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Closing FAQ

1) Seam margin from the edge 1.5 mm to 2 mm

2) Under lay skiving margin is 5 mm
3) chain Stitch can also be performed by- one , Two or three Thread
4) Raw edge margin is 2 mm to 3mm
5) Lining Trimming Margin is 7 mm
6) Folding Margin is 4+1mm.
7) Standard Under lay margin is 9 mm
8) Standard Folding Margin is 4+1+4mm.
9) What types of needle points used in Synthetic material R Point
10) Why we do Skiving comfortability, Adhesion, Appearance
11) Name the folding tools is Prinking Awl & folding hammer
12) Why we do Seam Rubbing For Durability, comfortability
13) Why we use Eyelet Tape maintaining the Shape & re-inforced .
14) The Width of Eyelet Tape is 15 mm
15) The width of Folding Tape is- 3 mm
16) We use Latex for- Attach the component temporary
17) The Standard Length of 1 Stitch 2 to 2.5 mm
18) Stitch Density is No. of Stitch in 1 Inch
19) Which machine is used for French Binding - Post bed
20) Which machine is used for English Binding - Cylinder Arm
21) The Right Thread Combination is 40/3 & 60/2
22) English Binding is Type of Edge Treatment
23) Inked Edge is type of Raw Edge
24) Ghille is Type of Top-line
25) Lock & Chain is type of Stitching
26) While inserting needle which part should face the hook Short groove
27) One Stitch length is 2.5 mm is called Stitch Length
28) Brooklyn seam is a type of Closed seam
29) The purpose of under lay Skiving is To reduce the thickness & Proper Pasting
30) Butted seam is type of - Zig-Zag.
31) Lining counter is Type of Heel Grip
32) We do Reinforcement for- Provide the strength
33) We use coated cloth for Fusing
34) Chain Stitch is type of False Stitch
35. In Closing Butt and Shank is part of Stitching Needle
36. For Upper Stitching we use Nylon thread
37. In a Piped seam, the edge of pipe is - Round
38. We use Stamping Machine for- Marking.
39. The Lining should be short from Upper Lasting margin is 7 mm
40. The 1st Stitch deference from the edge is 2 mm
41. Back seam is type of Close seam
42. If we attached the 200 no. eyelet the punch should be- 2 no
43. Nylon and cotton tape is type of woven Tape
44. Eyelet Tape is type of Non Woven tape
45. The nonwoven tape is type of Reinforcement
46. Stroble seam is type of Chain Stitch
47. In the Oxford Shoes Vamp should over the Qtr
48. In Derby shoes Qtr Should over the vamp
49. After the close seam, seam should be flat is called Seam rubbing
50. Lapped Seam is type of Lock Stitch

51. Heel grip should be attached Flash side (Visible)

52. Nylon thread, Three ply thread Tkt No. is 40.
53. Hook we use in- Bottom of Machine
54. Components are split & skive before- Closing
55. Perforation and Gimped can be done on All of material
56. The width of under-lay and folding skiving is 5&9 mm
57. Pickers marking is the process of Attach the component
58. Neoprene adhesive is type of Solvent Based
59. Close seam is done with the help of Post bed machine & Flat bed machine
60. Manual skiving is done by By Hand
61. English binding is also known as U Bound
62. Needle Cutting point use for Leather.
63. For Reinforcement we use Coated Fabric
64. Raw edge skiving is done with the help of Skiving machine
65. Q.A. is Quality Assurance
66. In a welted seam, the edge of welt is - Raw edge.
67. Burnishing is the process of Edge Treatment
68. Lock Stitch can also be performed by- Two Thread
Other Basic Questions for Closing Sec.

What is closing?

Closing is the process to attach the cut components by stitching or other fastening

What is upper preparation?

Before start stitching, we have to do different kind of operations like splitting, skiving,
marking, fusing, stamping, edge treatment & finishing.

Different types of Seams?

Seams are the result of a sewing operation, which forms a number of stitches on the
material using a continuous thread.
Closed seam
Plain closed The components are placed face to face together (grain side) & stitched
usually by keeping the distance of 1.5mm from the edge.
Brooklyn Seam When plain closed seam is rubbed down and reinforcement tape, it is
called Brooklyn seam.
French or Silked seam The closed seam is rubbed & a woven tape is attached to the
reverse side/flesh side with two rows of stitching.
Reversed closed seam/ Open Seam It is similar to a closed seam expect that the
pieces are placed flesh to flesh and stitched.

Welted Seam A strip of material is placed in between the component & stitched with
Piped Seam - A piping of the same or contrasting color is inserted and stitched in
between the two components for the purpose of design or decoration.
Blind Seam is used when the stitching holding the two pieces is not to be seen, The
edge of the bottom component. The top component is stitched face to face on the stitch
Lapped Seam The edge of one component is placed over the top of another and
stitched through both components.
Butted Seam this stitching is made by stitching two pieces together without having any
allowance by facing both pieces in same way.

What is skiving?

It is the process to reduce the thickness of the cut component from the edge.

What is temporary & permanent adhesive?

For temporary attachment- Latex, Rubber solution

For permanent attachment - Neoprin, polyamide (For thermo folding).

Purpose of seam?

Joining, Reinforcing, and Decorating of Components.

What is edge treatment?

To make the edge clean & finished with different operations (Folding- by hand or M/C,
Edge coloring, Bagged topline, French binding, English/ U binding, Gimped topline,
Ghillie top line).

What is needle basic length & shank diameter?

Length 38.5 mm (134 system) Shank Diameter 2mm.

What is needle system?

It refers to the fitting measurements of the needle into the sewing machine, which
enables it to be suited for a particular model/type of machine.

What is needle size/Thickness?

It depends upon the diameter of the needle blade just above the needle eye, Needle
size could be indicate by the number matric (NM) is the European Size system as - 90
or singer/Simons system is the American size as 14.

Selection of rite needle depends up on?

Machine, Material, Seam, Thread.

Which system of needle used by cylinder arm Machine?

134-35 system (in this system needle length is bigger (42mm) than the 134 system
needle but the shank diameter is the same as 134 system)

Which system of needle used by ZIG-ZAG M/C?

438 System (this system needle has longer clearance cut to enable the hook to pick up
the loop better on both size).

Which system of needle used by Bar taker M/C Machine?

34 system (in this system shank diameter is reduced to 1.6 mm but needle length is

Why Z twist thread are used in closing sewing M/C?

In the closing room, all machines have hooks with clockwise movement, so a thread
with a clockwise twist (Z) should use.

What is hook in closing sewing M/C?

It rotates with bobbin when the needle comes down with the upper thread the sharp end
of the hook picks up upper thread & it helps in making loop with the bobbin thread.
What is Thread numbering & sizing system?
A. Fixed Length System it is the weight in grams of a fixed length of thread, i.e.
numbering by weight. So, the coarser the thread, the higher the number. This
system is used for silks and rayons.
B. Fixed weight System it is the length in mater of a fixes weight of thread, i.e.
numbering by length. So, the fine the thread, the higher the number.
The threads are classified in to size group known as ticket number.
How many most common methods of marking?
Pricker Marking, Notch Marking, Crayon Marking, Silver pen / pencil marking.
What is transportation system?
We have to transport raw material, Work in progress and finished goods from one place
to another place or from one operation to another operation.
How many transportation system used in the closing system
Basket / Bins System in this method basket or bins are used to move the material
from one workstation to another.
Trolleys For transporting the goods from one workstation to another trolleys are used.

Conveyor System Material can be moved from one operation to another operation
under gravity flow or through a powered conveyor Gravity Conveyor - Gravity conveyor can have skate wheel or roller to
convey the good to different location under the gravity flow.
Motorized Conveyor Such transporter requires power driven roller or
belt. This type of conveyor can handle heavier load and can be driven at
various speed.

QUALITY CHECK POINTS for upper closing Edge stitching should not to be more than 1.5-2.00mm from the edge.
Double row stitching distance should be 1.8mm from the first row.
For back seam and French seam, stitch density should be 5-5.5st./cm.
For lapped seam and top line stitching stitch density should be 4-

For toe cap to vamp stitching, first row stitching at 1.5mm from the
There should not be any slip stitching.
There should not be any top tension and bottom tension.
All the uppers should be neat and clean.
Eyeleting must be proper.
Correct size and colour of eyelet must be used.
Distance for eyeleting is 10mm from the top and 15mm between the
For close seam p point needle must be used.
Thread colour should match the colour of the leather or as per the
sample given.
Ticket no.40 for top thread and ticket no. 60 for bottom thread should
be used.
Folding should be neat and clean.
Lining should not be too short at the lasting edges.
Lining must be trimmed smoothly.