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Running Head: LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE DAILY 5

Literature Review: The Daily 5

Kelli Murphy
National University
TED 690
Professor Clifton Johnson
June 25, 2016

LITERATURE REVIEW

Abstract
This literature review discusses the book The Daily 5: Fostering Literacy Independence in the
Elementary Grades by Gail Boushey and Joan Moser. The Daily 5 is a technique used in
elementary classrooms for both reading and math. This method allows teachers to assess students
and provide differentiated instruction through small group or one-on-one instruction time while
the remainder of the class is busy completing other stations independently or in partners.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Daily 5
The Daily 5 is a student-driven management structure that is designed to fully engage
students in reading, writing, or math. The structures allow three to five focus lessons or
assessments and allows for intentional and differentiated instruction to students. It also helps
students to monitor and understand their learning goals for literacy or math. The primary
structure of the Daily 5 is for the literacy block in a classroom meaning reading and writing.
Through this practiced structure, teachers are able to ensure that students are able to participate
in all the necessary components of literacy such as shared and guided reading, partner and
independent reading, read-aloud, writing time, independence and self-monitoring, etc. In
addition to needing to hit all of those components, teachers also need to assess students formally
and informally, as well as differentiate for student needs. As we work in small groups or confer
with or assess individual students, children cycle through Daily Five activities of their choice in
the two-hour session. They are responsible for ensuring they have accomplished a different
component of the Daily Five each half-hour work period (Boushey and Moser, p. 15). The five
components mentioned have been developed and researched to help students to be successful in
literacy goals.
The five components of the Daily Five include read to yourself, read to someone, work
on writing, listen to reading, and spelling/word work. These concepts are something that need to
be modeled and practiced during implementation of the Daily Five. Provided in the book are
examples of how to implement each component as well as a sample timeline. Prior to
implementation, teachers need to explain to students how to pick a book that is a good fit for
their level which is key for this routine to be successful. In addition to picking the right book,

LITERATURE REVIEW

students need to practice the correct model repeatedly to really get an understanding of what is
expected of them. This allows students to build their independence.
The first component is read to self and a major component for that is how to read a book.
Students are honored as learners, whatever their stage of reading development, when they
understand that readers may do any of the following: read and talk about the pictures, read the
words, retell a previously read book (Boushey and Moser, p. 47). Teachers would discuss the
different ways to read a book to students and then allow them to practice. This component will
take about 4-5 days to implement.
The second and third components are read to someone and listen to reading. Reading
with someone helps readers to become more self-sufficient and less reliant on teachers for
assistance. Research shows that taking turns reading increases reading involvement, attention,
and collaboration (p. 60). These components are about 6 days of implementation and includes
both this part and read to self. This means that students are gradually building on the Daily 5
components.
The writing component provides students additional support to become effective writers.
Its purpose is to provide daily writing practice and intense focused instruction via one-on-one
conferences, small guided writing groups, and whole group focus lessons. We have seen a direct
correlation between student motivation, ability, and productivity and this increase in writing
practice (p. 80). Research has found that kids who have purpose care about their writing and the
people who will read it, so helping students to find a purpose by allowing them to choose writing
of their choice will allow this. Writing time allows students to choose from persuasive writing,
friendly letters, recounting events, reporting on topics they are interested in, poetry, or even
narratives.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The full implementation takes about one month of school, but is proven to be a successful
way to integrate and assess literacy in the classroom. The Daily Five book focuses on literacy,
but there are many adaptations out there for math also. This way of working with students in
small groups or one-on-one helps to assess and differentiate for students. It also promotes
independence and self-monitoring.

LITERATURE REVIEW

References
Boushey, G., & Moser, J. (2006). The Daily Five: Fostering Literacy Independence in the
Elementary Grades. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.