of thermistor K

substrate thickness m

voltage V

width of rectangular pin fin m

vapor quality

fin efficiency

pin fin efficiency

vapor density

radial angle

P

qev

qev,st

pin fins entrenched in a microchannel was studied for various

mass fluxes and heat fluxes. The following summarizes the main

findings of this study.

qev,sl

qtr,st

qtr,sl

Qloss

ReD

Rconv

Rcond

Rheat

Tl

Tmx

Tmi

Tsat

Tx,s

Tthermistor

ts

V

W

x

Symbol

f

p

v

References

1 Qu, W., and Siu-Ho, A., 2008, Liquid Single-Phase in an Array of Micro-PinFinPart I: Heat Transfer Characteristics, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 13012,

p. 122402.

2 Qu, W., and Siu-Ho, A., 2008, Liquid Single-Phase in an Array of Micro-PinFinPart II: Pressure Drop Characteristics, ASME J. Heat Transfer,

13012, p. 124501.

3 Krishnamurthy, S., and Peles, Y., 2008, Flow Boiling of Water in a Circular

Staggered Micro-Pin Fin Heat Sink, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 5156, pp.

13491364.

4 Siu-Ho, A., Qu, W., and Pfefferkorn, F., 2007, Experimental Study of Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Single-Phase Micropin-Fin Heat Sink,

ASME J. Electron. Packag., 1294, pp. 479487.

5 Cognata, T. J., Hollingsworth, K. D., and Witte, L. C., 2007, High-Speed

Visualization of Two-Phase Flow in a Micro-Scale Pin-Fin Heat Exchanger,

Heat Transfer Eng., 2810, pp. 861869.

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7 Kosar, A., and Peles, Y., 2006, Convective Flow of Refrigerant R-123

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