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Unit 5

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
ACOUSTICS AND BUILDING DESIGN
Site selection, shape, volume, treatment for interior surfaces, basic principles in designing open
air theatres, cinemas, broadcasting studios, concert halls, class rooms, lecture halls, schools,
residences. Call Centers, Office building and sound reinforcement systems for building types.

ACOUSTICS OF BUILDINGS:
The buildings deserving acoustical treatment such as auditorium, open air theatres, cinema
theatres, public lecture halls, radio broad casting studios, law courts, conference rooms etc
should be properly planned and adequately designed for acoustics before they are actually
constructed. This is essential because designing for acoustics assures the construction of certain
rooms and buildings which are free from distributing noises and also provision of optimum
conditions for producing and listening to speech, music, whether actual or reproduced as cinema.
In other words, adequate design provides proper control and remedy of the acoustical defects in
buildings.
The study of acoustics of buildings can be split into the following three main heads:
1. REQUIREMENTS AND CONDITIONS OF GOOD ACOUSTICS.
2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND FACTORS IN ACOUSTICAL DESIGN.
3. PRACTICAL CASES SOME ACOUSTICAL BUILDINGS.
1. REQUIREMENTS AND CONDITIONS OF GOOD ACOUSTICS:
The following requirements should be fulfilled by a building having good acoustics:
i)
The initial sound should be of adequate intensity that it can be heard throughout
the hall. In case of low intensity of sound and longer distances, the desired
intensity is achieved by raising it through the sound amplification system.
ii)
The sound produced should be evenly distributed over the entire area covered by
the audience, otherwise it will lead to acoustical defects such as formation of
echoes, sound foci and dead spot.
iii)
It should be remembered in the design of rooms intended for speaking purposes
that the prime objective is intelligibility of speech. But in the design of music
rooms, the prime objective is the most favorable enrichment of total quality and
total blending of the sounds.
iv)
In the hall, when particularly used for speech the initial sound should be clear and
distinct so that there is no possibility of distortion in speech after being produced.
v)
In the hall, when used for music and dance purposes, the initial sound reaches the
audience with the same frequency and intensity.
vi)
All noises, unwanted sounds, whether originating from inside or outside of the
hall, should be reduced to such an extent that they do not interfere with the normal
hearing of music or speech. This can be done by having suitable intensity of
sound and an acceptable time of reverberation.

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2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND FACTORS IN ACOUSTICAL DESIGN:


Some of the general planning principles and factors which play an important role in
creating good acoustical conditions are as follows.
A. Site selection and planning
B. Volume ie size and height.
C. Shape
D. Treatment of interior surfaces.
E. Reverberation.
F. Seat, seating arrangement and audience.
G. Sound absorption.
A. SITE SELECTION AND PLANNING: in selecting a site for a building which deserves
the acoustical design and treatment, noises prevailing or foreseeable in that area should
be considered for their effects on the acoustical conditions in the building. Some of the
important sources of objectionable noise are automobile traffic on busy streets, traffic on
highways, railways, airports, industrial establishments, etc. In fact , the site selected
should be in the quietest surroundings consistent with other requirements so that
intelligibility of speech and tonal quality of music are not affected.
It is particularly necessary to keep the level of the outdoor noise low by proper
orientation and the selection, in case where no air conditioning is provided and doors and
windows are normally kept open during the performance. When air conditioning is
provided special care should be taken to reduce the plant noise and the grill noise.
Depending upon the noise level of the surrounding area on site, orientation, layout etc.
The structural design should be arranged to provide necessary noise reduction, so that the
background noise level of not more than 40 to 45 db is achieved within the hall.
B. VOLUME (I,E., SIZE AND HEIGHT): the volume of the room should be in
proportion to the intensity of sounds to be generated in it. The volume of musical concert
should be quite large so the sufficient space is made available for proper distribution of
music. For theatres (required for speeches) on the other hand, halls of small volumes are
used for comparatively weak sounds. Where an auditorium is to be used for both i.e
music as well as speech the same may be provided with an intermediate volume.
In planning the volume of the hall, height is of greater importance than either length or
breadth. This is on account of the fact that a small increase in height results in the
considerable increase in the volume. The following values may be taken as a rough guide
for deciding the volume of an auditorium.
i)
Public lecture halls= 2.8 to 3.7 cu m per person.
ii)
Musical concert halls=4.2 to 5.6 cu m per person.
iii)
Cinema theatres= 3.7 to 4.2 cu m per person.
However, the best guide for deciding the volume of a proposed auditorium would be the
detailed study of an existing auditorium used for the similar purpose.
C. SHAPE: the shape of the room is more important consideration in the acoustic design of
the auditorium, as it is the governing factor in correcting the defects, like echoes, sound
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foci, dead spots, etc., which are due to the reflection of sound waves the increasing use of
sound amplifiers has made the shape of planning all the more important for better
distribution of the intensity of sound it is not the volume only but the shape of the
auditorium also plays an important role. The volume is decided on the total number of
audience, whereas the shape is to be geometrically arranged in view of better audibility
(i,e., free from reflection defects). Usually the shape of auditorium is expressed in terms
of the ratio of height, width, and length of the hall. This is necessary because there are no
definite rules regarding the optimum height of a hall for good acoustics. However, in
practice, the ceiling height for a room or hall to be used for speech and music is kept
varying from 1/3rd to 2/3rd of the width of the room or hall. The lower ratio should be
adopted for very large halls and higher ratio for small rooms.
The ratios of height to width to length (H: W: L) are indicated for different types of
auditoriums with volume per seat. From the total number of seats to be provided in an
auditorium, total cubical contents can be worked out and then from the relevant ratio,
length, width, and height can be determined. Some such ratios and corresponding
volumes per seat are given as rough guide.
Table Relationship Between (H: W: L) Ratios and Volume per Seat
TYPES
OF VOLUME
PER RATIO OF
AUDITORIUM
SEAT IN CUBIC M
(H: W: L)
1. Lecture
Hall
(small)
2. Lecture
Hall (big)
3. Lectures
Hall with
LoudSpeakers
4. Cinema

2.0 to 3.0

1:1:3

APPROXIMATE
CAPACITY
IN
NUMBER
OF
PERSONS
150 to 300

3.5

1:2:4

400 to 500

4.5 to 4.5

1:2 :5

500 to 1000

3.5 to 4.5

1:2:3

5. Theatre
(drama)

3.5 to 4.0

1:2:3

800
to
1000
(normally)
Up to 750 (small
theatre)

It should be further noted that the behavior of sound in a hall is different from that in the
open air and it is easier to create desirable acoustic conditions in an auditorium rather
than in open air theatre. The floor plan of the auditorium may have many typical possible
shapes, such as rectangular, fan-shaped, horse shoe, circular, oval etc.

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D. TREATMENT OF INTERIOR SURFACES: Along with the overall shape and size of
the auditorium, the treatment of interior surfaces, i.e., ceiling and side walls also play an
influential part in the acoustical design. The ceilings and side walls should provide
favorable reflections or reinforce the sound that reaches the rear parts of a large
auditorium. Ceiling splays or spread outs and appropriately titled portions of the ceilings
can be arranged or devised to reinforce the sound.
In case of long halls, all reflections of the original sound must reach the listener within
45 milliseconds of the direct sound. Any sound reaching him after 45 milliseconds of the
arrival of direct sound will be heard as echo. In order to avoid the interfering echos,
effective ceiling and wall reflectors should be within 8 meters of the sound source. It
should be further ensured that the path difference between the direct and the reflected
sound at no listening point should exceed 12 meters. The side wall should also be splayed
or spread out such that they help in reinforcing the sound by way of favorable reflections
for large halls.
Plain side walls are normally found suitable. The concave ceiling surfaces such as domes,
vaults, etc., must be avoided, as they result in formation of echoes and sound foci defects.
To avoid echoes further, a smooth ceiling should not be parallel to the floor. The convexshaped walls are, however, considered best to reduce the echoes to great extent. To avoid
sound foci due to curved ceilings, the radius of curvature of the ceilings should be made
at least twice the height, or less than half the ceiling height. Many other arrangements
may be employed to minimize the objectionable reflections and thereby increase
diffusion. As far as possible, rear walls should not be provided as concave walls, unless
treated with sound absorbent materials. Practically no sound at all reflected from organ
grilles or ventilation openings. A combination of these devices is frequently used to
increase diffusion. These devices may be in the form of balcony recess, splayed ceilings,
splayed side walls, small curvature of rear walls, adequate absorption materials, etc.

Typical Longitudinal section through a cinema hall showing a correct ceiling layout for useful reflection to
the rear seats.

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An alternative longitudinal section through an auditorium showing splayed ceiling for reinforcing the
sound.

Fan shaped floor plan of an auditorium showing favorable reflections from side walls.

E. REVERBERATION: The time of reverberation is another factor which affects the good
acoustics of a building. Optimum reverberation time for different types of buildings and
its impact on the acoustic design of the auditorium has already been dealt in detail under
Article 20.4 of item (2) on Reverberation. However, the following general principles
should be remembered by the designer.
(i)

(ii)

A shorter optimum reverberation period is required for reproduced sound such as


of gramophone, sound films, etc., than that of the original one. This is on account
of the fact that there is already some reverberation present which has been
introduced at the time of recording.
For direct orchestral music, the reverberation time required is about 15% longer
than that for unaided speech, and for choral music it is about 40% longer. This is
because of the fact that in music, blending of sounds is desirable, especially when
the succeeding sounds are harmonious whereas in speech excessive reverberation
leads to a blurring effect.

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(iii)

While providing absorption power in the hall, it should be considered that the
reverberation time is not uniform throughout the auditorium. If the average time
of reverberation is 1.3 seconds, then it may be 1.5 seconds in the main hall, 1.2
seconds in balconies and 1.2 seconds below the balcony.

F. SEATING ARRANGEMENT AND AUDIENCE: In fact the seat and seating


arrangement i.e., furnishings and the audience contribute to a great extent to the
absorption present in the room. In this, the audience may be largest contributors to the
absorption from the audience present (absorption coeff. for seated audience = 0.46m 2
sabins) in the hall. To ensure optimum absorption from the audience, the seats of required
absorption (absorption coeff. for plain seat = 0.02 m2 sabins, and for cushioned seat =
0.10 to 0.2 m2 sabins) are arranged so that the heads in one row do not intercept the
passage of direct sound to the persons in the row immediately behind them. A typical
arrangement of the seats for an auditorium.
In addition to this, seating arrangement should be such as to ensure good audibility and
visibility. The seating accommodation for this purpose should be such as to cover an
angle of 90degree with horizontal and 30 degree with vertical. On this basis the distance
of the front row works out to be about 3.5m for drama and it should be 4.5m or more for
cinema purposes. The width of seat should be between 45 to 55cm. The back-to-back
distance of chairs in successive rows of seats should be at least 85cm but may be more up
to 105cm depending upon the comfort desired.

Typical arrangement of seats for an auditorium

G. SOUND ABSORPTION: To keep the optimum reverberation time within limits (so as
to minimize the objectionable reflections of sound) sound absorbing materials or
acoustical materials are used. However, to make effective use of these sound absorbing
materials, the zone of their installation should be very carefully decided. Generally, the
absorptive materials should be distributed over the surfaces rather than concentrated over
some points. The part of these materials should be used on the ends or one side and part
on the floor and / or ceiling of the hall or auditorium.
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It should be further noted that the material placed near the edge, where ceiling meets a
wall, is about 2 times more effective than the material placed near the centre of the wall.
In case the material is placed in the corner of the ceiling, then it is about 3 times more
effective than the material placed near the centre of wall. Thus, it is evident that
considerable saving in cost can be achieved by useful positioning of the acoustical
material.
These absorptive materials have a higher coefficient of absorption than hard plaster. The
following fact regarding these materials should be carefully noted:
The absorption coefficient of soft plaster is about 3 to 4 times than that of hard plaster.
The coefficient of absorption for distemper is higher than the paint. Wood paneling has a
fairly high coefficient at lower frequency where reverberation is larger. Audience for an
auditorium absorbs 70 to 80 % of sound as compared with 100% of open window. Next
in order of absorption are the cushioned seats and backs of the chairs, as they absorb a lot
of sound. Thus, in a cinema theatre, if carpets and cushioned (rather upholstered) seats
are provided then number of audience is not much of importance. But, in case of
churches and halls where bare wooden seats are provided, audience strength carries a
greater importance. Sometimes for increasing absorption, heavy curtains can be hung on
the plastered walls.
3. PRACTICAL CASES OF SOME ACOUSTICAL BUILDINGS: Under this head the
following practical cases of buildings which deserve acoustical treatment from the
designer or planner will be described in short.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)

Open Air Theatres.


Cinema Theatres of Sound Films.
Radio Broadcasting Studios.
Concert Halls.
Multi-purpose Theatres.
Public Lecture Halls and
Class-Lecture Rooms.

A) OPEN AIR THEATRES: In case of an open air theatre there are no side walls or
barriers and hence there is no reverberation. The following points require special
attention in acoustical design of the open air theatres:
(i)

(ii)
(iii)

The selection of the site for an open air theatre should be done very carefully
considering the topographical, meteorological, and acoustical properties of all
available locations for the theatre. Quietness is the most important of all
acoustical considerations in the selection of the site.
The average noise level should not exceed 40db for a satisfactory site of a
theatre.
The slope of the seating area should not be less than about 12 degrees for
good audibility and visibility.

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(iv)

(v)

(vi)
(vii)

A properly designed orchestra shell is a must for an open-air theatre. This is


required for two purposes, viz., (i) the reflective power of the shell raises the
average sound level throughout the area uniformly, and (ii) the shell enables
the stage performers to hear each other more easily.
The simplest type orchestra shell consists of a hard reflective wall behind the
stage. An overhead inclined reflector over the vertical wall behind the stage is
valuable addition, as it imparts the reflected sound a direction which is nearly
parallel to the scope of the seating area.
A sound amplification system should be provided, especially where the
strength of audience or auditors will be more than 600.
The direction of wind at the time of program me is an important factor in
either helping or obstructing the passage of sound.

B) CINEMA THEATRES FOR SOUND FILMS: The following special


considerations should be made in the acoustical design and planning of the cinema
theatres for sound films:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

Though various shapes of floor plan have given good acoustic conditions but a
fan-shaped plan with diverging side walls has been considered to be best.
The ceiling of the auditorium should be splayed type, with a slight upward
slope towards the rear-side.
The proportion of height, width, and length should be approximately as 1:2:3.
The surfaces near the source of sound should be polished hard and reflecting
than those of distant or rear walls of absorbent material.
The volume for a sound film theatre should be between 3.5 to 4.5m 3 per seat.
The echo defect should be prevented at any cost, particularly by avoiding
curved surfaces and using sound absorbing materials on the rear walls.
Optimum reverberation time should be attained finally after acoustical
analysis and treatment for correction.

A plan of a typical Cinema theatre.

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Longitudinal Section of atypical auditorium of a Cinema theatre

C) RADIO-BROADCASTING STUDIOS: The term studio is used to indicate a


room where sound is picked up by a microphone and it includes radio broad-casting
station, television station, and sound recording studio.
The basic requirements of a Radio Broad-casting studio are: (i) Perfect soundproofing or noise insulation, and (ii) Variable reverberation time.
To meet these 2 requirements, the following special considerations should be made in
the acoustic design of the studios:
(i)
(ii)

To accomplish the first requirement, the floors, walls, and ceiling must be of
rigid, massive construction to minimize transmission of sound by diaphragm
like vibrations and reduce resonant reflection to a minimum.
To achieve variable reverberation times is very important. Because, not only
different reverberation times are required for each programme, but also for
each item in it, such as speech low and high frequency music, etc. This
requirement is fulfilled by several means given below:

(a) A Number of Studio Rooms. Each with different absorption suited to a particular
type of broadcast are provided. If there are number of studios in the same
building, it is preferable to locate all of them on the same floor.
(b) In some studios, arrangement of hinged panels or shutters in the walls is adopted.
One surface of the rotable panel is made absorptive while the other one is kept
reflective. This construction device is cheap and easy to maintain.

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Hinged panels on shutters in studio walls.

Rotable cylinders in studio ceiling

(c) In some studios, the rotable cylinders are fitted in the ceiling of studio to control
the acoustical conditions of the room. In this arrangement, the rotable cylinders
consist of drums divided into number of parts (usually 3) with different absorptive
materials. By means of rack and pipion arrangement one or any number of these
surfaces can be rotated or turned to expose any degree of absorption at will to the
room.
In addition to the above special considerations, the following general
considerations for all types of studios are essential:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

The noise level in the studio should be brought down to 25-30db.


The ratio of H: W: L should be as 2:3:5.
The shape of the studio should be rectangular with flat ceiling.
Reverberation time should be correct in relation to the volume and
absorbing surfaces to give frequency characteristics of the variety of
broadcast.
Provision of windows in the studio should be minimum so as to minimize
the transfer of noise from outside to inside of the building.
The studio rooms must be reasonably airtight and should be ventilated
with conditioned air supplied through silenced grilles.
Air-conditioning plants and such other equipment should be suitably
insulated so that their vibrations are not carried up to the working
chambers of the studio.

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D) CONCERT HALLS: The following precautions should be taken in the acoustic


design of a concert hall for music:
(i)
(ii)

The noise level should be brought down to 30-35 db.


The reverberation time should be at least 1.6 seconds and audience factor can be
assumed to be full.
The volume per seat should be between 4.5 and 6m 3 or more for large houses.
There should be provision for hard reflecting surfaces about the platform, flat
ceiling having lining of reflecting material and absorbent distant walls. To avoid
backward reflection to the platform, the surface of rear walls should be of sound
absorbing material, divided into panels.
The floor and seating area should be absorbent.
The use of wooden surfaces for lining results in resonation and enrichment of
musical notes.

(iii)
(iv)

(v)
(vi)

E) MULTI-PURPOSE THEATRES: In modern times, it is the practice to use the same


hall for different purpose or multiple purposes, such as public speeches, musical
concerts, drama performances, travelling talkie films, etc. This makes the acoustic
problem very complex in character, as the requirements such as noise level
(acceptable), reverberation time, intensity of sound, volume, and shape of auditorium,
audience factor, seats, etc., are quite different in some cases for different purposes.
Hence, it is impossible to have perfect acoustic conditions which will be consistent in
nature for manifold uses. However, a compromise has, therefore, to be made in
acoustical design in view of sound-intensity, reverberation time, geometrical design
of the auditorium and degree of absorption.
The only possible solution is to make use of adjustable absorbents, such as hinged
shutters, rotable cylinders, heavy folded curtains, etc., as described under item (c) on
Radio Broadcasting Studios.
F) PUBLIC-LECTURE HALLS: The following precautions should be taken in
acoustic design of these public-lecture halls:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

The optimum reverberation time should not exceed 1.5 seconds, even for large
halls.
The volume per seat should be between 3 and 4 cu m.
The hard reflecting surface on the back and around the dias or stage , inclining
slightly outwards, should be provided.
The rear walls facing against the dias or plat form should be treated with
absorbing materials.

G) CLASS LECTURE ROOMS: The following precautions and considerations should


be exercised in the acoustic design of the class lecture rooms.
(i)
A room with its dimension as 7 m in length, 8.5m in width and 4m in height is
considered satisfactory for a class of about 40 students. The ratio of length to
width may be kept as 1.2 to 1but wide rooms are more satisfactory.
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(ii)
(iii)

(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

The noise level should be kept or brought down to 40 dB.


The amount of absorptive material to be used for each class room for
achieving optimum time of reverberation depends upon the room size,
purpose, capacity and age of the students. Hence , a class room of children
having less absorption on their account , requires more absorptive material to
be used for the walls and the ceiling that would be required in rooms for
adults.
The optimum reverberation time should be between 0.75 seconds at
frequencies of 500 to 2000 c.p.s and 9 seconds at frequency of 125 c.p.c.
The volume per should be kept as small as possible, usually 12 sq m or less.
The audience should be seated near the lecture platform and seats may be
arranged elevating upwards from the platform.
The walls and ceiling should be properly designed to give favorable
reflections of sound.

SOUND REINFORCEMENT:
Sound Reinforcement:
The goal of an electronic sound-reinforcing system is to provide all listeners with good hearing
conditions where the unamplified sound would not be sufficient. For good speech intelligibility,
the direct signal from the loudspeaker to the listeners ears must be louder than any competing
sound (satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio) and be free from distortion.
Human Speech Considerations
Human voice has a sound power spectrum with a maximum between 500 and 600 Hz
Intelligibility of speech can be restored using amplification of speech sounds above 500 Hz
Vowel sounds are not as critical to speech intelligibility as consonant sounds
Sound reinforcement systems for speech should be capable of delivering sound levels of 85 to
90 dB
The basic types of sound-reinforcing systems include:
1. Central cluster of loudspeakers located above the actual source of sound
2. Distributed array of loudspeakers located over the listeners
3. Seat-integrated loudspeakers located in the backs of seats or pews.
4. Combination
Central Loudspeaker System: usually locates the loudspeaker, or cluster of loudspeakers, 20 to
40 ft. above and slightly in front of the actual source of sound. The cluster can be exposed or
hidden behind a sound transparent grille cloth. This system can provide maximum realism
because the listener will hear the amplified sound from the direction of the live source location.
This is because human ears differentiate sounds better in the horizontal plane (where the ears are
located) than in the vertical plane. Therefore, amplified sound from a properly designed central
system should not be noticeable. The cluster should be aimed at the audience, which absorbs
sound. In this way, reinforcement systems can provide high intelligibility by increasing the level
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of sound energy from the location of the talker more than they increase the reverberant sound
energy.

Electronic Background Masking System: used to cover up unwanted intruding sound in enclosed
and open-plan offices. Loudspeakers usually can be hidden in plenums above suspended soundabsorbing ceilings. (usually not to exceed 45-50 dB).

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Primary loudspeakers

Secondary loudspeakers

Distributed Loudspeaker Arrangement:


Distributed loudspeaker arrangement utilizes a large number of speakers distributed uniformly
over a large audience area. Typically, the loudspeakers are recessed in the ceiling, but can be
placed in the backs of pews, for example, in church settings. Although the directional
reinforcement is lost (as compared to the central loudspeaker arrangement), the sound clarity
and intelligibility is usually very good.
These systems are commonly used in:
Rooms with low ceilings
If audience does not have adequate line-of-sight to central system
Rooms with movable partitions
Rooms with movable seating

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The three basic elements of a sound-reinforcing system: microphone, electronic controls, &
loudspeakers.

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Microphone: Converts sound energy into electric energy. To avoid feedback, they normally
should be located out of the loudspeaker coverage. Types include:
1. Dynamic moving coil (thin diaphragm, set into vibration by sound waves, moves coil of wire
between two magnetic poles, generating electric potential.
2. Ribbon (variation of moving coil, where aluminum composite ribbon acts as diaphragm and
one-turn coil)
3. Condenser (polarized movable thin diaphragm vibrates in front of fixed plate, changing
capacitance to vary an electric signal)
Directional sensitivity: Common directional patterns are:
Omnidirectional: equal response at all directions
Unidirectional or cardioid: greatest response at front or head.

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Dynamic moving coil

Ribbon

Condenser

Electronic Controls: used to increase the magnitude of the electric signal (amplifiers); to
distribute electric energy to high-frequency and low frequency loudspeakers at the proper level
and frequency (crossover networks); to control feeds from microphones in large multi
microphone one systems (mixers); and to allow tone control for signal shaping (equalizers) in
order to match the system output with the acoustical properties of the room and to compensate
for frequency-dependent characteristics of loudspeakers. Control console should be located
where the operator can hear the mixture of natural sound (called live sound) and reinforced
sound as the audience hears it. The best location would be a slightly off center locations at the
rear-third point of the seating area on the main floor or at front of balcony. Control areas can
require more than 50 sq. ft.
Loudspeakers: convert electric energy into airborne sound. They should be positioned so their
direct sound will be evenly distributed at the proper sound level to all listeners in the room. For
rooms with a reverberation time of less than 2 s, the maximum loudspeaker to listener distance d
can be found by:
Directivity Q for loudspeakers varies from 2 to 15, depending on the beam spread angle and
other characteristics of the loudspeaker. The directivity of the human voice is about 2 @ 500 Hz.
The distance between a loudspeaker and its most distant listener can be longer for spaces, which
have low reverberation times and use highly directional loudspeakers.

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High Frequency Horn Loudspeaker (tweeter). The flared shape of the horn gives direction to the
shorter wavelengths of high-frequency sound energy. Low frequencies must be filtered out of the
signal to the tweeter because the large cone displacements which thy produce could damage the
driver.
Low-Frequency Loudspeaker and Enclosure (Woofer): greater cone movement than highfrequency sound energy.

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Control/Mixing Consoles reinforces the sound from microphones, and further processes the
signal processing. Often includes elaborate frequency controls for producing a dizzying array of
sounds.

Power Amplifiers provides a signal output from the control console with sufficient power to
feed the loudspeakers. To avoid losing signal from line resistance between the power amp and
the loudspeakers, very heavy-gauge wiring is used, especially in large sound systems.
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