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LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS

PART I

All liquid dosage forms are dispersed


systems in which medical substance (the
internal phase) is dispersed uniformly
though-out the external phase. Medical
substances in liquid dosage form can be in
the different aggregate states: solid, liquid
and gas.

Physical and chemical systems:

real solutions
colloid solutions
suspensions
emulsions
infusions, decoctions, extracts and other .

Solution is a homogeneous
mixture composed of two or more
substances. In mixture, solute is
dissolved in another substance,
known as a solvent.

Liquid dosage forms can be


classified
by medical aplication:
for internal use - ad usum nternum
for external use - ad usum externum
for injection - pro njectonbus.

Liquid dosage forms for internal use name


usually mixtures (from the Latin word of
mxturae - to mix up), the disperse phase water only. They are measured out to the
patients independently by spoons (table
(soup)-spoon - 15 ml, dessert-spoon - 10
ml, tea-spoon 5ml.).

By composition
Simple- solutions
which include only one
substance.
Multiple- solutions
which include a few
ingredients.

By nature of solvent.
Hydrogen's
non-aqueous
(alcoholic, glycerin,
oily).

BASIC TECHNOLOGICAL
OPERATIONS FOR
PREPARATION LIQUID
DOSAGE FORMS

Preparation of liquid dosage forms


consists of the followings stages:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Selection of small bottles and corks.


Weighting of medical substances.
Measurement of solvent.
Dissolution.
Percolation or filtration.
Packing.

Nomenclature of the concentrated


solutions which more frequent
use for preparation of mixtures

5 % solution (1:20) sol. Natrii hydrocarbonatis


10 % solutions (1:10) are sol. Natrii benzoates,
sol. Coffein natrii-benzoatis.
20 % solutions (1:5) are sol. Natrii bromidi, sol.
Kalii bromidi, sol. Natrii iodidi, sol. Kalii iodidi, sol.
Natrii chloridi, sol. Kalii chloridi, sol. Calcii chloride,
sol. Hexamethylentetramini, sol. Cloralii hydrati,
sol. Natrii salicylati.
25 % solution (1:4) sol. Magnii sulfati.

For example, it is necessary to


prepare 1 L 20% solution of Kalii
bromidi.
All calculations can be conducted by two methods:
account the density of this solution
account the coefficient of increase of volume

Account the coefficient of increase of volume :


Quantity of water for preparation of the concentrated
solutions, can be expect using the coefficient of
increase of volume.
The coefficient of increase of volume (CIV) is
coefficient, which shows an increase of the volume of
solution at dissolution of a 1,0 gram of solid substance.
For Kalii bromidi CIV evened 0,27.
Then 200,0 gr of Kalii bromidi at dissolution will occupy
a volume 54 ml.
V= 0,27*200,0 = 54
Consequently, for a receipt to a 1 litre of a 20% solution
it is necessary to take 946 of the cleared water
1000-54=946ml