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history of architecture

20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

INFLUENCES

ISLAMIC

A. HISTORY

CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Pre-Colonial:
immigrants of Malay origin, food
gatherers and hunters
3000 BC, joined by advanced
agricultural race from Indonesia
barangays as tribal system
converted to Islam in 1300 AD
trade center of the Orient

Spanish Rule:
1521 Ferdinand Magellan landed
1564 Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
brought Christianity
until 1900's
nationalist movement by Jose
Rizal, unsuccessful revolt by
Aguinaldo

American Rule:
islands ceded to America, as a
result of Spanish war with USA
fighting
self-government

Japanese Invasion:
December 1941
puppet government
liberation by Gen. McArthur in
July 1945
independence in 1946
3rd largest English-speaking
country in the world
citadel of Christianity and
democracy in East Asia
mixture of races: Malay, Chinese,
Spanish
B. RELIGION

Roman Catholics
Islam
Protestants
Aglipayan
Iglesia ni Kristo

history of architecture

20th C:
MODERN

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN

A. DESCRIPTION
tropical architecture
open and transparent
light

FILIPINO

SCHOOLS:
Escuela Practica Y Profecional de
Artes Oficio de Manila (1890)
taught maestros de obras
Liceo de Manila
MO-P Maestros de Obra-Practica
MO-A Maestros de ObraAcademia

Escuela de Ingenieria Y Arquitectura


closed after one year

Mapua Institute of Architecture


(1925)
1st school of Architecture
Adamson University
2nd school of Architecture
UST College of Architecture (1930)
3rd school of architecture

ORGANIZATIONS:
Philippine Architects Society
Philippine Institute of Architects
League of Philippine Architects
Association of Phil. Government
Architects
PIA + LPA + APGA = United
Architects of the Philippines

EXAMPLES
PRE-SPANISH HOUSES
Bahay Kubo style of dwelling
well- adapted to tropical climate
of wood, bamboo, and palm
leaves

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region

Mindanao & Sulu Region

20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN

Isneg

Kalinga

Badjao

Samal

FILIPINO

Yakan
Bontoc

Ifugao

Kankanai
Ivatan, Mangyan, Subanun, Mandaya

Island of Panay

Bahay Kubo

Maranao

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

ISNEG BINURON
homes of the Isneg boatpeople
pyramidal or hipped roof
annex on one or both ends
removable sidings for special
occasions

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

ISNEG BINURON

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

ISNEG BINURON

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

KALINGA BINAYON
octagonal or rectangular
painted round human figures
roof ridge perpendicular to river
loft or granary hides roof

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

KALINGA BINAYON

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

KALINGA BINAYON

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BONTOC HOUSES
SAGADA

house within a house


shelter for rice, chickens,
pigs, and people

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BONTOC HOUSES
SAGADA

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BONTOC HOUSES
SAGADA

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

IFUGAO
built on the rice terraces
near a spring or grove
entry faces down slope

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

IFUGAO

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

KANKANAI BINANGIYAN
Similar to the ifugao house
ridge parallel to front
made of narra or pine

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Cordillera Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

KANKANAI BINANGIYAN

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BADJAO
ladder serves as wash area
mirrors symbolize the

number of children
lipa, djenging, and dapang
houseboats

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BADJAO

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SAMAL HOUSE

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SAMAL HOUSE

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SAMAL HOUSE

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

YAKAN HOUSE
elevated 2 to 3 meters
above ground
kitchen annex
door faces east
rooms and steps are odd

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Mindanao & Sulu Region
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

YAKAN HOUSE

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Mindanao & Sulu Region


MARANAO TOROGAN
House built for sultans and datus
Arranged in a line along the river
Elevated 2 to 3 meters above ground
Windows face front and right
Panolong and okir carvings
A lamin or tower built atop the
torogan hides the sultans daughter

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Mindanao & Sulu Region


MARANAO TOROGAN

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Island of Panay
20th

C:
MODERN

BAHAY KUBO

ISLAMIC

bamboo house on stilts

CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

home to an extended family

often surrounded by a garden

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Island of Panay
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BAHAY KUBO

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
Island of Panay
20th

C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

BAHAY KUBO

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Calasiao, Pangasinan
2nd best bell tower
by Fr. Ramon Dalinao

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Laoag Church, Ilocos Norte


by Fr. Joseph Ruiz
sinking belltower

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Las Pinas Church


by Fr. Diego Cera

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Loboc, Bohol
biggest number of murals on
walls and ceilings

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Manila Cathedral
by Bishop Domingo Salazar

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Miagao Church, Ilo-ilo


by Fr. Fernando Comporedondo

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Morong Church, Rizal


Spanish Baroque style
by Fr. Blas dela Madre

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Panay Church
largest bell, from 30 sacks of coins
donated by townspeople

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Quiapo Church
restored by Juan Nakpil and Jose
Maria Zaragosa

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

San Agustin Church


by Fr. Juan Macias

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

San Sebastian
one of first steel buildings
steel from Belgium by Eiffel

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Taal Church, Batangas


by Fr. Martin Aguirre
biggest church

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Sta. Ana Church, Manila


by Fr. Vicente Ingles
restored by Juan Nakpil

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
SPANISH CHURCHES
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Sto. Nino, Cebu


by Diego de Herrera

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE LIST


San Agustin, Intramuros
Miagao Church, Ilo-ilo
San Agustin, Paoay, Ilocos Norte
Sta. Monica, Ilocos Sur

JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SPANISH HOUSES: BAHAY-NABATO


evolved from the Bahay Kubo:
tropical house
steep, hip roof
post and lintel construction
light and airy structure
elevated living quarters
economy of materials
space flowing from one room to
next

Spanish, Neo-Classical, Gothic,


and Baroque influence:
grandeur and solidity
ornamentation

Vigan Houses
Antillan Houses
Ivatan Houses

PARTS
FIRST FLOOR:
Zaguan, for caroza
Quadra, horse stable
Bodega, storeroom
SECOND FLOOR:
Stairway
Caida, ante-sala from stairs
Sala, living room
Comedor, dining room
Cocina, kitchen
Dispensa, pantry
Letrina or Comun, toilet
Bao, bath
Azotea, open terrace
Aljibe, water cistern
Cuarto, Alcoba, Dormitorio
Entresuelo, vault
Balcon, balcony
Patio, courtyard

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

MORE VERNACULAR TERMS:


Unosinotra, alternate/staggered
Liyabe, anchor
Batidura, astragal
Medya Agua, awning
Barandillas, baluster
Rodapis, baseboard
Tirante, bottom chord
Pie de Gallo, brace
Ladrillo, brick
Kostilyahe, ceiling joists
Sinturon, collar
Larga Masa, concrete slab
Escondro, crushed stone
Abang, dowel
Tubo de Banada, downspout
Escombro, earth fill
Alero, eaves
Tabike, exterior siding
Piye, feet
Batidura, fillet
Dotal, floorboards
Soleras, floor joists
Guililan, floor sill
Suelo, flooring
Alahado, flush

Kapatas, foreman
Balangkas, framework
Dos Aguas, gable roof
Kuling, girder
Sepo, girt
Canal, groove
Alulod o Kanal, gutter
Caida, hall
Bisagra, hinge
Pulgada, inches
Pendulum, king post
Piyon, laborer
Asinta, laying of CHB
Sibe, lean-to roof
Dulang, low table
Kantero, Mason
Kanto Mesa, miter
Paupo, mortar
Kostura, mortar joints
Estanyo, Nikolite bar
Truerka, nut
Estopa, oakum
De Bandeha, panel door
Lingueta, GI strap
Tapon, plug

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

MORE VERNACULAR TERMS:


Hulog, plumb bob
Bolado, projection
Reostra, purlins
Masilya, putty
Media Cana, quarter round
Vaciada, rabbet
Kabilya, reinforcing bars
Kaballete, ridge roll
Takip Silipan, riser
Rimatse, rivets
Lastillas, sand and gravel
Andanyo, scaffolding
Rebokada, scratch coat
Dutcha, shower
Prigadero, sink
Krokis, sketch plan
Estanyo, soldering bar
Biento, spacing
Staka, stake
Madre de Escalera, closed
stringer
Trabe Anzo, horizontal stud
Pilarete, vertical stud
Latero, tinsmith
Baytang, tread

Pergola, trellis
Kilo, truss
Asolehos, wainscoting tiles
Bagad, wall post
Pitsa, washer
Pasamano, window sill
Poleya, wiring knob
Haspe, wood grain
Tabla, wood plank
Plantsuela, wrought iron strap
Palitada, plaster
Kalinya, aligned
Trankilya, barrel bolt
Biga, beam
Hiero, iron
Kisame, ceiling
Baral de Kadena, chain bolt
Poste, column
Kontratista, constructor
Kanto, corner
Dish rack, bangguerahan
Sumbrero Pintuan, door head
Hamba Pintuan, door jamb
Senepa, fascia board
Tambak, fill

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

AMERICAN PERIOD
Early American Period

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Notable architects:
Daniel Burnham
city plan of Manila and Baguio
William Parsons
Juan Arellano
Tomas Mapua
1st registered architect in
country
Alejandro Legardo
Antonio Toledo
Carlos Barredo

Masonic Temple, Escolta


1st concrete building in Escolta

Philippine Normal School


Phil. Normal University
University of the Philippines
Padre Faura

National Museum
1st was the Legislative Building
Intendencia Building
adjacent to Manila Cathedral
Luneta Hotel
2nd hotel in Asia
French Baroque style
Army and Navy Club
rest and recreation for American
soldiers

De La Salle College
by Tomas Mapua
Rizal Monument
obelisk
Sta. Isabel College

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Manila Hotel
1st hotel in Asia
1st with elevator
renovated by Locsin in 1975

Philippine General Hospital


by William Parsons

UST Main Building


by Roque Rueno

Post Office Building


by Juan Arellano

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE

Ideal Theater, Avenida Rizal


by Pablo Antonio

AMERICAN PERIOD
20th C:
MODERN
ISLAMIC

Commonwealth Period
Notable architects:

CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

Jai Alai Building


demolished in 2001
Art Deco, streamline style

Juan Nakpil
1st National Artist for Arch.
Pablo Antonio
2nd National Artist for Arch.
Enrique Bautista
Gonzalo Barreto
Fernando Ocampo
Andres Luna y San Pedro
Leandro Locsin
3rd National Artist for Arch.

Ambassador Hotel
by Fernando Ocampo
1st skyscraper in the country (4
storeys)
Syquia Apartments, Malate
by Pablo Antonio
Natividad Building, Escolta
by Andres Luna y San Pedro
Regina Building, Escolta
by Andres Luna y San Pedro

Agriculture & Finance Building


Crystal Arcade, Escolta
Quezon Institute
By Juan Nakpil
Lyric Theater, Escolta
By Juan Nakpil

FEU Main Building


by Pablo Antonio

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN

Metropolitan Theater

FILIPINO

The Iglesia Ni Cristo Cathedrals


by Carlos Santos Viola

The Church of the Risen Lord, UP


by Cesar Concio

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

Philippine Heart Center

INDIAN
FILIPINO

The Meralco Building


by Jose Zaragoza

The Quiapo Mosque


by Jorge Ramos

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

SM Megamall
by Antonio Sindiong

Robinsons Galleria
by William Coscolluela

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN

The Central Bank of the Philippines

FILIPINO

Asian Institute of Management


The Quezon Monument
by Federico Ilustre

by Gabriel Formoso

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN

The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice,


UP Diliman

FILIPINO

The New Istana, Brunei

The Philippine Stock Exchange


The Cultural Center of the
Philippines

by Leandro Locsin

history of architecture

FILIPINO ARCHITECTURE
20th C:
MODERN

EXAMPLES

ISLAMIC
CHINESE
JAPANESE

INDIAN
FILIPINO

The Enterprise

RCBC Tower

GT Tower

Robinson Summit

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