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j)

"

lJ;

"

'fJ>'

;.)

iJ>

t lJ II r-'

i )1 r~

t) 'jr2>'

Cross-reference Table between problem number in J.D. Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics

and equivalent problem number in this book.

_tl~" .,..I- •
number ~1~~1 number Eaui- number Eaui- number ;a1~A-t number Ellui-
in 2nd In 2nd va ent in 2nd va ent in 2nd in 2nd va ent
edition number edition number edition number edition number edition number
IJ. " IJ, ' . 3J6, ,3.19 6.18 6.19 9.24, 9.11 14.10 14.9
"
1.2 t , , " 1.14, ,3J9 3.20 9.25 9.15 14.11 14.10
1.3 IJS 3.20 3J7 7J 7.11 14.12 14.11
1.4 :,' " 3.22 3.14 7.2 7.2 10.1 10.1 14.13 14.12
1.3
1.5 ' ' 1.4 7.3 7.3 10.2 10.2 14.14 14.13
4J 4.1 7.4 7.4 10.3 10.3
1.6': 1.5 ' 4.6 4.2 14.15 14.14
1.7 '" , 1.6 ' 7.5 7.S 10.4 10.4 14.16 14.15
4.7 4.3 7.6 7.12 10.S 10.5
1.8, .1.7 " ' 4.8' 4.4 7.7 7.13 W.6 10.6 15.1 15.1
1.9 1.8 4.9 4.5 10.7 15.4 15.9
7.8 7.14 10.7
IJO 1.9 4.10 4.6 15.5 15.2
lJO •. 7JO 7.6
IJI 4.11 4.7 11.1 11.1 15.6 15.3
ui . 7J2 7.7
1.12 4.12 4.8 1l.2 11.2 15.7 15.4
7J4 7.IS
1.15 1.12 4.13 4.9 11.3 11.4 15.11 IS.S
1.13 7.15 7.16
1.16 5.1 1l.4 II.S 15.9 15.6
5.1 7J6 7.17
2J }. 11.5 11.6 15.10 15.7
... 2.1 S.2 5.2 7.17 7.18
2.2 i 2.2 5.3 11.14 11.15 15.11 15.8
.: '. 5.3 7J8 7.19 11.18 11.12-2
2.3 2.4 5.4 5.4 15.12 15.9
2.5, 2.5 5.6 5.5 8.1 8.1 12.1 12.5 15.13 15JO
2.6 2.6 5.7 5.6 8.2 8.2 12.2 12.6
2.7 2.7 5.8 5.7 8.3 8;3 12.4 12.7 16.1 16.1
2.B 2.B 5.9 S.B 8.4 8.4 12.5 12.8 ,16.2 .... 16.2
2.9 2.8 5JO 5.9 8.5 8.5 12.6 12.9 16.3 16.3
2.U 2J6 ' 5.11 SJO 8.7 8.7 12.7 12.10 ' 16.4 16.4
2Jl 2.17 5.12 5JI 8.8 8.6 12.8 12.11 16.5 16.5
2.13 .l.1I 5.13 5.12 8.9 8.9 12.9 12.12 16.6 16.6
2.16 2J9 SJ4 SJ3 8JO 8.10 16.7 16.7
SJ5 5.14 s.n 8.11 13.1 13.1 16.8 16.6
3J 3.2 . B.13 BJ2 13.2 13.2 16.9 16.9
... ';
3.2 3.3, 6.1 6.1 13.3 13.3 16.10 16.10
3.3 3.4 6.2 6.2 9.2 9.2 ).3.4 13.4 16.12
16.U
3.5 3.5 6.3 6.3 9.3 9.3 13.5 13.5 16.13
, 16.12
' 3.7 3.16 6.4 6.4 9.S -t 9.4
3.8 . 3.6 6.5 6.5 9.6 9.5 14J 14.1 17.1 17.1
3.9 3.7 . 6.8 6.13 9.8 9.12 14.2 14.2 17.2 17.2
3JO 3.8 6.9 " 6J5 9J4 9.13 14.3 14.3 17.3 17.3
..
3.11 ,,3.9 , 6.10" . 6.B 9JS 9,14 , 14.4 14.4 17.4 17.4
3J2 3JO 6.11 6.9 9J7 9.7 14.5 14.5 17.5 17,5
3.13 3.11 6J2 6.10 9.19 9.8 14.6 14.6 17.6 ,17.6
3J4' 3J2 6J6, ' 6J7 9.20 9:9 14.7 ' 14.7 17.7 17.7
3.15 3.18 6.17 6.18 9.23 9.10 14.8 14,8 17.8 17.8 , !

The subjects of special functions of mathematical physics, Sturm-Liouville theory, the solution of ordinary differential equations, hypcrgeornetrlc Iunctions ctc. arc covered in many books, such as:

(A) Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press, 2nd ed., 1970 .

(DK) Ennery and Kryzwicki, Mathematics for Physicists, Haper-Row, 1967.

(MW) Mathews and Walker, Mathematical Methods of Physics, Benjamin, 1964.

(WW) Whittaker and Watson, Modern Analysis, Cambridge Press, .1950.

(MF) Morse and Feshbach, Methods of Theoreticul Physics, McGraw.HiII,

1953. .

Sturm-Liouville theory c A, p. 424-449; OK, '286-288; MW. Ch. 9; MF. p.

719-748. .

Differential Equations singular points, etc, - A, p. 387-408; DK, p. 29lff; MF, p. 523-576, and p. 667-674; WW, p. 194-210.

Hypergeometric functions - OK, p. 303-308; MF, p. 541 IT; WW, p. 28: -3'01. Legendre functions - A, Ch. 12; MF, p.593-600 and p. J325-1328;MW, Ch. 7; WW, p. 355-365. (also Watson, Bessel Functions, Cambridge Press; Bowman, Bessel Functions, Benharnln, a short comprehensive book and is easy to read.)

Conformal mapping and the usc of complex variables for two dimensional potential problems:

Jeans, p, 261-286.

Maxwell, Vol. I, chapter XII.

Morse and Feshbach, Vol. I, p. 443-453; Vol. 2 p. 1215-1252.

A good little mathematic book on the subject is L. Biebcrbuch, "Conformal Mapping", Chelsea Publ. Co., N.Y. 1964.

Smythe, sect. 4.15 to 4.31 (p. 79-105) good discussions with abundant examples. (Smythe, "Static and Dynamic Elcctriclty.)

Conformal transformations:

H. Kober, Dictionary of Conformal representations, Dover, 1957 - 200 pages of examples, often from aerodynamics, but with many familiar ones from electrostatics, e.g.p. J 17; Schwarz-Christoffel transformations are treated in Part IV, p. 141-168, with numerous examples.

E. Durand, Electrostatique ct Magnctostutlque, Mussion, Paris, 1953-Ch. X is devoted to two-dimensional potential problems with many examples and nice pictures of the equlpotentlals anti stream lines.

,1

!

Ii

Delta (Dirac) functions:

Llghthlll, M.J. "Introduction to Fourier Analysis and Generalized Function" Mathematical rigorous treatment.

P.A.M. Dirac, "The Principles of Quantum Mechanics" 3rd cd. Oxford:

Clarendon Press, 1947, p. 60.

. I. Halperin and L. Schwartz, "Introduction to the Theory of Distributions", University of Toran 10 Press, Toronto, 1952.

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING at the end of each chapter in Jackson arc also resources of reference on special topics.

Landau and Llftshltz, "The Classical Theory of Fields"

Landau and Llftshltz, "Electrodynamics of Continuous Media"

Landau and Llftshitz's books are very concise and cover physically significant . theoretical topics backedup with clear mathematical formalism.

Lorralnand Corslon, "Electromagnetic Fields and Waves" (a good elementary text). It gives clear physical concepts in simple language and 'mathematlcs. It Is good for readers with weaker background in this subject.

Panofskyand Phillips, "Classical Electricity and Magnetism"

. Smythe, "Static and Dynamic Electricity". It is more mathematical and classical than'; Jackson's and is a good source of problems and Illustrative examples.

Sommerfeld. "Electrodynamics"

Stratton, "Electromagnetic Theory". The book used mks (rationalized) rather than esu In Jackson's. It is a great help in solving problems and clarify some . concepts by reading explanations from another angle.

i

i

I

,.

!

I

!

,

Jackson, J.D., "Classical Electrodynamics" (15t ed.) Since over 90% of the problems in this work come from lst ed, of Jackson's book, all notations and units follow the convention in the book and equations (quoted by the

" number in the text) are rqfcrred to, so it is an inevitable reference. The' materials covered in "Classical Electrodynamlcs'l-especlally the 2nd edition

are contemporary subjects in Electrodynamics. '

-. " .,'

". ,~) ~

I. ,'",

. _;1, i-.~ ,

iii

I,

---~-- . .,; ... ---

INTRODUCTION

.. ' .~.

Since certain branches of mathematics are more fluently used in classical electrodynamics, a short Jist of the more often used functions and mathematics should be presented before we discuss the solutions of the problems.

Vector and tensor analysis are prequisite because electric and magnetic fields arc vector fields which can be derived either from scalar or vector potential. The gradient, divergence, curl and Laplace's operator form the mathematical backbone of electricity and magnetism. The solutions of potential are usually represented by expansions in orthogonal of which coefficients of the expansion can be obtained by making use of the orthogonality properties. Fourier series expansion is one of the type. Suitable coordinates should be chosen for particular symmetry of the problem. Although it may be advantageous to know elliptical coordinates and generalized coordinates, they do not appear often in this book. Dirac delta function is often used to describe the location of discrete charge instead of charge distribution in integration. Complex plane for eonformal mapping, residue Integration In retarded solution duc to finite vcloclt'y of light and short duration of the source, and Green's functions are some of the special or general approaches to obtain potential. Classical Electrodynamics by Jackson gives a general discussion of mathematics whenever it Is, required, which is often sufficient to handle the problems.

The emphasis of the summary is primarily on the methods in solving the problems. The first part discusses electrostatics and magnetostatics. The techniques' of solving electrostatic problems In this' book are:-

(1) Coulomb's law:- It is a basic approach but is not convenient.

F = qE;

~ - n (x-~) S ~ (x-x') 3, E (x) = i~ 1 qi Ix-xill or y(x) Ix-x'IJ d x

Due to the vector quantity of F and E, most of the problems are

solved by the potential concern. _.

(2) Potential:- For electrostatic case: V x E = 0, hence th:. elt;£.tric field intensity E can be expressed in terms of potential E =-V ell Potential 4> Is a scalar quantity ,so the superposition is the scalar sum of individual contribution of each of the sources or charge distributions. Several methods are used in potential problems, such as:

Gauss's law:- It is a general consideration of a closed surface and. charge distribution inside the enclosed volume. The integral form of

Gauss's law '

(a)

iv

. .....:._-___,-..---~--oo;r-----:------------.-. .

.. ~ _._--_, ...

_,..,,_ ..... ,--_ .. -_._ .. __ .. _ .... -~-;

1

(_; .:

.. ..

\)~.

.

( )

f, .I (

... ~. ""'""

I

( )

l 1

((-:::

_.

(,j (_) ( j () (~

( .

.J

(.J

( I ,

_I

( ; J

lJ U

I

G

()

G

I

(_) .

I. (-

J I:

G1 (/

.1.

lJ" ( (_)-

1

0-

I

( . ~

~) 1

( i:

I ( I!~



( !.-

.. -'~

" -)
, )::I
>0 :,:,,"'{I~;:\
..J
~
l-'
)--J
~'
l-' I
l-'
I
)-'
, ;
r
)-
)_!
r
)--
r
)"'
...
)
""
,)
i( _,
)
,
r _.I
)
• _,
'r )
I
,r ""
)
" '.)
y )
>11.,.)
, )
t,l 1
l )J
'il .... ,
( )
~ \ l _.i
!
fll _;
)
lit '
" -'
1
':II\"...;
\ '
11\,)
IIV ...A.- __ --" ... _ ....,---.:..-- , •• -'-_-r

~------------~~"'-------~------------------------

,'/

{ 411'l:qj if q's are inside V. .f E' n da =

s 0 if no charge is. enclosed.

and the equivalent differential form is

For a simple problem, if a Gaussian surface is constructed according to physical geometry of the problem, then the problem is solved. Otherwise,' Gauss's law gives Laplace's equation (V' ~ = 0) or Poisson's equation (V. 4> = -4 rr g), which serves as the starting

, point of most of the problems. The Laplace operator is geometry dependent. The special functions associated with coordinate systems are shown as the folloWing:-

(i): Cartesian Coordinates ••• othogonal expansions of sine and

, 'cosine functions. "

(ii) Cylindrical Coordinates ~ •• Bessel function (J 1!)

(iii) Spherical Coordlnates « •• Legendre polynomial (PR)' associated Legendre polynomial (Ptp), spherical harmonics (Y 1!m) and spherical Bessel function (j jl)'

" ,

',Multipole expansion··· is the most often used method in electrostatic and electrodynamic problems. By direct Taylor's series expansion of the potential ~ , gives monopole (g ), dipole (dipole moment

• • , ' ;1 ". 'and quadrupole (quadrupole moment

and the higher terms in x' or higher multipole

moments.

(c) Green's function G(x, x, - It is also a general method to obtain solution for potential. It is deduced from Green's theorem.

By replacing <I> (potential) for ¢ and G (Green's function) for 1/1, then,

Green's ..function' depends only x' (the displacement vector from the origin to, the charge ,distribution) and it (the displacement vector from the origin to the point of observation). Using the boundary

v

, '

conditions to eliminate one of the terms in the square brakcets (i.e. Dirichlet or Neumann boundary condition), it is equivalent to the potential of unit charge and is symmetrical with respect to x and x' (that is interchanging x and x' docs not alter the overall effect of the potential).

(3)

Method of image - It simplifies the problem to a great extent, however its application is limited to a simple geometries of the problems such us a charge and an inflntc constant potential conducting plate; two parallel conducting plates, with charge in between; a charge and a sphere with constant potential or added charge etc.

-The images (rnagnit udes and positions) simulate the same boundary

. conditions specified by the conducting plane, sphere etc. after their removals. However the potential so calculated is good for the region where the actual chargcfs) is/are situated and is bound by the conducting plates,' sphere etc. In the treatment beyond this region, care should be taken. This happens when dlclect ric problems arc in concern. The potential inside and outside of the dielectric medium are lnterstlng.

(4)

Method of inversion - It is a purtlcular case of Schwarz transfurmatlon, The more general treatment of using complex variables in conformal mapping crlglnatcs from Green's Iunction

G (- -') I + F ( ... -')

x. x =-, __ 'I x.x

x-x

where F (x, x') satisfies the Laplace's equation V'l F = O. For neumann boundary condition, the F (x. x') can be interpreted as external charge distribution to 'satisfy the boundary condition. The method of image illustrates that F (x, x') can be replaced physically by image charges. On the other hand. for Dirichlet problem with conductor, the potential U (x, ;c') due to the induced surface charge distribution on the conductor, is given by F (x, X'). For regular two dimensional geometry, this type of problems is more convenient to be solved by transformation, because f (x, x') or U (x, X') satisfies the Laplace's equation,

vi

In complex plane, '1. = x + jy = rc iO and the equivalence of U is W where W = U + jV:.'Boih U and V arc real and are called Conjugate Functions.

aw au +' av
=
ax ax. Jax
..#JJ! ~',
~1It· aw av . au
-aY: =- ~J-
oj ay If W Is analytic, th~n Cauchy-Riemann equ~ti~~,s mu~~ be satisfied.

au oV ax = ay

av au

ax-=-ay-

'The families of curves U (x, y) = constant and y..(x, y) = constant arc orthogonal. They can be interpreted as equipotentials and the lines of force in electrostatic problems. The introduction of transformation in the 'complex plane (conformal transformation) gives the freedom of alternation of the magnitude of angles and length to reduce the problem to a trivially simple form.

Conjugate functions arc very useful in two dimensional problems, (for example Infinite parallel cylinders which can be expanded to infinite radius so that 'they become planes; or shrink to zero radius thus becoming line charges). The expression W for those problems can be written as

W = 1 n ( + j;..) '" 2jcoC I !. = U + j V

, z'-Ja .a

which is derived from a more general expression

where Zi is the position of the linear charge with charge density OJ. The problem is to consider the equipotentials generated by two equal and opposite linear charge (J = I at y = a and rJ =- J at y = -a. The conjuate functions U and V become

and

(x - a cot V)2 + y2 '" a2 cosec! V

•. \ • I

vii

An illustration is given in problem 2.12 by modifying an example form Symthe. The virtues of complex transformation is best demonstrated in Schwartz transformation which permits the interior of the polygon in '1. plane to be transformed to the real axis of the z, plane and their relation is given by the complex derlvarive

where K is a complex constant and an and Sn are real and a, a, 'a, ... , ., an·1 an.

Z plane

ZI plane

An·1

An

An. + I

-----------...---,-----:----'---::-----.-------------_... _. -- -. . --.- .. ,------.-

viii

I <:>

I

OJ

.'1 I 'I

I. .• j \

, .' I
-\
;
._'
l
I
'L
.I."
... _;
j
-' L
.. ~
_) L
.J j_
.J L
,j
.J L
j
._' ,
_)
_) ;.r
_) L .',
-- j 'L '(~
)
) L ~ 1 1 t t 1,

i )

>~.

), ~ ) ),

) ~ ) )

)

, I

)

)

. ) j

)

.. ,~~ ._.

Case 1

For a particular case; one vertex at the origin, z, = zn =: (re j¢ )n, this represents the problem of two semi-infinite conducting planes intersecting at the origin at an angle fIl. The conformal transformation unfolds the conducting planes to an angle n such that the problem becomes an infintie conducting plane at a given potential. The solution is trivial

ZI = zn = (r~lf»n Z plane (x> r cos I/> and Y = r sin 1/».

1T 1/>='.' 2

I/> = 3/2"

by transformationsz, =: zn = (r1Jlf»n such that net> = 'IT.

n=2; UI = cunst=YI =r25in21/> V I = const = XI = r2 cos21/>

n = 2/3; U1 = const = YI = r 2/3 sin 2/31/>

V I = canst = x = r 2/3 cos 2/3ifJ 1

~I plane

,)

) :;

) !:I) Id )'

/1-

ix

, I

Z plane

U = const = £1 sin2¢

::: (r cos 1/» (r sin 1/»

xy Ceq for equipotentials) V : Xl _ yl const.

-

. __ .. _- _. -------------

U ::: const= r 2/3 sin 2/31/)

= (x2 + y2) (xy -t-2K,3) = K' V:(x2 -t-y1)(X2 _y2 +4K3)=3K where K and K' arc constants

Case 2

For two parallel conducting surfaces with a separation 1 in between, it is represented as a strip of width 1 along the x axis in the z plane (interest at x = - 00 or 00 at an angle B, = 0.) Under the transformation the strip is unfolded to the upper half plane in z, plane. Set B, = 0 and map the point of intersection at the origin u, = 0, then dz/dz, ::: K C.z, ) -lor

x

t: = Kin ZI + Ka

The radial lines 0 = constant are tra~sformed to horizontal lines (equipotentials) y = constant and the semi-circles with r,' = const, are transformed to vertical lines (lines of force) of lenth 1. More examples are given in problem 2.13 and

2.14; . ..

Case 3

Another important case is when B =- and K = a' • It gives the expressions for inversion in ,which the conjugate function is fixed

H' = a2 ;0 = 0' ;¢=t/J'

with the potential

2

<I' (r', 0, 1/» =.!:<}I (.!!.. ,0, t/J)

. . .' r r

where a is the radius of the sphere of inversion (or circle of inversion). The radi us of inversion is determined by the given geometry 0 f the problem. Mathematically the results are the same as those from the problem that a charge placed In front of a conducting sphere [by image method: r' = /Ir, q' = -II (rq) L but the physical nature of image method and inve.rsion method is very different.

xl

..... :

CHAPTER.1

~?

Introduction to Electrostatics

I

1.1

(a) In static equilibrium, E inside a conductor must be zero. A Gaussian surface is constructed just under the surface of the conductor

i.e, g = 0

inside the Gaussian surface.

(b) Construct a Gaussian surface inside the conductor just under the surface. Since there is no electric field inside the conductor. External field induces charges on the outer surface onlyand the electric field terminates al the outer surface.

Ein~idc = J

If there are charges inside the hollow cmductor the charges would induce equal and opposite charges on the Interla surace of the hollow conductor such that it encloses no net charges. There is no E Icld inside the conductor, but the excess charges of the same sign and quantity distributed on the outer surface, which produces electric field. The electric fic. d docs not depend on the dlstrlbution of charges inside the hollow conduc.or, but on the geometry of the hollow conductor.

(c)

From

• 1 •

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.-

--
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) )
)
)
)
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\
I
)
J
) )

.j J

6 I ,

I, L! I, ~I

\ .

I

I, ;__;

10

\' L I' L

L

L i.

I, L I L:

I'L.:-'

II' :)...., II

J-

II
j,
)--:
)--
j )--
II' .
)-"
)-'
')_} -,
I _,
)/ .
)~ I ." ,
')..1
')
)..
I )J
( ,
))
I )J
I)
I
(
1./
'J
)
iT)
I
( ,
I_) i, '

But,

EI =0

:., ii . El = 4 7rrJ

If ft l El then '~ has a tangential-Component which means that the

surface c~~rges must be disturbed. This contradicts the static equilibrium condition. So El must be normal to the surface of the conductor.

1.2

(a) Assuming we can consider each plate separately:

REGION

n

II

OJ =!!f (evenly distributed on two surfaces) EI and El must be parallel or anti-parallel and normal to the conducting surfaces.

Region I: Taking the direction of EI as

positive, we can write '

L

(upper sign is for same sign charges and the.lower, opp)

nl and "1 are antiparalle. • a - -0 - q,-ql ", 11- ll----g;-

: (b) Region II ' 0;11 = _1_ {ii .. (E. ± E.)} = ql -ql (i = 1,2 . i:l= i &," = 1,2)

411" ' ,'I 811"

(c) It is not a function of thickness nor separation between the plates.

When _.<h = ql = Q air = all = _g_

411" '

.,..

..... \ ..

alternative method ~ ~>!f'

,"

~"P

v

,j

·2·

(a) Translational invariance in (x,y) directions makes surface charge densities; constant in (x,y). Define densities on the four surfaces as shown in fig., with

a/- + d;' = 01 , or + of = "l

WithP(X)= p(z} independent ofx and y, the electrostatic potential <!l canonly depend on z. Hence there is only a z-cornponent of electric field. With a Gaussian volume as shown above, we have

;E'ndS=O=41fjgdJx = area of ends x (af\'+or)

• ~R I. v

", Ui'::-Ol

Because of the dependence only upon z we flnd that this result does not depend on the separation L.

(b) As .far as outside the slabs are concerned we can imagine Loot: 0 or ra ther, that the space between the' slabs is filled with conductor. Then we have one slab of thickness t = 11 + t2 + L, with charge

density 01. on left face and oR on right

If we put OL :1= OR the left field EL and the right field ER are unequal, " If we view the slab from behind the page, the roles of "left" and "right" are interchanged (equivalent to z -I> -z). This assymmelrical situation

is perfectly possible, for example, with a dielectrical slab, but for a conducting slab the charge will flow in such a way as to make 01. = oR

(c) Applying Gauss' law, or by insepection, there is no dependence of any of the results on t 1 ' t2 or L.

(d) Special case of 01 = -01 = Q . We have o~ :: ~, or = oi :: 01 + ~ 2

therefore,

ar = 0, = Q , oi = "l =-Q

1.3 (1.'"')

(a) Conducting sephere

E

(i) E= 0

r < a

(ii) I E I = qJr1 r > a

t

...

(lii) E Ir:a = 411" a r= a

·3·

(b) Sphere with charges uniformly distributed

(0 r <; a il = constant

!If E· fI d a =fff 4 tr g orl sinO d r dtpdO_-,-~ I E I =.Q r/a3

E =.2.i

r2

(ii) r > a

E

(c)9=krn

(i) r~a

... 4 tr krn+1 ~ rn+1

IEI= = Q-

11 + J anti

~ 4 tr kr3 E=-6::--

for n = -2.

r

eii) r > ~ .E=5L r

(2

where Q is the lotal charge in the sphere.

Alternative method:

Gauss' Law..

if. . -; tlS = 4 tr f 9 d 3 X

S 0 v

for a sphere of radius r and a sphere rand a spherically sYI11r_n~tric 9 (x) becomes

E ( r) = 41tr £ / 9 ( r ) dr

r 0

If aUg have total charge Q and arc confined to r < a, then for r > a:ia'ti~~i~; give E ( r ) = Q I rl (r > a) 0 0

04·

(a) 9 = _2_g_ (constant inside sphere)

4 tra3

Then for r a, E(r) =.9..(!...) al a

. .' .. :

(b) Conducting sphere:

9 = _g_ 6 (r -a):., E (r) = 0 for r <A, 411'a2

(e)

n C· n· Q - 4 C ·fa n+2 d _ 41rCn n+3

,,= r .. ,-11'n r r---Ja

n 0 n+

Q r"+'

g = (n+J)Q n E(r)=-( )

4mf+a r al anti

E(rJQ/-

E (r) Q/a2

1 ----- --- ---- ---

I I I I ,

I I I

----------- ------0" • 2

I ( _ )

I . r

I I I I I

-l( nr

41= q ._e - (1 +~)

. r 2

(a) When r = O. 41 has a singularity at

r=O 2

( .... 0 .' V2~ = V .. {q/r) =;-4 11'q6(r)

It is interpreted as 3, point charges situates at r = 0 with a magnitude o!' 4 1Tq

By sphereical coordinates

·5 •

._ . . '" _. . _ __;_ .,- -:--..l.-_--;: ,...- __; _' •

.'-:----._

.1

)

. ._/.
j
._/
~
- )
'_' I
_)
)
_) • .rt
.J
-,,-
.~ I -

t)
L
L
l>'
)_,.
Li
l-'
L
I
11 L-
_L'
t.,'
l-' ,.....--------------------------.-.--.- .. __..____.-,...~---_..----------------------------

II L't., II

\' J., ).....

,

)-

, )-

','

)..-'i

'.'. )

)--

;',

).J

).J

)-' ).J

, ,

),.1

, I

)/

') )

, ,

\..,1

._

\ .J

172 <I> = .!.. £. (rl 3<I> )

r2 ar ar

q a a ('(2 rl

= -?" a;:- [ e - rear + 1 + -2-) 1

_ a3qe-ar,

- '2

q -If I}=--,,--ea

ag II' 0

The charge distribution is contlnous except a r = O. With a maximum value

-_q_.

a31T '

The charge density decay exponentially. The total orbital electronic charge Q

Q =f 9 (r). d V = - 4; Joor2 E: .~ dr = - .3:.:r(3)

v ao 0 2

= q

Le, there is a charge equal and opposite to the total electronic charge of the atom, at r := 0, which is the nucleus.

1.S (/.b)

(a) Two flat plates: <I> =41TOd; ilV=47rod;

c = _g_ = A ,...",,: ' d

AV 41Td

(b) Two concentric sph~~~s: The electric field between the conductors is

~ Q.

E :-r

, r2

AV = (b - a)O ab .'

C': _0 - ab

A V -"( b - a)

(e) Two concentric cylinders: By Gauss

r~ ._ , 0

E IJ.t = 4 11 0; E = -=0' i

• r"

'Q b ~

U V: _-_ Qn (-) ; C = ---:-;0-

~ u 2 ~Il ('a')

(d) is left for the reader.

) I

Let Abc the linear charge density

Similarly,

2A

El = ~.

V and V arc potentials due to conductor No. I and No.2 respectively.

I 2

1.7 (I. ill

(a) r'Acd charges on each conductor 0

Here energy density W is used anti th~ potential difference is calculated from the general formula

·7·

W = -~ QV 2

lEI = 4"O=4"t: V= Jf'd£=4rrQd

The electrostatic energy:

I f ~ I I

W = s; IEIWx = 8" (4 rro)l (Ad) = 2" Qld :: 2" QV

(ii) Spherical capacitor (concentric sphere) I E I :: !l.

r2

W = -SI J( ~ )24 "r2 dr > ~ Q (b -a)(ab)"'

"r 2

V= Q(b-u)(abrl ; W=~QV

2

(IIi) Cylinder capacitor. 1171:: ,20 H

:' ~. -,

Q ;-;;;4

h

(b) W (parallel plates) w

dW= Fm dx= _I E2Adx 8n

W = 2 rr Q2x :: _1_ I3(Ax)

A .... : 8 "

is electrostatic energy for separation x. Suppose x is decreased by dx (where E is kept constant and volume decreases)

'.

I ....

dW= - E2Adx

8IT .

Energy lost by the field must go into work against the mechanical forces holding plates apart.

..... El A 2nQ2 ...

IFml=- =-- = IFel

SIT A

(ii) Parallel cylinders: From the results of Problem (1.6)

X -I

C~ [Hn(-a)]

tN = Q [4 £n (~) 1

a

W = _!_ C(6.V)l =2 Q21n (~)

2 a .

Q G)

;,..' --x---j

,. J'

2 Q2

Fe/unit length = __ (Q is charge/unit length)

x

(b )Fixed potential: It is the same as part (a). Since the argument. is different. so the details are shown.

(i) Parallel plates

6.V=_Ex;E=-6.V 'W=_I_ (LlV)lA

x' 8" x

dW. = -(S" X1)-1 (tN)2 A'dx.

field

As the volume decreases with x, the field increases as l/x2 and hence dW is actual Iy increasing. The increased charge

dQ = - 4: x2 (6.V) dx

_._o~.·~~ ~~~·x~

It the plates move closer by dx,

b

1.8 (a) .... (i)

( r·~l

Fixed charges on each conductor

Parallcd plates., ,00 ... :._,:.. ~'~,,,_.,

fiAt,. ~. . ". :.,' .". _., • ;, _

Assume that the mechanical force and the electrical force' are b'a'lance

j,

.J

,

,.1

! ')

dWB =dQ(L\V)

is being moved throughL\V. Hence the battery is doing work

·8·

) ;,~

...._~-----------,--.---.

___ ----''------_------:---1---;:----:--:---:--_---------. _.0

. __

I "1

" ))

\ ))

))

!)

) .

"'"

V ~.J L ).-i

l: )., )_, )-.

)./ ~ ).J ).,

)J

»

)-'

: » )/

;

~).

) l .. ).

I

)1

.~------- ._ ... _._-------- ~-------

dWn"'ldcNV . F + dWn :: dWagans! Fm + 2 dW field

e against m

: •• dW field =. dWagalnst Fm

dW = _1_' (AV)l A dx

Fm 81T Xl

(By substitution of Ql = ~~ ~2);l )

: .• 1 Fm 1 = i"Fe 1 = 2 1TQl

A

Since charge free space is concerned the first term vanishes. For the

second term 3<!> - -= 17<1>' n':· E· i\

an' v

{E'ndi= jV'Ed3x'

(By divergence theorem); V . E = 41T g ( x )

But, it is given that a charge free space is considered. therefore. the second term is zero also

(ll) Parallel cylinders

where R is the radious of the sphere concerned

W = 2Ql.l!n ( ~); dW :: 4 Q dQ .l!n (~) + 2 Q2

a dx dx a x

Q = C (AY); dQ A Y ~ {[ 4 .I!n ( ~ ) ]- I } = - 1 x

dx dx a 4x.l!n('-)

a

,.; mean value of the potential

1.10 \1.';

dW field = _g:_

dx X

Gauss' theorem for infinitesimal area element da

But work is done by battery by moving charge through circuit to increase..Q on wires (cylinders)

E· n da = 4 7T dq ;

dWn' d Q Ql dX =dX'(AV) = .X_-

i.e. dWmech ( :: 1&1 = IFe I) =. dWB + a.WE =-(.!r.) +_g:_

dx dx dx x x

_ 2Q2

1 Fe/1engih I - x

At the center of da where the two curvatures intersect. n can be expressed in terms of Rl and ~ as:-

.....

ft = R, + Rl

R, Rl

3E a E 3 E

an: oRI = IT"

..!.._~=_(_I +_1_)

E an R, R"

Q is charg~/unit length

1.11 (1_;),)

1.9 (I.Icii

Consider

The scalar potential due to volume Eq(1.17) and surface Eq(1.23) charge density is

<1> (x) = fPCX') d3.x' +fo ex') da' x:l= x'

I x+ x' I I x • x' I

( I )

. 10·

Likewise, the potential at x due to a different charge distribution

volume and a I per unitsurface area is .

9 J per unit

x*x' (2)

Green's reclproclty theorem states that

Iv eIll (x) g(x) d3x + J:eIll (x) ° ('X) da =fv!llCx) ~t ex )d3x +.h !Il(XjOI(X) da (3 )

Multiply Eq(1) by !ll (x) dJ x and integrate. We get,

Simiiarly, multiplying Eq(l) by 01 (x) da and integrating we get

..,.r· '. .'

fell (x) o.(x) da = f J o,'i~ ~~ /-;..) dad3 x' + f J a ~;:~. /X) dada' . (5)

Eq(4) + Eq(S), we have

Since the primed variables of the right hand side is dummy; we obtain'

!eIlCx) !l1(XWX + J !Il(x~ ol(x)da = }IIC-;)PC-;)d3x+J!Il1 (x)o(x)d~ (6) which is the verification of Green's reciprocity theorem (Eq(3))

Note: Jf the electric field is due solely to n charged conductors (i.c. the charge must reside on the surface so that !l's arc equal zero), then Eq(3) reduces to

( 7 )

where the subtc~i~t i on the Integra+indicates th~t the i~tegralion is over the itl ronductor only. But a conductor is an equipotential,

• J 2 •

then Eq(7) becomes

£ !Ilifot (x)da = l;.!o(~)da!llil

1=1 I I

·f

where qi standsfor the total charge on the jthconductor. The physical meaning of this is that the electric energy of a system with part of the charge to produce potential at each point of the space In concern interacting with the remaining. charge will be equivalent to that if the charge that produces the potential becomes the charge interaction and the other as potential.

'I

i i

I

I

Proof of Thomson's theorem:

If'>'

U=- IEP dV

81T v

The variation of electrostatic energy

su = -41 Ji'Ii(V $)dv=_I_!c Ec'l4.J)· fidS + f 9c'l$c1v

1T 41T s . v

The first term vanishes for the integration over the surface bounded these charge

surfaces is largos .

(Ec'l$ - ~ while S - r2 with r -+ 00)

r

s U = ose-o IfJ Edv=QfJ$- Q /(c'lj9(X·)(x.-x·)dV·)dV

, '.Iv, Jy' v lx-x I

= Qc'l <I> ..: V ( .!.. ) c'l Q - 4 1T 6 Q . .

r

. f3 .

----------------------------------------~----~----~--~~--------~--------------. ~

)-

I I ) I

. I

I .. /

I .J

..J I

. ) -Ii

)--
y
)-'
y'
y 'I
ri I,
iI
, r 'Ii
,I
, Ii
I;
r I,
I:
( 'I
'I
"
( ;,
,!
"
"
r ,.
)
r
-;~
I .\
(
,
j
f
,/
, )
_:
)
.-'
) t
,/
)
\ ......
)
, ~
)
-
)
'-- Q is constant, therefore,

such that all surfaces are equipotentiais again. The potential in

space in the absence of So is <l> (x) and in its presence Is <l> + 041 (x)

oQ=O oU=Q5<l>

i.e.,

The extremum is OU = Q

Hence the theorem is proved.

therefore,

su = - g_!_ fiV<l>lld3x + -81 11 vc 0 <P)IldJ X + -1-fv~v'.~(o4l)dlX

11 Yo 11 v 411 v

=:=-_1 /IV<l>11ulX __ 1 'i)V5<l>11d3x +_I_JV(o<l»"V(!J>+o<l>)d'(1)

• 811 Vo 811 v 411

The energy U before the introduction of the insulated conductor U = _1 r IEI1dY+ _1_jlE'12dY'

8 1f J v inside 8 1f v outside

The last term vanishes because by Green's identity

_!_lV(5ct»'~(cIl+5c!»d3X = .j(<l>+5c!»Vl(5c!»d3x +f(<1'+ 6<1') aa(6«b)dS

411 v' , v' n

whereB and E' are electric field inside and outside of the closed the conducting surface. Att~r inserting the conductor, the energy

U'= ~i fE'12cN'~J_ liE t2dV

8 1f vinslde 81T .,V: outside

By Gauss' law V • E'=41TP since inserting un Isolated conductor docs not change the total charge the electric field outside is the same in both cases.

U .. =-I-fIE"t2dV--1-, 1 IE" 11 dV +_I-JlifI1dY'

g 1T v inside, _" 81T vctumeof the corductor 81T v outside

V2(6<1»=-41T(0 g), but S g=O since there isno variation in the

volume charge density and 5p vanishes the enclosed surface is large. The flrst two term in Eq( 1) is ncga live and definite therefore, the

energy is lowered by introducing the uncharge conductor into the volume.

1.14 (* 1.2)

U" must be greater than U', for U' is the energy calculated for all surfaces for which the energy is minimum.

But,

I I

D(o:;x,y,z) = _ r.:;-:::;; 3 exp [- -2 (xl +y2 +zl) I

(y21T0:) 20:

U- U"= '2. fiE 12dY

. g 1T volume of the condurot

which is positive and definlte therefore, U > U"

As 0: ~ 0, only the length elernentIdx) is relevant.

Thus, for general orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system with

i.e. the energy is lowered by introducing the uncharge conductor into the closed volume.

alternative method:

Let surface charge density on Sj be u;(x) such that in the absence of So the surface Sj is an equipotential. When So is introduced with

no net charge, each surface (Included So) has an added charge density liai

·14·

and

• 15 •

and

dl X = dudvdw (U,Y,W are defined as positive), we have . U'Y'W

.' .~'

(d)

• _ I 1 (U-u')l (V-v')l . (w-W')l

6 (x _ x ) - d~o (v'2Tra)3 exp [ _ 20:1 ---ur- + -y;:- + Wl ]

.. s ( u-u' )6 (,!::!_' ) 6 ( ~.)

. . . I) Y W

I ThenweuseI6(ax)=iI 6(x)

6 (x· x ) = UVW [, (u-u') [, (v ..... ·) [, (w-w')

j:, "

Thus the expression in (c) is transformed into

)

The simplest way Is to consider

1 rr

6 (z) = 6 (r cosO) = r 6 (0 ."2 )

)

1.1S (·J~3) (a)

.. "~ . ,

. (b)

_. Q

g (x) = 4:c::nT 6 (r _ R) rrR

g(x) = ~O(R- g) [, (z ) = ~·.!..6 (cos 0) OCR or)

lI'R nR r

Q= fg (x) d3x = jd njl dr g(x)

= ~flrr dIP r1d(cosO) ["'rdr [,(cosO)O(R_r)

n R 0 JI 0 r

) )

Check:

. Uniform surface charge density.

Check:'

Q = J s (~dlx =.ldnfr1dr Y (-;) = Q

= Q

• j. ~ " '. •

(c)

z

A = charge/unit length

_1_ = surface charge density

21Tb .

: .• s (X') ~ _Q_b 6 (g • b) 27T

)

!

I j

)

J

)

I

··.·'locate the di;~ in z=O plane at the origin. g (~) = 1T~ 1 6 (z ) 0 (R '_ s )

wh~re 0 (x ) = { I for x » 0 o for x < 0

i'

Y.,

. 16·

• 17 •

-
1:5 if
1-.)
l) 1:.1
"
'-../ I:
'-"'
'-
j.,
0 Iii
I'
I
)...) I:!
!I:
~' II
II
:11
}..J 'II
. !
:ll
I ,_,' :1:
I"
)--' "
I II
.....
)- ;1
,j
}-'
I
)~'
)- ;
: I,
)-"
I I
.--
1 .. :
)-'
I' I
......
, , .'
I (
1i:
I (
, I
(
\
('
I !J
)
I)
)
i r)
()
)
Ij
\
l J
./
\
U
V
0 CHAPTER 2

Boundary - Value Problems in Electrostatics, I

I

2.1 ; 2..\ I

(u) The potential at point P( 'l'p ) $=.,S_ • ...L

p Ir11 Irll

where f1 =";r'1 + d1 ·2td cosOj rl = vrl + d2 + 2rd cosO

ii ' (El • Ed = + 41Ta n ' (\1 $) = ·4.1Ta

Induced Surface Charge density

q'

q

·18·

Using spherical polar co-ordinates with the z axis passing through q and q'. Since !p·ls not a function of I{J, we obtain

z

1 " (" a c!> Co a c!»

a=--n'c-+--

47T rar r ao

Substitute 0 = 7T/2 and r = q i. e. on the conducting plane where q is the radius on the plane with the origin as the center,

Eq. (2) becomes:

(2)

(3 )

(b) By Coulomb's Law of force between its image. y- qq k- _ql k

:- (2d)1 - (2d)2

(c) The charge of the ring wtith a radius 9 from the origin is just

(a' 2 7T 9 d g ) Since the cornponetns that parallel to the conducting

plane cancel one another. the force will be along the z direction only,

, F'- jq(a'21Tg dg ) cosO _ q21rrh 30d 0- _q2

.. • - - . - :;r cos cos - ~

r d 0 4 d'

·19·

(d) The work required to bring the charge from the point d to infinity is:

ji I" 2 1

W = - F{I.)llz = q dz = 9_

o 4z2' 4d

(e) Electrostatic potential energy:

The electrostatic potential energy is negative, This is not the electrostatic potentIal energy .of the system charge plus a plane, the reason being that -q will be located lat the potential zero If we had a conductor, The solutlon for tp is correct only ~or the region z ~ 0 but not for z < O.

(I)

2 . 1012

W = s_ = (4.803 X 10-10 esu)2 ev

4 d (I.6)(4xI0-& em) erg

.. 3.6 ev.

2.2. ('L ... 'l .

z

o

"J, '

(a)

$(-+) - q q'

r - -,--:-, t -I - .. -,

r vr r-r

( 1 )

- 20-

I

Dy substitution, Eq (1) becomes

_.. 1 aIr' . ... .

$(r)=q{ -. }

..Jr2 + (·2·2rrc050 V'fTT(ilTr')T(ii.1/r')cosO

This is true both inside and outside of the grounded conducting sphere.

I 1

(b)

a= ~ ~j_ =.:2_ ~I

47T a n 4 7T a r r = a

_ • q a ( 1 ,...- ;,...r'2.:...' 3_'.!..:) ~-:-:-::r-

- 4 IT ( C'3) (1 + a 1/C'2 - 2 a/r'cosO)Jh

If we integrate to get the total charge Q, we obtain Q=.!o1f2rra2asinOdO = 2ITa2q{~_a)J1f '1 sinOdO.

41T a 0 (r t a2 - 2 ar' COSO):V2

_ q(r'2 _a2) I I

- 2 r' [ I r'· 3 I • r' + a J

If r<:a, as it is for q inside the sphere, this gives I t > a I = a - r '

and

~.

.J

l

which is the expected result.

If r "> a , as it would be for q outside the sphere, I r '- a 1= r «: a,

= 9(r'2-32) r'ta-(r'-a2 =_q'

Q 21 c'2-32 .

Thus, we see that by using the absolute value in the integrand, we get the expected result both for c'> a and for r'<.a. By (r,2+a2_2ar' cose)~. we mean Ihe positive value, because it is the distance between the charge and the point of investigation.

I .'

(c) The force acting on q when inside the grounded conducting sphere depends only on the field due to the sphere at the location of q. This field Is the same as that produced by the image charge; hence the force on q is the same as that due to the image charge

_ q q ' _ q1a/r'_ q1ar'

F - I -(" ')2 I - '7:'"f"T7YI) - (1 '2 )2

r-r \a'/rr ~-r

! . )

·21 .

-_- .,.....,...--..,.---_ _--

... --.----'------~--~--'-~.- .. --=-:------;-------.~-,...-------------~

........... -

-
t
l..
l
._:
...
,..
F
k
) . .-'
I, r' I, )-' i )-:

I'

i, r

I, r r y

.y

i\1

I, Y,

)1' ii' . if 10.

'r

~ 11

r

. tit .

)""

I· ,

:{

, I

, ,.J

, )

I' )

)

I' ) , ) II .

)'"

II) )

l' j

I

I j

)

!l~ II) ,.)

.........

The force on q is radially outwards from the center of the sphere. The total force on the sphere must be equal and opposite to that on the charge since the total force on any isolated system is zero.

(d) If the sphere, instead of being grounded is held a+ a fixed potential V, or is given a total charge Q, there is no change in the fields inside the sphere, in the charge density or its inner surface, or on the forces found in part (c).

The charge on the external surface is no longer zero, there is a field

V cll=r

for r ;> a.

and the internal potential is increased by V over the value given in part (a). The charge on the exterior of the surface of the sphere is Va, the charge on the interior surface is -q as before, the total charge on the sphere is

Q = Va-q

Hence

V= Q+q a

if Q Is given.

The charge density on the l1lnu surface is the same as that found in (b). The charge density on the outer surface is . V Ie 41r a)

In computing force

We must split into two parts and get proper direction for each. We note that •• conductors must have a thickness, a surface need not, but for a surface we do not have

We have,

~'~"-'

• 22.

2.3

a .

,

Z~ Ir-a I

I

I

I

(a) If the coordinates of the first charge are (x',y;z'), the number of the images would be infinite and the locations of the images are:

(i) along the positive direction of x axis are:-

(na + (.I)n x' .v', z')

(ij) The Green's Function

where n = I, 2 ....... etc,

where ~ = na + (- I)Ox'

(b) The location of the point charge q is at (x' ,0,0)

<P(x)::: }; (-I)nq

0=-00 [(x - xo)2 + y2 + Zl jl/2

(i) The surface charge density °1, induced on the plate at (a/2,O,O) (_1)0'1 (x, - a/2)

a I =.:L E --'---'._--'-'''--_;_'----

4 1r [(a/2 - X,,)2 + yl + Zl IJh

(ii) The surface charge density 02 induced- on the plate ut (·2/2,0,0)

- 23.

_ q 'I" (- 1)"'1 (X" + 01/2)

°1 - '4;- "'lta/2 + x"'j~ + Yf-. 7.11~Ti

Let R2 be (y2+z2), then the tolal induced charge

00

= _ q L (-I)"

"'=-00

NathematicaJly the infinite sum is equal to 1, therefore the total Induced charge is-q.

Alteruatlvc Method

X

sa

T _

____________ J!'Q _

y --~----~~------~o--------~-----

«n

----·q~:.J~d- - -- - - -- --- --------

} ·3a/2

• 24 ~

..,

The start of the sequences of images necessary to make the plane x = ± a/2 zero potentials is shown in the sketch. It is convenient to introduce d,:,a/2x' and locate the image charges at a/2 + 2na -d=2na + X • for the charge +q and ill a/2 + 2na + d = (2n+ 1 la-x' for -q, where

n runs over :III ±intcgcrs and zero. As a check, the plane x=a/2 is an obvious zero potential if we group the charges as +q at x'+2na and -q at -x'-(2n-I)a. The plane x= -a/2 is an obvious zero potential if we group the charges as +q at

x'+2na and -q at -x' - (2n+1 )a. Either grouping includes each charge precisely once. The Green's function, G(x,x') desired is the potential «P(x) due to unit charge at x'=(x,y,z). Thus, it is tempting to write as our solution

I

J

i I

G(x,x)= f '1(x-x'-2na)2 +(Y-i)2+(z-z')1

n~

I

(1)

However, for large in these series behave as

1 1

2;-- 2;--

2n 2n + 1

and neither series converge, The series 2;.tJL is convergent, but not

absolutely convergent and the sum depends on the order in which the terms arc taken.

It seems quite reliable to first group the image charges in pairs, using the points close together to get the greatest accuracy .In this way we obtain

00 I

G(x,x') = n ~DO {[(x - x' - 2na)2 +(y.-i)2 + (z - z'P]1h

I

[(x + x· - 2na - a)1 + (y - iF + (z -z')1]112 )

(2)

·25.

--._ ,_ ... --. ---. -.-'------:-----:----~----:-----------~-

, );. ...,

.,> ~ ~ r r r'

r y

r 1'1

( r r r

.'

I f

'I ,

I I

,)'

\1 )

: )

I.

(

I I

)'

, .,

)

, _,I

)

, -

)

\ ,,;'

)

'1.'..-

) 1\..1 ,

" -) \

',0

if x' ~ 0 . This series converges absolutely. It is also the valid solution if x' < 0 but it will not converge as rapidly as if the term in x in the second denominator is (x+i-2na+a). '

(b) Set, y'",z,'=O. The field at x=±a/2 will be parallel to ± x and will be

E'= - V 1> = - ' 0 ilxG(x,x')X.. The charge density is

if'i\

a=--

41T

where Ii is the

normal to the conductor directed away from the conductor, l.e. at x=±2, fi = .x.

Thus,

o=!!.. oqG(x,xJ I

,41T ax X=±n/2

Hence, on x = +a/2 .

a =...:s_ 'f { .. (x - x' - 2na) (x+x' - 2na ,. a)

+ 41Tn:.OQ [(x-x'-2na)1 +yl +z,lj3h - [(x+x'-2naJJ)1 +y2 +Z,2)J3h!:U/2

(3)

:= _ ...9... 'f {(1/2 - 2n)a ,. x' + (1/2 + 2n)a ,. x' }

4n Moo [(a/2-2na-x,1 +yl +z,l)fh [(a/2+2na-x')1 +yl +z,l)]Jh

(4)

and on x=a/2

,;d { [(~+2n)a+ xl -[(4- +2n)a-x'], "\

., a = - ~ l: + -:....:....=-'----=---::---:0-.,,-;

, - ,.: 1T" _ [( _i!_ + ?na +x ')2+y2+Z2]J/2 [(1.!..+ 2na _x')2+y2+z2]J/2

_' n-·OQ 2 , - 2 (Sr

Note that the signs within and exterior to each factor have been adjusted so that the square brackets are positive for n=o, and that the terms in this case obviouslyhave the right sign. '

For large, I n] . , each of the terms in the braces is of order l/n2. Thus the' series will converge absolutely and the "Same result will be obtained if the positive and negative terms are summed separately, l.e., the order in the summation dues not mall cr.

If we ~ish to determine the total charge on one plate, we must evaluate

O± = J~:o± dydz'> 21T!,,~± r dr where r=y y2 + Z2 (6) A typical term in on~'of the series has the form

I'

21Tq foo, X r dr = _ 21TqX ., _' _1 .; ,"" =...9... ~ :::: { +q/2 if X > 0 ,(7)

~ 0 ["'Xl + r2 p 41T yX2, + r1 0 2 'X I -q/2 if X < 0

- 26-

This result could be derived by inspection from the fact that half of the lines of force from an isolated point charge cross any infinite plane surface that does not pass through the charge.

Unless we can sum the series before integrating, we can not compute the charge on just one plate since all the terms in our sum are of the form ±q/2 and there is no way in wh.ich the terms can be ordered so that the series converges in any conventional sense. If we pair the terms before summing, we could get the result -q for either plate and zero for the other, but this is clearly an illegitimate conclusion. The situation is much worse than in the case of (1), since if we rearrange the two series of (I ) by picking the terms in an order such that the absolute value of the coefficient of a in term involving x ± x'never decreases, the Series will converge to the proper, unique value. BUI for the series after integration using (7) the series do not converge because no terms go to zero. 'If we wish to determine -the total charge on BOTH plates, the problem again gets easy. By Eq(7), the Source point at x' contributes the charge -q to the sum of the IWo integrals, ber.ause for n=O the numerator of the first term in the braces has the same sign in Eq(4) and in Eq(5). For all other image

-source points, i.e. for all other n and for the second terms in each brace, the signs of the two terms are opposite and when the integrals over the two terms arc added they are, by Eq(7), zero. Thus the sum becomes

0tota! =0++0_ = -q +0 +0 +0 ...••.. =_q

(a) The Green's function

G(x,x'):: Ix ~ x" + F(x,x}

Dirichlet's problem which specifies the boundary condition at the surface-

G(x,x} = 0, and G(x,x') = 0 for 7. ~ O. Itis given that at z=O and I z = 00 I

<1>:: constant = V. If cylindrical coordinate is used, the Green's

function so derived should not have F(x,x').

G(x,x') = -/92 + q '2 ,. 2!l~ 'coff/> + (z - i)2 + ...; 9 2 + q '1 - 2 '19 \:051/1 + (z,. z»)

The second term is the contrlbutlon from the image

·27·

(b) The integral expression for potential is

( ,)- 1 J.II' .' 27.V' 'd'd

<I> g.I/>."l - --4 [2+ 'J 2' , "'+zl13IlP P I/J

11" 0 q q - gq cos 'I'

(c) along the z axis i.e., p =0.

4:(0 '" ) - I flll'f ZV n 'd n'd'"

, ' '1" Z - 2ir'" 0 0 [g '2 + Z2 ph ~ ":! 'I'

- V [ I 2 1

- - val + z 1

:',:

The same problem discussed in chapter 3 section 3,12, the potential is given as

2v -Ita)

<1>(0.7.) = - tan \-

11" Z

(d) at a large distance (g'1 + Z2 »a1) v z fa

<I> ( s I ¢ • z) = -2 I 1

1£ 0 g +s

Since (pl + 7.2»> a. the denominator of the integrand can be expanded-as

+~ q '1 - 2 s q cosrP)2 + ... :" l 8 (q' + 7.1)1

·28·

, ;

The result (c) is modified by setting as the folJowing:-

"

then the expansion is

z a1• 3 a4 '

<I>=V[I-z{I+al/z)lh]=V[2~1-8 1.4+"'] ( =0)

While the result of the expansion in part (d) can be written along the z axis would bel( p =0 )

V 2 3a2

ell = _a_ [ I. - -_ + ...... J

2 Z2 4Z2

These two expressions agree.

l

(a) The induced charges on the surface of the sphere

o' .. .2. E cosO ,411" 0

)

The z component of the force per unit area: F = (21£u')u 'cose. z

therefore, the total force acting on the hemisphere:

IFI -I: da"211"alrIl'/2fll'~'2 cosOsinOdOdr/l=9E~al

z Jo 0 16

(b) In addition with charge Q on the sphere. the surface charge density Q equals to

o .. ~ Eo cosO + ~ ,

.. 11" 41£a

The force acting on the hemisphere (along the 7. aXifor all other components

, )' (I) l!fI!l 211' '

cancelled out by symmetry IS Flo = 211"a 0 . u2 cosOsinOdOdl,6 ,

and for the other hemisphere

)

)

)

·29·

_,!

, ,

...... _---------------------:----_ .. _-' .. _---"'----,-,

) , )

. )

) ) ) ) ) )

2111'f a I Q2

F( )=2"al /: 211'olcosOsinOdArlO' F'=F(I)_Fl=_E1a1 + __

Z "J 11'/2 0, 't"' .. , 1 Z 8 0 4 a1

2.6 ('),. (~)

By image method we obtain the potential in the region between the two parallel plates

c1l=-IE:I(r-a3/r1)cosO

The fllst term is due to the uniform parallel field alone while the second term is the potential due to the boss.

The charge density on the boss

1 a~ 3 _..

o = - - - I = - I E I cosO

b 471 a r r"a 4 71 0

The charge density on the parallel plates with zero potential

) ) )

) \.

)

,

: ~ ','

) ) )

, I I I

___ J -.;:--_

,

I

I I I I I I ,

, I

3Eo

Eo

47T

~

.. c

" "" II

DO .. .. .<: u

>. .. c .. "0

, )

~ ,1

·3Eo 471~----~'-----2~n~~

~'~"

• 30·

(b) The total charge on the boss:

Q = j"rr/2271alsinOadO 3 E a' Itr/l

= ~ J« cosO dcosO

2 0 .

3 E a'

= __ 0_

4

-q

(c) Let us complete the image of the sphere. It becomes a conducting sphere of radius a and an Inflnlte' plane dividing the sphere into two hemispheres. It becomes a problem of four point charges of magnitude of q, -aq/d aq/d and -q.

I I

I '

11>- q q

- (rl + d2 + 2rdcosO)lh - (rl + dl - 2rdcosO)'h

aq aq

- d(rl + a4/d1 + 232 rcosO /d)'h + d{rl + a4/dl • 2a1 rcosO/d)III

The charge distribution

0=- 411f :~ Ir=a

The total charge Q:

·31 -

1.7 .: ,'J )

I'

p

T

The magnitude and the. position of the image charge arc shown in the Fig. (a) Its image is also a line charge. Let the potential due to the line charge be $1' The lolal pocntial $, .

,.:. 'At the surface ~r the cylinder

must he satlsflcd i.c. (J) 0 < R' < b,

must he oppositely charged.

. h2 '1 • R'

R =--~l1d.-- =-_

R q b'.

From the requirement that the cylinder is grounded we can show that <1>0 is a constant

4>lsurfaPc' there are certain conditions

(2) 11>0 = constant, (3) ,and "

R <jIo = 2 ,~n (b)

.~ . '.: '

(b) The complete expression for$ is . g'R <!J=2'~Il(-b )

9

The asymptotic form of <I> contains an approxlmatc term with (g» Rand g' » R) and a dipole term

The surface charge density:

For R/b=2

·32 -

.:. ,{

3

-11 ·n 2

n/2 11·

For R/b=4

(d) The force between the wire is an attractive force:

... 2T1R.

F '" ,Ex=b= • Rl _b1 X

2.8 :'. _;0.) I

,

Refer to the previous problem, and let $0 at the surface be 2'1 In k,

then the potential

£"kR

II> = ,G (x.x') + <jIo = 2, 2n (-Q-)

; b

i'R R ,[rl + b4/Rl - 2rb1/RcosO

"Tb = b .../r1 + Rl - 2 rRcosO

fR G (x, XI = 2 Qn( IT )

By Diricl~lct's condition and g (Xl= 0 l.e .• there is no charge in the cylinder.

I aG.·' ac . .: a G I

cI>(x)=-- j<jl(xj-.da and-a .==n·V'G=-aR R=b

41( an n

- 33·

__ == .......... '---' .. -,~-.. . .------:__----.,...-----:--l...---,..---,r----'--:-~--------- .. _. --'--- -

., ... -.___""

) ) )

J .I.c

r :.
I
II
I
I
'!: "f'

( r

r'

r r r r

,

\ r

I r I, )

i,r

I. r

I. f',

I. f

f

I"

!. )

!)

) )

I,

1\ j

,'\. ,.,'

3G -2(b1 _rl)

-I .= (~

a R R=b b r- + b2 - 2rbcosO

Taking unit length of the cylinder, da' =bd8 and the angle 8 is the angle between the point charge and the point where the potential is calculated. In general the charge may not be along one of the axis then 8 would be (8 - e') where 8' is the angle subtended from the axis to the line joining the charge. Then

we can show .

(b)

Vl

, '

Using the result in part (a), we can write

41= ::!.J_ J1I/2 (bl-rl)dO' + Vi /-nll (bl -r2)dO'

2'11' -1I/2(r2 +b;"-,2brcos(O'-0» 2'11'J;Il(rl + bl -2brcos(O'-O»

=~ln (bl -rl)dO V1 JII- (b1 -r2)dO'

2'11'0 (rl +b.~)+(-2br)sin(O'-O) + 2ff 0(r2 +b2)+(-2br)sin(O'-0)

From the Integration table we have:

f· dx 2 _I a tan x/2 + b

--- '" tan

a + bstn x..;ar:ti)l .../a2, + bl '

(1)

tan"! x+tan-1y =- tan"! ~

, 1 + xy

tan-I x::.!!. -tan-1__!_

2 x

For the first term: (applying ( I ) )

VI(bl _rl) /~' dO'

21T 0 (rl + b1) + (-2br)sin(O' ~O)

(2)

(3)

·34.

=~ (b1_rl) 2 {Ian-I (b1+r1)lun(11/2-012)-2brl

_11 (b1-rl) bl-r1

+ tan"! r(b] + r1)13n012 -2brJ)

b1 - r2

= :1 {tan-I [(b1 +r1)cotOI2 -2br 1+ lun-Il(bl + (1) lanOl2 -2brl)

2'11' b1-rl b1-r1

,

I !

Let t be tan 012 and tan(1T/2 -0/2) = col0/2 = 111

= V I tan -I [ (b 1 - (1 )(b 1 + rl) [ 111 + I) ,

" 1T (b1 _r2)1 -(b1 + r1)1 + 4b1r1 -2br(b1 + r1)[1/I-tJ1

I

= VI tan " [' 2b 1 J

r I - t

11 - b'l _ r1 (1 + 11)

By (3), we have

_ VI {/'1+ _1(2br } I-tl

- - n - tan -2-- cosO) ;:" -- '" cos 21 = cosO

n b - r1 I + t1

VI V. -I 2br

=_ + - tan (-- cosO)

21T b1-r1

therefore,

"'( 0) VI -v, VI -v, 2br

'¥ r, = -- + -- tan -I ( -- cusO)

2 11 bl - r1

(c) Calculate the surface charge density on each half of the cylinder. Since the surface is not closed. Suppose the whole surface of potential is 01 , then II tJ>( t, 0) = 4 no where a is the surface charge density.

Forhulfofthesurface [1I<!J(r, 0)1111 =21T0

'VtJ>(r,O) = a <I> I = ~ [ VI -Vl + VI -Vl tan-I( 21br cOsO)ll '

ar r= b ar 2 1T b -r1 r=b

=V1-V1(_I_)

2 b 1T cos 0

VI -v, 1

a=--' --

41Tl b CUS 0

·35·

When a is in the interval -11/2 + 6 a < 0 < 11/2 - 60, then cos a = + ,6 a

is inserted because of the fact that the two halves arc separated by a small ~a~. TI~is helps t~e physical interpretation of the problem. For if 0 = 1(/2 or -11/2, U IS lnflnlte, That IS meaningless. The distribution depends on the separation as the boundary conditions. When the angle is in the interval 11/2 + 6 0 <0 < 311/2 -6 0 the charge distribution is negative. •

(d) If t~le potentialIn the region is bound by the cylinder and inifinity, let us reinvestigate the general expression

4>(x) = J 51 (x')G(X. x1d3 X· _.!_ 14> (x') ~ da

y 411 an'

In general the first term is not zero since the space concerned includes some charge

2.9

"

-,:.' -;' ,.

q

The electrostatic potential everywhere in space: (i) inside the sphere

<I>(r,O,r/» =constant=V

·36 -

~ -

(ii) when b ~ r < 00 we can replace the sphere by a point charge situated at the center of the sphere to replace the origin of sphere with a potential 4> at the surface.

I )

.' )

)

)

)

i )

)

! )

I _"

,j

II) (r ,0 ,"') =Vb/r

(q=Vb)

. J~ ",

The problem is equivalent to a sphere with ground potential and a point charge (q=Vb) at the center of the sphere. Under inversion, a sphere of zero potential

becomes a sphere of zero potential '

4>'(r',O,r/J)=O; 4>'(r',O,r/»= 0; INr .O,.,o)=R_·

) 1 )

) ~~

}

--

)

, )

Let

....... ......... Rlt U r = r - r ' r= _

o ' C'l

, R'''-':

6 ~ _. u ,r

r - r'l

We obtain,

q'=-VR

._L_ 1

... 4 ... 16 r I r ' = r 0

(c) The inversion of a sphere with the center, of inversion inside the conducting sphere is a sphere either inside the Inversion sphere or a sphere with the given sphere totally enclosed in it or part in and part out. This is useful if one wishes to change the boundary conditions of a physicial problem: We can reduce a point charge inside a conducting sphere to just a conducting sphere,

j

. )

)

I )

.;»

)

2.10

Given: the surface-charge density o = k(a2 • r2 till (k=const)

diverges at r=a; there is a line charge around the edge of disc. If a charge Q is put

on the disc, '.' , " ,

Q = f adA = k J2 rr f 8(al • rlrl12rdrdO = -nk r (a2 - r2)-llid(a1 -r")

5 0=0 f"O reb

) )
--
)
,-
'--" ,
)
I
;
I
l'~
:)
J whence Q = 2 nka: from which k :: Q/(2 ,ra), therefore a= Q/(2 na..;ar:r'I ). Notice that the disc has been considered infiniely thin (and one-sided) so that the total charge is to be found by integrating over only one face of the disc. The potential inside the disc Is coinstnnt. and is given by

V = (11' Q)/(2a) = constant on the disc

To obtain an inverted surface at zero potential we subtract this value 'from the potential at all points; we have

·37·

~~,-~, -==-;--=-:~--.,.,..,...-------------..,...--:---:--...t,-~ __ ----.------_, _.;._,_~, ~N _'.----.-. .._

( .fl•
T
r

)
)
) 1
)
I )
'I
II )
i ,
II )
t
I" ",
f "
II )
b
[I )
II )
[, )
It )
, .
[I )
It
I i
!t ,
I
I
I~ ,
)
,~ .I
t.- I
\. ~ j .'

0, Ir - 101 < a } in the plane

41Cr)= {Q 1TQ I I> of the disc

---_ r·r a

Ir-rol 2a' 0

On lnverslon, for a radius.and center of inversion as shown in the Fig., the edge , of the disc transforms into another circle with center at

r: =.- (Rl r~)j(a 2 - r~), and radius a' = aR2jla 2 - r~ I.

The potential transforms :IS

so that the region which was at zero potential. will still be at zero potential, I.e. the region outside. the transformed circle will_be an equipotential, grounded, ,surface, for example, a grounded conducting-plate. The-region which transforms

"', '".~ .

into the disc will have a potential ~,,' .

. ,~,

0'2 .' R4 'R'2 .',

Now" _,' _,·'I.2_ -r - '( r = ( - + r2 - 2 -'r "cos r) III

.. \ I r2. .,.0' r2' ~ r 0

~.;., .~.

... .(.~. . ~. .........,.>

where :'{, is th~ngle between" r and To

.,r-" .'

... ' ... :' , ~.~. ..

• We have

-38· .

Therefore,

for r inside the inverted circle.

By moving the center of inversion, r=O, specified by ro. the vector to the center of the disc, we can obtain the potential of the infinite grounded conducting plane with a point charge

( QRrr . . . I )

--.,- at any point insure.

~a

(b) The surfuce-density.will transform according to

o'er, 8,1/1) =( ~)3 4>( ~ ,0,1/1)

r f

to obtain a unit positive point charge at the center, let

r: :: 0, Q = -2/11. R = a

• aJ Q.. 2 a4 -1 . - a

a = - - (a --) i2 = --=--=-:-""-~:'T'

rJ 211a r' 112r'(r2 _a1)171

(c) The more general problem of inversion of a disc is obtained by considering the center of inversion to be off the plane of the disc. The inverse of the plane of the disc is in our case a sphere passing through the point o. Thus, the disc will be transformed into a portion of this sphere. The remainder of the sphere ca~ 'be made to. be an equipotential, grounded surface by choosing an appropriate constant for 4> (00 ). An unit point charge will be obtained as in

part (a), in the hollow portion of the sphere: . •

We have,

I'

'.39·

2.11 (:2..\3J

I 7,

r

x

The boundary conditions:

(I) z=O,cll=V;(2)z=a,<l>=V;

( 3) x=O and x=a, 11'=0; ( 4 ) y=O and y=a, II) =0.

We use the Fourier series to solve the problem. And the expansion that satisfies the above boundary,.condilions can be written as

tP'(~.y .z)·= m~n sin(amx)sin(!JnY) [Amn cosh(')'Il1~(z - a;2»)1

" ,

where

~ = mn/a, Pn=nn/b and rmn = rr"';n2 + ".12/a and the coefficients

are found by satisfying the boundary conditions (1) and (2)

. ,r:t

. ~\

Thus

'I I. :.

V =m1:n Amn' cosh(rmn a/2)sin(amx)sin(p y) = '16V'

• , ,n 112 mn cosh( rmna/2)

4V

~n = a1cosh(rmna/2) f:siriamxdx f:sin!Jnydy

....

J6V

=-:---.:...:;----

rr2mncosh(')'Il1n a/2)

The potential II),e~erywhcre inside the cube

~ 40·

J )

"

, _ 16V IIddcoshf'y (z -'.1/21 ' ,

tPCx.y.7..) - -1- 1: ~I (~/ sm(amx) 510 (PnY) 11 l1I,nmncos 1 'Ymna 2

(b) The average potential of the walls = 2V/6= 0,333 V. At the center (a/2. a/2. a/2)

$(a/2.a/2,a/2)= 161V ~d(-I)!!!r~= 16V[ I _

11 ,m.o mn ccsh('Ymna/2) 111 cosh(v'r 11'/2)

2 I

- 3 coshcM 11/2) + 9 cosl~-;-(:j"Tif:;=1 ;:'11-:/':":2)

2 2

+ 5 cosh('l26 11/2) - 15 coshC:j34 11/2) +, .•.• J

The first term=0.2143836, 2nd term= 0.0092821, 3rd Icrm=0.0002835, 4th term= 0.0002658. and the 5th lerm=O.0000281. The potential at the center =0.333343 V. which is close- to the average potential. If more term of the series are cummulatcd, we obtain the exact answer which is 1/3.

(c) The surface charge density on Ihe surface z=a

I 0<1)

U ( x, y. a) = - 411 ( az) z=a

I 16V od.d 'Ymnsinh [rmo(7,.2a/2) I

= - ;r::-- 1: ,sin (amx) sin (Pn Y)lz--a

't11 rr3 n ,m mn cosh (rmna)

= O .

Addition consideration:

Suppose z=O surface has a potential v , and z=a surface has a potential V 2' Then we add two problems together. l.e., a) problem 2:11 with V= !h 011 +

V2)andb) , ,<, .. '

. ~l

11'= v. (V t: V I )

, ,.

, \

, .,_/

.. .I

I ...

~ r

'1>= • v, (V 2 • V I )

·41.

-; (~ I' v

I'

I' ",,'

!

r'

r

(

r' r r ,

r

,/

)

,./ I

',) )

I I

r

(

t (

(

('

( ,

l'

!lJ(2) = 1; pmn sinh(z.a/2» sin(amx) sin(l1n y)

m.m .

At z=a,

Hence

sinh ('Ymn 3/2)

The complete solution is thus

(1) (xoY,z) ~.!!. fdd _I-sin (a x)sin (11 y) [ ~ (V + V ) cosh ('Ymn(Z' a/2))

1TZ m,n mn m n 1 2 cosh ('Y1Il1l U/2)

'+ ~ (V _ V ) sinh('Ymn(z -u/2»

2 1 sinh ('Ym n a/2)

, The value of the potential at the center of the cube is as before with v=\-i (V 1 + V2),

2.12 (9.~'!),

Problem: Determine the capacitance per unit length of two cylinders radii RI and Rl with their axes at a distance D and the respective potentials of the' cylinders are U I and Ul

The two dimensional conjugate functions:

W = In, {(z + ja)/(z - ja)} = 2j cot"! (z/a) (1)

Xl +(y-acoth U)2 =a2 CS~hlU (2)

(x -a COl V)2 + y2 = a2 csc2 V (3)

Eq (2) and (3) are equations for circles. The families of circles intersect orthogonally. Eq (2) indicates equipotentlals and Eq (3), line of force. The expression on the right hand side is the radius. With the axes of the cylinders are on the y

ax~m~~ , .

~,'. '. 0 •

·42 -

R, = , a csch U I' ; Rl = 'a csch U1 I

and

0= a ( I coth U I I ± I coth U1 I)

The lower sign is shown in diagram A ami the upper sign, in diagram B. The general expression for capacitance I Iengtl} c = a/(UI - U1).

A

u

\ \ i J

\ \ I' 1

, .... \ I ,/

- c::-:::. _

,/ ",. ...

x

The problem is solved if the expression U I - U1 is obtained as a function of RJ ,R1 and O.

02 = a2(l..:olh UII± lcoth U21)1

2 (I sl U p' + ,- I U ,2 + 1 ± 2' cosh U I cosh U2 ,

= a co 1 I cos \ 2 ~

I sinh UI sinh U2 I

= RI 2 + R22 ± 2a 2 ( cosh (U I +' U1) + I sinh U J sinJiU1 I ± I) I sinh UI sinhU2'

= RJ1 + R22 ±2R1Rl cosh(UI -U2)

U U - sl -I (+ D2 - R~ - R~ )

I - 2 - co 1 - --~-.;:;."

2 RJRl

C = [ cosh"! (± 02 - Rr - R1 )1"1 2RIRl

2.13

With the aid of a Schwarz transformation, lind the potential and field distrlbutions at the fringes of two semi-infinite paralle I plates at a distance in between.

·43·

Solution on page 10. the discussion shows the potential and field of two infinite parallel plates. In that illustration we consider that the two plates meet at infinity and ~ = O. For two semi-Infinite plates (diagram A), it seems that there are a lot of simularities, but the Schwarz transformation is much different.

A D Y

y

rt-----\

2. B

t : \

A

The lines of force in the case of two infinite parallel plates are confined in between the two plates, but in the case of two semiinfinte plates, the lines of force originate (terminate) on both surfaces of eachplate. This means that we want to map the complete z plane to the upper half lot plane. The trick' is to insert a fictitious vertex to complete the quadrangle, however the space of-lnterest is the complement of the quadrangle AKDG. If K and G are extended to infinity', then AK:wUl be equivalent to the acg; AG, to afg; BK, bdg and BG, beg. With this IinHt;' PI 0:; P •.. P3 = 211 and Pl = 0.·1 Hence from Eq(14), we have,

dz KTI,n ~l - I

-d:: (ZI -a.) If

ZI, I

t= I ~,

A-+a, =+ l,B .... a~'= 1. K""al =0 and G""a4 =00 .such that the whole z plane is transformed to the upper ZI plane

.. -~ ..

."

C

'1 plane "':'~ ... ~;.

I 'I Voep ,

e qu potent al -: c onat

lI'

ddZ = Ka.(zl -1)1 (zl-Orl(ZI +'1)1 (za/a. -1)1

Z, 84 .... 00

(zt-I)" .,.,' ,

z:: -I(a. f-., -- dZI :: K [2n Z, ,~ ZI1/2J+ K

, "Z, '

·44·

Ka41 = const

84-+00

-)

. K", ",

", -_ + K :: 0; K = K /2

2 .. ,.,'

'"

Z. = a, = I : Z = 0 + j 0

Z, = a3 = - I; Z = 0 + j2

'K"Ull- li2] -K"/2 _;'j2; K" =..!_ ;

11

2. I -Z~

z=- [2nZI - --I

'11 2

The equipotential in Z plane: (in ZI plane: VO¢I/rr = const)

)

for i I r I I < 1 : Since r 11 sin 2if> I <¢I , the approximate expression can be written as

; ~

(between the plates away from the fringes)

For I rl I » I: .rl sin2¢1 is the dominated term,

,. __ I

y E!; -.! d sin2tp

11 ,

(on the outside sur,faces of the plates)

Similar analysis can be made for the expression of line of force (in z, plare r I =constant). The result of the transformation is shown in diagram D;

_J
"
,~} J
_.J :
, } _1
_.J
! J
-'
- )
.-' I D

.' ".:~ •

:,j' .l

/

Line or force

I

$=0

- 45·

I' •

I

) ~ I. I' ~.

• )

( ~ l ,)

)

t I

l )

/

l) , I

, '.

l) )

1..1

I

,_j

) .._j

)

" •• <

2.14

With the aid of a Schwarz tranformation, find the potential and field distrlbutions in the region between two right angle conducting wedges shown in the

figure. I

Solution

A

L

n

In diagram B, inside the quadrangle is the interested space with P and R extend. ed to infinity. In doing so this figure becomes the given figure in the problem

(diagram' in the problem) By Schwarz tranformation,

to the. upper half z 1 plane. . '.

~ I ',' ~ 1(' I ,> . ~ .' :. ) : (J i

.'~.' .. , , .... ,; ,~.··dz = K1TCi.-a.),,-J

" . dzl ; I I

11'· , '. rr 3rr

PI ::: P3 ::: 0; (32 :::"2 ; P4 = z-

31 ::: 0; a2 ::: 1; a3 ::: 00 ; a4 = -I.

dz . '. K(z + I)lh

dZI 83(Z1 - 0) (zl/a3 - I.)(z - 1)lh

'"z = K' f II + 1 "~Zl = K' {~ + f dzl}

Zl y'Zf-l. vzr::I Z I yfZf=I .

::: K I. {In(zl + v'Zf':]) + j In( j + ..;zr::-l)}+ K"

• ZI

·46·

PQRS is expanded

--lIa

--_. __ ....__-----------------------

ZI = - I; z ::: 0 + jO

"-'

ZI ::: I ; z = a + bj

K' {jrr~~ 1T}+K"=O+jO;K"=rrK'U- ~) K'( - ;) + K" = a + bj

K'::: - (2 + j) (a + bj) .

3rr '

K"::: (8 -DCa + jb) 6

2.15

(a) Find the .Green function for an electrostatic potential problem in the half

space iZ>"O with Neumann boundary conitlons at z=O (and at infinity.) .

(b) If the electric field Hz at z=O is a constant Eo inside a circle of radlus a and zero outside, flnd an integral expression for the potential at an arbitrary point. (c) Find expressions for the potential and the electric field on the axis of the circle as functions of z.

(d) Find an expression for the potential at large distance (analogous to the result of text problem 2.4(d»

p

z

(a) Neumann problem, to determine the Green function for an electrostatic potential in the half space (z~ 0). The Newmann problem specified in Eq(1.46) with (4)>5 ::: 0,

4>(x)= f gGNd3i+-I_ J aa!J>, GNda'

v 411 n

where

~ = 0 onS

an'

GN(x,x')= 1"":~x'l + -+ -+ wh.erex''''( g',¢:-z')andt·=(p',op·,z')

iii. l x +x '"

• 47·

Since

o 0

oz' = - oz" ,GN = Oat 1,.'= °

For i on s

(the plane z=O) we have

(b)

..

,. ... tf·.I .. ~ }¥ ~s.T+-y.~'"1f"·=_ ~:r~;==g=;'.=co=s(;=:I/1=-=::I/1""'.);=+=z~2

. E = _ il<l> = i!_: = {Eofofg'> a

Z oz' an' 0 for g'> a

If.

we have

.'

4>(!l,IfJ,Z)=-21 lo2d4>',/OOg'd g' EtC S",tp,D) .

IT 0 ...; gl + g". 2 g!l' cos( I/> • If .) + z 2

For the problem of a disc with charge density a = Eo is independent

of 1/>, put tp = 0 for convenience. 2 IT

'"

_ Eo I· ,/,' I

-11" 0 !l'd g'l"d(.L)

o 2 y7T( ===g 7+==g=1.n)1=+:=z"=:;ii=_=4:==g=g=;.=co=s=

_Eo a' 9'd9'

-.-;- la . Ie n + n ')2 + z,... 1" do: r=;::=:::=;::;:==;;=

v".. ~..~ _ 4 g g 'cus2 0:

. (g + 9 ')l +z 2

Put . k1 = 4 9 g"

. ( g + g ')2 + Z2

da= - _i!_

yr-:tI

and cos 0: = t, dt = ·'sin 0: do: therefore

.'

I I

~

<I>(g.,z)= Eo r 9'd g' '. I dt .

7T 0 ...; ( 9 + 9 ')2 + Zl 10 ...; I -11 VI _ kl t2

=!:2. la 9'd g' K 2.JTF

IT 0 V(!l + g ')2 .+ Z2 . (ve 9 + g ')2 + Z2 )

This is not Significantly better ...than the ori~'~al integral.

(c) Potential and field on the axis (i.e. g =0) ...

a • d •

<1>(0, z) = Eo 10"'; 9 ''l +Z2 = Eo["'; a2 +Z2·-Z]

. il<l> .

Ez = - az = Eo [ 1 • ~ I . (on' the axis only)

.48·

i.:

..

;J , I

r

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I I

I I I I

I I

- -

For large z , <!J(D, z) -+ Eoa1/(2z); . and E.(O, z) -+ Eoa1/(2z1)

These appear to be those of a localized charge distribution O£!O,tal charge (Eoal/2).

(d) Potential at large distances, but not on the 1. axis, Le, ( g'1 + Z2) »a2•

_ _ '_It; _ • .1': (.::rr ........ 'l."4-··f·:'

(1="'rJ<.7'· -::1T'~'_"$l1J =(1'-·r). p", ~!fl+z:) -

3(2 r1 g'cos¢' - g'1)2

+- +.;"~"I!"

8 ( g2 t z1)l

) )

{ } ) )

Thus

s: 'd '/2I1d'/"[I+ 2 gg'coStp'·g'2

o g 9 0 'I' 2 ( g2 + zl)

+ ~ (2 9 g'costp·. y'2)2 + .....

8 (g2 +Zl)1

Eo a., 9 ,2 3 (2 g2 !l '+ g' ~)

"'ygl+Zlfogd9[1-2(g1tzl)ts (g2+Z2)2 + ..•.

."", Eoal 1 _ a2 + (3a2 g2 +a4) +, ..... J

- 2.,fTf+Z2 [ 4( g 2 t 1.2) 8( g2 + Z1)

Eo

~( 9 , ~) ~ 2 IT ...; g 1 + Zl

\ , )

I )

This has the same general appearance as the result of the Dirichlet problem, 2.4- For g =0, we find

Eoal a1 a4

IjJ(O,z)E!-- [1--4 1 + -84 + .... J

2z z z

'.

It is easy to check that these are the first three terms in the expansion of

~(O,z) '" Eoi[ V I + a1 .1.1

. Zl

from part (c).

~ that the Neumann problem has a Green function that is even in z'. lJ'his means that the Neumann problem for 1. >0 with Ez specified at z=O+ is equivalent to the problem of the poten tial in all space (z;;;a ° and z <0 ) Ifor a surface

. . • ') E,( g • , cfJ ') . th

charge density o( g !cfJ - 2 1T on e

_'

1<0 1>0

surface of the disc

,

.. '

plane z=O, as illustrated for our particular prob lem shown in the diagram. .

Eo .

0=-

Eo + 4,,'

0=-

- 4 IT

0= o. + 0_

·49·

-~~~o:-:~:---~-----___,----.,_-,- __ -:--._,_----;...--_-...- ---:--

r

r r r

r

-'

I

-'

)

-'

)

1,_,

; ) I

tl,_

, )

i "--'

)

tv'

)

I "--'

11,-

)

I !<--.

I l~ )

IJ~

), 11---'

!

II-"

\ !,

Ir-'

,n_"-

:1. r-"

2.16 (~,({)

Usc a line charge with density

Potentlal ls '

9 " as Image for -r

9' .

r ' at

at

H 9 ,(41 -1/1'» = 2 r In(1/R) + 2 -r 'In( ~) + constant

!'

where

R'2=g'.ltg'1_2 gg'cos(ifJ-cP')

R'l = gl t 9,,2 -2 9 g"cos (cp -cp')

I

!

I II

Because oflograithm we must have r> - Tin order to have even the posibility of getting the surface 9 "',a to have zero potential. Thus,

. R'',I

4> = r (In ("Rl) t const]

Now we consider 4>(a, (4) - 4> '» = 0

0= In'{a2 t g .. 2 -2a 9 "cos(lfJ-tfJ') }tconst. a1 t 9 «: 2 a 9' cos (4) -¢ ')

',I

To give the ar~ment unity (without putting ,;"= 9 ') we c~oose !"=T and the appropnate constant I.e. const = In (g /a ) .. Then, with 1" 1

in order to get the Green's function.

, ,_ a4 + 1}1 1}'1 _2a1 9 g'cos(¢-¢') ]

G~¢"g; 9 ,tfJ )-In [ a1 [gl + g'1 _ 2 '1 g'cos(tfJ-cp'~]

. ....______ R2 = I '1 _ g '11''--~

(g2 _a2)( g.2 _a2)+a21 '1- g.p} In {~___:~:-.::-----;;-;-;;;-----

, a219 _ 9'I2 .

Note that for either 9 =a or g'=a, G=o, as required. Check for 9 ... a, the differnetial of the Green function is

, a G 1 .

I'm [ 1 = -'- X 41T li('/' -'/")

1 -a' . v :»:

g-+a 9 g=a a

which satisfy the B.C. explicitly.

G--In [a4/ g'1 +'12 - 2a1 '11 g'cosl9'2}

For 9'» a,9: ( a1 g'1(1 + g''/ g'2-29/ g'cos)

·50 -

S'l 2a1 a4 92 9

=In [ -('--cos(,/,·,/,')+ -»)- -t2-cos(,/,-,/,')

a2 !I' 't' 't' S'1S"1 !I'1 !I" v 'I'

~ '.I 2u 1 . a4 g

= In(-:'"t:. ---- COS(·k _'/") + __ + "1-- cos('/' _,/,')

u1" !I!I' v v !l1 IJ'l ~ y' 't' 't'



aG 2a1 ~ i y' 2( '12 _a1)

- = - cOS(I/I-I/I')-- cos(,/,-,/,')= - cos(,/,-I/I')

a g' gy'2 9 IJ '2 't' v 9 g'2 't'

For g' -+ ee

is no contribution from g'=aand Cl'-oo.

check that G gives zero sufficiently rapidly thai there g'~ 00 surface. Compute aG and evaluate at i) IJ'

a G. = 2. 1 • {a( y 1 _ a g cos(tfJ _1/1') - a1 t a q COS(lfJ - tfJ ')}

as' a1.(al+g1-2aycos(¢-¢»

= 2( 9 1 _ a1)

a[al + S' 1 -2ag cos(¢-I/I')]

lim (aG)= 232 g'2 {92 S"J('-2 S'/S' 'cos)

g'_""" as: 1J2 1J'2

(l-a2/(gg'jcos)- g2, 1/'3(1 -2a2/(IJ!J)cos)(l- 9/ g'COS)} ale 9')4

_ 2 a q _ 2( fJl - al ) cos (q> - q>')

-y.cos(tfJ-¢,) ['TV - 9-1- - ss»

The behavior as ,1/ Y '1 means that lim f, da ' tl> (x ') ~~ 1 • falls off as l/R

n->oo_g=R i)fJ fJ"r

as R_,.oo and gives no contribution to surface integral

(b) Capacitance of two cylinders; Take cylinder # 1 as surface ~here cI> =0. Then put charge Q on # 2 cylinder.

w =1 C~L =+ ffSadadu'o()()G(X',X',) a (x")

Take 0= _g_ as the lowest approximation. i.e. uniform over the surface.

2n .

:., ~ = (211T)2 fdl/l"fdq>"'G(x,x')= 2'1T<"dtfJ"G(9,tfJ;g',¢')

G=ln {( 92 -a1)( g'1 -a~ )+a~IIJ- g'jl }=In {d4 +ncgli~}

a 11 9 - s: 12 2:1 ~ aW - cosl/l )

9 == d == g' I fl - fl' P = 2u~ (I - cos)

L d4 I 1'" d

-C = In( 22) + -2 f o¢ In( 1(1 » = 4 In( r==) as in 1.6

Ullla 7r D ~ -coSIjJ val a1

·51.

(b)

,:!.17(~u..2) \.

, (li ) Derive Poisson's integral for the two-dimensional problem of the potential given on the surface of a cylinder of radius a.

• a4 + g2 ,g'2 - 232 9 9 'cosC.p -.p1

G(g,.p; 9 ,.p,) =In [ale g2+ g'1 -2 gg·cos(.p-.p,»J

~I 2(a1 _ g1)

a q' 9 • = ~ = - 'a [a 1 + 9 1 - 2a 9 cos(.p -.p .) I

The potential inside the cylinder is

<1>( 9 ,cp) = - 41" ] tdcp '<I>(:ql') a G( ~ ~;a,<fJ .)

With ClG I from the line above, this gives

a g' g:=a

) . 1]1 ". • ( ') (a 1 _ 91)

<I>(g • .p =2'n 0 def> <I> a,.p a1 + g1-2a 9 cos(r/I-.pl

With (a -+ b, r/I -+ 0) this is the answer to Problem 2.8 (a). To obtain 2.8 (d) we note that the normal derivative is opposite. We thus put (a 2 _ 9 1) -+ ( g2 - a1) In the above final result to get the answer for the external problem.

1.12 " z" .-

/

,

/

/

, ""1 ~ ." ' t

, iff ~ ~ i!

F(7.) = -21 .1 F(z') [ _,1- - • (~l / *) J dz'

711 e Z - Z Z - Z

= - f r( .) [ , I 1 J beW d.p·

2IT . o· 7. bcl$ _ Ii e i$ - be I 'Ii' _ b 1/ 'l J~

I 111 • [b e·M -.p') 1 d •

.- y; f 0 Fez) b- 'lei(Ifi-4f> + b- ge"(ifi-lfi') <fJ_

=_1 (b1_g1)]11l[lJ(X',y')+iV(x',yI1 d4>'

211 0 bl + 92 ·2b 9 cos(.p -<fJ1

: Taking the real part. II gives Poisson's integral of Problem 2.8 (a).

.52·

2.18 '. :... I. •.

Two flat thin conducting plates with straight edges and semi:irifinite in extent are in the same plane with their'edg~s a distance 2a apart. Both plates are at zero potential. Above the plates at longer distance than a Is uniform electric field Eo directed normally towards the plates, as indicated in'the sketch.

/ 0=cI>

D~ .\

\: "

', <1>=0

2. I

(a) Treating the potential as two dimensinal, show that the Schwarz - Christoffel transformation which maps this configuration in the z-plane into the upper half w-plane with A at w = _DO ,B at w=I, C at w=O, D at w=O, Eat w::1, and Fat

w= DO is a

z='2(w+ I/w).

(b) From the boundary conditions determine the potential ell (x, y).

(c) Determine the charge density a (x) on the top and bottom of the plates. (d) In the gap (in the plane of the plates) find the normal and tangential com. poncnts of the electric field.

(e) On the opposite side from the applied field, determine the potential and the electric field far from the gap'. Show that the magnitude of the field falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the gap and determine the coefficient of

(Xl +y2rl•

(f) Consider two line charges >. and -A·, located in the gap just above and below the plane of the plates. Let their separation be pIA, where p is a dipole moment per unit length. Determine the potential of the two line charges (in the absence of the plates) in the limit A -+ 00 for fixed p. Compare the potential with the result of part (e). What is the strength of the equivalent two-dimensional dipole that gives the same asymptotic field as the slot of width 2a with a uniform field Eo above it?

Two flat thin conducting plates with straight edges and semi-infinite in extent are in the same plane with their edges a distance 2a apart. Both plates are at zero potential. A uniform electric field Eo is directed normally towards the plates. (a) Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, we begin with the identifioation of the points A ..•. F with points in the w-plane:

z-plane: ABC D E F

w-plane: -00 -1 0 0 +1 +00

-.,/.

• S3 •

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

) \ .'

"

. ----- - -_-'-. - ._ ........ _----

"- . __ ._-----------_._-

v

.. , ,', .. "

Circuit of polygon is in the order A ..... F. AtBangle III =-11

At C 'and D III = + 2 11

At E ' 113 = -11

_A .. S E .... F x dz =A(w+ 1)+1 w·2 (w.l)+l

C " U dw

I I (w'1 -1) I

:' =A =A(I--)

~la-1 w w1

, I

1 z=zo+A(w+-) w

To determine 1.0 and A we examine several points:

At B: z = - a = Zo + A( - 2) At E: z = a = Zo + A( +2)

, Therefore the transformation is

. ',·a·' I

z=-(w+ -).

2 w

(b) In z-plane we have 4l(x, y) ~ EoY for Y » a and/or I x I» a.

\ I \ II \ I. \ W/= a

"".A D CD E F-

In w plane we have whole real axis at zero potential. The transformation is such

. that for large w,.w ~ 2y/a.Thus a uniform vertical E in the w plane i.e. F(w)::; -lcw is a solution that satisfies the requirement of a uniform field for large 1m w ~ 2z/a. In the z plane and satifies boundary condition on real axis lnw-plane. Cornparison of 4J(x,Y) ~ EoY for large y determines C = 30Eo/2. Potential

4l(x,y) is real part of

iE a a 1

F(z) = - 2 w(z}, where z ="2(w +-;)

w=':"±«-l

a a

We can solve for w(z}:

, i

.54·

lWJ::: I

: ~ ~ t F(z) = -i!v(z±v'zl-a1)

ui =: l"; I a W = + I W = + 00 2

W-O I I I .

- 'loW = 0

Choice of signs depends on whether 1m z :so O. For large real z above the plates we know that F -> - i Eoz, while below the plates, F -> O.

F(z) = - i ~o (z +...; zl'-a1 ) applies for above plates.

E

. Fez) = - i 2" (z - . ...;zr-::ar ) applies for below the plates.

(Note that 'we could use just upper sign If we are careful in defining (Z2 - a')~ and keep track of its phase as we go around the branch points z = ± a)

Potential is Re F(z) = e , a~ explicit expression, •

Eo E "

4J(x,y) ="2 y + 2' Im(xl - yl + 2ixy - al)~

E E .

=-;lY+2[(xl-a1-yl)2+4x2y2)!4sin[ 21 tan-I ( 2xy ):

Xl -a1 -y'

(c) Charge density:

I I dF IE'

0= - __ = =1=-:.:.2.. I ± _z_

411 dz 811 ( ~)

(upper sign for top, lower for bottom)

Near z=a on both sides, 0 -> -~ ...;_a_ Le, the usual (z -a)-11 integrable

811 2(z - a) •

singularity. On the bottom surface, for x »a, we get a ~ _ ~(~ ) 0: x-1

16n X2

(d) The normal and tangential components of the electric field, at y=O,

-0 l x I c a: E,,=-~, Ey=-i!

il x ily

In the gap, we have

F= U + iV =-~ (x +iyar:il 2

E u(x,O)=2~;

E

V(x,O) = - ~ x

2

E

o

811'

o

x

Cauchy requirement allow us to write

·55·

Ex = -au = ~ __ x_

ax 2 val -Xl

11'" (x ,0) I Ey(x,O) !

I-E-o-I :~ :

• I i

I ~ I

I I II

I . x,. ------4-----+---~~----~x~

------~'--~~--+--------

{ ·E

Ey = -(3 U a y) = + (a V{3x) = __:.Q

• 2

---- ------_ ..

.:

Ey in gap is just ~ of the field far away. In fact, it is average of the fields far away on either side' of the plates. For I x I > a, y = o" we have Ex = 0 and Ey =

. 5t (1 + ~ ) For I x I > a, y = 0- I Ey = - Eo (I -. ~ )

2 x2-a ' 2 vx2-a2

Fields are

;~l : ; :-~

. , I

&ch line charge has, <1> = ± 1" In Rl

,2 •

:., (I) = T In ( L ). ' R2

where R2=x1 + (y + d/2)2 R '2= x2 + (y • d/2)2

. _ -2yd

". <1>= 1"(-2--2) x + y

(0,

-,,~.

=-~~ ·1-··:··· .. _arz:= .. ~~

R2 = Xl ty2.yd = I _ "~

Rl Xl+y2+yd x2ty2

2 E a1

W'th d /"" ",, _ __£L. Comparisonwith(e)gives p=.,;.:_q___

I = P " cf> - X2 + yl 8

Note that the direction of the dipole is into the "Ileld-free" region. :

~.' ..'

·56.

-, )

2.19 (,"2.16)

(i) Simple proof using symmetry and linear superposition: ',' ','

(J) Consider one side at potential V h all other sides at zero potentlal. Then the potential at the center is ct>(0) = XV I where X is a constant depending perhaps

on the geometry. .

(2) Now consider all sides at their different potentials VI . Because of the symmetry of the polyhedron, linear superposition gives

ct>(0) = X(V I + V 2 + •..• + V n)

(3) lfwe choose all Vi=V, then we know from the general properties of Laplace's equation that the potential at the center (or anywhere inside) is V. Thus

V = X (nV) or X = lIn. '

(ii) Proof using physical meaning of the Green function

The solution to the Dirichlet problem for Laplace's equation is

<1>(x) = - _1 f <l>(x') aGe x: Xl da'

4n a n

For the polyhegron with surfaces held at <1> = VI, the potential at the center Is

<1>(0) = ~ VI f ( __ I aC(~, x) ) da'

i= I SI 4n a n

N hat i . . I ac(o, x) ? G(O '\ , ow, w at IS the physical meaning of - 41T an' . ,x J

is the potential at point x' inside the polyehdron for a unit point charge at the origin and all surfaces of the polyhedron at zero potential. This means that

_1_ aG(o: Xl is the surface charge density induced on the faces of the poly

4n an

hedron by the unit charge at the origin. The integral of this surface charge over the whole surface of the polyhedron must be equal to -I. But by sym rnetry, each face of the polyhedron must be equally contributed if the unit point charge is at the center. Hence

.r

_I I

f 1 aceo, Xl da' = I/n

4rr a n'

and

1 n <1>(0) =-?: VI

n 1=1

·57·

-;

) ... z -..) 1\:

I,

i-/·_ .-.J' )-'

_; )

._/

I

,,'

) .

,i >_. ,)

I ~

:, )

I ) _., il.L . :. )

, .__

J./ ) .

, '-" '

) .

'---'

L L L· L

,D

j_,'

) I

'-"

J.) V :J

I;

.u I'

CHAPTER 3

Boundary - Value Problems in Electrostatics, II

3.1 ( ).LJ) I..... '.'

(a) Since the potential is specified at the surface of the sphere the potential inside the sphere can be expressed in general form

Since there is no charge at the center of the sphere, therefore Blm = O. After a little modifications, the expression becomes

, 002 r2

cll(r, 0, 1/1) = lI~o~ ... lI[AQm ;-]YQm(O,I/I) (O,I/l)isg(O,I/l)

The spherical harmonic part g (0, tp)is g (8, tp) = V(O < I/l < rr/n), and

, 2rr

g(8 , 1/1) = -V(rr/n<I/I<-) n

ooQ

g(O,I/I) = Q~oM=.lllm YlIm (8 ,.¢) on the surface

For the case n > 1 :

It can be shown that all the coefficient. AQo must be zero and all A_em with £ =m=odd integers should also vanish.

AI~·=-i..f3iT nV [1 +2~'1( l)Qe'jQ1f]- A*

- - .... - 11 - - 1'1

, 2 2 .Q= I '

.inV 15 2p:1 q 'i2Q-rr *

'A22=--V-[1+.z;(-1) e n ]"'-A22

'. 3 2n Q ,

-inV 21rr 211·1 q -iss: *

A31=--V-[1+ 1; (-1) en ]=-A3,'1

, 16 4 q ,

, - inV 35rr 2 n-I Q .i3~7r *

A33 =--V- [I + 1; (-1) e I ]=-A3-3

, 16 4· Q ,

Therefore, the expansion of the potential up to £=3 is:-,

·58.

lj>(r,O,I/I)=Vn {-(.!..) .2. sinO [sinl/l- 2£"1 (-I)q sin ( 'l7r _1/1)1+

a 4 n·

(f)2 J5 .2 2n·1 q "'Ir-

a !Tn sin 0 X [sin (2tp) - L (-I) sin ( 7- 2tp)]

-(~)3~(5coslO-I)X [sin¢-2£.I(-I)qsin( qrr -I/I)J

a 128 n

+ (....':.? 3\in30 [sine 31/» - 2fl (-I)q sin(3q7T - 31/1)]

a 32 n

Physically the problem depends very much on If! and in fact. for every, rr/n the potential changes sign. So, m=O terms must vanish that is 11.£0 =0 • For the case n > I • the potential is ,symmetrical with respect to the origin and also with respect Z axls.Thls lmplles that the parity should be even.

PY£III(O ,r/J) ~ (-l)£.mYQm(O ,I/» therefore.Rem=oddmust be zero also.

, . ~ ~ , .

(b) For the special case n= 1 :

11.11= -Ar I =-iV..p;;fi

• • 2

, ... -iV~l7r

II.J 1= -11.3'1 = -- --

" • !! 4

The potential expansion of the potential becomes:-

Ij>(r. O. ¢) = VII {_2 ( _:_ ) sil10sillr/J + .2. [ - 3 Si1l05ill#5 cos20 - 1)

2 a 64

-IS si,,3 Osillr/J + 20 ;;,,3 Osi,,3 tfl] ( .:.. )3 + ..... ) a

If we perform a transformation of rotation with respect to x axis, we obtain

ip(r,O,¢) = V [2.:..PI(cosO)- 78 (':")3 PJ(cosO)+ •.•. 1

'2 :1 a

x

The problem exhibits azimuthal symmetry,

v

¢( r, 0) = Q~ 0 [ Al + IlQr-(Q+ I) J PQ(cos 0)(1) a~ b and II 0;;; r 0;;; b.

The boundary conditions are;

f~r 0 < 0 0;;; 11/2 : <I>(a, 0) = V; ¢(b, 0) = O.

. S9·

therefore

for 7T/2<9,<7T; tP(a,O)=O; tll(b,O)::V.

Anal!. + Bna-(H 1):: H + 1 'J 7T/l VP.e.(cos O)sinOdO (2 )

.. ..,. 2 0

Anb£ + Bnb-(!!.+ I) = 2£ + I f7T VP.e(cosO)sinOdO. (3)

.. ". 2 7T/l

P3 (cosO) +'(O)P" (cosO) + ..... }

(4)

For b"" 00 ,Eq (4) becomes

<p(r,O) = V {_!.. +2.( ~ 11"1 (cosO) - 2. (~tP3(COSO) + .... }(S')

2 4 r 16 r

I ' I

I

For a"" 0, Eq( 4 ) becomes

{I 3 r 7 r 3

t(r,O):: V T -"'4 (ll) PI (cosO) + 16 (ll) P3 (cosO) + ....... ,}

When b .... 00 ' ,the problem becomes the potential everywhere outside of a sphere wIth a hemisphere at a potential V and the other at zero potential. Therefore, A£ must be zero for all £>0 (i.e. except Ao)

, c!>(r, 0) = AoPo(cosO),+ ~ B a-(£+ l)p,I!(cos 0)

,I!:: 1 £

{' I 3 a. l' )' 7 (a 4 () }

:,.~,2+4(r) PI (cosO -16 '-;) P3,COSO + .....

.'; . - ,

This expression agrees with Eq (SY -:

When a -> 0, the problem becomes the potential inside the sphere. Since there is no charge at the origin, everywhere inside the sphere would be, finite. B.e=O,

for all ~. ,~,'

... ~ ....

It agrees with Eq (6).

. ',. ~

·60.

i

_'

The surface charge de.n,~ity, (1:: 4~Rl , except for the; cap shown in the dia gram. Obviously that this problem exhibits azimithal symmetry. The general solution

. for this problem Is:

c!>(r,O)= ~o[A/ + BQr-(H l)]PQ(cosO) where the boundary conditions are:

cjIln = c!> out,

(I) at r=R (2)

i1cj1out I a!l>'MI

-- - __..... = -41T(1

all r=Ran r=R

where o = Q/(4 1T R2),

The potential inside and outside of the sphere are:

00

411 (r,O) =l: AJlr£PQ(cosO)

n £=0

(I> (r, 0) = ~ Bnr-£-I P£(cos 0) + Ao

out £ = 0 ..

From the boundary condition (I), we have

; ARiPn(cosO)I .... = n~IB£r-£-lp£(cosO)1 + RAoI R

£"0 " r R .. - r"" r ....

00 £00 £00

l: A R = }; A R = l: B R-Jl-1 + Ao

£=0 £ £= 0 lI. £ = 0 £

From the 2nd boundary condition, we can show that

BQ(Q + l)R-lI.-l + AQ£R£- ::: - ~2 2£2+ I f;,P£(cos(J) sinOdO

Using the relationship i_ [Po+ (x) - Po (x) J =( 2 £ + 1) Po{ x) we can evaluate

dx .. I .. ·1 ..

the integral i.e.,

BlI.(Jl+I)R-£-1+A££RQ-1= 2~1 [P£+I(cosa)-PQ.1(cosa)]

The potential inside the sphere

<l> (r,O) =;_; - Q Rr~" +1 [Pn+l(cOS'l')-Po'I(co&.p)]Po(cosO)

In R=o 2{22+1) x" .I; ..

Similarly, we can show that

_ 00 Q R£ ,

<l>OUI (r,o)-i=o2(2Hl) r£ .. )P£+I(eosa)-PlI. +l(cosa)]Pp_ (eosO)

(b) The electric field at the origin: Er = ~-57cj1lnlr=o

The only surviving terms for r = 0 are those with Q = O.

·61 •

-,
\ )
" )
)
)
]
)
J
)
--.!
)
0., \

,

..J.

J

,

~-',

.j

_' ..

I

p
._;
.... ;
)--'
)-'
,_J
y
,"
ri
r
t:
y
r
r
r
r
r
r
! (
"'11
,r
':I!
,
, ('
,i'l
r
III
'(
jll_..
)
I'I_.
, )
ill_"
)
I'v
Ill~
I
11"-"
111...1
IIV
jlV ~
llO..J ,I
::0 E Q 1 . 2,.{ O' . 0') Q 1 . '1 •

= - -Rl sin ",,\cos c, - Sin eo == -4 Rl sin oce, r=o 4

: (i) If ex -+ 0, the factor

[P.I!+I(COS o) - PQ_ 1 (cos oc) - PQ_I (cos oc)] -+ 0 and let the expression be E (a small quantity)

<II (r 0) =.-9. _!_ (cos o + 1) +

In' 2 R

Q 00 1 rQ

2' t.l 2Q + 1 (E) RJH PQ(COS 0)

and E = _g_ (sin' oc) e

4Rl z

If the area ~f the cap is zero. i.e. a complete sphere, we have e = O. and cos =1.

'" (r 0) =.9... E (ex -+ 0) = 0

"'In' R' In

<II (r 8) =_g_ . E (0:-+ 0) = _g_

"'., out ' R' out r1 ,

'There are the results as expect for a complete sphere

z

x

'z

(ll)IBut, when n-+ 0:

~ -+.2..(cosa+l).==O=<II 1

in d"n 2 R ou

E = _g_ _I_ sin1 ae -+ 0 r"O, a= 1r 4 Rl

I' .'

Alternative method for part (a)

Let us start with <P(r, 0, rfJ) == f al(X')d,al (1)

, s x-x

where S is the surface of the sphere as shown By Eq (3.41)

1 00 ell

-- == k _<_ PQ(cos 1) Ix-iel Q=o r~t 1

If x is on the z axis, then 1 == 0, hence

1 00 rQ

Ix- x'i "" Q~o rQ+ 1 PQ(cos 0), (2)

for 1 == 0

The potential at a point P onthe axis of symmetry is then, by Eq (1) and Eq(2)

, ' 00 rQ ( 0) (~)d .

«I>(z=r)=«I>(r,O=O,</l)= I L --p cos a x ,a (3)

, sQ"o cHI Q

z

·62,

In addition to orthogonality, the Legendre polynomials form a complete set. Let us assume. that the series given by Eq (3.23)

00

a(x) = 1.: AQPQ(x) (completeness) £"0

Converges uniformly to a(x) in [-1,1]. The coefficients AQ are found by multi plying the series by Pix) and integrating term by term.

r'a(x)PQ{x)dx == t ' I}; AQPt<x)dx :: }; An/,lpn'(X)Pn(x)dx

-, '1£=0 Q"o '" '1 '" '"

Using the orthogonality property expressed in Eq(3.21) we obtain

I ~ 2 2Ar

1'1 a(x)PQ{x)dx:: Q~/Q 2Q + IOQQ'= - 2£'+ I

From which, since £' is a dummy variable (I.e. setting Q '= 1) 2H I +1

AQ= -2-, 1'1 o(x)PQ(x)dx

By the conditions of the problem

a(O)= {O ,0 <8 <.c or,a(x) {O, 0 < x <coso:

·ao= Q/41TR2 • 0: < 0 < 1T a. = Q/41TR2 • cos oc <xc-t

Then

2£ + I cos ex + I

A£:;: -2 - [.f la(X)Pn(X) dx + f a(x)Pn(x)dx)

x == '" x = cos 0:'"

2Q + 1 Q coso: )

or AQ =-2- 41T Rl J x = _II £(x)dx

where we have made use of the fact that flo= 4~ Rl is a constant. and consequently could be pulled out from the integrand, Eq(3.28) tells us that d

dX [PQ .. I(x)-PQ•,(x)]=(2H I)Pe(x)

(4)

Solving for P,I! (x) we obtain:

PQ(x) = 2£1+1 <fx[P~ + I(X)-PQ_I(x») Integrating the last expression from x 1 to Xl gives I (with x = cos 0)

'I cosoO: PQ(cosO) d(cos 0) = -} - [Pn+ (x) - PQ+ I( X fOS

cos = -I 2", + 1 '" 1 ,I

J

= H+l [PQ+j(cosoc)-PQ.t<coso:)]

Hence Eq(4) becomes: Al ==Q/(8d1) [PQ+I(cosa)-PQLiC(lso:)] (5)

With the help of Eq(5). we can write Eq (3) as follows:

«I>(z:: r) = «I>(r. 8=0, ¢) •

·63·

'~

= ~~7T:: ~ '1; r PQ+,(cos a) - PI1 _I (cos a)] ~ [- r I [P£(cos 0)]2dcosOJ

7T Q=o rsO;' +,

Using the orthogonality condition Eq(3.21) we have f +1 (P £ (x)]2 dx =: _2_

Hence, ' -I 2£+1

Q_oo .e

(fl(r,o=O,tP):: "4); [P 11 (coso) -P (cosoj] _T _ __2_

£.+1 +1 .e,-I r£+1 2£+1

For points inside, r<'= r and r>= R, thus

$I/z=r) = (!>In(r,O=OtP) = ~ f=o 2~+I{P£+J(coSO:)-P~'-1(COSO:)] ~~+!

Following thestatement made on page 64 in the paragraph preceding Eq (3.48), the potential nt nny point In space Is obtained by multiplying each number of the series by P.e (cos 0), hence the potential at an Internal point may now be

written down in the form '

Q"" ~

<1>'n = T ~o 2'T+T [P£(cos a) -PQ_1 (cos a)] R1!+, P£(cos 0)

and that at an external point Is

Q 00 l' R£

<1>ou,= T £:0 211 + 1 [PQ+,(cos a) - PQo 1 (cos a)1-jrrPQ(cOSO)

z

p

A circular disk of radius R with a fixed potential ~ is shown in the diagram.

K

a= -=======

~g2

where K is the proportionality constant to be evaluated. K can be calculated by considering the potential along the Z axis

, R2 r2

<P(r = Z)= 1rk[ 7T/2 + sin"! ( - ) 1

.: ' R2+r2.

y

x

Forr = ~= Q.

<P(r= 0) = v..:= lI'k[.!. +..!.],

~,' 2 2

V

u =--::--===

. 7T2,~

therefore,'

we can make u~f the symmetrical, solution <p(r=z) and the geA~~~~so'ution for the potential at any point in space is obtained by inultiplying PR(cOS 8) to the 11th term in the series of expansion.

- 64-

- .. ~=-=-~, '=' ~------,------

---------;

rl _ Rl

Let.O be COS-I (--), then.R/r= tan (0/2) and 8:: 2 tan-' (R/r)

r2 +R2 ".,

<P(r = z) P £(cosO) = (2V /7T) tan -I (R/ r)P I, (coss)' ' (1)

There are two series represent ation of are tanget

R R 00 (_1)2 r £ '

tan-I ( -) = ( -)}; --( _ )1 (for R < r) (2)

r r ~o2£+1 R

tan-I(!..):: 2:..- _':_;; HL r 211, ' .

r 2 R 2,=02£+1 (If) (forR>r)

On the other hand. the general solution for azimuthal symmetric problem:-

ep(r, 0) = '1; [Al + Dnr-(£+ l)jPn(COS 0)

£=0 .. ..

For R< r

(3)

Dy comparing solution for R < r from equation (I) and (2) with Eq (3), It can be

shown that 2' must be equal to 22 l,e. .

2V R 00 (_1)11 R 2£

<1>(r. O.tP):: - - l; -20 1 (-) P2Q(eosO)

7T r 11=0 .. + T

Similarly, for R > r '

2Vou (-d r £0

ep(r,O, 1/»:: V + - }; -- (-R)2 'P22+I(COS 0)

7T 2=0 2£+ 1

This agrees with the case that cjl(r, 0:: 7T/2) = VCR > r), because a common term cosO can be factorized out in all the odd Legendre polynomial, When 0 = fr/2, the summation vanishes all together. and gives <P(r,O = 7T/2) = V.

3.5 (;,. t. )

~(x)- a(a2 -r2) f V( O',,p')dn' (

- 47T (r,2 + a2 - 2 ar cos')'p12 1)

cjl(x)=lo!=l£m(:)l1y£~(8,,p) (2)

To show the equivalence of Eq{l) and Eq(2) of the Interior problem of a hollow sphere at potential V(O', cp') on the surface, It is neces sary to demonstrate Eq(l) and Eq(2) are' the potential in the interior of the spherical shell of inner radius a. For the exterior problem from Eq(2.25) we have

<P= V(o,eM

·65·

,..-
.0
t-'
J'
i
,
rJ
,
r
,
( , i
I
:'
r I
1 ,
~
) 1
I
_, . i
) I
_,'
) I
--
I I
I
) ..J I
) I
'_'
)
'-
) I
.._) I
)
......,
; )
-.../
) ,
'-"
) ./
'-'
) ,
.._,
L
) I
....."
. I
.._,
1/
. .._,
.!_)
~
..;.,..'
i ,
,---
I
;J <1,(it) = a (xl -a2) f <1'(a, 0 ',cp ')dU •

41T (x2+al-2axcosr)3/1

For the interior problem ~I' is opposit sign. Replace <1>(a, 0', CP') by an' II = a

V(O',;') and x by r, then

, <1>(x) - a(al • r2) f V(O', (//) d rr

- 471' (r2 + a 2 - 2 a r cos10)31l ( 3 )

where cos"( = cosOcosO'+ sinOsinOcos(r/> -1/1'), On the other hand a general

solution for a boundary-value problem is given in Eq(3.61)

• $(r, ~; CP) = 'f §; [C2m~ + D2Inr-(2 + 1 )] Y2m(0, CP)

2=0 m:!:2.

For interior problem r - 0, D,0n must be set to zero, At r=a, the potential is known, so that

<1'(a,O',!/l')=V(O',cP')=; ~ C a2Y2m(0',4>')

2=0 m=.2 2m, :.

By Eq(3.S8)

-. CQ~l= Allm = f dU'yim(O', 4>') V(O', if 0

00 !! r R .

Therefore, $(x) = l; l;, Allm( -) Y£m(O ,4»

2=0 m=·l! a

(4)

Eq(l) and Eq(2) are the potentials in the interior of the spherical shell of radius a. By substituti~n the 'explicit expression of Al!cn in Eq(4), we obtain

oo!! .' r,.Q

"; ,~(x),= f dn'f ;=.QY£m(O', CP') Y£m(O, CP) V (0', CP') (li r (4') ,

Comparing Eq(3) , and Eq(4'), we notice that to show their equivalence, it is sufficient to prove' .

a(a2 - rl )A41T) -!:l; * (0' '\ (0 (r Q

(r2 + a2 • 2arcos,,()3h - YQm ,¢ 'YQm ,¢) a) .' ~5)

Let's consider the left hand side of Eq(5) as an arbitrary function expanded in spherical harmonic as given in Eq(3.58)

_ a(al • r2)A41T) _ ooll

g(8,cf»- (2 2 2 )3!l-l;l; FQmy(O,cp)

r +a • arcosr 2m=.2

R =jdn • (0 CP) 3(a2 -rl)kt1T)

-~ Yl!tn' (rl +a2 -2arcos'Ypll

a2 - r2 , . aG I

a(r2 + 32 • 2ar cos"()312 =ar:- r'=a

But,

Then, _!',.. a2 ao a2 a ...

F2!1l- d,o,Y£m(O,t!»4jT(- or" )r'=: -4iTr;[!dUYQmG1rl:n(7)

·66 -

From Eq(3.12S),lhe Green's function with a=O, b=a.r=r' and r=r, the expression can be rewritten as

r.Jl •

: ( "ii' rY2m(O', cp')

We have shown that the coefficient F£m derived from g(O, CP) in Eq(6) indeed agrees with that of Eq(5).

3.6 (~,8) z

1

L

The boundary conditions (1) z:: 0; =0.

(2) Z = L; =0.

~= V(qJ, Z)

(3) p = b; = V(CP. Z),

Assuming the potential can be written as

tjl( 9 , cP, z) = R ( 9 ) Q (t/» Z (z)

Y The suitable general solutions for these functions are:-

Z( z) :: Bsin(kz) +, Acos(kz); Q( qJ) = Csin III + Dcosrn:

R( s ) = Flm(k f} ) + GKm(kS')

Since it contains no charge inside the cylinder, ~ must be finite everywhere . inside the circular cylinder. :., G = O •

From the boundary condition (1), A = 0; and from the boundary condition (2), we have k = nrr/L.

·67.

From the boundary condition (3), Lc. g = b

V(I/J. z) = }; 1m CnLrr b) sin (.nLrr Z) (Dmns!n ml/J + AmncoSI/J).

m.n

Hence Dmn= 'I b 127fdl/J IL dZ V(~, Z)sin m~ sin (nLrr Z).

rrLlm(!!,!!_) 0 0 '.

L ,

and

I lrr L . nrr

A ;: I d~ I dZ V(~. Z)sm (-L Z) cos ml/J

. "Inn nnb 0 0 •

rrLlm (--c-)

The boundary condltlons arci-.

V(~, z) = {V for » rr/2 < I/J < rr/2

• V for rr/2 < ~ < 3rr/2

From the result of the previous problem and the symmetry of the problem we can'~rite

nrr . nrr

<1>( g ,41. z) -s Im(Tg) sin (TZ)~ncos m~

, (1)

(or g = b

n n 2rr L 2 nrr. 2 •

Amnim(Tb)/o 10 sin (TZ}cOS m¢bdzdl/>

= V { f"/.2 bd¢ I Ldzsin( ~ Z)cos m~ - IJ7r/2bd~ ILdZsin (~Z)cos m I/>

.sn • L rr/2 0 L:

The integration gives a factor (l-ees (n rr» which makes n= even term vanish'

and a factor sin3 (rn rr/2) which gives ( • I )1' where m=Zp+ I. .' 1 i

, I I

A = ' J6V(-'t)P .

(2ptl)(2~+I) (2p+ 1)(22+ J)rr21 f(2£+ I)rrbl

.. ,(2p+ I) L

: •• 4>( g .~, Z) = }; . 16 ( - I )P V ' . stn '[ (2I! + I )rr Z 1

p ,I! (2p + J)(2Q + I )rr21(2p + 1) (e2Q :1 )rrb 1 L

2eQ + l)rr .

1(2p + 1) [ L' s 1

, (b) We now assume L» band z;: L/2. We need sin(nrrz/L) =.·sin(nrr/2) ~c'-I)'1.

where n=2HI. And,,~ ,,: " '.,

,.'

~ 68·

(Il rr ,

I, Im~ L J -C" n /b)(lP t I) ,

1m - ~ . ':' .(

L-+<>O I (rrnb)

m L

1:lUs

<1>(g I/> .!::)=(i)2V}; (-I)P(-J)2 (_)<~Ptl)eos [(2p+l)t/>1

, • 2 " rr p ,Q (2 p + 1 )(2£ + 1) b

};ill = (1 - 1/3 + 1/5 -1/7 + 1/9 ..• ) = tan-I (1) = rr/4. \ 22+1

W'" arc thus left with the sum over m or p

lim 4.>(fI.¢,L/2)= 4V E(-I)P (LJPtl cos [(2£+ l)f»

L"+OO rr p 2p+ 1 b

This series is to be compared with the answer to problem 2.8 (b). Notice

( 1)PZ2pt 1 _.

Re[}; - ] = Re E-' - (i Z)2ptl

p' 2p+l p2p+l

Consider

S(z)= 2! "!_Zm = E _1_ u-: 1 = II E Z·mdZ·

1 m 0 m+l 0 0

= IZ(I-zy1dZ'=1!n(_I_,)r =-2n(1-Z)

o 1 -Z "

S( - Z) = ~ _!_ ( _1)m Zm = - 2n (1 + Z)

1 m

Thus

-' «i j I+;Z

E --' (iZ)m = - [S(iZ)-S(-j~]= --Qn(--)

2p + 1 2 . 2 1 - f Z

Since the potential Is preportlonal to the real part of the series, we want the argument (phase) of the argument of the log,

1 + iZ 1 + j g /belt/> _ (b - Y sin t/» + j g coSi/> 1 -iZ = 1-; g /belt/> - (b + g sin4l)-1 geos~

_ b2 - g 281nll/>- g'lcos1t/>+;2bgcost/>

- (b+g sin¢)l + glcos21/J

II+iZI ~ -I 2bgCo~)]

= 1 _j Z exp [I tan ( b2 _g 1

The potential ls thus

lim "'Cg .!. L/2)= 2Vtan-IC2b fleOSI/»

L-+<>O'l' ,'I'. rr b2 _ g 1

In agreement with Prob. ~.8(b).

.69·

f

\ , '

l

l.

i

" I

I

.__/

)

'_.

, )

",_.

, )

-

--------------------------------------------

r--.-'-----~-- .. ~~ .~ ... ' .. ~-- .... a_---.......-_ .--------.~

3.8(",3.\0') ....

We need 10 show thal":;X JvCYvn~) is an orthogonal complete set.

_!. ~{x dJIJ{yvox/a»+(~-.c)J ( 2.):0

x dx dx al Rl V Yvn a

multiply both sides by x Jv{y vn x/a) and Integrate from 0 to a, and after some simplifications, we obtain

(Y~n -Y~n') 10• x JvCY "",xja)JiYvnx/a) dx = 0 Since Vx JII(Y""x/a) is an orthogonal function and

a2 v2

10• xll1(y"",xja)JIICY""x/a)dx = T [J II{Yvn)fl(1-7 )onn'

, Vn

lv<yJ.ll1 x/a) as

So any arbitrary function f(x) can be expanded in terms of

co '

I(x) = l; AnJ"{y,, x/a)

n=1 y .. n

, ,

and,

where now a = 2Jat a

"* 3.9 (~.1I). .

( :' The proble~ of an i~nnite ;hin, plane sheet of grounded (~= ° ) [conducting , , material with a hole (radius a) in it. If the hole is filled with a disk of same material at ~=V. The boundary conditions are

4l=:V. uz-o, g''';;a,alll/l (I-a)

~=O . IfZ=O, g>a,alll/l (l-b)

, Solve Laplace's equation subject to these boundary conditions. (a) Here we want the potential to go to zero as I z I .... 00 • The potential should not depend on ifJ Hence the appropriate form of the solution in cylindrical coordinates is

.. , •. , 4>( g, 1/1, Z) = Joo A(k) e-k1zl Jo(k g )dk (2)

" . 0

If we require boundary conditions stated in

00' ViC g..;; a

I A(k)Jo(k s )dk = { .

o . 0 If g > a .

(3)

Let us multiply both sides by I JoCk' g) and integrate next oveqs . By the Eq(3.l12) we get

- 70 -

,~------------------------------

(4)

Now, by Eq(3.87)

~ [ ±vn (k )];: ±k ±vn _ (kx)

dx x v x x , v+ I

(5)

where nv is anyone of lv' Nv' Hv; we see that with v = I, ±v=+, x =1] j'9Jo(k'S)d = kl. J1_dd (9 JI(k'9)d9 = k:i, JI(k'a)

. 0 0 I]

Thus A(k) = Val I (ka) (6)

Hence,

(7)

(b) Obtain the solution when 9=0. 10(0)= I by Eq(J.89) cI> (0, ¢, z)=Va jcoe-klzl JI (ka)dk

o

Thls.ls a Laplace transform. In Magnus and Oberheuinger, p I J I, item 4 we flnd a table of Laplace transforms, from which

'I' (0, t/l, z) ,. V II _ I 2 1

V Z + a

(c) Obtain the solution when I] =a

co -kz

tJ.. ( a, ¢, z) = Va foe J 0 (fla) J I (J..i) dk

This Laplace transform can be looked up in the Bateman tables or in Magnus and Oberhettinger P 132, to get

1(a l/!'z)=Va.!S....j"/l cos10dO I 4a1

, , 1I'a 0 V 1- K1sin20' wnere K= V Zl +4a1

::::!_ j "/2 (K1 - K 1 sin] 0 + I - I) dO

11' 0 O\!I-K2sin20

=Y... j"/]y I -K1sin10 dO _II -K1)V j"/2 dO

1r 0 1r 0 yl-K1sin18

V

<1>(a, t/l. z) =_ [E(K) -(1 - Kl) K(K)J 1r

"* '3.10

cI>(x)" - -I-H(X) oG, da"

411' on

The Green's function is used * 1 ~ ~

G·(~_.') 4 ~DO Y~m(O,¢)Y£m(O,¢) (n a +1)( I .!..L_)

x x = 1I'.iJ k r~ --- -- - .

, Q=Om=O (2Q+I) [1'-(a/b)22+. J <. r·~+J rQ+' b1Q+1

·71 -

- Dirichlet's problem

of

therefore,

and

Since the I roblem is independent of tP, :., m =:= 0, the spherical harmonics can be expressed in terms of Legendre polynomial. The integration in Eq{l) consists of two terms. One is with respect to r.:; andthe other, r >. Then the sign:cand>can be dropped out. After re-arrangement, the potential becomes

2£ + I ' 'b£'1 -a£+1 p

<1>= -(--) V:E UIT/2 P;(cosOlsin O'dO' [ 1 r

2 0 b1£+I_a2Q +1

Let x bea/b, then'

2£+ I IT '" ., ,r2 1 _X£+l a2+1

= - (-2-) V:E ( 10 12p2(cOS 0') Sin 0 dO bl! [ I _ Xl Q+ I 1 +~

1- x2

x [I _xlQ+11 }P~(cosO)

, 'I' 3' 'r 1'~Xl al I-x

=V {-.,.-(-)[-(--)--(-)] PI (cos 0)

,2 4 b I-xl r2 I-x3

7 r 3 I - X4 a 4 ( I - x3

+16 [(b) (t:"'X7)-(r)- I,-x' )] P3(cosO)+ ...... }

When b .. 00 so x -+ O. the expression becomes

4"

I 3 a1 7 a4 •

4>(r 0) = V {- + (-) (-) PI(cos 0) + -( - ) P3(cos 0)

, 2 4 r 16 r

_,,' + _!_!_ (~)6PS (cos 0) + ... } 32 r

When a -+ 0 (therefore x ..... 0 also) then the expression becomes

I 3 r 7 r 3

4>(r,O)=V{- - (-)(-)P1(cosO)+-(-b) P3(cosO)+ ...•• }

2 4 b 16

Then the two results agree with those in problem 3.2

,I'

·72·

-

3.11 C)-I.?> ')

) } )

A line charge of length 2d with total charge Q is placed in a grounded conducting sphere with the inner radius b > d as shown in the diagram.

) } ) }

I

(a) The potential everywhere, inside the spherl cal shell:

4>( x) = Iv (x') G (x, x') d3 x' - 411f/(X 1 :~. da

Since the surface is grounded we consider only the first term. The charge density and the Green's function are as the following;

and

'I>(it) = f f X(d2-r '1) (6(cosO '-I) +6(cosO '+1»)

, 2

:E P.e(C050 ') Po (cosO) r~( -! - - 2-)5In8 'dO 'dr'

2 .. r> ... +1 b2R+l .

2 d1 r1 d1 r 2

=A£~/£(cosO)[P£(l)+P£(-l)J{[l-(-i/ +1J[£+1-£+3]+T[l-('d) J

r£d£+3 r £+1 r2 'I r £-2 I-d£+~ [1 _(.!..)~'31

+ (Hl)b2Q+.[I-(d) ]-(£-2)[ -Cd) 1-(H3)b1Q+1 d

All the 2=odd terms vanish (':, PQ(l ) + P~(-l », but the summation gives two troublesome terms i.e. when £=0 and ~=2. These two terms can be obtained by separate integration. Although the above expression can be further simplified, it is left in this form for discussion in part (c)

,d 2d3 2d1 r d1 rl 2 r3 d 2 rl

9 = 2A{ d2Qn( r) +31) -'-b- + 2" +'6+ Tb} -AP2(cos O){"2 - '2

+ rlQ (~)+ rS(5d1 -3)-dS(5r2 -3)} +2Al: PdcosO) ([ 1-(..!: t'+IJ

n d 15bs i=l I b

d1 rl d1 r 2/ r1/ d1j+J r 1 +.

,x[2j+I-2j+3J+2j[I-(d) 1 +(2/+I)bl+I[I-<d')1 J

1 . Ijd2j+3

__ r_ [1-(.!:.)2(/-1)1_ r [1_("!:')1J+3])

2(j-I) Q (2j+3)b4tl a '

·73·

y .:
,...)
)~
f-" ,
I
f-
r
~-
~
r
-' ,
__.
I )
-'
-
, r,
_)
)
,./ ,.--------------------"-----='----..--:.__---------- .-- -.--, -- .,-- ,-_.,_

,

I'_'

1

I / __

, ) ,

u

(b) The surface charge density induced on the shell

1 3411 A 14b 6d1 , b b3(5dl-3)-2dS

0=--- =-_ {---P1(cosO) [2bJln(-)+ 4 ]

41T 3r r=b, 41T 3: .. b a 3b

+E 2P ( ) {b{4/+ 1) d1 6/+ I . d \lU+l) [ 1

/=2 l/;COSO 2/+3 -T(2/+1)+4/d(j)' (2/+1)(2/+3)

+b [ 2j'l -4/+3 ]+bC..!:'fU-J)(_I_)}

(j-1)(2/+3) d I-I

(c) The potential 41 obtained in (a) is not readily seen to be zero at r=b which Is one of the boundary conditions, but if we let f_ band d = b, it is obvious 4l{r = b, d = b) = O. In the Ilmlt» of d« b, the potential] becomes

, d r 1 r1 2 r3 d 2 rl

41= 2M2 {J1n(-) -2( -)+-+- +- -} -A}l2(COS 0) {- --

r b 2 6d1 3, d2 b 2 2

+ r1J1n{!.) + (5d1 -3)r5 }+2XE P1 fcos 0) { [1 + ('!:")4i+1]

d 15b5 /=2 r- b

d1 rl d1 r 2

x [-' - - --1+-[ I _{_)lJ] - _r _ [ 1 -(.!:..J2C/-l)]}

, 2/ + 1 2; + 3 2; Q 2U -I) d

and the surface charge density

o=-~ {14b _ 6d1 -Pl(cosO)[2b~{~)+ b3(5dl-3)-2dS 1

41T 3 b a: 3 b4

+E2P2 (cosO) {b(4j+ I) +b[2/1-4;+3 +b(~'fU-I>(_l_)}

t=l I 2;+3 U-I)(2j+3) a i-I

Although it may be thought that the wire shrinks to a point charge at the center, the problem does nO'fgive such a solution. '

' ..

- _._-----_..___

V2 G(x • x ') = -~ o(g - g) o(¢ -1/1') 0 (z-z,) and usc the result in (a),

x

I 00 im(¢~') 00

G(x. x ') = 2 7T ;=~co 10 KJ m (Kg )Jm (K g ')gm (z, z') dx,

must be well defined and must be a function both Inside and outside of the cylinder. g_m must be well bahaved at z .... 00 and 2 .. 0,

:. ,gm (2, Z) 0; Ac -k(z - z)

dg(z, z')l _ dg(z, Z)I = -41T

dz z( dz z,

( )_ 27T -K{z -,)

g z z --c

, m.' K

therefore, the total Green's function

G(x, x ') = E 100 J (K g)J (K!l)im (I/I-<fl'>e-K(z - Z )dK

m;f'oo 0 m m

_1_ =; ,t J (kp) 3m (kp ') elin(!/>- ~)e-k(z> - z<)dk (3)

It - t 'I m =-QJ 0 m

(2)

(c) In cylindrical coordinate, wo can express

1 I .

It - t'l = J p2+p'2_2pp'cos(¢- ¢)+(z-z,)2

Substitute the above value in the result (b) and take the limit when 9' -+ 0, 1/1' .. O. and z ' -+ O.

lim 1 =

"'-+<>y g2 + g'2 -2 g 9'oos(¢ -¢') +(z -zy ¢'-+o

z'-+o

therefore,

lim E /"'dKr!m(¢~')J (K g)J (K !lje-K(z 0 z')

g'-+om=-oo '0 m m

¢· o

z ' 0

2 = Z Z = z:

im(I/I-¢')1- lm¢-lm,¢, l(mom')1/1

lim e = im e e = lu;n e

¢'-+o m 40 m++o

-====l=-=lim ~ jOOei(m'm)cfJJ (Kq')e-K(z-i)dK

.~ ,m=.oo 0 m

V if - T L" g o

z' 0

m~o

3.12 (3.1~) (a) Verify that

1 00

- IS (g - g ') = 1 KJ (k 9)J (k g ;dk. We apply

9 0 m m

1 '00 DO •

(-.= r J (k gjdk and l/k= j J (kK)dg )twice .

9 .o,m 0 m

·75·

. Lipschitz's integral

1 00 00

It can be shown ' ? = j 0 j 0 KJ (g 'K)Jm( 9 ~K)dKdg

1 00 1

But g;=fogll(g-g')dg

therefore, ~'ll(g_g;=/ooKJ (Kg)J (K'g)dK

g, 0 m m

(b) To obtain Eq(3) of this section, wecorisider

·74·

(d) From Eq(6), WI; ootaln an integral representation of .the Bessel function:

J (x) = _1._f1tre1x coscfi·im.cfid¢ ..

m 2mm 0

We begin by multiplying Eq(6) by e1m'cfi, integrating w.r.t. 1/1' between 0 and 2n and dividing then by 2 n

.l. f11leik q costbe-Im'cfidcfi = 'f 1,",(_1_ f11lclrrtPe-lrricfidcfi)J (k g)

21T 0 m=_ 2n 0 m .

Recalling that (orthogonality property of the exponential)

_I P"ei(m.rri)cfidcfi = 6 '

21T 0 mm

we can write

_1- f2treik s cost/l-irricfidcfi = ~ jm6 .J (k g) = jm' J {k s )

2n 0 mm m m

':" .. j 0,

Now we can integrate on both sides of the last expression with respect to tP from o to21Tand divide ihen by ~nlthe L.H.S. wlllrernaln unchanged for we obviously have (l/(2 1T» f 211 dcfi = L"Thus,

o

I . 00 00 I '

.""=2==::;'Z=1i1l) :E r [-f211ei(m.m)cfidcfiJ. ] (kg)] (kgje-k(z.z·)dk

v!} + z !} -IoOm=.oo 0 2n 0 m =0 m m

z· -IoQ

=fOO:E 6moJm(kg)J (O)c-kZdk =r""Jo(kg)]o(O)e-kzdk

Om::c"'OQ m 0

But, Jo(O) = 1, then I = f 00 ikz J (k 9 )dk

..j 9 2 + Z2 0 0

From part (b) we know that

1 1

'lx-x'I=..j g2+g''{2 9 g'cos(cfi-cfij+(z-zj2

Putting m'=m (dummy letter)

] (x)=_I,_f11lcixcosl/>-lmt/ld4>,

m 2mm 0

where x a kg

; (

~so from the first part of (c): (pl +z2)1h= t e·kz~Jo (kp)dk.

!' .. ;, I • 0

,'Ifwe ~epl:~~ 9 2in(5) by R? = g2 + ~ ,; -2 9 g"cos.p, then we have on the L.H,S. the Inverse distance Ix-x'l-l with z'= 0 and cfi'= 0, that is just Eq(4)

with t=o and 1jJ'=O. Wt-have', -

( 5 )

1

L

I,. . ~·t~

Comparison of the right-hand sides of the above two equations' (which must hold for all values of z) yields: '

Jo(k Vr9-'11"":"+-g-:'''-1 0-"2"""g-g -, c-Ostjl-') = E elm.p] (k g)J (k 9 ')

1'1\''''_ m m

We have to choose a potentlal4(x)such that It satisfies' the boundary conditions and it is the solution of the

, following equations

~ - k2 Z; = 0 ( 1 )

. ~

(2 )

The boundary conditions For, z=u; rI(x)=O.

z=L;

Ifl(x) = 0 =- sin(kL) = 0 or k = (nn)/l

y

g=a; lfl(x)=O.

Ifl(x) =:E i\ elm (¢·<f)Sin(nnLz) I (nLng,,) {-1m (~Ln )1( t~L1T )"'K (nLng) 1 (nLn a)}

m,n mn m ) m m S m ,

The Laplacian of 4>;.

01..-1.' nrrz

\724>= L A eim(,/, ,/,)sin(-) f( g) = 4n6( x-x')

m,n mn L

where

f( )=(_m2 _n1T2)1 (~ ){I (~)K (~g»-K (~)1 (nng,)}

R 92 L2 m Lg< m L m L m L m L

+~{I (~)[I (~)K(nlTg»_K (~)I (nng>))

ag2 m L m L m L m L m L

·77.

Consider the following expression

.!i.g (t .!.) ce

e 1 t =:E ,m J (k 9 )

. m=-ee m

Taking t = iell/l

(6)

·76·

.'

I r""

r' , r

r

,

/

(

r

r :r

I 11'

( )"

II' _ I )

I" )

)

II', ) I" ,. )

I" J )

II' , )

II' j )

I~ , ) .

I ~ ) )

I ~,1

I

i~ )

/

;~

·t"!"'!_{I (n1l'g~)[I (n1l'a)K (n1l'9')_1 (n1l'9»K (~)}

9 39 m L m L m L m L m L

Making use of the orthogonality properties, multiplying both sides by e-Im(r/J~)

and sin (n{z) and with the limits g cr: g and 9 >~ 9 we obtain

nnz'

A =...i. sin(L) mn L I (nITa) m L

Hence

"'( ',\_ 4'~ ~ im(r/J-r/J'). (n1TZ) . (mrZ')Im(¥g~

'It x,x, "T "'_ "'_ e sm L sin L I (h1rn)

m-·oon-I mT

x [1 (nITa)K (n7T9»_K (~) I (n1l'9»]

m L, m L m L m L

(iii) Same as the previous 'part, we take the modified Bessel function for the radial part. We choose the solution in the following form

w( x) = EEl: A elm (r/J. r/J'> sin ( kITz ) J (xm n 9 )

m k n mkn L m a

After simplifications, the Laplacian of rp can be written as

V2<l>(x) =,; A elm(r/J·t/>')sin( ITkz)1 (Xmng H( lrk)l _( Xmn )1]

mkn mkn L m.a L a

=_'4ITcS(9 - g' )cS(rp-t/>')cS(z-z') 9

and

.' "

(3)

<l>{x) = E A el~(tP·tf>')].(k g) sinh(k ·z) sinh[k (L-z)] (4)

mn m n- m m. m m

From the boundary conu'ition we have'] (k a) = 0 implies k es Xmn/a where

m m m

Xmn is a root of:Jm = O.

Notice

.. 32 cl> I 3 <l> 1 a1 cl> a1 <l> V2cl>=- t--.-t ---t-

392 .: 9 as 91 arpl 3z1

.. '

and 1m is a solution of the following differential equation

·78.

d1R 1 dR m1

d92 t 9'df =(g'l -k1)R.

., . (I/J-rp')' x P ~x 2 x Z X

V-ql=:E A elm 1 (..!!!!-) (..!!'..!!) siJlh(~)sinh[.2!!!'(L-z )1

m.n mn m a a a' a >

d2 Xm Z x ~

+ -2-[ sinh ( ---f5) sinh [ ~ n( L - -: )]]

dz

Since we have z ( and z> , the integration for z must be conflned in a small region around z· where the polnt charge is. Multiply the expression by eim (/ft-t/J)

and Jm( Xml19) the coefficent A can be obtained by their orthogonality pio

a mn

perty '. .

41 (~)

A :: m

mn a(Xmn)Jln+I(Xmn)s.inheXmnL) a

4 00 00 imet/>· rp'>J (XmnP)J (X mng·)

cl>(x,xl=-E E e . m a m a . Xmn . Xmnz.:

3m=·oon=1 1 . Xm L ---xslllh[-(L-~)lsmh[--)

XmnJm(Xmn)slnh~) a a

(Ii) We expand the series that represent the potential in terms of modified Bessel Function

cl>(x):: E e1m(</!'¢\in(k z)ip!(k 9JIJi2(k 9»

m ,n n n n

where "'I (kg.) and "'l(kg,) arc functions to be determined to satisfy.

the boundary conditions and there must be some combination of 1m and ~

for 9 <. s: and it requires to be finite at the origin for g :> 9".

1/11 (k g<) :: Blm (k 9<)

1/12 (k q~) = elm (k g» + DKm (k s,

. ,( Xm n 9 ) • ( Xm n 9 ') k ITZ knz'

8 e,m (r/J.rp)J -a- J -a- sin (T) sin (T)

<flex) = E -' m m x-------

m,n,k La2 [J?n+l(Xmn) I (Xmn)2 +(k1l')1

a L

The series expansion can be readily reduced to the form obtained in part (i) by the relationship

2 00 -E

c n=l

The extra summation in part (iii) is. necessary since <I> is required to satisfy the boundary conditions. k in J m (k ':I ) and in sin(kz) cannot be predetermined.

·79·

In the case (I) and (ii), the k in Jm (K g ) Is a series k = k Xm n in which there

• a

may be one or several k = Xm n equivalent to k = nLrr in the sine function.

, a

(Alternative method)

This problem requires the determination of the Green function for a cylindrical box of radius g=a and'ends at z=O and z=L, the potential of the box being zero. There is a unit point charge at g', 0' ,z' inside the box.

" . '\"!

(a) Let us divide the box into two sections by a plane z=z' though the point charge. General functions that satisfy Laplace's eqn. in th, tW\J halves, the boundary conditions over the surfaces of the box, and allow the possibility of expanding arbitrary functions overthe plane z=z' are by Eq (3.108):

For 0 <: z <: z'

00 00 "" x x

<l\ = L L A elm 'f' J (.2!!.!!.. g ) sinh (_!!!E. z) ,

m='oon=1 mn m a' a

( 1 )

Fori<: z <: L

00 00 J. X x

cfl1=L k B elm'f'J (_!!!.!lg)sinh-.!!L!l(Loz).

m='oon=1 mn m a a'

{:Z )

Since the two potentials must be equal at z=z', we must have for the coefficients

A sinh (x z'/a) = n sinh xm n (L 0 z") = Cmn ( 3 )

mn mn mil' a

-where Eqn, (3) defines Cm n'

Since there is charge only at I} = I}' ~ vsz'

t!> = 1/1' in this plane, we must have at

, ""'a~1 acflll ' . ( , "'') (

~~=o_ ,=E11=o_ • except at g.'f' 4)

az z=z az z=z . '

The total nux orE out through the surfaces z=z'± c is 4rr by Gauss' theorem, and as e: ... 0 the net flux through two essentially coincident elements of area,

one In each surface, approaches zero. Hence-we must have: .

J l( 0311>11 + a 11>11 J gdg dt/!== (!ldfS contains (I)' ,1/1, (5)

• ,az z' az z' 0 if S does not contain( g', 1/>1

if we integrate over any area S in the z=z' plane, l.e. integrate over the projection of this S on the two surfaces z == z'+ c , Z = z'o £ • and add together the results. The square bracket in the integrand is

[E oE 1,=L[n coshxmn(LoZ'tA cosh!.!.'1n7.'jXmnclmt!>J (xmng)

h I Z 7. m n mn a lll,!l a a m a

: ' ( Xmn ). ,

== L Cmnsin { a. r(L Oz} + z J }xmn elmt/>Jm(~g) (6)

mn Sin~C,~~nZ)sin X:n (Lozl a

·80·

.. ~'

":

------------ ~~ ~ ~~ ~'"----

') )

by Eq, (3) and the identity sinhAcoshn + sinhB coshA =sinh(A+B). By the usual theorems for determining the coefficients of series' of orthogonal polynomials,

; ,

and text equations (3.94) and (3.95) we multiply Eq. (6) by 'cotiilt/!J _ (Xiii n g) m a

and Integrate it over the area of the circle: z=z', 0" p<: a, 0" t/> < 2rr ".

XiiI» Ciilil sinh ( x,n»L/a ) 2rr ~ [ J _ (x- _) )2

Dii1ii: x-- x-- 2 m+1 mn

sinh 2!.!l z· sinh...!!!.!!.. ( L 0 z')

a a

where D- - wiu be used a convenient abbrcviation as indicated. As argued above mn

[ E2z 0 Ell J e: 0 except at g = g " t/> = tj>'. Thus it Is csscnlially ',4 rr times a

two dimensional Dirac li -function and, dropping the bars,

D =4rre-1m¢'J (xmn g ')

mn m a

Thus,

The remaining job is to combine Eqns, (1), (2), (3), and (8). We have thus succeeded in obtaining for the Green function that vanishes on the bounding surfaces of the cylindrical region the expression:

x n >

( xmn g) (--lM.L)

. 400 00 e1m(t/>·t/>1Jm a 1m ' a

cfl(g"t/>,z)=G(x,x,)=-L L J2 ( ) 'nh L

am=.oon=IXmnm+lxmnSI (xmn)

.a

sinh [xmn z } sinh [xmn (Loz )]

~ a a

x

(9)

'I,

i:

I

"

(b) Wc repeat here a similar analysis, dividing the box into two parts by the cylindrical surface g = I}' In this case we wish to be able to expand an arbitrary function over this surface and hence must use the term sin(n rr z/L)clm¢ in our

solution. We consider solutions of Laplace's equation of the form:

cfl= ~ ~ elmt/!sin~ [A I (nrr~ ) + B K (nrrg,)]( 10)

m='oon=l L mn m L mn m L

For the solution valid for g < r. we require good hchnvlor at g. 0 lind hence must have B = O. For the solution valid for g' or;; 9 ~ a, we must have .4l = 0 at p =' a' anthncnce must use as the square brakcet In Eq. (10)

C [K (~)I (nrrgl)I (~)K (nrry>!,

mn m L -m L m L m L

·81 •

,
,'" t If
I
I r
i- r ,
. , ,. ' ..
r' 'j
I -
..- r r

) ) )

-'

)

, J

J, 1" j

_.

Denne this square bracket to beF mn( 9 )and write as the series for bothsolutions

cll( 9 ,1,6, z) = 1; ~ A elrnlPsin~ I (nlT9 < ) F (g » ( 11 )

, . . .rn=_n=1 mn L rn L rnn

where g" (g » is the smaller (larger) of g and 9 " With this form of the

solution cll( 9 ,IP, z) is continuous across 9 = g', Let E+be the field in

region 9> q' ilndE-the field for g < g'.Then by considering Gauss' theorem applle-' to integrals over two surfaces," 9 = 9 '± c , c .... 0, we see that

[E'-E-, . _4~ li(c/)-I/>jli(z-z')

9 gg=g' 9

I.e. a two dimensional Dirac Ii·function (times 4lT), But

( E+ _ E-) = [ _ 3<!l+ + 3<!l- )

9 9 r 3g as

= 1: 1: A eirnl,6sin ~ x [ - F' (g ')1 (nlT 9 ') + nlT "( nlTg')F (g ') lie 12 )

rnn L mn mL LmL mn

The square bracket of Eqn(12) yields upon expansion

[-F' .")"~{'K (~)I,(nlTq')1 (mr9')+1 (~)K' (nlT9')1 (mrg')

m" L mLmLmL rnL mL mL,

+I'(~)K' (nml)} (I11r9')_I,(lIlT9')1 (~)K (nlT9')}

m L rn L rn L m L m L. m L

We can rewrit,e the last expression as follows:

(~F' ..... J= n1T(I ('~»{I Cnng')K' Cnng')} (13)

mn . L m L m L_, m L

. ; The qliantity Inside the curly bracket on the right hand side of Eq(13) is a Wronskian, which is not hard to evaluate from the differential eqn; this Wronskian is also given in the "Han"'dbook of Mathematical Functions" by Abramowits and Stegun 9.6.1S on page 37S. it is:

W{I (z),K (z)}=I K'·K I' =_..!..=._!:_

m m m m m rn Z lln r; ,

" Therefore, Eqn.(13).be~omes' .

{, .• } =- _!_ I (~)'

g' m L _"

Substitution of Eq(14) into Eq (12) yields at once

[E+-E-] = 1:1: A imt/l,~(-I)I (nna)

9 g. g' m n mne sin L g' m L

. ~ 4n

. =-,li(IP-lPjli(z-z,)

,I,., r;

Multiplying both sides of Eq.(l S) by e·1ifit/lsin(n1T/L) and integrating over the

(14)

. .:

(15)

·82.

volume of the cylinder defined by: 0" z..;; L. 0 < t/l" 211, fJ = Y " we lind Ihut we can set

A ') L I (mra)_ 411 .Iiii"'·, (Iill'l)

- - _n - - -_ C 't' Sill --

mn 2 fJ 'm L g' L

( 16 )

Solving Eq(16) for Amn and substituting into Eq(ll) yields

I' Il7rp<

00 00 " n nz , nnz' m(-'C I

,l,( . ) - G(' '\ - 4" ,. e Im{t/l'C/llslIl (--) SUI (._-- )-_ •. "

'I' fJ. rf>. 'I. - x, X J --L" - L L I (IIII'll)

01=-000::1 III T

( 17 )

x [I (nll'a) K (nn fJ> ) _ I nll'p< K (~ll

In L III L III ( L) III L .

(e) The solution involving a triple sum follows directly from the theorem of section 3.11 ,of the text. The eigenfunction equation is

• '\12", + 'AI/I=O (18)

where the boundary conditions are

{ 2'=0, o c s c a, o «s« 2

1/1 ::: 0 for 2 = L, 0 " g oe;; 1I, 0 oe;; t/l :r>; 2

fJ=a Ooe;;!/>oe;;2,0";z";;L

From section 3,6 of the text, functions that satisfy the boundary conditions and

arc well behaved at fJ =0 lire written as follows .

1/1 = N elm!/> sin kll'l J (xmnp) (20)

L m a

If Eq(20) is substituted into Eq(18) we obtain, using text Eq{3.7I) on page 69

( II) )

From which.

'A = (~? + X~\Il

rnnk L a1

(21)

Next we normalise the functions in Eq(20), using text Eq(3.155) and (3,95)

to get .

" I.

1 = N2 2 Lal J2 (x )

rnn 4 m+1 010

From which,

2

(22)

Nl '"

rn n Lna2J~+1(xmn)

Finally, the Green function is given by text equation (3.,160) on page 88 with

'A=O. '.

800 00 00 Im{tjJ.t/l,>,(k7TZ) .. (~lTl:)J (xmn'l)J'('Xmn9)

G(x X) = - ~ k ~ e Sin L Sin L mum a

, La'OI=·ook=ln=1 X kn .

[( :1)' + (-c )21 J:nt I (xnu1) (23)

-!!J -

• which Is the result we setout to lind out.

As is known. the uniqueness theorem tells us that we can obtain one and only one Green function. i.c .• only one potential. In view of this theorem we may think it questionable whether we arc entitled to get more than one expression for such a Creen function. It turns out that we may have indeed several different ways - three in our .case at hand - in which this Green function may be expressed. The uniqueness theorem docs the job for us in guarantying that they arc all equivalent expressions. The fact is that in different situations one form of expressing the Green function may be more useful than the others; this explains why we do have three different form's for the Green function in this

problem. Refer to Eq (9). (17) and (23). '

Since all these three expressions arc equal. and since Eq (23) contains the same sets of complete [unctions as Eq (17) and Eq (9), the following must be identltles, From Eq (9) and Eq (23)

sin~10..sin~~ sinh(~117'':)sinhl xmn (L-z~)J

~}; L L :' a a

L:12R=I{(Xmn)1+(~)1 X sinh(xmnL)

a L mn a

From Eq(17) and Eq (23) .• interc)1~ngiJ1g indices nand kin Eq (17).

J (Xmnq)J'.( xmn q' ')' ,

200 01 a m il

-1: -----

a2 n"l [( ~)l + (~)21J2 (x )

a a m t I mn

I (kIT g ') .

= m L [I (klTa) K (kIT !l » ~ K (kITa) I (kIT Y » J

I (k1Ta) m L m L m L m L

m L

, Eq (24) appears to be equivalent to text Eq (3.169) ..

3.14 l:> '21

Same as the previous problem: the.walls of the conducting cylindrical box arc all. at zero poten tial .. except for a disc in the upper end. defined by g =b, at potential V.

(li) Using the various forms of the Green's fJ~ction<obtained in the previous problem,

~( lind three expansions for the potential inside the cylinder.

It is Dirichlet problem

+'

(i)ttl(x):.=; fg (x,)C(x,x,)uJx- 4; :V'(:1-:~"~a'

) )

From the expression (i) in problem 3.13, we have

ac I 4 e1m(I/J.c//)J (X~n 5')J (x~n!l') ....... .

_ = _ 1:1: m m (_ xmn ) sinh ( xmn Z )

a 1. Z=L a C a a

From the symmetry of the problem, the only non-vanishing term is m=O.

10 (xon q) J~( Xon g )

. "'( ) _ 2V ~ Jb a a (XOn ) . I (XOn Z) 'd •

'i' x --4,J . -_ Sllll -- 9 9

an::) 0 xonJ1(xon)smh(xonL) a a

a

J 1 ( xonb ) lo( Xoll5' ) sinh ( xonZ)

a a a

2Vb 00 <!l(x)=--1:

a n=·1

xonJHxon )sinhtonL) ,a

(Ii) From the expression (ii) in problem 3.13. we have

I (~g )

ac I 4 . d.' n1TZ m L <

- =- 1:1: e1m('¥'¢)sin(-)cos(nlT) [I K - K I )

at' z'=L L L nna m m m m

Im(T)

(iii) From the expression (iii) in problem 3.13, we have

Im(I/J-ifJ'). (k1Tt~)(...!:_'l-.os(klT)J (xmng) J (xmn5')

a c I 8 e Sill L kIT"" m a m a

- =- E 1: E ------------------

a Z r z'= L La 2 m n k [ (Xmn )2 + ( kIT )1] J2 (X )

a L m+) 1M

I
.../
) .
I
!11
,.,1
../
.) (b) With the substitutions z=L/2. b=L/4 and a=L/2, the following expressions can be obtained

·85.

r--.'-,--,-"----'~------'--:......-,------'------..'-----,.--;:..-----'--------------------------- ..... -

) )

\
l
I.. )
) .........
I.
I.. )
I
)
\ J
)
l .'
I
l! ,
I
~1
I
4'
",
~'
I
W
~
\+' (i)

(li)

V ( 1 )n L IoC nLlT q) ,

41(x),=l! - sin~nlT) , [Io~nlT)K~(~)-Ko(~)I~(~)l

, n = 1 ~ IT n ' 2 10 ( n2lT) 2 4 2 4

sin (nlT/2) we have b~ly the odd terms,

(iii)

(_l)ksin(lT~)Jo(x;~g •. ) It(xon)

41(x) = 2V l! 2! a, a 2

IT k= 1 n= I k.xon ~(2~n )2 + ( k ~ )1 J JH.xo·~ )

It is a 'good exercise to substitute numerical values and cross check the correctness of the equivalent three expressions of the same problem.

3.1S

Consider the solution of Laplace's equation in two dimensions using separation of variables in polar coordinates' (g, f/l) for the region bounded by the two lines (conducting planes) f/l = 0 and 1/I={3, 0";; (3";; 2,

with the boundary lines held at zero potential.

(a) Find the general solution as a series expansion with arbitrary coefficients for the potential and for the surface charge density on each of the conducting surfaces. What is the dominant behavior as p -+ O? (b) Relate your solution to the solution using conformal mapping techniques and Fez) = z>".

y

The solutions are

With a product solution : <ll= Re g) Q( 1/1) We obtain

d1Q

__ +)llQ=O

df/l1

and

1 d d R pl_

9 TI (gdg) -llR- O.

·86·

The boundary value problem to be solved is shown In the sketch. Evidently 1/1- solution needs to be sin, wP in order 10 give $ = 0 :11 0 = f/l • Simllary, we require sin (}lP)=O. Thus the parameter )l can only take on discrete values:

1J.{3:: nlT

n = 1.2 ........

)l=~

t1

The radial solution is either R (p ) IX pJ.l or R( CJ ) ex g -I' • or a linear

combination. Because the potential is finite as CJ'" 0, the terms g-I'

must be absent. The general solution of Laplace's equation in the sector of angle t1 is thus

00 "". nlTlP

. '1>( s ,cfJ) = 1: A npm(-p-)

n= I n

The coefficients An arc determined by the potential at Ilnlte CJ the potential might be specH led at 9 =a to be 'I>(a, t/J) = V (t/J), specified along some curve '] = f (tP) to be V (cfJ).

Surface charge density:

o (q) = +..§tl

o 4lT 1/1=0

. For example" or it might be

E I

01 y ) = .is.

Ii' 4lT I/I=P

I act> 00 1T n !!!!... I n1T1/I

E = - - - = - L - A II 11 cos (-)

1/1 q iJ¢ 11=1 ~ " t1

Thus

n ..!!.!L ~I

00 ( g ) = - 1: 4{3 An 9 {J

The dominant term as ... 0 is the n=1 term:

n ""

o ( CJ) = 1: - A (- I)" g If' I

(J 4{3 n

'" A g"/{3. (lTtP) 00 ( q ) } " I A CJ *'1

'I' ... 1 sin n ; 0 (q) 4 IT 1 ,.

, I-' (J

(b) Connection with conformal mapping of the type F(z) = z~ : With the convention that ReF(z) = U (x.y) is the potential that

Fez) :::: - iAz~ = iA p~ ei~1{> (z = g eil/l)

gave a potential, <ll = U = A 9 ASinAI/I and that if we required $ = 0 for all g at

f/l = t1 we could choose N3 = nlT (n=I, 2, ) .. This meant that the analytic

function.

00 ""

F(z):::: -i L A zT

n= In,

(0 ~ arg z ~ t1)

With real coefficients An. satisfies the requirements of giving 4.> = 0 for f/l = 0, (3 and so represents a solution to the potentia! problem posed. The real part of F(z) is just exactly the solution found by solving the differential equations.

The magnitude of the electric field is given by

·87.

I E 1= J dF I = 12; ~ A z ~rr - 11

.. dz n= I P n •

For 1/1 = 0, z = 9 and .

I E I = I ~ n An Z ~Ir -II

For 1/1 = P, z =.g e11f and

IEI=li ~A einlrn.!!.!L1(_I)nl

\,;'" I P n "If

We see that we get exactly the same magnitudes of the charge densities at 1/1 = 0 and t/) = P as we did above.

",.

The potential is :

~_ [ 1 +

-q ";x2+yl+(z-a)Z

I 2

-..;T-x:::;2i=+=y;rl =+=;(==z=+==a'np- y x2 + y2 + z21

This can be written In terms of spherl cal coordinates If we wish, but we expand in powers of aIr first:

'.;

_ I 11-

r=::;;==;i:=,=~ - = _!_ ( 1 +!_ _ 2a cosO) 2

YX1+yl+(z-a)2-Yr1+a1.2az r rl r

=..!... [l-~+ acosO +( _ _!_)(_]_)(_!_)(~_ 2acosO)2 + •...

r 2 rl r 2 2 2 (2 r

= _!_ [ I + a cosO + ~(2 10 - .L ) +' 1

2 2 cos 2 .......

r r r ••

This is, of coursc,justthe e~pansion of 1 x _I x '1 in Legendre polynomials. Thus forr > a we have the expansion,

~ ... ~

2 4

OO:"'>(r.0 • .p)=2q [~P~(cosO)+_a- 1'4 (C050)+ .

., rJ" rS

If a 4 0 and qa1 = Q is fixed, then only the first term survives and we have

lim ~(~;O:I/I) = 2? 1'2(COSO)

n40 r.

Complete solution for a < r < bis

2qa2 00 a' r4n+ I

~(r.'~,.cf»=-;J n~I(7)2n.2(1- b4n+1 )P1n(coslJ)

·88.

-, )

In the limit a -+ 0, qa2 -+ Q, onlv the n=1 term survives. For 0 < r < a the solution is

.1

00 r2n 4 +1 '

=2q l: (I-·U.) n ) 112n(cosO)

n=1 a2n+1 I}

Presence of grounded sphere with potent ial ~ = 0 causes a charge in the potential insidcr=b. This potential can be thought of as being caused by the surface charge density u(O, </» induced on the sphere by the presence of the three charges, or equivalently, by the image charges-at r > b. In any event, the added potential inside the sphere must satisfy Laplace's equation. Thus the extra

potential must be of the form, .

641(r, 0, tP) = i (A~ r£ + B£r-2-1 )P.e (cos 0) £=0

But since the origin is included and the added potential is finite there

BQ.= 0 for all £. The total potential is therefore (for a < r < b)

. 112 00 a 2 1 00 It

~=2q-31: P2n(cosO)(-) n- +l: Anr P£(coslJ)

r n= 1 r 2=0 ..

The boundary condition ot $=0 at r=b (the boundary condition at r .. O has already been taken into account, at least for a-+O) gives us the conditions, A!l. =0 for

all odd .e.

Ao = 0, ~~ ( ~ )1n.~ + A1n b1n = 0 for 2,=2n (n=I ,2, ..... )

_ 2Qa2n-2

A1n - b4n+ J

i.e.,

Hence

2Q r5 2Qa2 r9

4l(r, 0, e/» =7( I - i)S )P1 (cos 0) + -rs- (1 -"'b9) P4 (cos 0) •••

limit a-+O only this term survives

( ,I

{3.l7 (*3.20)"

o

Potential of a sector defined by radius a and angle B shown in the sketch.

_j

a

Basic solutions are:

mlr -m n mITe/>

(am gT +bm gp)sin(-p-)

·89 -

J r

~""

, _-'

-' ,

.-

}

) ) ) )

) , )

I ' -'

) ,--' I,

1'-'

) , l'~ )

I' ___.

) , II ,_..

)

I''''""'

)

11-) 11~

L II-

I 11-' ) 11--

) .

II";'" ) II""' ! '

,,"

II

,......___,----

. We multuply both sides by sin ( m1Tif> ) , .!!.. and integrate over I/> from 0 -)0 p r :

p. (J

Note: III. 2( mmp )d( 1Tt/J) I 11'. 2( )d 1T

Sin -- -- = sm mx X"'--

,0 /1. /1 0 2

and' III.!.sin(m1Tl/» [j·(I/>-t/J')dt/J=.!!... sinCm1Tt/J')

ofJ /1 . P (J

We thus obtain

1 a agm m21T1. 81T 1

gag( gag-)-jP¥gm =-13 '7·6( g -g ')

We write

ffi!! 1 gr;'11/P

Cm( g ,g,)=A g<.p ( g~1Ihl - allll1l11l )

.' m1T

8m is written down according Eq(3.l1S). Let >.. = T' 9 (g ) is the smaller

(lars;) of ; 9 and g' • The discontinuity aq) = g' Indicated by agm

f01,':g=g'+.e'and s=s >« ~

""ill,,,\,)"'''':l,r!T,1 '. 1':' ',.

. aSmI _ A d 1 A.;. A g'lA

F + - A ( g ') dg (gx - ~) - T [- h( 1 + -an-) 1

a8m I A g'2>"

liT _ = -qd >..( 1 - a1>..)]

... ,\. .

4 where A =m

. 4 l!!.!!: 1 gm1l/p

8m( s . g')=m g(p ( gr;:11/P - a1nf1l/ll)

Hence we obtain

"<'I"';~

G( ,j, s', ~') = ~ ~ .!!!1L( _1 _ _ g '<":) , (rn1TI/I) , (rn1Tlj/)

9 , '1';" 'I' m '" 1 m g < Jl !!!.! a 1 m 11 Sin a sin a

g'» Jl I' I'

·90.

/ 3.18 (* 3.15) ,/

,

! L

I

A potential problem of two parallel plates with L separation.

(p'.I{I: z ') This form of Green function is built from elm¢

~,/)I'q= .. ~..... Jm(kg),and I/I1(Z.d 1/12(2,), where

/.'_ ./{ (P.I{I. z) d2

(dz1-k' )I/I{(z)=O,'

and satisfy the boundary conditions t/I I (0) = 0, and 1/12 (L) = O. The appropriate solutions:

1/11 (z) = A sinh (kz), t/l2 (z) = sinh (k(L - z)

where A is to be choosen to give W(I/II • 1/12) = -1.

W(I/II, 1/12) = A [sinh(kz) (.Kcosh (k (L.z»)·Kcosh (kz) sinh (k (L"l»] =·k sinh (kL)A

A- 1 I tPl(z<.)1J!2(z»=sinh(kz<)sinh[k(L.z»]

- k sinh (kL) ana. k sinh (KL)

With the helps of Eq(3.112) or it's equivalent in problem 3,12(a), we find G = ~ /M'dk e1m¢] (k g) 1/1 (zl q', 1/>'. Z')

m=.oo 0 m

00, d1

Vl G :: r..J dk' el m if! ] ,(k' g )( - - k' )I/J ( zl 9 , , 1/1' , z')

mom dz2

= -41T6(z - z') 6(rf> _¢,)6( 9 !; 9 ')

Multiplying by eim¢J m (k g) 9 d q d¢l and integrating, we obtain

21T foodk' fOOgdg] (k q)J (k'§ )(d~ll -k')I/I(zl q',I/I',z')

o 0 m m Z

:: - 41T6(z - z')e' lm ¢I' J (k q ')

m

Thus,

d1 ,

(_. kl ) I/J(z/ g', z') = - 2ke·lm¢ J (k q '}5 (z - z')

d~ m

Wethuswrite ,p(z/I] ',¢I',z')=2ke·lm¢\(k9 ')1/11 (Zdl/ll(Z»

d1

( __ k2) rl/ll(zdt/ll(Z»] =-6(z-z'), Since we have already found 1/111/12

dz1

we are able to write down the whole Green function

G(fl,I/I,z/q' ,1/1', z') = 2 E /dkelm(¢~')J (kVJ (k9,)Sinll (kz<?sinh [k(L-2?»)

m=-ee 0 m m slnll(kL)

and have

·91 .

/3.19 (·3.16) I

L . <!l" 0 The solutlon for the Dirichlet problem

" / is given by Eq(1,44):

1- ...v- - - - r.t - I a G ,

<\l c1>( g • CP. z) = .. -4 f c1>(xj-a ,da

rr 5 n

rfI /' (a) For the case at hand,

_ _ ""'---"_ L __ c1>=.:!...!21fdcp,!ag'dg .(aG)

4rr 0 0 ilz' 1.'=0

We need

ilG a:ilsinh(kz') . =kcosh(kzj. =k

ilz' , il z' z = 0 z = 0

Since integration ovcrde'plcks out the m=O term in the expansion of of G, we find

c1>(g IZ)= 4~ 2x2rr l~dkJo(kg )kSi::~k(~~)Z)J loft g'd g'Jo(kg 1 = _!_! k~Jo(x)dx = ~JI (ka) =~JI (ka)

,kl 0 • . k k

I •

. Thus'

DCI , sinh [k(L-7.)1

Ijl( s ,z) = Va J odkJ 1 (ka) JoCk g) sinh(kL)

DCI

(b)lfweletz=Owe find eIl(g ,O)=Va! dkll(ka)lo(k!l)

o

c1>( s , 0) = V JoodxJ1 (x)Jo(9 x/a)

o,~ .'

This Integral Is a discontinuous, integral of Weber and Schofheitlin. See Watson, "Bessel Functions", p398, especially th~ results on p406. The answer is

00 ""'1 0 < X < 1

I dxJ1(x)Jo(Xx)= { ~ X= 1

o~" 01<X<00

This establlshes that the solution ofpart (a) satisfies the boundary conditions at / z=O.

Cc) Potential on axis':, 00 sinh [ k(L .. 7.) 1

eIl(O, z) = Va/ 0 dk J I (ka) sinh(kL)

We investigate the potential In the region, 0 < Z < zmax' where (L-zmax)>> a (L »a). First of all. because of the oscillations in J1 (ka) the important values of k are k < -1/3. If L/a » I, then for the range of Z to beconsidered, we find

sinh~Lk(L -7,) k.. ..k~ (I _e-1k(L -z» _ kz

----"~'::-::-_:_'_.,:_, - e· "" e

sin~(kL) - (l_e-2kL) -', , ';,

(The only dangerous part of thls approximation Is for k «-.', 'But these

. k r , a

1 I (ka) =:! -I- and there.is n~ligible contributio~ ~o the integral.) The solution

"" .'

Is thus c1>(O, 7.) =:! Va I ~k e -1<7. J 1 (ka). This can be integrated (via laplace

transform tables) to give

4>(O,z)=V[ 1- ~ J

, a + ZI

The answer Is reasonable because near z = L, the potential should be small.

-,
\
)
\
)
)
i 1
) "

/3.20 (*3.19) J

(a) For the grounded plane at z=O the Green function Is

.

G( s ,1/1, z; !I', 1/1', zl = 2 m~_ fFk eim(I/I' cP'> Jm(k g.) 1m (k 9 Islnh(kzde-kz,)

(By image method, starting with the expansion· of problem 3.l2(b) of the text.)The capacitance of a disc of radius R, located in the plane Z = d, has a variational representation:

. [~J = Ida Jda'o(x) G(x, XI o(x)

, C [fo(x)da]2

where o(x) is a trial representation for the charge density on the disc. Assuming 01: 'o( 9 ), we find

--~~--~~--------

. .# [...!. I = !dk(1 _e-lkd) loR g o( g) Jo(k g) dg

===;;~==:;:===::1"" C 0 [f~ g o( s ) d 9 )2

(b) We first assume that o( g ) = 1. Then we obtain

f t!l Jo(kg ) d g = ~l fokRxJo(x)dx = ~l(kR J I (kR»

Rl JRgdg=-

o 2

[..!. J = 4 ['dkel _e-lkd) J1 (kR) =j_/dt(l-'~~~) ll(t)

C 0 (kR)2 R 0 R tr"

lfwe could find a simple form for the Laplace transfor~ of 11 (t)ft1, we

would be finished. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem to exist. We look at the' limiting cases. We use the relationship given in Watson, p. 403, Eq(2)

I'dt J?(t)=.i_ and I'dt JHt) =...!.

o t1 371' 0 . t1 2

(i) Case 1: j_» I

R

. [I I ~/dtJi(tl =__!{_ ", C ~ R 0 t1 3 R7r

The exact value for this limit: A better description of charge description is

·93·

o:'!'\

~---------,- __ ---:--""""' __ .".-- __ --;------------- ... --._ - ~ .

. '.' ~ .. ---,,-

J ) ~.

t

r .. '

r

r r f

f



,/

)

-'

.i

,

)

,

! \ .,/

i )

»

" ~

I ) i ')

I ,__./

.,,--,'

:'-' I ,-'

), I""'"

,.)

- -.-.- ... ----------~--------~----=----.

a= ..[Rl~gi Inthelimit ~»l

IR g Jo(k9) dg = sinkR .

o yRi - 9 1 k'

and by substltutlon to Eq(l). we have

. [...!.] = loodk( l_e1.kd) (sin kR? = _!_ 1 dt (l_e-2dl/R)( sinlt)

C 0 kR R 0 t1

1 100 sin:!t 11'

=-- dt-- =_

R 0 . t1 2R

therefore. the ratio of variation to exact value is Cexact = ~ = 1.08

, . C 3~

d ~

(U) Case 2: - <1

..... R.I·,.. ..'

[ _!_ l~ 8d /dt J1(t) = ~

. .. ;. ,: t., .F ,,.:bRl_,.o ... .{ ,t... R1

Thls is tlie'-exact value of the capacitance of a disc of area n R 1 located a distance d from a grounded plane in the limit of no fringing field (a·da = 4nC1 but C1 = 1 pt~viously assumed •. nR'l.~.= 41f,or.E = 4/R1 V = 4d/R1 = [..!_ ]).

USing Laplace transfonn: . . C

'00 "'~ln'l't" . , '2 1

!e-P1(--)dt=tan-I(-) +..Rp_n_.E.:._

. 0' . .t~"'; p 4. ,,/Pl + 4

·'Thus we have •... s \ I

. 1 ' • in. I'" R d Rl

[ -] = - {- - tan - (-) + -In( 1 + - ) }

C , R'I 2.. d 2.R d1

Forj_!»1 "···t· -Ie 'R')~~ _ _!_(~)3 .

Rand d 3 d + ... ,

.... , d Rl d R2 R4

........ 2n(I+- )~-(- - --' + )

. .LK .! d2 2R d" 2d4 ..

[ 1 ] "" 1f [1' R + R3 R 5

C - 2R- nd 6 nd3 + O(d) .. ]

" "

For d/R« L. tan-I(R/d)~ n/2 -d/R+d3/C3R3) ... ;

_i_ inC I t Rl/d1);=..! inC!..) t~t O( ~)5 .

2R . R d 2R3 R' ~.

1 Ad 1 R 1 d1

[ C 1 =.Ri' [ 1 + '4 In ( e3 d ) t 24 R2 1

·94·

---------------------_._ .. _.

I

CHAPTER 4

Multipoles, Electrostatics of Macroscopic Media Dielectric

4.1/

The 'multipole moment to be computed is given by the expression

7.. q£rn = 1 y'lm (0'. I/I')r·1I 9 (X')Il3 x'

. / which becomes for a point charge

qQrn = q(IIYln (0' • 1/1') (I)

(a) The multipole moment of the whole

'-I Y

system is then

lIt • ( •

= qa Yllm "/2,0) + Y~III (11'/2,11'/2)

• • " In

·Yo (n/2 n)-Y (- -)] (2)

A;rn • _(!m 2' 2

YQrn (0.1/1) = ~m P; (cos O)eiml/l

Thus Eq(2) becomes

-q

Since

qQJn =qa£\'mP;(O)[1 + (/"/2)m _(e/Jl)m+(eiJ"/2)m] (3)

For m = 0 or even the above expression vanishes

For rn=I or odd, Eq (3) becomes

'm = qaQA£tr.PQ" (0)[ 1 + i + I + i 1 = qa~A~P;(O) ~ e ~" ; m odd With the expression pt (0 ) expanded, we have

'\m =2..j2'qaIlAQrneill/4(_I)Y.(3Q-m) 1·3·5 (Q+m-I)

2+6 (Q om)

(4) ,

where 2 +m=even,

We already know that m is odd then 2 must be odd. therefore Eq(4) is valid for £ odd and m odd and Q +m = even. that is

q =2../ZaIlA e/ll/a(_I)Y.(3Q-m)!·3.5 (Qtm-l) (5)

Qm 2m 2:4.6 (Q-m)

·95·

The lowest two sets of nonvanishing multlpole moments arc:

-V3 v'21

qll = -8 2aq(1 +i); q31= 4a1q(1 +i);

", "

q = v'35 3 (1 + i) 33 .: 411'a q 1 •

• ., (b) Applying Eq(l) from part (a) we get for this quadrupole

~ • 11 •

qful = qa Y.(10(O, 0) + qa.Y,20(1I'., P)

q

Hence

qQm =...; 2v.+ I {P.e(l) + P.e(-l )Jiq

, 411' " ' ,

The problem is symmetrical with respect to the origin and is c/J independent, therefore, only II . even and 01=0 terms exist. Since: the total charge is zero, the 11=0 should vanish

x

! .1

For II is odd, QIln1=0.

For II is even R

: . q0n = 2n q V 211 + I r >a

.."... 4"

The lowest two sets of non vanishing lJ)oments:-:'

qlO=-21 4- a1q; "" q40'=a2q~~49 (7a2-6)

,. 11 ~"" 4 11

(c) Thin uniformly charged circular disc '~f radius a and total charge q, the multi-

, .pole moments to be computed are:' ., . .' :'

The charge density, '

'z

For 1I is odd

q =0 ~

:V.", For II even

'~= 2qa1n ~~_,~'~n (2~'-1)!!

. 2n+~ 411 ',i (2n)!!

R =2n'

·96·

.------------------------- -

The problem gives a net charge q. therefore 1=0 terms exist.It is symrnctrlcal with repcct 10 the origin and is independent of I/J • Only i=even and 01 =0

terms are the novanlshing moments -_. '(

= 2qa1R J4H I (_1)11 (211-1 )!!

q£m 211+2 411 (211)!! .It = 1,2,3 , •• r > a

The lowest two sets of nonvanishing moments:

q -~ DC - ..[4ii

(d) The multipole expansion of part (b) and kept the lowest term

(e) Ifwe calculate directly from Coulomb's Law the exact potential for (b) in the xy plane is

<lJ(x)=- 2q + ~

,g gl, + a ': " .

2q a 1 } q~l

= T { -I + (I + (..Ih)( i) + ...... ) = - gr

therefore, the results from part (d) and (e) agress '

o

a/2

_-- - -----

(ll(~) ". .. -----

a '"

·10 , /'"

/ I

·20 I I I I

·30 I

I I I

-40 I

I I

·50 I I

I

p a/4 a/2 3a/4 a
d
tl>(~ -64 ·8 2.37 ·1
p a/4 a/2 3a/4 a
e
cf)(~ -6.05 ·2.2 .1.07 ·0.584
a • The case r < a is not included.

"--~----~--------------------

• 97·

..---------------------'~-_..--.~--___.-----.- ... ---.-- ..

.1

4.2 (1{,,6) .

The electric field (cylindrical symmetric) interacts with the nucleus with gradient (ilEz/ilz)o along the z axis at the' nucleus gives quadrupole moment O. Since the electric field does not arise from local charge,

therefore,

'V • E = o.

or in cylindrical coordinates

3E I 3E il E

ag +'g 30+ az = o.

As the electric field is cylindrical symmetric, then aEA;o = 0, and the quadrupole 011 = Ou = - ~ 033 under the given conditions

(a) The energy of the quadrupole interaction is

W,= - + [011 (ila;X)o + OJ3 (aaiX }o]= - .!._ 0 ( ilEz )0

o 4 ilZ

(b) The gradient of the electric field if it Isa hydrogen atom in the electric

~d .

as {_ 4~ a3. YJ.. • ...l) _e_9:: _ 8.44 X 10-1 e

az = eO' -h 0 a! ~

(c) In nuclear physics, the deformity of a nucleus is often indicated by the existence of quadrupole moments. This part is a illustration

3Z a .j (l - Zl/a') b2

= ab1 fa ! (2Z2 - gl) 9dQdZ

~·1~2 - b1)

5

where 2a and 2b are the major and the minor axis of the' ellipsoid. Therefore, the fractional difference (a - b)/r 9:: o.r.

4.3 (I{.,.)

The expression for the localized charge density is given

·98·

(I)

I . with sin2 0 = 2 (I - P1 (cos 0) )/3 = 2/3..[4iT (Y 00 - ~ Y 1 u)

. (-)..,f1i' 2 -r .( Y Iy)

i.e, g r = 48 r e 00 -...;s 20

It is zero at the origin and extends to the entire space. Thus we cannot talk about the point of observation outside the charge distribution at a considerable distance from the origin. From the result of Eq( 1) the only nonvanishing multipole moments are qoo and q2 o- The expression of the potential:

<l)(X)' = f dJ' g.(x')

x Ix _ x'i

':: 411 2..J41T Joor'ldr' J dU 'c'le-r (Y (U') - _I Y10(U'»

6471 3. _.0 00 V5

X [ Y!u(U') YO'U (U) + I r~ y'. (U') Y {U)l

r, "'5rf 20 10

..(4n Joo.I"~ -r' [ YQoCn) I Y (U)~'I'

24 0 ur r .e r> - 5..j5 20 r!

(a)

Multlpole moments: -

1 Yn 00 I

qoo =--::r:r;J9d3x =4s1T~ r4e-rdr =-:::r;r:;

2 .Jif1T I 00 5

Q20 = - 3 X 6471 • ~! r6e-rdr = - 3 y;r

Potential anywhere in space: The above integrals can be done in a straight forward manner by breaking up the interval (0, 00) into (0, r), + (r, 00). The result is

. <11 (it) = + [ I _ e-r (1 + ~r + ~ + ;: ) )

6P2 ( cos 0) [ 1 _ -r (1 + + E + ~ + L +~)J

- r e T2 6 24 144

For r« I, the exponentials can be expanded to give

1 r2

ell ~4{ 1+ 0(r3» -12oP1 (cos 0)( 1+ 0(r2»

. 99·

(b)

(e) Unit of charge is I c I. unit of length is ao' Hence, ncar origin,

: I t

:::: -=-!..:J..+ I c I (Zl _ J.. x2 __ 1 2)

4a 120a3 ., ., y

o 0 ... ..

Th E I c I x E I ely Ez _ ~

us x = 120a,I y 120al' - 60a3

~ Q 0

The interaction energy' W = - _!_ k Q" ~Ej (0)

6 ij lJ Xi

I I

-- "2 QII - 1" Qll)

therefore. W =. 6

I c I (Q

3J

60a~

We arc given Q = 10-24cll1~

Also.

Thus

c 1 Ml-lz.

. \',

',' . -v., ,I" ..

Neglecting the end effects. the right circular. cylindrical shell (inner radius = a and outer radius = b) of dielectric constant e in a uniform electric field Eo with its axis perpendicular to the field is z independent.

(a) Determine the potentialand electric

field in; the'. three regions:

...... ,- ~ ..

Let y be the direction of the electric field. The boundary conditions at infinity,

(113 (g -+ 00, ¢) = - Eo g sin ¢. and

between dielectric media enable us to determine the coefficients.

(i)

the region 9''';; a i \;,

00

<1>1 (g. ¢) = ~ Amgmsin mifJ

m

(I)

·100.

-

i

..... '

(ii) the region a < g < b

<1>2 (9. ifJ) =;; {Bmgm + Cmg-m} sin m'" ','

.m

.\ ..

. (2)

(iii) outside s ~ b

00

([>3 (g, ifJ) = - Eog sin t/J + }.; Emg-m sin mt/l (3)

m

From the condition of continuity ( Ij> and r ~ ~ ) at the boundaries we obtain the follow ing relations

Amam - 1 = E (nmam - 1 _ Cma- m - 1 )

\

(

-Eo-E1b -2 = e(1l1 - C1b-1)

- Emb-m -. I (Ilmbm - I - C'mb-I - m) E (m > I)

(m > I)

The four homogeneous equations for m '* I. indicate that all the coefficients of m :I: 1 vanish

.. the potentials of different regions

= - 4Eob1 eg sin t/J

b1(e + 1)2 _ a2(e _ 1)2

(-2EJ[b1(e + I)!? + a1b1(e - 1)9-1) • .10

=. b1(e + 1)1 _ a2 (e _ 1)2 Sin 'I'

•• J

~l·

'\

-..\ ... 1

-I

_.'

The electric field: E =

we have

j

32 }

+ [ (e + I) - g (e - I) I cos ¢CifJ

,

-,'

·101 •

.. "_._¥- -----...-

,1 ).J r •

il )

L ),

)

i

1 •

I, )

I, ,

I' ) ~ )

, )

I', •

I ). ~

)

~ .

I!' ~! I ),

rr->

\ 1

11'- .'

Ii )

1 ,,-,'

i )/

......... _,

; )

1'>.,.../

o

) x,.'

I ,,-,'

J J

(b) The sketch of line of force (for the case b :: 2a):

It is hard to discuss the problem quantitatively but it can be roughly sketched the lines of force with the knowledge of fl > f2 or fl < f2 that makes the lines of force divergent or convergent.

....

-- .... "' .. -;

.. __ . --_

".~-

" -,).-

........ , __

(c) (i) The limiting case when a :: 0, <1>1 = 0 in other words there is no hollow cylindrical cavity.

-2 E~9 sin 1/1

fll1(!l, 1/» :: (f + 1)

. Eob1 e - I

<1>3(9,1/» , '" - E09 Sin I/> + -IJ- e+T sin cp

(iO' for the case b » a

(') - 4 Eof9

fll,9,1/> = (f+ 1) sinl/>

<1>2(g,l/» = (.:.. 2 Eo sin 1/» (f + 1)9 - a2ee -1)9-1 _ - 2Eo9 sincp

(e + 1) , (e + I)

b1 (f- I)

flll(g,l/» ::: - Eo sin I/> + Eo 9 (s + 1), sin I/>

4.5 (~, 50)

Put point charge on z axis at x = 0, y = 0, z = d. We write $ as sum of point charge in the absence of the dielectric sphere, plus a non-singular potential caused by the presence of the sphere.

$ =, q ~ ~ PI (cos 8) + cll', £ »

{ (r, d) where (r", r , i= (d, r)

·102·

1 I

I

1

I

i I

I

1

L __

where, (for r < a)

$' =

(for r > a)

$'=

~

l; AfT+T P£ (cos 8).

R a



f Bf7+T Pll(cos8).

Note: the expressions show that

cp' is finite both at r ... 0 and r ... 00.

II is required that normal i5 and tangential 'I: should be matched at surface of sphere, t = a. Here, since d > a, r = r, r :: d. Hence

nonnalD:fllAl!'+ (HJ)Bll = -£q(f-I)(a/d)Q+J

Tang.E: All(a~/aQ+ 1) + a(a~/dQ+ 1)= UQ(a~/aQ+ 1) +a(a~/d ~+ I)

therefore, An = Bo = - Q (e _; 1) (afU)~ + I q

... ... [(e+ 1)£+ II

Y

(a) For r < a

q 00 (2l! + 1) r ~

cp = - l; (-d) 1'2 (cos 0)

, d l! = 0 [ (€ + 1)2 + 1 I

rl! 2 (I: - 1)

q f (~- [(f+ I)Q+ I)

For r > a '1>::

I PQ (cos 8)

(b) Ex, y. z near the origin:

q 3 r 5 (2

'I>:!!. -[ 1+(--)-cos8 +---2 p](cosO)+ •••••• }

d f + 2 d 2f + 3 d

q 3 Z 5 1 1 ) 2 I 2) ]

:!! d [ 1 +(e+2 )d""+ (2f+.3)7(Z -"2 x -"2 y + ...

Ex:!! ~ (_5 __ )xt ' .

d 2f + 3

Hence

q 5

Ey:!! ? E 2f + 3 ) Y + ....••...

q 3 10 Z

Ez:!! (!2' (-- + -- (-d) + ........ )

e + 2 2f + 3

(c) for e ~ 00 we have r < a Only ll:: 0 survives to give $ =' q/d.

r > a The:. ll:: 0 terms in CP' is zero. Thus we get

·103·

00 32£+1

! .. I (dr)~ + 1 P£ (cosO)

a2£ + I

- (dr)2 + 1 1 PQ(cos 8) + ~ C.: )

'·'1 ,

This Is.the potential' of an uncharged conducting sphere floating freely . (unground) in the presence of a point charge.

4.6 (4.10

(a) Find E everywhere between spheres

The problem has azymuthal symmetry .. ' so that the general solution in region (1) and (2) are

I, ;

.;

", 00 .

<Iller, 8)=T.};· [AlQr£+Bl£C- (£ + I)]

,... "£ = O.

~P£ (cos 8)

',' ...

. (a" r .,;;. b) and (- fT/2 " 8 .;;,; fT/2)

.. ~;:' . . ...

", ee " ",:. '

<l>1(r,'8)=' a [Ai£r£ + B2Q r- (h I)]

""" " Q = 0" ..

x P£ (cos 8)

•• .. !,i-:

. ~.'"

-'," ", .

..... , . '~ .. '

(a ~ r: .,;; b, '31T12 ~ 8 .;;,;' n/2)

",' Prope~""applil;ation' of the boundary condltlons should yield the coeffi-

cients and from <Ii we obtain E, Since the two spheres are conductors, we '

': ,~:,,' . . . ,". =, I a ,}> , •

know that EO must vanish at r = a, r = b. But, Eo(r, 8) == - r a 8 and' for

example, in region (1):

00 "', or ,"

EIo(a,O) = - Q~O (AI£aQ-I+ BIQ<~;~,2)o8£(cOS8)

which does not vanish, unless at r = a

A aQ - I + Bin a- £ - 2 = 0

12 ....'

implies AIQ= - U'IQ a- 2£ - 1

b" 2Q - 1

AI£:= -BI£

. also, at r = b

From the abo'ld results, it is obviously A 1£ . 0 and B 1£ = 0 for all Q.

I

Hence if tjl is to be non-zero, it cannot depend on O. Then <l> ~~st'be lnde. pendent of 8 and only Q = 0 term appear.

-104·

i

!

I I «

I

i

j

'I'I( r' I ., AI III -I'I( t I AI + ...!!L
+_._ .
r r
" "
F,( r'l 11, I',: t r') III
':: _',. r =-. i
r' r' (b) Assume a charge density 0 I ami 111 lin inner sphere. We have implicit ly assumed that the charges ,to 'were pili after huvlng built-up the configura.

tlon given in the problem. i,e.· ~ '..'

. ~ + added charge

Applying Gauss law to the dlelectrlc surface, we get 0,(2rrr1j = 4fT (2nazoj)

D, = (4n 0, a1)/r2. E, = (4rr 0, a! lilt, r!)

Similarly, (e'" 1. 0, ..... 01)

01 = (4nOl a1)/rZ .' El = (411'01 a:),'r:

But tangential E is continuous (tangential E is in our C:lSC radlul E)

i.e., (4fTOla:)/(er1) = (411'0Ia:)/r:

. The last equation holds for all r such thaI a '" r "b. Hence • ..!:!.:: u: £

2n a1(e + I) 01 = 0 and hence 01 = Q/I 2lfal (I + e) I 0,= eQ/[2fTa:(I+ell 01 and 01 give the surface charge distribution on the Inner sphere.

20

(c)

Calculate the polarization charge density induced on the surface of thc dielectric at r = a.

it + 41T P

_. _.

0, - E, = e - I

4fT 4fT

E

I

p. =

therefore

e - 1 _.. e - J 2Q

=--E·r=-----".-

4n 4n (e + I) a1

Which is the polarization charge density induced on tho inner surface.

Alternative method

It appears possible that the equipotentials might be concentric spheres.

·105.

-
)
., )
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
) ) )

,
l-p
I -
: ,_)
1-'
,'-.
-- I
....)
r
- J
). i
r) I
I
_,' I
,
J
~
-'
,/ I r.--------------------'---..:.---;__-'----'-----------------.

....
~.
~
~'
1
.... )
.... _;
I
............ '
..... _.
'-'
I
'-'
I
i;....;..I :1
....;..I
•• Let us attempt to write a solution of this form and see if it satisfies all the

conditions, which are: .

(i) V1 <ll = 0 in both, dielectric and empty space .

(iI) Et Is continuous across the boundaries, or 'I' Is continuous, l.e., ~ris continuous, where r, 0, .p are polar coordinates.

(iiO Dn is continuous across the boundaries. But

. D' E I il q)

n = e 8 =-erifB

for this situation, where on the boundary between the two dielectrics r\ = cO. Note the much greater complication at this point if the dlelectrlc does not 1111 exactly half of the spherical shell.

1 2 3-

4 5

4.7

-- --- .. -----'~

The Clausius Mossotte relation;-

(e - 1) (e + 1)/density = constant

The tabulated answers are following:

(iv) 4 1r a = ± Dr on the spherical surfaces.

f odS = 0

Fur air at the given pressure range Clausius Mossott] relaiion holds and gives fairly gaud approximation. The Iractionul variations of (e - I) and the density are equivalent. For penltnc under high pressure (esp, 8,000 and 12,000 atmosphere), it gives bad approximation. But Clausius Mossoui relation holds best for dilute substances such as ideal gases.

\

It is clear that el) = AIr does satisfy all these conditions if A is properly chosen. lnte A grating over the inner sphere, where Ar =7

. eA

in the empty part and Dr = -- where the a2

dielectric is, we gel

E -... D I

o = 2 rra2 [_r_ + _r_] =- (I +e)A

4rr 4rr 2

20 20

. Hence A = --- , <ll = -:-----'-,-

- 'I+e (e+l)r

,. (a) .. The electric field is .. '.

I

I

i

!

(

4.1:1 (~', \;.. )

20

E = - V<ll = er

...... (e + 1) r2

~~) .. The charge density iSoy = '\1T.~~I)a2 :: 2rr(~+1)a2over , the vacuum part of the iriner sphere and is

. aD = 0 E over the dielectric part.:·

2 (e + 1)':i1.

The· polarization charge density induced at r :: a in the dielectric is P • r\ where i\ :: - cr is the unit normal o,\l~ of

N

(e-l)/(e+l) density

e-I

density

0.1495 0.1480 0.1495 0.1478 0.1450

---.-----l

0.350 0.346 0.342 0.307 0.271:1

1.02 0.528 0.318 0.248

1.032 0.504 0.333 0.2611

0.45 0.446 0.454 0,44!l 0.442

I..N_ reI + 3" kT

(c)

Temp (OK) mol (em") Temp (OK) mol (em:')
393 2.317 X 10-23 453 2.0127 X 10-23
423 2.1526XIO-2J 483 1.8946 X 10-1 J . : ...

the dielectric P

= (e - 1) if 4rr

1· __ ···_--_·_- ~~~-- .. -

0.1435 1.37

0.1355 1.40

0.0993 1.435

0.0486 1.468

1 2 3 4 5

0.171 0.167 0.107 0.0676

3 e - 1

From the ..formUla rmol = 4;;N"' (€+I) El!

Thus 0crf =~.' i\

(f - 1) E ::

r .

(f - 1) 0

2rr (e + I) 02

By plotting the above 4 points in a graph of .ernot vs temperature, then the slope of the graph would be •

4

- 106 •

-107 -

Hence Po can be calculated.

Po= 2.015 X 10-19 statcouJ ern,

Inner cylinder has potential V, outer

o

cylinder grounded r.n = __

""'i ' 21T9

V = 20 .en (b/a)

1T •

~ -: - -,

~ l ... i

- .......

V

Eg = --Qn(b/a)

I

.-

s

._ -

,' ..

The increase in electrostatic energy t::,Wc , for an increase in liquid height by 6. h is

I b

t::, We = - (e - I) X 2 11' 6. h f E~ 9 d g

811' a ~

".-\

I .

I •

..L .

T i,

...... ,.:... - ',

~., .. , '" 'i

...............

)

I- t::, We (e - 1) V1 b d 9

r-~~~; ~h:' ~ = • ~ V' - ('n b/.),! ,

, , ':., h l - .en (b/a)

_ ..... · __ ..l- __ ":"_.J:l.~..i..i _ This is the upwards directed force on

. the liquid dielectric (see discussion

on page' 126·127,' and especially Eq (4.105) ). Equilibrium occurs when this

upw~rd force is balanced by the gravitational force: . .

i The mass of liquid in ,1' disc between the cylinders and thickness t::, h is

"

4 M = 11' (b2 - a1)g t::, h

_.:r"'

;~mllllllllllllllml~

I

_.'

The gravitational potential energy of this disc is

,.;. f ,,~J~. .

. 6. Wg = t::, Mgh""'== 1T (b~:"" al) 9 gh • t::, h

-~ '4W

The downwards gravitational force is . t::, h g = "Ii _Cb-:i' - a2) 9 gh

.'

Equating the two forces gives

.108 :

/

tlO .

A dipole of moment PI is lined up with the z-axls at the origin of coordinates. A second dipole Pl of same magnitude (Pl .. 'PI) Is centered at the point (a. 0, a) and is pointed toward the origin. Calculate the force on the second dipole Pl.

)
)
, ,
'J,' )
)
)
)
) The problem is treated from two approaches andIn two coordinates' . systems.

(a) In spherical coordinates and from (4.19)

PI • P, - 3(n • p'd (n • jl~z)

W,z = 1 XI _ X2 13

z

........ '-/p

/ ~ 2 ~V .

1'1 ,/ •

2

= _r_ (cos 'Y - JcosO) rJ

and F = - 'i7 W. The problem does nol involve tp.

Fr = + _o_ [ pI (cos'Y _ 3 cos O)/rl I = - 3 pI (cos j' - 3 cos O)/r~ a r

a - lp2

Fo= (lfr) - (_. 3p cos Ofrl) = --'4- sin 0

a 0 r

By substitution 0 = 45°. 'Y = 450, x = 'I. = a and r = 2a, we have J pl

F = hiT a4 (2 cr + cO)

(b) From Eq (4.13)

3Jl (p\ • ri) - PI

E(x) = I x-x' I

3 P cos 0 sin 0 (Xl + zl) 3/2

P (2zl _ Xl) = (Xl +zl)Sfz

3PXl

By substitution x = z = a

'.' , 1 { 9 .. F = .Jy 2S/2 a4 i +

2stl~4} k 2 ' .:»:
= ~3f+ k}
8a
-
·109· ,_)
._)
I I
)~~
" )\._)
,;
\.._,
\._,
)(_
),-,
)'-
)'-'
i· )'-"
\J
,"-
)"'-'
\~ ".__..J

I

)'-' I f' f~

'\',. \_., , ;

-;»

) \_..,' )' v

L U L L L

U

i

L'

t: o

1

V

~

~I

,-_._._-------------------

r

,I , I

I

I

(i) If q = 0, D' = D - 2i • p. D' can be made to vanish if p :1= 0 merely by choosing a parallel or antiparallel to p and of magnitude I D 1/(2 I P 0,

(li) If p' = 0, but q :1= 0, D' = 0 by suitable choice of I aJonly if D and q have opposite signs.

(iii) If I pi and q are both non-zero, then the requirement D' .. 0 demands 0 = D - 2a cosO I p I + a 2 q where cosO is the angle between a and p. Now it is useful conceptually to put D = q < r2 >, p = q < r >. The equation then reads a2 - 2a I <1> I cosO + < rl > = O. The question is whether this can be satisfied for some real positive a and I cosO I ~ I. The roots are a = I <7> I cosO ±..; I < r > 11 coslO - < r1 >. The argument of the square root must be positive for some 1 cosO 1 < I. This requires I <1> 11 ;;. < r'1 >, or 1 p 12 ;;. qO .. q'l < r'l >. If this condition Is not satisfied it is impossible to

make D' = O. ~

(Note that because of parity or time-reversal, elementary particles or nuclei can have even electric and odd magnetic multipoles, but none other. Thus particles do not have electric dipole mornents.)

4.11

(a) Show that In general the numerical values of the multipole moments of a charge distribution 9 (it) depend on the choice of origin of the coordinate system, but that the lowest nonvanishing multlpole moment is independent of this choice.

(b) The usual traceless quadrupole moment tensor 0 is related to the , si~ple Cartesian quadrupole tensor O~tS follows: ap

"Q~ == 3 J 9 (x) xa"pd3x = O0{3 + q < r'l > 60{3

where q is the charge and < r'1 > is the mean square radius of the charge distribution. In general, for some initial choice of origin,

Q'oI1, * Q~.

: ',::' Show that it is always possible to shift the origin so that q < r2 > vanishes, provided the dipole moment is non-zero and the

" -: total charge vanishes. What about if the dipole moment vanishes, but the total charge q does not? What if neither charge nor dipole , moment vanishes?

I

i'

I

l

I , ,.(a)' , The general Car.~e$ian multipole is

Qa, p, .... = J dl X 9 (x) {Xa xP •..... ]

4.12

(perhaps with vari~us traces subtracted to make Qa,p .... transform

" ", ::' .. " ," tensor of proper rank). ,

" If origin is shifted by a vector a we have x .... ;( = x-a. Then

! ~) . , ' J ,: I· , ' . :', ' . " (!

_.,': Q ~ Q' = J d3x'!I(X') [x' ]

, aft, .. , a,p,. .. a" p ...

J d3x9(x) [,(xa - aa:) (xp - ap)"]

~,;: Qa,p, - aa: J dlx!l( 3t)(xpx£ . ,)

+ ..

Thusq a, PI ~ .. '. '* 0a, p ..•.• unless all lower order multi pole moment vanlsh,

If a conductor or semiconductor has current flowing in it because of an applied electric field and a transverse magnetic field is applied, there develops a component of electric field in the direction orthogonal to both current flow and magnetic field, resulting in a voltage difference between the sides of the conductor. This phenomenon is known as the Hall effect.

(a) Use the known properties of electromagnetic fields under rotations and spatial reflections to show that for an isotropic medium the generalization of Ohm's law, correct to second order in the magnetic field, must have

the form. .

E = 90 r + R (H X 1) + PI H'l 1 + {3'l (fi .1) H

~,

~ I " , ): ~ " .: I '

,{ ",\ n- :":' "

where !I is the resistivity in the absence of the 'magnetic field and R is called Hall's constant.

(b) What about the requirements of time-reversal invariance?

(a) With no magnetic field, E = IJ 01 is a statement of Ohm's law. With n applied, we seek general form, linear in 1, but up to second order in D, order, in H, for E. The unstated assumption is that quantities like go are replaced by functions of B . B. which when expanded in Taylor's series

give rise to term like PI (D. it) but not i"ii 11. '

(b) Quadrupole moments: Q'a(3 = 3 f 9 xa:xpdlx

Qa(3 = J !I (3~xp - r'l6a(3) d3x

Define

Shift of origin: D-+D' = f9(x-a)'d3x = D-2a' p+a2q where p = f!l xd3x (= q <t>. if q * O!) q = J 9dlx;::: total charge.

. III .

·110·

•. , LI~car in il: D is l,X I a I vector : .• D X 1 is only polar vector possible Quadratic in 3: -'(I3 oil') J'and (13 o·Jrn

. General form is E = (go + 111 B • B) 1+ R (B X 1) + 112 (3 • ))8

(b) Under time reversal, this generalized Ohm's law docs not remain invariant.

In fact; it changes into

it = - (g. + 1118 0 ii) 1 + R(n X 1) - 11~ (:8 . <1) Ii

.. "The Hall effect term does not change sign, but the others all do. This

.. :. reflects the .,Physical fact that Ohm's law describes the irreversible conversion of energy from e m fields into mechanical motion (heat). Under such circumstances it is incorrect to require time-reversal invariance of . the generalized Ohm's law.

.. \ .. ~

'"' .. ~

..

.. ~

- 11 i-



i.- "'_' ' _ .... __

CHAPTER 5

.,

i'

Magnetostatics

)5.1

'j •• . .

Since the contribution to the field at X due to the current element at X is given to be

d r X -;

= - -__".-

(I)

c r'

'with 'j-' = x' - x'. the total field is

I ~-r

B(X') = -, dll x- (2)

c r)

By the generalized Stokes theorem (of Lass "Vector and Tensor Analysis. p 112. Eq 174).

I -i r

B(X') = -f [~n XV' )-3 dS

c s r

where V· operates on Y: and. ii' dS = d'S is connected with the positive sense n

of traversal around the boundary of the surface by the usual convention of

Stokes law. By the usual transformation formula

. (a X b) X t = b (a • -c) - tco' X C) (4)

which holds for the V operator in Cartesian Coordinates (provided changes in order do not affect the terms on which V operates, i.e. only on "tIr3. not on ifn) •

Hence,

I -r-' -,

= -- V f-· dS

c rJ

. where V· opera tes on ·x ,

V fej - X)

-V'f(;: - ~')

- 113 •

)
)
, .' )
)
)
) )

I

(3)

(S)

(6)

_'---" ___,=------,,--__;_------------------~

-

!

T

and V· - =

r'

as long as r * O. Now,

-;. d S

=

Vl (2..) = 0

r

(7)

cosO'dS r'

= d n

(8)

where 0 Isthe angle between d Sand r. and d n is the solid angle subtended by d S at r, Thus,

I I

Bex) = --V f an = --V n (9)

c c

where n is the solid angle sub tended at x by the complete circuit.

Alternative method'

Let 6 t be an infinitesimal displacement of the loop. This infinitesimal displacement changes the solid angle formed by the closed loop and subtended at P.

r.

r

dQ X x ", 6 n = - 6 S· f ---::-X3

d R X 65

= x' ---::--

Xl

where (d -r X Ii 1) is the equivalent change in

:. ~~ I r I' 'r I'

r I'

i

" :

)

\,

I '

l

I' .

)

I' ) i . i'

)

\' "

d (6 n)

area

.... ....I

di! X x

From

J 5.2

~ .. ~

--~"-~~-

: '

,

i' j

, .'

, I OJ· O'b- i«£dl)6:AOOkiid'i) b5

, .. ,

," '" \ ,.._,'

The magnetic field due to one loop is

B' = _I f d Q

" C (Zl + Rl)

(where Z is the distance from the center of the loop to the point of observation and R is the radius of the circular loop)

·114·

2711 cosO

U' =

z ""C--R-s-c-'c 1;-'0"-

The total contribution of N turns/unit length at point " along the z axis (note: L = R tanO)

271 N I .!!.. - 0,: cosO sec' 0 R d 0

Bz=--- f 2

c 71

-"2 + 0

271 N I

= --- (cose , + cosOl) c '

For the case that the point of observation is near the axis and near the

center of the solenoid: .

. I 71 a2 cos 0

a, = 2 (-c-) -r3-

(b)

For the contribution of one loop

Bg =' a, sinO + BO cosO I

I

I

= 3 (~) cosO sinO

c rJ

I

I

\

i 'I

I

-H+lil ~"O, "+_r -;-.-r--h~p-____'~

: _I, L/l I :

;-, -4

1 t-' ._ L/2.z

The total radial component of the magnetic field at P is 3 I 7T a' 2z N cosO sinO

J dz

c 0 r3

6 I 71' a1 Nz cosO sinO

=

c

(upper limit of integration 2z is obvious from the diagram).

9671' N I (a1L~) ( I 1m t'

Bg 9! with t ie approx a Ion

C sinO = 9/rl r 0: Ll2 and cosO 9! 1)

An alternative solution

B9 can be found by use of the equation V • IT = 0 close to the center of the solenoid.

1 a l~

V ~ B = -g- 17 (6 89) + "'i e Z = 0

- 115 •

But llQ'J = 0 because or the axial symmetry, then.

I i) ( I a III (I)

g ai" 9 19) = - a z·

. a iI

No":". sinOl = .Jii'+TL/2 _ Z)l sinO I = .J al + (L/2 + iy

If the. solenoid length is such that L» a (a being the radius of the solenoid) and z is not close to either end. then Oland O2 are both small angles andean be calculated approximately by

o "" a

I - L/2 + Z

o "" a

1 - L/2 _ Z

1:

Keeping only the quadratic terms in the series expansion of cosO I and cosO 1

we obtain

therefore,

E!! I +.J.. ( a )2 +

2 L/2 + Z

_ 1 [(L/2)2 + Zl J - 2 - a [(L/2)2 _ Zl] 1

Ilz{Z) a 2:NI {2-a2 [(L/2)2+Z1] [(L/2)2~Zl]-2}

,. ' ..

Comparing eq'!'!}.ions (I) and (2) we obtain.

1 il ) 1921TNa1 Z

9' ag (9 Bg = CL 4

9 a 1921T N 1 a 1 Z Ig

!ii9(gBg)d9E!!, CL4 091.19

Finally,

}.

(c)

At Ih;/ end or a long solenoid, we "'~havc 0 1 #' o· and cosO 1

L/(Ll + a1)y, E!! 1,':From the result in pa'~t (a), the Z component of the .,

magnetic field ' ,

21rNI Bz=---

"'.

. c

For one loop the radial component at the end of the solonoW is

• 116·

llg

,I

The contribution of the whole solenoid Il becomes

11T 32 g N /' 3 Z d Z

119 = c 0 (al + 9 2 + Zl + 2ag)3J~

l1Ta1gN ,I I

= - .c [[(a+g)2 +L2]3/2 -7]'

;:; INn (_:_)

c a

'(for L»~)

5.3

y'

y

or BI

The system can be replaced by' two wires, A and B, of radii a and b, res pectively, as shown In the figure. Both wires carry the same.current density J as that of the original wire.

The current on the wire B Is of op poslte sense, while the current on the wire A is of the same sense as thai in the original wire. According to the superposition as before. Using Ampere's law we lind that the induction BI due to the current un the wire A is

/-10 I r

for r < a

(I)

/-10 I a2

Bl = for r > a

211' r(a1 - bl)

where we have used the relation

J

(2)

and i = Jx(area)

for r ~ a

In the rectangular coordinate system, as shown in the figure, the vector induction III becomes

(3)

We have assumed that the current in A is directed into the paper. Similarly • we can get the expression for III produced by the current in the wire B •.

. 117· .

n (al _ b2) I rl therefore, i = ---(al _b2)

.)--.---.

J)-

)-.:;':' )-'"

r-' )-' )--

r

)-'

r ( ,-

I' I

(

\'

) r

lJ _!

V ,,-,I

. v

.02 = J.lo 1 b'l for r' = .j(x - c)'l + y'l < b (4)
211'1 (a2 _b2)
B2 = jlo I bl for r' > b (5)
211'r' (a2 _ b'l) • and the vector induction 82 is

- x x - C

B2 = - D2 . I ( )~ l X. + B, _ I ( )2 2 Y (6)

vx-c·+y vx-c +y

~,-"t';i ",

The actual magentic field Bis sum ofBI andEl• . B = 31 + :82

n-( DIY' Bly r (Blx . Bl(X-C»)y

- .Jx" + y2 - .j(x-c);' +Y .• , x~. ~ .j(x-c? +y'l

In region r > a: ~,.,f, ~

.....

i = J.I 0 I a1' b2 xa2' b2(x-c) )

2n( a2 - b2) Y ( x2 + y2 - (x -C)2ty2) x -( X1,!:y2': ,"" (X-c)2+y2 y

In the region r' < b (and r < a), we find

In the region r' > b but r < a, we find

ii .. jlo I {(y _ b2y.,,;:,. )'F~~_ (x _ bl ex - c)

211' (a2 _ b2) (x _ C)2 + y2 . (x _ C)2 't y'l

y

1'5.4

(a) From the symmetry of the problem, the only component of A is I\p

where

A ,... I f r'2dr'd11'cosl/>'ll (cosO')ll(r' - a) I/> - -

ca I x-;:,X' I

~ ~

By expanding (x - x't.' . in term of cylindrical coordinate, we obtain

~

21 00 00

A¢(O,r)= --fff ~ f dkeim(I/J-¢) cos kz I (kg<)K (kg,)

11' C a ml _ 00 0 III Ill.

\. r'2 dr' drtcos ¢'ll (cos 0') II (r' - 3)

We notice that III must be equal to unity, and A(r,O)~ A(P,z) so that ¢=O

21 '11'/200 .. :

Arp(P,z) = (S" f f J dk cos (kz) II(kp<)K1 (kp> )p'2dp'sinO' dO' ll(cosO')lict!..1)

o 0

• 118 •

, I

I

i

I

I

(b) Thc alternative expression of AI/J:

From the results of problem J.I:! (b), ex - it')" I can be expressed us

_1- =2.: t dkcim¢Jm(kp)Jm(ka)l!·k(z)

lit - it' I III =00 0

therefore.

I 11' 00 00. "'. k]: I

A",(p,z)=-~J L Jdkc'IIll'l'Jm(kp)Jm(ku)c' 'lr'2dr'd11'll(r!..a)6cosO·

'I' \..u 0 m=..oo 0

(c) For circular cylindrical coordinates (p,¢,'I.) the curl is

Cp pc¢ k
ll=VXA=.! a a a
p ilp ~ Tz
Ap pAlfJ AI. A = 0; A'l =0, then,

I B = 1 il (PA ).

p paz 1/>'

For the expression given in (b) we get for the p'-component of the magnetic induction

. ilA'" 'l1l'1a 00 -kz

Bp(p,z)= -~=-=-C--J~k kc 'Jl(k~)Jl(kp)

On the axis p = 0, hence

'l 1 00 kz

B (Oz)= _1T.!!_ J dk kc J (ka)J (0)=0

P' Col I

The z-cornponent of the magnetic induction is ilz = 1 t<p A¢) lind the results

from (b), we have . p p

B (p z) = 211'Ia fdke -klz IJ (ka) J 1 (kp) + 211'Ia f'dkkc··kllIJ (ka)[ilJ I (kp) )

zv:» .. C'" 0 I P -C- Q I ~

For p = 0 the z component of D becomes:

B.(O,z);" 211'Ia jdke·kzJ (ka)[limJ1(kp) ]+2~.!!!.. jdkkc·kzJ (ka)[lilllilJ1(kp»)

z C Q I P~o R. Col p"'oil(kp)

• 119 •

vOI(k g)

._- .. --

B L'11 ' I I k h '" JI (kll) n' __ v_!l_= _!_ k

Y opua ruewe nuwt at .. Im---v-· = .. irn a(kn) 2

. g-.o 9 g ... o 3

as

.' .

...... ,.,.

Notice the Laplace transform

. Ior Re(v) > - ~

Putting P ... 7., I .... k, a .... a';'v = I we get "';

00 kz 2a r(3/2)

! d kke" JI(~~! = ";-;-(a2 +Z2)l/1 =

a

(a2+z2)Jll

= 1h..[11.

where in the last step we have made use of the fact that F(3/2)

2" I a 1

Bz (0, z) = -e- (a1 + Zl)3 .... I .. 2

.. "._----------------------'----

Thus,

This problem is solved by first consider ing one of the current carrying loop as B field source and the other loop inter acts with the field with a, particular

.' orientation l.e, the plane of the loop is ' .. ----.;. in the xz plane. The-general solution is

Y , ,

. obtained by'rnultlpllcation of Legendre

polynomial to the.result as it was done .in problems in chapter 3. '

_"

'I {-'_' -' -' -'-'}

:' -;; f J (B • r) - (r • J) B d3 X

-'

For the particular case, the second loop is in xz plane, we have J = J 0 Co

12 {) (<p)O (r' - b) ,

where JO = b I therefore the second term van,ishes.

• J 20·

. hla ~ (-I)n(2n+I)!!

Br = -- };

Cr r = 0 2nn!

= ~;; (- I)"r(n + 3/2) Cr r = 0 F'(n + I) r(3/2)

dn+1

2n + 2 P2n + I (cos 0) r)

2n + r -: ,

r( )

2n + 2 P2n + I (cos 0 f)

I

5.6 p:.Y)

If the total charge in the sphere is Q, then the surface charge density o = QM "a2,\ and the current density r can be written as '

J = ~ 1"1 (cos 0') o(r' - a)c.l.

4" a 'I'

Using the relationship of J x = -1 ifJ sincp' and Jy = JifJ cosp' and set cp'= O,we can expand AifJ.in terms of spherical harmonics.

_J

Q w 4" r~

AifJ = 411' a c f L 2£tT 7+T

£, m >

r' 20(r' - a) dr' difJ' d cosO'

The vector potential inside of the sphere (r < = rand r> = a) is Ain

-' Qw. r.

Ain = -- Sill 0 - cifJ

3c a

while the potential outside of the sphere (r <= a and r> = r) is Aout

-' Qw. (32•

Aout = -- sin 0 -) c¢

3c r

The components of the magnetic field is obtained as

I a. Q w 2 cosO

B, = r sinO ao (S1l10 AifJ) = T -a-

I a

BO = - ~a;- (r AifJ)

B¢ 0

2Qw 3c

sinO a

=

The magnetic field (inside of the sphere) in Cartesian coordinates:-

-> Q w 2

Bin = -- (-)Ii;

. 3c a

Similarly the magnetic field outside of thc sphere is

_.. Q w a2 .'

Boul = ("T)"73 (3 cosOer - k )

• 121 •

I

U t

l...r

...... i

I __ '!

)"

I ,

)"

)"

, '

/

I ) ) I . / ! (

I I I

I /

,l )

c'

./

, 5.7 (S.~)

We require potentials '1>0 outside the cylinder r > b

'l>m within the cylinder a < r < b 'I>! inside the cylinder r < a

satisfying the cendltlons:

(i) (li)

(iii)

'I> continuous on all boundaries (at the boundary between two media, the tangential component of HI is continuous, so '1>1 = '1>2')

Il ~ 'continuous on all boundaries (since B1 n = B2n but

~n ,

B = Il H, thus III Hl n = 112 H2n)

(Iv) (v)

'1>0 '-+ - Bo r cess as r -+ 00.

'l>j finite at the origin.

In cylindrical coordinates (r, 0, z)

3'1> 1 3<1l •• ··" 3<1l_

it = -'iJ <1l =- a; er - -;:- 30' eO - 3 Z ez = (Hr. HO' Hz) (1)

..... .The tangential component of H is continuous, HI t = H2t or HIO = H20

1 a<1lj 1 3<I>m '

Uslrig Eq(l) - [r ~. _lr=a = [- 71liJ1r=a

=

....

The normal component, qf B is continuous BIn ,.;. :B2n or BIr = B2r

. ,

-----.-------_._----

-.

Using Eq{l)

[ ... a<l?j]

-}-- --

. . ar r ,. a

---" ._--_,...---,----

·122·

( 3<1>j) = Il ( 3<1'm) (2 iii);

~ a ar a

Due to the symmetry of the problem we do not have here a z-dependence, The solution of Laplace's equation in circular cylindrical coordinates is, for

{ rQ J {COSQO}

(I' = _ Q ' for Q a positive integer

r smllO

this case:

Since for Q = 0, we have '1) :: Ao + B, Qn r. We can omit the '.Q :: 0 terms III the general expansion of the potential, as the constant term adds nothing to the fields and the logarithmic term which has a singulurity at zero and at infinity is the potential of a linear monopole distribution. So the expression for the potential can. be ~ritten as

'Il> = 'i (AQrQcos~O + BQr-~cosQO + C'QresinQO + DQr-QsinQO)

~I . rn

Since from symmetry that '1) (r, 0) = 'P (r, - 0), so that CQ = DQ = O. For r> b the potential must be of the form,

~ cxll

<p. = - 80 r cosO + k ---;;- cosQO.

Q= I r"

(4)

The first term gives the uniform field, H = B = liD at large distances, that is it satisfies B.C. (iv). For the inner regions the potential must be

00 r~

'Pm = k (JJlIrfl + -0 ) cos 110 }

£=1 r"

Il>j = ;; s Qrll cosflO

Q= 1 see appendix

. . .

Using Eq(4) and Eq(5).in the four conditions we obtain (all coefficients

with Q *' 1 vanish)

a < r < b,

r < a,

(5)

(6)

}.la1pj - 1l1, - a1 0,= 0 Eq(6) can be solved to give

PI [ b2 (J.I + 1)2 - a2(J.l-ll)2 r = - 2Bob2(J.l + 1)

(7)

From Eq(5)

·123·

Hence in the hollow tubing, the field is Hi = Hi = - 'il II>i =:-61 1

This field is uniform and in the direction of Bo and, from(7) and the last expression in (6), is of magnitude,

4~

~i= -61 = [(}.I+l)l- ~l (}.I_I)l

The assymtotic solution, Jl »1, the inner field - 6 I becomes

4

- 6 1 -f> • ---'"='1- Bo a

1J(1-b"l)

The ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to So is then

- 6. 4

R=-'-' = a

Ho Jl (1 - bl)

4 log 1 0 R =- log, o!J + log I 0 [--"""'a 1=-

-b"l

For a lIb 1 = 0.5 and 0.1, the results is tabulated as the following:

2.50 2.75

10g101J

Within the material of the cylinder, the magnetic nux density Hm = - 1J'il (I>m From Eq(4)

Thus,

a2/h" = 0.51 32/h2= 0.1
!J log, 0 Jl -Iog , 0 R -Iog, o' R
100 2,0000 1.0969 1.3516
200 2.3010 1.3979 '1.6526
300 2.4771 1.5740 1.8287
400.. 2.6021 1.6990 1.9537
500 2.6990 1.7959 2.0506
600 2.7782 1.8751 2.1298
700 2.8451 1.9420 2.1967
800 2.9031 2.0000 2.2547
900" 2.9542 2.0511 2.3058
1000 3.0000 ,2.0969 2.3516 . <J'm = 13. r cosO + ~ cos 0 .,J'.

Thus, by Eq( I)

-log oR ASSYMTOT'C SOLUTION U >1

2.25

3.0

3.25 .:

•••••

·124·

'\

)

The exact forms of PI = PI (a, b, Ho) and 'YI = 'Y1(a, b, Bo) are given in Eq(7) The potential outside the cylinder is by Eq(3)

..

,,' .. '

al

<1>0 = - Bo r cosO + - cos 0 r

_. ~ ~ a. al

B = H = Bo [ cosOcr - sinO Co 1 + 7" cosOcr + f1 sinOcO

The field outside is thus:

•••

APPENDIX

From (2 - i) and using Eq(5) and Eq(6)

00 00 'Y2

}; - 6£322 sin 20 = l: - ({J2a2 + -n ) 2 sin20 I

Q= 1 2= 1 a"

",

Eq (2 - ii) can be written,

- ({JnbQ + 2&_ ) 2 sin 20

.. b£

00 a£ .

B. b sinO +:E - -bo £SIn £0

Q·l ..

OCI 11

Dob = (b"-Plb-T) or ocl-bl13I-'Y.=b1Bo

Eq(2 - iv) can be explicitly written:

00 2 1 2 'YQ

!J Q~ 1 ({J2 Qb - - b2 + 1 ) cos 20 = - BocosO

00 2 aQ .

+ E --;;- cosQO 2- 1 b" + 1

WQQbQ-: _ JlQrQ + 2aQ ) cos QO = -BocosO

bf+T bQ+ 1

at + !J b1 PI - IJ 'YI = - Be b1

Finally from Eq (2 - iii)

'i s Q Q aQ - 1 cos QO Q= 1

'"

II 61 = IJPI -!Jar

IJ a1 131 - !J 'YI - a2 6 I = 0

·.125·

<>'!,'

-
yo;.
-- ---
L
L'
),:...
(;
.....
t--
I ~
i,
I:
~
I
, ;L-
I )..:
I
).--
)....
I,
~
,
)-
I.'
)-'
Y
t-
)~
)~
) .'
)~
I
)~
) ....
;
~
)'"
I '"
\..1
,.I
'"
/. .)
I. )
I .I .... -- .. ". --

'S.8(~· ~ )

(a) Using analog of image method in electrostatics, the vector potential in region (1) contains two terms:

~... 1 1 (x' ) 1· (x" )

AI(x) = cfli'-il'1 +It-i''1 d3x (1)

......

where J (:X") is the Image current density with coordinates (x,y,-z). In region

(2) there is no current density, but the current density in region 1 is reduced in

magnitude and denoted by J ", .

... ~ I J+

,h (x ) :; - f::::1 dl x'

. c Ix - X I

(2)

A'Pplying the boundary conditions at z = 0 (i.e, Six =I-IS2x; Sly '= I-IB2y; B1:I: = B2z). the following relationship can be obtained

( ilAb ..:. ilAlz):; C" ilA2x _ ilA2Z)

az .,' .Bx JJ az ilx" (4)

( DAly _ Mix )""'= (DA2Y -:- ilA2X)' (5)

3xay , ' " ax oy

( aAlz _ (lAlY)

ily ilZ

(3)

2

Since the refer ..!ouripr:imed system while th~ integration

, of the vector. potential refer ~o-.the primed sys.tem. So the differentiation can be taken inside the.,integral. The following equations are obtained at ~g: = 0 from equation (3), (4)"'and (5) respectively.

~ (Jz + J; -1-11;) (y' - y) - (Jy'- J; - pJ;')z' = O. (Jx - 1; - I-IJ;) z- (Iz.: J: - /-IJ;) (x' ,- x) = O.

(ly + J; - In (x' - x) - (Jx + J: - J;) (y' - y) = O.

~.

Since the!e equations hold for arbitrary x' ,y' and i:' so the coeff. must

vanish.

• 1.1 - 1 ' ... 1.1 -"1 ... . J.l. - 1

r, =(~ )Jx(>S,y.-z); ly = (~) Jy (x,y,-z); r, =- (-;+1) Jz

de) J+:;(21.1 + 2j.t

an b x ""jJ"+T) Ix; ly:; 0itT Jy;

or

·126·

(a) Case I. The plane of the loop is /I 10 the face of the slab:-

Using image current density method, we have

and Jt{! =

Expand the components of magnetic field due 10 the wire loop carrying current 1 in terms of Legendre Polynomials

= 211"1a'}; (-I)n(2n+I)!! r2n1-1

Br cr n""O 2n n! r~n + 2 1l2n + I (cosO)

11" I a 1 '; (- l)n (2n + I) !! (a 2" I I

DO = --c- "';;'0 2" (n,+ I)! -). 7" " 2n + j(cosO)

Since Jt{! is 1 to both Dr and Uo. therefore there arc two components uf the force I

Hence

F _ 411"212 .E..=...!.}; a2" + 2 (- 1)"(2n + I) !! ,2d

0- c2 C J.I+I )"=oCa1+4d1)n+1 2"n! 12n+I(';a'+4I1')

F- 211"112 J.I-I '£ (-I)n(2n+I)I' a2n+2 I 2d

r- -c2-<).i+ I ) n=O 2" (n + I)! (a2 + 4d2)n + [ Il2n+ d .ja' +4d')

(b) Case 2: the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of thi: slab.

It is appropriate to use cylindrical coordinate and the series expansion

for the in III 5,4

211" 1 a 00 I I

Bz = __ f d k(ke- k Z J1(ka»

c 0

r

= I(~) IJ+I

Jt{! = l' Ii (z ) Ii (P - 2d coSop ±

..; 4d1coS1'j? _ (4d1 _ a1»

• 127 •

F !I

=

± .j4d1cos2.,o-(4d1-a2) )d3x

iJ. - I 00 11/ 2 r---,,-~

(-+ I ) f kJ. d k f V'I - K2sin1.,o dop

iJ. 0 0

c

where

_81T11a1 IJ--I 00

C1 (--I) f kJ 1 (ka) E (K, t/J) dk

11+ 0

(provided Kl< I, where E (K,¢) is the complete elliptic Integral of second kind) (c) When d » a, we keep only the lowest power term of (a/d)

From (a) 11212 IJ- I 32

~')' Fa:>! -c (t+ft (11

111 11 IJ - I a 1

Fr ==-c -(-;+T) 4d2 P'2n + 1(1) = 0

=

From (h) il' d » ;1, we have to rewrite the integral expression

:!IT 12 II J1 - I 00 ' 211 ,.-._-:-:-:;_-.;-

Fg = - ~ (--) f k JI (ka) f Ja2 - 4<11sin\0 d.,o

c iJ. + I 0 0

,,'

21T12 11-1' 00 '211

== - -1- (--I-).r k J 1 (ka) f 2i d sin.,o d.,o

c'lJ+ 0 0

o

.. ,

Using other method to calculate the forces when q »a:

-v 6

; Here it is more convenient to usc Cartesian coordinates. From Eq(5.69)'

F' = (~4) B = -~ (il; • B) for a dipole.

z •

T

'.' 7·

I 11 a2

For the oriental ion (a), the real loop has m = --- in the z-directlon, c

·128 -

.;, ,.

The B due to the image loop at the center of ' the real loop is In the 7. dlrcc

, 2~ ~

lion and has a magnitude (from Eq(5.41) ) ilz = (2d)3 ="4d3

Hence

r, -r, =0,

For the orientation (b), B of the image loop is in same direction as m but is

half as large as Bzabovc Fx= Fy = 0,

31T2 12 a IJ I

Fz = - ~ (b)4 ( J1 : I )

5.10 C)",II)

'I

In a uniformly magnetized medium all the internal currents cancel out. The H field can be thought as formed by a, layer of cqul valent "pole charge" located on the magne tic pole faces in the same manner as an clcctrostaticfield would be formed by electric charges so placed. Since we arc only interested in the field along the z axis. Any arbitrary point P along the z axis is chosen as shown in the diagram. The pole confined in the ring radius r is' dqm =-Mo 2m dr

, where -Mo is also the surface pole density. Because of the symmetry of the problem, we have only the axial com,ponent given by

21TMo

and H = -- (coso - I) - IJo

Similarly for the other pole face and the total magnetic field inside of the cylinder

= - 47T M, (I _ cos a + cos (J ) Hin = H+ + H_

lJo 2

The magnetic field outside along the z axis is

lJoI-l = lJo (H_ + H.) = - h,Mo (1 - co sa) + 21T Ma(l - cos(J) Notice the sign is different, because the angle a: and (J now are in the same quadrant while their polarity is opposite

( coso - cos{J

lJoH = 411 Mo 2

- 129 - , .

") r r r r

r r

which is positive since it is directed upward. In free space B = llol'l. The above .given expression is also for B field outside the cylinder. while inside the cylinder we use the following equation

H = B - 411 M

or

J3 = TI + 47T M.

The n field inside and outside of the cylindrlcat mugucts arc:

inside: B = H + 411 M

outside: IS = Ilo H

inside outside
~ 0 a 23 3a 4a 5a a 2a
-Eili_ -0.51 -0.15 -0.07 -0.07 -0.15 '-0.51 I I
47T Mo""
B the corresponding term + 47T Mo 0.28 0,09 ,

I

POSITIVE

Sa
4.
3a
2u'
u
-o / NEGATIVE

) ~

This problem is not solved properly. Correct answer was not obtained, but here presents two approaches for discussion sake.

From Eq(5.12)

~ 1 ~ ~

F= -fJ(x)XB(x)d3x c

First approach:- It is given that there is no macroscopic current,

therefore,~' j' ( x) = 1m ( X ) = c (v' X M)

and

f! X B = 47TV X M

·130·

(1)

F:: J t~ X t-.1, X B'(x)u~x:: - J li(x) X (~X Mld.!x (~I

By vector idcnuty

U' X (t" X M)= ~'(~I' u') (Ii + -IITM) X (~ X ~1)

I!t-.j • v')li t (Ii . ~, M t t.i (~X li)1 v"(~i . Ii) I (rvi'~')li t (Ii· VI t.i I

This expression would nut lead III the answer in any uhviuus 11I:lIIIll'I'.S':clInd appruuch.>- Using the suine rcchneque :IS in Ihe IC\I Isccuuu 5.7), The macroscopic terce over the volume is

(.I)

_. . . ..... ,'"

~. X (lj X F;:i) :: (Iv;·~) U' .- (II' ~)~i t Il(y' t.11- M(~ • U)

From Eq( I). U fkld L,IIl he expressed ;IS if = 47T t.1 t 'Ii.p

where .p is all urbiuury s~;t1ar luucuon. If y is lkl~rlllill~d hy Itt,' ,'til~ri"l1

But this expression is incorrect by a negurivc \i~lI.

(b) Replacing li by ii ill E\(3). we have

1:- J v X (Ii X r.,.i)d.l x
J 'il X (U' X tli)d.1x ---lIT i ','x (1I1'X t.i)u"x
But (M' X M) = U therefore, -------."_ ----------,----- ..

5.12 c: \ -, \

(a) To show J Ii· ti LlJx=O ill a maguctusturlc licld is due entirely III al l SIH' cc

localized distribution or permanent magnetizutiou.

fIT· ii Ll3X

all space

f ri'(U-4ITM)LlJx t IIl'·'U·u3x

in \lUI

f ll' h' LI J X - 4IT I ii . t.i u ,I X

all spu cc v

Take U 41fM' + \7;> (where tfJ is arbitrury scalar satisfies t>' X V¢ :: O).Thell

the expression call be reduced to •

. IJ I .

therefore,

= .r 'i/. (rp iJ') oJ X

:111 ~Jl;lCC

J 'II • Ii d J x " = 0

all~IH!CC

o.

J t/> B • ds

(b) Consider a disiributton of permanent mugnctlzution, as summation of m!croscopic dipole

d < U > = -- N < mmol > . H

The variation of the magnctostatic energy is

6 w == f d < 6 u > == f 5 M . fi (where M = N < mmol »

But

" J " "

6M == -(611-5B) 4IT

if = ~-{( Ii . it dl x - f i3 • ii dl 1all space integraiton) result ill part (a). the second term vanish

W = _I f fi . fi d' x

SIT

From the

First method:

From the problem 5.11, the

force is

F = - .r (fl· MfBcdJx

where Be is the magnetic induction, and from problem 5.10, we have

-'.. .... coso: - cos~ )

B == j.lo H = 4IT M ( ,

If the cylinder is very long,

,_, ~ " I

13 = 4ITM (- 2

->

IJ=OO M --+

~ 1------

,"

Assuming i3 is constant through OUI the cross-section.

j1 ~ - f (\7. M) 2rr M dJ x = - 2" Ml A k

where k is the unit vector along the 'axis of Ihccyli"nder and A'is the cross seclional area, The negative sign shows t1~at is an at!.ractive force.

Second Method.

"

The problem that we arc asked to do includes an infinitely permeable

plane surface. The boundary condition is that at the surface of a conductor.

·132·

'-.----------.--..,......,..---~~~,' c:-:~~· .... - .. -

-> I-a tal 1- a +0
1'-
L , .. ' 'L . -L---J -> 1'-

-+

-I'

.. L' -1 ~' 1.

~ conductor (2) (3) + a,. I'

FIG(I) .'; ~ (4)

and we can simplify the problem by inserting images. Since we arc more familiar with the electrical case, we first replace the actual problem, shown in Fig. I, by the equivalent electrostatic sltuatlons shown in Fig 2, 3, and 4.

In Fig. 4 we have replacedthe polarization by the effective surface charge, a = P. The mirror symmetry of Fig; 3 and 4 ensures that the lines of force arc normal 10 the plane when they cross it; hence, Ihe right hand half of Fig. J·and 4 gives the total field (of interest) in the actual problem. Since we know that the forces can be computed in terms of Ihe stresses in the fields and that these stresses arc numerically equal in the electrical and magnetic cases, we see that we get the same forces in all cases. The forces act across a thin layer of vacuum at the end of the cylinder: accordingly. we need not distlnguish between ii. rio E. or i5 there. If L is vcry long, the fields due 10 layers of charge at a distance L from the plane will be negligible: we need to consider only the two layers ± a separated by an infinitesimal distance.

Ec = 2rr a

and the force per unit area is 2" al = 2rr pl = 2" Ml. If the area is A = "al, the total force of attraction is

5.14 ). Ii,)

Some of the steps in method I arc in a way not well justlflcd.

(a) Method I.

The force due 10 the magnetic field and magnetization which is uniform and along the z axis is:

where if = V X A and from Eq(5.I07)

~; ,

da'

where --,---

lx-x'i

/

nut, FA is constant and along z axis, therefore,

_,-

• 133 •

,..,
r:-~
i )",-,'
i
I--;-
\_.,
\.._... .. ....
)'-...-
)'--'
)'-
)'--
,)'-'
, )'-'
I )'-'
, )'---"
I'
)'
), , .......
I'
i, r;
. )~
I, , .' '.
r \._,~'
)
I' \....
) .... ,.'
:' \....
)
I' "-,
)
',' \......:
,)I_,
)~
)l._,
),
\,...!
\."
)l."
)
L
)
L
)
c'
\ .. ,
-, L.
i
l..,
'-, 2n a L M

A = --;::;:====;;==============~ va2 +g2 -2a'l COs'p+(z- L)2

'F- 2naLM2';:;z (VXA(X))d3~

=_2na2LM2f/n (cos.p+l)d'P _/" (I+cos'p)d'P 1.

1~ V2a2-:'a2 cose + 4L2 0 V2a2 _:'a2 cos'p+ L2:

a 2a

Le t k I = and k =----,F-====;=_

va2 + L2 .,' ;14a2 + L2

Using the double formula

cos 2x = 2 cos2. X - I, we change variable of the integration.

F '= - 2naLM2 {2kl l COS1fdP 2 - 1k Tr cos2p dP I

o Vi - k cos 13 - £ V I _ k' cos2p

Let 0 be (n/2 - 13)

2{ n/2 sin' 0 dO "/2 sin' 0 dO

= 4n aLM 2k fo 'I _ k' sl'n20 - 2kl J I '.' '.

V 0 V 1 - ki SIIl- 0 ,

= 8n aLM2 J K(k) - E(k) .;. t k

K(kl) - E(kl ) } kl

Second method.

(a) The electronstatic analog of the given problem as shown in Fig. 2,

I ~ .. L, F -;

J.1.=CX1 .c;=oo

~FIG.l 0=00 is a polarized cylinder with its flat end against an infinitely permeable

" or infinitely conducting plane. This can be worked out by considering the problem shown in Fig. 3 with its image, where the median plane is. by symmetry J at zero potential. The magnetic equivalent of this problem is shown in Fig. 4, Still further equivalent problems are generated by replacing P by the equivalent charge density - V ~ Ii and the surface

. charge 0 = P • ft,-or replacing M by the equivalent currents c curl M and lsurf = M X 'il; these are shown in Figs. 5 and 6.

(4)

1-;--11-;1

"

(1)

(3)

. 134·

The force required in each case is Iorce exerted III the lefl by the nellis generated in the left loop on tile right loup. Try the problem of Fig. (, and usc the result of Prob, (5.4) (b) for the vector potcntiul of a ring of width liz, at z, at a point (Y, z) on the right solenoid

i I 1

I

I

---0-1-0---

I . -{_"

---®-:-0-- "t/J

I

: Jourf,= M~c¢

FIe: I>

I

U"-M

I i

U = ~MI

III

:u= -M I

U=<M

I

,

I FI(: 5 I

2rrlMcdz, ) a 00

-.:._......:.-f dkc-kll-l,) J,(ka)Jtlk~) (I)

c " .

where we usc k as the-variable of integration til avoid confusion with the k's ill

dA4> t~. z) =

the answer given ill .hc tcxt ,

The magnetic Iicld produced by the ring has :1 V·component

Now SCI II " a and lind II.,.

II

J II By -L

We obtuln,

Bg (u, I.)

(3)

"

The force produced by this Iichl on a rillt-: uf width dl at I. which is carry ing the ettcctlve current Mcdz and has the circumterence 2rr a is, by Eq(S.7)

- Mcdz

d F = --,-, - (~rr acrp X ByeSJ)

Thus. 1-.'

<00

= - Cz (:!rr :IM)2dz f d k (c - kl C kll + ti, (JI (ka»2 (4)

\I

L

J d F is in ihe _OCt direction und has the magnitude II

• 2 ,"" d k () k I I. 1 L I, -- 1

,- = (211a M) j - (c - ,,2c"'~ + e " - ~) 1J,(ku)1

II k -

From Y.L. Luke "Integrals or Bessel Functions" I'll J 14-.1 I H. we gel

00 c-Ak AIE(k*) '~£K(k*J.l I,

I [JI(ak)12dk = • +-

u k rruk'

( 5 )

(6)

where

In the notation 01' the book we haxe,

. IJS .

when A = L

(7)

and

when A = 2L

(8)

F = 8naLW [ K(k) - E(k) k

(b)

.:«

For L » a

k -+ (2a)/L;

kl -+ aIL

and

nl2

K(k) .~ J (I +

o

.'

Similarly,

nl2 2a 1

E(k) ~ £ (I -l}sin20) dO

K(k) -- E(k) alT K(kJ) - E(k1)

"n.sl k. ~ 2L ; kl

~- 4L

a1l

...

(A;: 1T a2, the cross sectional area of the cylinder.)

A long, hollow right circular cylinder of inner radius a and outer radius b is magnc

•. flzcd with a uniform rnagnctizatlon M per

pendicular to . the cylinder axis. Find B everywhere, that: is, in the three regions.

Note: M is constant, the material docs not

have a permeability Poin the ordinary sense.

Solution

This problem can be solved in several ways, (a) by direct integration

except that care -.» must be taken since we have an infinile cylinder. Tile solution is not difflcult if we recognize that problems with magnetization can be solved analn~o\ls!y 10 problems with electric polarization. There is a slight difference, namely whereas for an electric polarization P

I.. ,,'(r')

V e - -- 'V • J d V'

4n fa lr - r"]

.. 'V I/J, fll.r a lIlagn.ctii',ation M. ~e can define a scalar potential .

..

uno E

. JJ6·

J )

(9)

as the magnetic scalar potential of

Together with the nonvanishing 111. we have

D = Po M - J.lo'V.1/Im (cf. Section 10,3 Hauser's textbook), 'M = M k, We have

) ) ) )

Now. for any

M a dV

1/Im = -4'1T -a-z Jlr _ r I

d V'

where we rccoauizc J -;:---::-...,.

c 4rr I-r'-tl

a uniform magnetic charge distribution 9 m = I within the cylinder.'The scalar potential of a uniform cylindrical distribution is (cf problem (5.10) of Hauser's text)

... -."

I) >.R !I < R

)

lienee fur the uniform magnetized cylinder we find

MRl +--rrM

+ - 9 coscfJ, 2

s > R 9 < R

Whence

_.,

13 =

1/2 M, 9 < R

The solution to the problem we seek is the sum of the field of a cylinder of radius b and magnetization M and the field of a cylinder of radius a and magnetization - M.

We note thai the solution to this problem is also contained in the problem or a magnetic cylinder in a uniform external field, as the induce magnetization of the cylinder is uniform cf. page 309 of Hauser's text book. *

• Witller Hauser "Intruductlnn til the princlplcs Ill' elcctruuuunetlnu."

5.16

Calculate the force acting on a Dirac monopole located II distance (If 0.5 angstroms from and in the median plane of magnetic dipole with

dipole moment equal In one nuclear magncton (clV(21llI"c». .

• 137·

~~------ -------~-~---:---~...L__""'.-.:r-_':_-.------~__:- .. --._- .. _ . ------___....

.: -. ' .,,: ~ "

?
! 1< ~
~
y' '1
.,
r" )/
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(b) . Compare the force In (a) wilh atomic forces such as the direct eldotrostatic force between charges.' the spin-orbit force, etc. Comment on the"iiuestion of binding of magnetic monopoles to nuclei with magnetic moments. (Assume that the monopole mass is at least that of a proton).

137

Dirac monopole g = (-2- n) e

Force in m~dian plane of a dipole of magnetic moment ~ (or u) is 2m

_, }.J. _ 137 n e' h a" 3 I hl

I F I = g:r - (--) -- (-) -3-' lao = --2

r 2 2m pc r . ao me e

= (137n)_h_(~)3 me,e2'(~)

2 2mpc r . hl a~

n ao 3 e2

= 4 X 1836 (-r-) (---;;r)

(a)

If r = ao ~ 0.5 X 10-8cm•

".

IF I = n X 1.1 X 10-6 dyncs.

(b)

See above for comparison of electrostatic forces with Fmonopole' Spinorbit forces are of the order of (137)~ times Coulombic forces in atoms. Thus I i1monopolc I .... I Papin-orbit for electrons I. The possibility of binding of monopoles to nuclear' magnetic moments is tricky and needs quantum-mechanics (see Denius Sivers, Phys. Rev D1. 2048 (1970) ). But the forces are not totally negligible and so the possibility exists.

5.17

A metal cross bar of mass rn slides without friction on two long parallel conducting rails a distance b apart. A resistor R is connected across the rail at one end: compa~~d to R the resistances of bar and rails is negligible. There is

, a uniform field, B perpendic]lar to the plane of the figure. At time t = 0 the crossbar is given a velocity Vo toward the right. Whal happens then? (a) Does the rod ever stop moving? If so, when? (b) How far does it go? (e) How about

conservation of energy? '

',Direction of B does not matter. say into the page. The rod sees in its rest frame. an electric field E' as shown in the sketch of magnitude I El I :; :!._ B.

c

There is therefore a motional e.mJ. v

! n t,< b

I

I

m

B The current in the rod is c

·138 -

& vBb - I_.- I .

1= -R ::: -R • The force on the rod is F = - f J X Bd3 X = - IIlb (ti' X B )

c c c

_. vB 2b1

I F I = ~R ' and acting to the left (opposite to v)

c .

Newton's equation of motion for the rod is mv >

-"7R'v.

and

With solution,

vet) = Vo C

(a)

No, except at t -+ 0 (the velocity decreases exponentially)

.: mel Rv,

Rod rolls a distance L::: 1 1

, S b ..

(b)

(c)

The K.E. of motion. !hmY~, is' converted into heat in the resistor R. This can be checked by computing

00 '00" B1b2

W = f I (I) Rdt = f dt R -- yl (I)

o 0 c2 R2

2S1b1 t

----,,_ _ IllV2

Rmc" - --r 0-

Vo e

!

I

I

5.18

(a) A circular metal disc of mass m, radius 3. thickness d, and conductivity (J is placed in a spatially unlformcd, but slowly oscillating magnetic field, Bo sinw t. The disc is in the x-y plane and the field is in the z direction. Calculate the time average power loss in the disc to the lowest nonvanishing order of approximation.

(b) Use the result of part (a) 10 estimate how long it wiU take for a pendulum consisting of the disc mounted on a light rod of length (L-a). as shown in the figure. and swinging through a region of horizontal magnetic field Bo of width 2a normal to the disc. to be damped to 3 negligible amplitude from an initial angle O. Assume that the energy loss per cycle is small initially compared to the energy of motion of the pendulum.

(a) Lowest approximation assumes w very small and thus a very small induced e.m.f, and hence a small 'current flow (so small as to produce negligible modification of the magnetic field. Apply Faraday's law to a circular path of radius g in the plane of the disc and centered on its

center. . .

·139·

" 'II,

I '

; !

,.,

\ \'. ~

I an

f E· dQ = - - J -' fI da cat

gives

W

21Tg E!p - -Bocos wt

c

w 130

E!p = - 72 gcoswt

, 'or

By Ohm's law, '1'1' = oE!p for .g,: < a, I z I < d/2

By elementary considerations of forces on charges and work done per unit time (see Eq(6.77) ) the power loss in the disc is

p = 'J 1· Ed3x ='0 J E1!pd3x

, w2132" , 2 a 1

P - 0 --1- COS wt X 21T J g g d9 X d

4c ' 0 ,

owln~a4d1T

Bc2

=

" -,

.,-"

1-'lg.2 11(1)

The lime average, p~~er loss is therefore

1T wa

P = _ a1 d(-)lB~o

16 c

(This holds as long as l1woa2/eZ «I i.c., (skin depth) {j »a)

(b) Pendulum Initially has' amplitude 00, .,i;crefore in small oscillation' approximat lon,

P E = _!: n1g02

... 2 •

where 0(1)

Omax

o

I I

and K.Emnx = '"2 LmgOl = 2" mvmax

v = wolD,

Wo =:/f

·140·

') )

As the disc swings 10 and fro it sees an effective U(t) that, averaged over the disc appears as shown in the sketch (diagram 2), The time (). I is M S!! 2a/v.

The triangular shape can be viewed as roughly one half cycle of a sine wave. Therefore the effective frequency to be used in the-power loss Iormular of

'!- I .'

part (a) is"

",

11 v, wcff =-- 2a

)

.. I

)

)

werr 6 t = 1T

:; ,

The energy loss per cycle of oscillation of the pendulum is

1Tl 0 Ilo --.- avo c· , "

This loss occurs once each period, r = 211/wo. If the loss is small, we can write

dE ,W, I

- S!! -- where E = - mv2

dt ..' 2

(v is the velocity of the pendulum at the bottom).

Conscrvation of energy thus gives the secular equation of motion:

Wo 112 oll~ 1Ta2 d

----av

211 c2, 16

dv 1T oB21Ta1d

(a Wo ) t "i

dt J:2 °mc2

The pendulum is therefore brought to rest In a time,

Comments:

1. Clearly the numerical coefficient cannot be trusted.

2. One point that needs checking Is the replacement of the triangular shape pulses to upper sine curve. There are sharp corners present and one can make a Fourier series decomposition to check.

, '

7

• 141 •

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V '. Thls section (chapter 6 to 10) deals with time varying fields and their applications. ,The time dependence of the electromagnetic field unveils various areas in electromagneiism such 'as radiation, wave propagation, electromagnetic interactions and bulk motion of conducting medium (magnetohydrodynarnics). One of the differences between the time-varying fields and the static fields is that the electric and magnetic fields are coupled. The Maxwell's equations stated in Eq(l) are the four fundamental equations of electromagnetism Involving space and time derivatives of E and B. the charge density q and the current density r. .

.. '

MaxweU's equations (differential form)
..... .....
Coulomb's Law V • D = 4 711]
....
Ampere's Law V x H = i!. 1 + .L l!2. (1)
c c at
Faraday's Law VxE = .L ~ = 0
c at ....

Absence of.,free magnetic monopole: V· B = 0

In solving these, partial differential equations, we have a few remarks:-

....

(1) Uncoupling II> and A:

The scalar ($) and the vector (A) potentials are coupled. For example,

..... .

..... .... 1 aA

the Faraday's law gives E = -V$ - - -a-' By Lorentz gauge transformation

.r: c t

{A .... t+ VA; $ ... 'II _;. J_ ~ where V lA -...!_ alA= 0), we can express

cat cl atl

them separately into two Inhomogeneous wave equations.

....

<;P$ - j_ a21f1 = -47r1] and '\PA _ j_ alA = _ i!!_J (2)

e atl c1 atl c

(2) The tlme-varylng effects of the source at a distant point of observation (Retard'cd potential):

Taking into account the finite velocity of propagation of electric

and magnetic fields. The potential at a distance r from the source responds only to the time-variation of the source (either in intensity or in distribution) at the previous time Hr/c). The potential must be modified as .

ct> = f [g(x', t')] ret d3x' and A = _!_ J [1(;("', t,)Jret d3x' (3)

Ix-X'I c Ix-x'i

Or we write the wave equation as:

- 142 -

- .. --- - .... --.. ----.-------

I a1'fl

Vl'fl - - - = -47rf(x,t) cat I

(4)

....

'JI represents either II> or A in Eq(2) and the solution In terms of Creen's

function is

'fI(;' t) = J G (~, I; ;("';1')[(;',1') dlx'dt' (5)

and in turn, the Creen's function subjected to (I) C=O. everywhere for t < t' and (2) C represents outgoing wave for t >t' becomes.

/let' + I~-x'i _ t)

c

'C(x,t; x',t') =

I~ - x'i

tl bi " .' E (4) I d d I' .1. (-) f f f(x', I') ) rei dl ' uy ~L1 stltutmg to 'q ,t Ie retar e so uti on .... x, t = , x

x. x

is equivalent to those stated in Eq(3) . (3) Wave progations in a medium:

The solution of the wave equation In Eq(4) as

(i) Plane wave ---- 'fI = A eik.x - iwt

(ii) Circular cylindrical wave ----

'JIn = einOZn (-vi Ilofo ~L _kl,!/ ) e:,Jkx·iwt

{ 10('01]) ,

where Zn (. I WI kl n) _ ; the upper result IS for

v Ilofo--- " -

c1 AKo(tJg)

g ~ a and'lfl = 1l1"1 wI _kl; the lower is for I} > a and cl

WI

IJl=kl - Ilofo Cl The wave propagates along x axis and 0

. is the azimuth angle.

(iii) Spherical wave --;...-

'JI (;, w) = klQ (r) YQ m (0, ~)

fn(r) = .A. J £"1- VI (kr) + ~ NI1"1- y,(kr)

".Jr -rt

(1 £"l-VI and N£+Yz are Bessel functions, but more c~stomary ex. pressed in terms of spherical Bessel, Neumann and Hankel functions . first and second kind, jQ(x), n1(x) and h£{l ,2)(x».

where

(4) When a wave propagates through more than one medium.

- 143·

(a) At the interface between two media:

Continuity of V(potential). Dn.fin (normal component of electric displacement,' a~d magnetic induction) and ft. Ht (tangential component of electric field intensity and magnetic field intensity.)

i.e., V1(x=xo) = V1(x=xo) ; (E,-E1) x ft :; O.

(0,-D1),. fi :; 4 lI'CT,"but· if there is no free surface charge then {D1-D1) • 1\ = O.

(4) There are several special forms of Dirac delta function that may be useful i~ solving problems in tl~ese few chapters.

(i) a ring of charge of radius a' and total charge Q inside a grounded conducting sphere (page 82).

....., Q '

s ex) = 211'a1 6 (r'-a) 6 (~1.

(ii) a uniform line charge of length 2b and total charge Q inside a grounded conducting sphere of radius b (page 83),

g (i') = 2~ 2;~2 ['6 (cosO'-I) + 6 (cosO' +1)].

(iii) a circular loop of radius a carrying a current 1 (page 141), Jcfi =1 6 (cosO ') ~

a

(iv) the Dirac delta function used In time-varying field and retarded solution can be found in Chapter 6 (pp. 183.188).

(v) a center-fed linear antenna along the z axis (p. 278), J(~):; I sin (k~ - klzI)6(x) 6(y)l!3'

The contents In chapter 10 of the text Is not sufllclent for solving the problems. It is definitely necessary to refer to the references and suggested reading of this chapter. In solving these problems,' sometimes certain physical conditions or concepts are assumed. The two terms used in the Plasma problems need a word of explanation; "fluid" means an ensemble of mobile electrons; and 'ion' means heavier positively charged nuclel and are assumed to be "stationary". They serve as the background positive-charge distribution. The electrons are subjected only to the macroscopic fluctuations that may be taken as harmonic oscillation. Some variables may have initial values, in such cases, separate the variable into two parts. For example, initially a static magnetic induction has a value of Bo; then, the expression for magnetic induction as a function of time and posltlon can be written as

if (;, t) = Bo + B* ei(k. r-wt) .

(b) If the other medium forms the walls of the pipe in which electromagnetic wave propagates, it is a problem of wave guide. However if one of the ends is closed, then it is a problem of cavity.

(i) Conducting walls wave guides

(ii) Dielectric wave guides

(iii) Resonant cavities.

TM wave ---- Transverse magnetic :s:ave is characterized by the absence of longitudinal component of B.

D pew. E

t = ~ e3 x t

The above equation shows that the n field Is derived from transverse component of the electric field' intensity E.

T E wave ---- Transverse electric wave is characterized by the absence of longitudinal component of E.

ft = - ~ C3 xBt

ck .

1EM ---- that is only the transverse~ .components of both E B do not vanish.

The significant questions in wave guides are 0) how is the· energy transmitted; (2) what is the attenuation along the wave guide; and (3) what frequencies are al1o~ed? The general design of a wave guide is to obtain the highest efficiency and the lowest energy loss. In. other words, the choice of geometry, material of the wave guide walls, and inside the wave guide is to confine the energy t ravels along the axis of the wave guide, but not perpendicular to it. For some applications, the wave guide walls (usually metallic) are not necessary. Thl dielectric wav~. guide uses the boundary condit~n of normal D continuous condition and 1:1 ~ eo. Thenormal E nearly vanishes'-'\:i\tside the wave guide, but in practice the dielectric for low frequency 'c\_o~s not" satisfy the above mentioned condition' el ~ eo.'

READING REFERENCES:

(1) Wave guides:

Feynrnan, Vol. 2 ---- typical breezy qualitative physical discussion . Lorraln and Corson, Chapter 13. Many typical cases with simple mathe- rnatical. analysis. no resonant cavities.

Borgnis and Paps, "Encyclopaedia of Physics". Vol. XVI, Springer. 1968.

- 144 .>

·145·

-~--:--------------___,.-...,-----,~-.-- .. ;;-----,------------------

')
.
),
)
),
-_._."
) _'

-

! )

'-

I:

,'I

I' I',.;" :

i

,

Ii

" ,'I

!:

I: j.

I,

i'

Ii

,I

L

)

L )

)

L L L L' L )_,

L

~ I,'

L

L>

L .:

, '-

JI

i, II

, '<,

------------------~----=----.--------'---- _.----------- -------------------

(2) 'The problem of finite conductivity and degenerate modes' 'is treated in Collin, Sect. 5~3. It is based on the paper by

.PapadopoulosyQuart, J .. -Mech, and App!. Math.L 325 (1954);

(3) The earth and ionosphere as a giant resonant cavity (Schumann resonances):'

Schumann, Z.,Naturforschung 72, 149, 250 (1952) - proposal

" ; -'., Balser and Wagner, Nature 188;638 (1960)~ first reliable observation For a survey, -see the papeCby

, Calejs, Nat. Bur. Standards 69D, 1043 (1965)

, ': Wait (p.1057) and Rycroft (p.1 071) of the same journal cited above.

(4) I Whls\l~rs:'

Helliwell, Crary, Pope, Smith, J. Geophys, Res. ~, 139 (1956).

(5) Non-local effects in conductors and superconductors:

A. B, Pippard, Reports on Progress In Physics, 33, 176 (1960).

Articles by Pippard and M. Tinkham in the '1961 Les Bouches Summer , , School volume, "Low-Temperature Physics", ed. C. De Witt, D. : preyfu., P. O. de Oennes. Pippa,rd's contribution, called Dynamics , of Conduction Electrons, also exists as a separate, book.

(6) .; Effective Dipole 'Moments ~f' Sm'all Apertures: " '

Lord, Rayleigh, Phil -, Mag, XUV,28 (1897), reprinted Inhis Scientific

__ : Papers, Vol 'IV, p.30S. '

H. A. Bethe, Phys, Rev . .§§.z 163 ,

S. B.,Cohn"Proc. J.R.E. 39, 1416 (1951); 40, 1069 (1952) -," ----:-;- experimental measurement ofP eff and meff'

'"

(7)

'. \'.' .... ; .' .", '

Use of Stokes parameters inastophysical studies of pulsars:

Wampler, . Scargle and Miller, Astrophys.J. Letters 157, L 1 (1969)

---- . optical '

Graham, 'Lyne, Smith, Nature 225, 526 (7 Feb. 1970) ---- radio Campbell, Heiles, Rankin, Nature 225, 527 (7 Feb. 1970)

CHAPTER 6

Time Varying Fields, Maxwell's Equations

6.1

.. ,

(a) Show that for a system of current carrying elements in empty space the total energy in the magnetic field is

W = (2Cl)"1 J d3x Jd3x' J (X)-Jex1_

, Ix - ~'I

where J(X) is the current density. From Eq (6, 17), W = (2C)"1 Jrex) . Ad) x and from Eq (5.32).

A(x)= .L J rcx') dlx'. ':r(~) in t1~e' former is the current c ,Ix -x''

density in the element concerned while J"(i") in the latter Eq. denotes the' current density that creates the field.

W = _1- Jd3x Jd3x' 19). !g'l

2c2 Ix - x I

(b) If the current configuration consists of n circuits carrying currents II, 11 ••.... In. show that the energy can be expressed as

n n

W = ~ E LjP + E E M .. n

i=l 1 l=I i/i:l IJ 1 J

Exhibit integral expressions for the self inductances (LV and the mutual inductances (Mij).

Definite , 1 ~ -

r . - ,u: ~L = MI'J'

'-1j - cr r r

IXi-ijl

(for i :/= j)

(for i = j)

-147·

..,-

(8) Blue sky:

Leonardo Da"'Vinci (l500), translated from his notebooks, items 300- '302, p237ff, Vol. 1 of Jean Paul Richter, The Literary Works of

. Leonardo Da Vinci, 3rd ed, Phaldon, LOndon, 1970 .

•. d. Tyndall, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London), Vol 36, 343 (1878) Lord Rayleigh .. Phil. Mag. XLI, 107, 274 (1871); XLVII, 375 (1899). ,For critical opalescence (Binsteln-Smoluchowskl formula) ---- see Rosenfeld, Theory of Electrons, chapter V. Sect 6.

- 146 -

Then

I d-;j.dS: I ~

W = fl ?; li1j H ~ = T ~ IiliY + ~ ,2. Mjjljlj

c IJ I Xi-Xj I I I J/I .

In the second term, since Mjj = Mji, therefore ~If, (Mij + MjO = 2 ~,~ Mij

, I rJ I IrJ

(ie.) a factor of 2 cancels out the factor ~ in front of the summation).

6.2

The magnetic Ileld of an infinitely long. straight, conducting wire can be obtained by applying Ampere's law

f V x H . d-; = 1 H . dl = 4" Iz

c

But 1 H.dl = 2"rH therefore, Hout = 2Iz c ; (r > a) (I)

cr z

Inside the conducting wire, we have

Hin = 1!_ Iz ez ; ( r < a )

cal _

(2)

Since the medium is nonpermeable, we have fBI = iHl. hence we can deduce the vector potential inside and outside of the conductor.

. -,

(3)

Sin~ A is parallel to the current Iz, we consider the ol)iy component of A is Az• Using the cylindrical coordinates, the. nonvanishing terms of V x A are

........ 1 aAz aAz. V x A = - - cr - -c

r , al{J ar I{J

However the only component of B is in direction cl{J' The magnetic field lines are concentric circles round the straight conducting wire (i.e., I\z is a function of r only)

aAz

B cl{J = - a;:- cl{J

From the results of Eq(l) and Eq(2), the vector potential outside the wire #2 can be obtained as

·148.

(r>a)

_ aAz= ~ or Az = _ 217• f dR = _21z In(':__)

ar cr caR' c a

The vector potential inside the wire

I'

(r < a)

_ aAz= ~ lz or Az = _ ~ _Ir ~dR = _.2!. (!..)l

ar cal c a1 c a

The vector potentials arc arbitrary up to an additive grad of a scalar function, and we require that Az be continuous at the surface of the

wire.

Az inside I r=a =Az' outside I r=a

_ [~n(!..) + constant J = - ~ (2:..)1 I constant = _Iz __

c a r=a C a r=a c

",

or

-:. : ' I

therefore,

Az = - _l_ IZ(!"')l

c a

Az = _1- 1'1. [ In('!'_) + ..!...)

c a 2

Inside

outside

The above equations arc also true for wire #2 by exchanging a -> band I .... -I.

The energy

The A here means the vector SUIll of the vector potential and is equal to [ At~"> Jz = Azi + Az2

From now on we can drop the subscript z. After integration we obtain the expression for energy per unit length

W= Jl f'P"(1-~+lnC d1+r.1-2drl COSI{J )rtd.pdrl

2C1"b1 0 0 b2 a1

From integration table ~ In(a±bcosx)dx = 1fln ( n + ~) (a ;;;;a b).

In [ d2 + rll + J(d1_rl)1 ) = 2rrlnC.!.)

2a1 a

W = --P_ f 2" [ I +!J. + 2 InC.!!..) 1 e. de.

2c1lTb1 0 b·'· a

·149·

=>:

----------_ ....... _--,:;--------------- - -"' .. - -

~ !

"'~~----__'_"_-----_;_-----__'__--""_--r-"':'__--"'--_"_----------""---~~'_~""""M""""''--'-'=-=

,.

)

.'

,

) )

) )

,

)

' .... '

) \..

)

I ,

',,- I \

l}..j,......

" 'v

12 ld

= --1 [-+2ln(-"'-)]

," 2c 2 a

The integration over the cross-section of wire #1 gives the same thing with a in ,place of b, The required self inductance per unit length of the double wire is therefore,

"

clL= l+2ln(J..)+.L+21n(.E..)::;.[ 1 +2ln(.E.:_)]

2. b 2 a ab

6.3

(a) From the result of problem 6.1

W ::; ~ PLj

1 - - IJ

On the other hand W = - JH'Bd3x=- J81d3x

81T 81T

Consider the coaxial cable of finite thickness as shown in the diagram.

. . ~

Region 1:

I B I ::; ~ (magnitude of magnetic

a2c ,field)

energy per unit length WI = (J.lP) I (4c1)

Region 2:

IBI::;..Hill. w::; ~ln(b/a)

c q' 2 c2

~,'

Region 3:

_ "~ [ c4 (c) 3c1 -, b1 ]

W3- c"",~ (c2 _b2)2ln,b - 4(c1 _ b1).

"I,

Region 4:

IBI = '0, WI, !:(·O. "'.

therefore the self inductance:

..,.

T. = 2(WI +W2 +W3)

."1. II

'"".

.. ,'

• 150 ~

(b)

For hollow inner conductor, same argument as the previous part region 5 and 4: 8=0, W" ,5 =0'.

Region I:

181 = ~ (a1 _92)

,c (a2-cj1)

WI :: ~{ a1 In(.!.) - -21}

c (a2 -d2) d

Here W 2.3 are equivalent to the corresponding regions.

If we consider very thin conducting material, then in part (a) the contribution from region 3 is negligible; similarly region 1 and 3 will have very small contributions.

t ,

6.4

FiB.1

FiB. 1

The coefficient of mutual inductance is given by the expression

M :: _&'.. .. .Jt •. ill, (1)

11 1 r r .... .... I

C Cl CI I Xl-XI

Fig. 1 above exhibits the same side of the loops. Now, from Fig. 2 and I, we have

(2)

·151 .

TIle angle formed by the extensions (dotted lines in Fig. 2) of dI; and dl1 is '1': 'I' is also the angle between the radii a and b.

From Fig. 2 'we have 51 :: a1 + b1- Zabcose, hence Eq(2) becomes,

~ 4 Y,

IXl-XI I = [dl + al +b1- 2ab cOS'P J 1

(3)

Since dl1= bd'P and tj dl, :: ha Eq(1) becomes with the help of Eq(3)

• .; CI.

cos 'I' dl, dl1

[dl + al t bl - 2abcostp] Vi

:: 2IT a b [lIT . cos.p dtp

'. cl' [dl+al+b2~2abcos'P]YI

(4)

Setting

''1':: IT-2w

(5)

We. can show after a little 'bit of trigonometry that fQ~'P = 2sinl W - 1.

(6)

We have

=

[d1 + al .tb2- 4absin2w +.2ab]~ [ {d t (a+b)l) - .. 4.absinlw 1 ~

{ {d1 + (a+o)l J {1- k1sin1wJ} ~

(7)

=

........

where

.kl= 4 ab .' (8)

d1 + (a+b)!

rewrite Eq(4) with the help of Eq(7) and Eq(8) as follows

We can

2ITab c1

(9)

The integrand' 'of Eq(9) is an even function; also notingtthat (d1 + (a+h)l 1)0\' = [4ab J ~ /k, We can write Eq(9) as follows

. 152·

. .It I

t (2 slnl w -) dw

[1-kl sinlwl~. -:

(J P)

Mil ::

We must transform Eq(lO) to the .form given in the text. We have

2sin1w - I

= klsinlw+klsinlw-k2 -1+ 1-1 + 1 k2 (1 - k1sin2w) -2(I-k1sinlw) + 2 _kl kl(1-k2sinw)~

= _!_ { 2 - k K _ 20-k2Sin2w)X}

k2 (l-k1sinlw)

(II)

SUbstitution of Eq( 11) into Eq(lO) yields:

M = 471'(ab)x (2-k1/' dw l..J,f(I-k1Sin1W)dw} (12)

11 c1 k 0 (l-k2sin1w) k 0 .

or

{ (2-kl)K(k) - 2E(k)}

.(13)

We shall next work out an approximation to the value of Eq(13), for the case when the distance d between the centers of the loops' is small . compared to the radii, that Is for d <C a, b and a ~b.

We therefore take b d

!_.::__ and both small. (14)

a a

Then k is ncarly equal to I, and we find for E(k) the approximate

value f~ coswdw = 1; K. however, becomes Infinity for k = 1.

o

To find an approximate value for K when k ~ I, we first change w

(~2 - w), and split up K into the two parts

Where w is chosen so that w2 is very great compared with l·k2 • but very small compared with 1. We can then for a first approximation replace cos2w in the first term by 1 . w2, and k2 in the second term by 1. This gives

Wo dw f dw
K=j + f sinw (15)
o V(I_kl)+klwl Wo
Now put (a-b)l + d2 ~ (_d_p
k'l = 1 - kl =
(a+b)! + d1 2a
• 153 •
-.~ ._- .- ~ .:

..... ---------------------------'"----"'-_- .:.._----'-_ ........ _------ --------- ...

' ..

) \ ) ) '\ I

)

\ )

)

\ )

)

\ " )

~ ) )

\. ,

) l ) ) \ ;

," In the first integral of Eq(I5) we can write w1 simply instead of k.

Then after integration

.~- .

, I(;: log [ Wo +y k'l + wol : J _ log [tan ~ ]

, ~ . 2

Since .wol Is very large compared with k'2, but very small compared

1, we may therefore take .'

2wo Wo 4 8a

K;: log (~) - log (2) = log (l!) = log (d)

~ ...

If then we put k=I in the terms still outstanding in (IS), we find

M - 411'J,I { (8a }

12 - -c- a log d) - 2

The last Eq gives the mutual inductance of two loops of nearly equal radii a, the distance d between the loops being small compared to a,

6.5

Tills problem is easier to handle with special case i.e. circular cross section with equal radius, and later prove ,that the result is independent of shape

and area. The energy: .

.,..:

L -+-+ _"'-" 1

W = 2c f J(x)' A( x) d3x and W = 2" LIl II h

From the result in problem 6.2, we have the vector potential outside of'

the, conductor as -"

I .,.,.. r

Az= - _z (2 In(-) + ~ )

c a

,,"

.",

The energy per unit length

W = -2J.1I~ [In(.!..)x2+J..] ffll;') da, +Hl. [2 In(.!..)+.l) ff11(-;)dal

c ,a 2 . 2c1 a 2

Since the current passes one side of the wire and returns from the other, therefore we have

W = +.e.!_ [2 In(~») = (1/2) LIlli 11 == ..!__ LIl

. 2cl rl , 2

From the results of problem 1.6

, r ,eX

LW=2Aln(r~); C = {:N'

• 154 :'

......

where C is the capacitance per unit length in the dielectric medium.

LC= ~

cl

In our problem the cross sectional areas of the two conductors are the same. We can break down the areas into equal area circular pairs and

is valid and its independent of area.

J-If!

........... LC=-l

C

nl.C = nJ,lf c1

therefore it does not depend on shape, as long as the cross-sectional area is the same.

; .

6.6 Let F(x) be any vector defined throughout all space. Let us define

-to -to -to _,. -to -+

C = curl F (x) ; D = div F (x)

(1)

-> ...

Assume that there exist two functions F Q and FI such that

-+ .... _,.

F = FI!+ Ft

di -+

IV Ft = 0

(3·a)

curl F.I! = 0

(2) (3·b)

and

Thus by Eq(I),

-+ _,.. _,.-to-+

curl, Ft = curl F - curl F.I! = C(x)

.... _,.::'\

div F.I! = D(X)

(4.a) (4·b)

-+

We determine FQ from !q(3.b) and (4·b). These are essentially the

equations that determine E if we are given the charge density in vacuum.

-+ ;t -. ....

VXE = 0; V'E = 411'9

For then

and we have

(5)

....

-+ - g'(x') d3x'

E = - Vf----

I; - iZ' I

Comparing the two' situations, we write

(6)

·155·

.... , ,

_1_ vI D~X)~3X

. Ft = - ~ _

411' Ix-x~1

I V "F(~')

- V I .... -+ d3x'

4" Ix-x'i

(7)

Equation (7) is just text equation (6.49). Likewise, (3·a) and (4-a) arc analogous to the equation

v·n = 0;

.... 411' .... '

curl B = -1 c

(8)

for a magnetic field due to currents in a vacuum. We found the solution to this problem in Sec~!.Qn 5.4

, ' -+-+

... _1 I 1 (x') d+x'

B = curl

c Ii _ i'l

(9)

Comparing the two situations, we write

c .... CC .... ') d3 '

-+.... . 1 4"i x x

F£(x) = curl·c I -+ x-!>, I

I x -

j': -. i·

1 I V'XF(x') dlx'

=_ 4" V X

II ....-..,

I x - x I

But .... F (-x') I'-+F(-+') 1

" .. ' 'I' (-~...:.,--) = cur x Fe""'') x d' (--,-----,-_)

:;,cur .... -+ -1-+ -+'1'- X gra 1-+ -+'1

Ix-x'i x-x . x-x (11)

{I 0)

therefore,

_1_ V I 1'( F (x') ) dl '

= X cur -+.... x

4" Ix-x'i

- _I_V X I F(i) X v( -+ .... ) d3x

4" I x - x ']

.:

where in the "last" term we use

= - V ,-+ +. I x - x

(12)

By a "Gauss theorem" (Van Bladel, page 488. Eq(28»w~:'have

. 156·

where we integrate over the surface bounding the volume V. Now, in our case, V is all space. Thus, S i.!,.a large sphere that approaches infinity. If we add the condition that F is zero at Inflnlty, or goes to zero adequately rapidly. this integral is zero.

But ~ .... 1 F(~)

- l' (x ) X grad .... -+ = curl (-!> -+ )

Ix-x'i Ix-x'i

-+ ,

where now curl operates on x; this curl interchanges with I d3x

we get

and

-+ -+') ,

-' -> 1 F(x d3x

FI(x) = - curl curil -+ -+

. 411' I x - x' I

which it is just Eq(6.50). What remains is to prove that F can be represented In the form of Eq(2). If we define F~ and Ft by Eq(6.49) and (6.50), they clearly exist and saUsfy Eq(3) and (4). This ensures that

(l3)

surely exists and, moreover, Curi f+ =c ;

~ _..

div F :: D.

But two functions that have the same divergence and_.. the same curl everywhere can, at most, differ by a constant. Now, if F(x) approaches zero at 00, as it must if any of this analysis is to be possible, then p+ defined by Eq(l3), Eq(6.49) and (6.50) must approach zero at 00 and we must have

F = F+

(The theorem just used is proved in the text by Panofsky and Phillips "Classical Electricity and Magnetism", section 1)

6 Th d'fr ' 1 . ( tl ) al I/! I al I/! 0 (1)

.7 e I Ierentia equation wave equa Ion axr-crTt'2"=

can be simplified by changing variables p. = Ax + Bt and II = Ex + Dt.

By substitution, Eq(l) becomes

(Al _.!:) ~ + (El_ Dl) all/! + 2 (AE _ BD) a21/! = 0 (2)

C2 ap.l C2 all2 Cl ap'all

·157 -

"i r )

--- ------

I

'I

)
)
)
)
)
'.~)
\J
, ).
'-../
I ),
,...._.'
'\
I" .I,
!"--"
\ )
1-: 6.8
I
1'-'
I -,
. ),
1"-'
r~
, I_)
)
r--'

I J.I and II are Independent variables. It is necessary that the coefficients of the first two terms vanish in Eq(2) and the Jacobian

A B

*' 0

E D

We obtained a solution A = 1. B = -C, E = 1 and D = C. The general solution for the- wave equation

t/I (x, t) = <I>(Ii) + tp (II) = <I>(x - CI) + tp(x + ct)

(a) The boundary conditions'" (0, t) = f(t) and a~~o, t) = F(t)

Then f(t) = <I>(-ct) + tp(CI) and F(t) = <P'(-ct) + .p'(ct)

x

t+, 1

J x F(t') dt'= -l <I> (x - ct) - <I>(-x-ct) - tp(-x+ct) + <p(x+ct)}

t-- c

t '

1(t-l5...)= <Ptx-ct) +tp(-x+ct); f(t+~)=<P(-x-ct)+tp(x+ct)

c c

i.e,

. x

t/l(x, t) = _!_ {f(t - ~) + f(t + ~)} + 2c ltc F(t') dt'

2 c c x

tI:

Boundary conditions

(b)

'" (x, 0) = f(x) and a"'a~x. 0) = g(x)

f _ a<P(x-ct)1

Note: <I> (x- ct) It=o - il(x _ ct) 1=0

x+et . ( , ' 1

f g(x)dx.= <I>(x+cl) - <P(x-ct) - ",(x+ct) + ",(x-ct);

x-ct ' ,

. 1 { }' 1 x+ ct , ,

'" = -2 f(x+cl) + f(x-ct) + - f g(x )dx 2 x-ct

The problem is concerned with the conservation -tif energy and linear momentum for a macroscopic system of sources and fields. The essential , steps are shown in the text, therefore in this problem only those steps which need some modifications are shown.

'i.'

From section 6.8

·158.

_,;..--..;_,-------------_:_-----_._._ ... __ . - .

1, •

11 = - (eE- + pH2) 81T

(1)

For macroscopic media and for an isotropic permeable (P) dielectric (e) :

... ... D = eE;

-+ -+

J = a E;

.... ....

B = liH.

From Eq(6.80)

1 ........ -+-+ 1

}1 = - (E'D+B'H) = -(eEl +pH2)

81T 81T

-+ c· -+ -+

S = - (EX H) 41T

Eq(6.78) becomes·

(2)

I ... -+ -+ .... aD

-J [cE·(VXH)-E·-]dlx

41T v at

1 c:t -+ , e aEl JJ aH2

=- - J [cV'(EXH) + - + - -]d1x

411' 2 at 1 at

....

.' .• S =

.z., (ExIT)

41T

g = ~ (EXH>

4nc

(3)

The derivative of momentum density in section 6.9 needs some modifications, since we now consider macroscopic case

e -+ c:t p= - V . C 41T

&

-+ c -+ ... e air

J=-(vXH---)

4n . c at

-+

.... -+ -+ E -+ aE -+ -+ ...

41T fE (V' E) + c B x at + (V X H) X B

-+ 1...-+

then pE + - J X B = c

dPmech+ ~ f ~ (EXH)d3x

dt dt 41TC

1 -..-+-.. -. -+-+ _.._,.._. -to-+-+

= -4 J [eE(V'E)-eEx(vxE)+B(V'B)-BX(VXH)}

11' v

We identify that the field momentum term-Is

Le. g = ~ (E X H) 4rrc

(4)

.159·

TI H I 44 _,. 4 1 H

1US. the tensor dyadic T= 41T (eEE+/J.HH+Ti(eEl+/J.i-P)]

- T I [E E 1

I.C. ij = -411 e'j'j + /J. IIi Ilj - T c'iij(eEl + /J.i-ll)]

6.9 Angular momentum is defined as

.... _,.

.c = X x P where p is the momentum of the particle

Mcchunical angular momentum densities

_. -!" I_'~

.c rncch = X x {S' E + - J x B 1 c

.c J1C _..... -. ......

nell! = _-- x x ( E x H) 4nc

Cross multiply both sides of Eq(6.9I) by -;, we have

.... ~ I _.... I {--> -t ~ -. e -+ '_,. aE -+ -+ .... ->}

x x.(S'E + -JxB)=-4' xxeE(V'E)+-xxBx-+xx(vxH)xB

C 1T . C at

and from 'Eq (6.92), it can shown that

······ddt·· {f -; ~ (S'E+ _!_J'X"D)dJx + 4J.ie t: x (E x H)dJX}

v c nc. .

\ t. '., • '

" -+ 4- -J> ... -to _.. -+ -to -+ 44 _,. .... -t

= TJ[xxd~(V'E)-xxeE(VxE) + xxB(V'B) -Bx(VxH)]dJx

IT . . •

Then the equation (6.100) in the text becci':;'es

or

a -+ ...

at ( .c mech + .cficld) + v . M = 0

where 'Y *' {3

·160·

Note that what we mean by ~ .... -"

M = T x x is that MO'j.l = Tcrf(3ll (sum ov~.~ .,the repeated in-

dices) For example, Mil = TI3xI - T11xl

J
)
, )
)
\ therefore,

6.10 This solution assumes e and IJ arc not necessarily unity but arc

independent of position and frequency. It is adequate to assume the vacuum case if the reader prefers. This may be better because it anticIpates fewer of the results of Chapter 7. To do this, set e = IJ = 1 throughout •

Assume from previous knowledge or from Chapter 7 that in a plane electromagnetic wave E and B arc always orthogonal and are orthogonal to the direction of propagation,

)

IIi I = v;;i lEI

and the velocity is c/.[fii".

Then, the energy density is, by the results of problem (6.8),

u = _I- (eEl + /J.Hl) = '-!'_eEl (I)

SIT 4n

The magnitudes of the Poynting nux and momentum density are

... c' r;:i€ c eEl

lsi ::; -~EH=--

.Jiif 4 IT ..;liE 4 7r

I gl = ~ EH =..fii_ eEl (3)

41TC c 41T

and the electromagnetic surface stress on a surface whose normal n is opposite to the direction of propagation is

(2)

"'_-,

- 'I

... ...

since En ::; E'll ::; 0, Hn = l-hi ::; O. As a direct consequence of the law

of conservation of linear momentum as given !n the text, it can be

• 161 •

- ,'., ' ..

., ........

~
t
V
}-
~,
Ii t·I'
"
':.: .'~
~
}'
}-
~.
).,
~
). .",'
)- ..
}
~i
~
r .t;
}'
)J
)"
r
".,
)"
\1 '(
I
It ,
\"
Ii!
\1,
Iv
I ~ ,)
/1')
11' .,,/ deduced that +iI·1f is the rate at which momentum flows inward across '.a surface and hence this is' equivalent to a force iI''f exerted by the material.son the back side of the surface. Thus, the force per unit

area is

~ eEl • I· = - --- 1\ = - U 1\

. 411

Note from Eq(l) and (2) that if we write v = _c - ev as the

~ ':... _,.... fo

vector velocity, s = U'.V and Fmcch = g·v. This is consistent with, but

does not require, that both u and t are connected with the velocity of the wave. The fact that F mech = u is a convenient thing to remember; but until the reader grasps the relativistic connection between energy and momentum, i~ does not seem to be as fundamental as the statement

that '

Fmech = sv

(b) Assume the sail is perfectly absorbing. If it is perfectly reflecting, the' acceleration comes when the plane of the sail is normal to the radius from the sun. We can take the medium to be vacuum. The

electromagnetic" energy flux is' :'.

.... ,~

o S =.0.14 watts = 0.14 X 101 ergs/em-sec.

By Eq(l) and (2), the energy density, and by part (a) the force is

The acceleration- of mass of 1O-4.,gm/CIll is

_ F _. ~.4 _ 047 ern. :lL - m -~T - . sec2

For the solar wind, ihe mass density °i~

... ,-,'-.:

The momentum flux, which is the force per unit area is

gv1 = 12x 1.67 X 10'24 (4 X 101)2 = 3.20 X 10-8

The acceleration produced by the solar wind on the sail is only

F . em'

aw = _:!! = 3.20 X 10'4 -

m sec?

·162·

6.11 For circular polarized plane wave in xy plane, the electric field

is given as... 0... 0

E(x,y,l,t) := Eo(x,y) (~I ± i~l) elkz-IWI

In general E contains both longitudinal and transverse component. As the amplitude is modulated slowly with respect 10 time or Z, we approximate the result by keeping the amplitude Eo independent of z as it is in circular polarized plane wave.

E(X,y,l,t) = [Eo(x,y) (~I ±i~l) + EOZt!3 J cikz-iWI

......

Eoz is small compared with Eo(x,Y). In free space, we have 'V·E :: O.

_&_ = _ { 3Eo(x,y) + . 3Eo(X,Y)} ikz-iwt

--=-"-''-- _ I e

o 3z 3x Cly

3E1.(x,y,l,t) _ ik E ( ) Ikz-iwl

-~-?-:....:...:.. - 1 Ol x,Y e

'al

E ,( ') = .!_ (3EoeX,Y) +. 3Eo(x,y) \

•. , OZ x,y k 3x - I . 3y J

But,

By substitution we have "

-:t( )' rE ( )( ', i (aEO± .3EO).} ikz-iwl

E x,y,Z,! == l a x,y t!l±H!l)+'k" ax lay e3 e

In circular polarization, we have

kXE-

Bj =ViJe ~ j = 1,2 k

i. e.,

But if the amplitude is modulated along the z direction, then-the Z component becomes

= .!_ f 3Bx(x.y) +. ~(x,y)" }

Bz k \ ax - I ay

_"B :: z r . ~{E ( )( ±' i (3EO ,3Eo, } lkz iWI

+Iy,ue oX,y t!1 1~2)+T ilx-dlay,I!J e -

+i#E

6, J 2 The time average energy

- J _,. ... 1- ... e

U := - (e E' E* + - B . B*) := - I E! I

1611 ,u 8IT

With the results in problem 6.11, and simplifications, we have

·163·

(E x B"')x = EyBI.'" - EI.By'"

= +'E' [~YI£ ( ilEq . .,.., ilEo )]_ [ _1_1 ilEo ±. ilEa )]( _ a: 1:_)

-I a - k ax T 1 ay k' ax 1 ily vjJ.C '-Q

= ±~ ilElo

k ay

, _.... -'Ji€ ilElo -+ ._,.

Similarily, (E x B"')y = =1= T ax- and (E x B"'h = O.

therefore, the time average angular momentum

LJ = ~;c {I (IT x H*)ydx - I (it x H"'hdY} = + t[1 E10I LJ _ _ r

v- + W

The energy of the photon is hw. Since the photon is a spin I particle, the maximum projection of angular moment um on the z axis is just 11, and we obtained same result as in Eq(l). The sign depends on the helicity of the photon.

The transverse component of angular momentum

jJ.C -+,_. -+ -+

Ll = -S-f[dz(ExH*h - dx(ExH*)zl 'lrC

J1.E _.. -10 -+ -+

LI = - f [dytE x I-I"')z - dz(E x 11"')y J 8'1rc

i.

4 4 -+ -+

For cylindrical symmetric l.e., (E x H*h and (E x H"')y are equal, there-

fore LI and L, are equal and opposite. The transverse component vanishes.

6.13 (*6.8)

Microscopic current:

-10 -+ ~

j(x,t) =2: qjvJli(x-Xj(t)}+ 2: 2: qjvj6(x-xj(t))

j(rrcc) \ n j( n) 'I

V'

current of the nth mol.

We assume the non-relativistic addition of vel:

-+ _,. _,.

Vj (I) = vn(t) + Vjn(t)

·164.

This is the molecular charge density that was averaged in sectl~n 6.7 (2 edition). This gave rise to the expansion.

-+ -+

< 9n (x, t) = < qnli (x - xn) > -

It is better, however, tolcave this In the form,

< gn(;' t» = qnf(~-~n) - Pn·V f(;-~n) + l_ I; Q'aiJ<n) il1fCX-xn)

6 ofJ i)xctilx/1

Consider now the second term above and perform an average.

, ) ) )

< CD >

(I)

_,.

Note that because of the presence of Vjn we need to keep only two terms

in order to obtain a quantity involving molecule internal coordinates quadratically (I.e. up to quadrupole), Consider

Define the molecular magnetic dipole moment:

·165.

t,

..

.,..-------------------;__-~'-;--y----:-------.....__------ -_- - .. _-_

r'
(
r
r
r
r
r
.'
)
.-'
)
_)
) ,
\'
~.
_.
)
,~
) I
\_.
)
'-".
'--'
<;:
'-"
) .
<;»
<;»
'-'
i
'-'
i
........
.
.:_; Since it is desirable to. get' a total time derivative, rather than time deriva tives multiplied by f, etc, we consider

d -foo -+ ... ~ - .. ~ -to

:atf(x-Xn(t» = - vn' V'I(X-Xn(t»

,

d ,....

Then' (p I) -

-:-at n -

i_(~ Q,(n» = dt ax ap

We thus can write the average current of the nth molecule as < jn(x, t) >a: = < (ly:'>a + < G> >0:

, "t / ., '

• -+ -+ .'~ _,.

~.", USing the standard trick of fex - xn) = <0 (x - xn) >, etc. and adding in the '. ". free electronic current, averaged, we get

.. ,

<-+-+ > -+ -+-+ -+,....-+

J(x,t) a =<;!: QjVj6(x-Xj)+ LQnvn6(x-xn»a

..J free n.

d -+ -+ -+ il 1 ,en) (-+ _,. »

+ - [~LPn 6(x-xn»a - :E - -' <:EQ a{1li x-xn + ...

dt : .. ? . .... Ii ilx{1 6 ~';'. n

"".' +c[V'x<~~nli(it-xn»]a '~'i

a -+ -+ -+ -+-+ -+

+ 3X{1 < ~ [(Pn)a: (vn){1- (~Q)a(Pn){1] S(x-xn»

I 31 -+ ,(n) -+ ,(n)

+"6 L a a < L [(Vn)a:Q ap - (vn)'YQ ap ]li(X-,xn)+···

(1,'Y X{1 X'Y .,,,, n ,,'

We define 117;" macroscopls-quantities:

Current:

_..,. -to- -.. .....

Polarization: P(x,t) = <:EPnrS(x-xn) > n

• 166 •

... _-_ .. _---

Quadrupole Density:

Magnetization:

Then the ath component of the averaged microscopic current can be written

-+-+ a a - ...

<j(x,t»a = Ja+Yt[I}a:-fax{1Qa:{1t ... ] tc(V'xM).

+ [V' x < ~ <Pn x -;n)O (~ - 7n) > ] 0:

1 -+ _,. _,....,.. _,.

- - (V x V . <:E (Q'(n)x v ) li(x-x) > 1

6 n n (t

... - 1 aIT 4" ...

If this is substituted on RHS of V x D - c at = -c- < j > and com

-+

• - -+ I aD 41T

pared with the macroscopic equation Vx H - - - = -- we find

, c at c'

-+ -+ -to -p

B - H... ... v -+ ... I - "',() v_,.-

4n =M+<~(Pnx -t) li(x-Xn»-"6 V·< ~(Q n x ""t)li(X-Xn) >

(b) The one case where the added terms are significant is for bulk motion,

... -+

Then Vn ~ v for all n, and

-+_..,. -+ -to- -to_,. ... _,.

D - H .... ... v .... ,. v D - II (D - E) v

-- = M + P x - - ( V· Q) x - so that -- = M t -- X -

41f C C 41f 4", C

TWs is the non-relativistic approximation to the exact relativistic expression of Minkowskl's electrodynamics of media in motion.

6.14

An ideal circular parallel plate capacitor is connected to a current source as shown in the sketch. The current is I(t) = Locoswt. Calculate the electric and magnetic fields between the plates to second order (two terms of an expansion). Neglect fringing fields.

. J67·

This problem is discussed in great detail in Fcynrnan's "Lectures in Physics" Vol III pp 32. The space between the circular plates is purely electric in the case of D.C. to both sleclric and inagne_!,ic in the case of A,C, The production of time varying E field induces a 8 field and vice versa. It can be easily seen from Ampere's law and Faraday's law.

. " _, I a15 4" ~ vX H - -- = -J;

c at e

., _. I an

\7 x E + c at = o.

I. !

For slowly varied sinusoidal electric field we have (First approximation) EI = Eo eiwi where Eo is a constant

, . • ._. . I aT! 4" ...

As the frequency increases. the Ampere slaw leads to \7 x I3 = c at - c J

and if there it nil current. the lust term is dropped out . The integral of 'the magnetic flcld around the path r indicated in the diagram is equal to the time rate of change of-electric flux Ihrough the area divided by c.

_> ... I a -t .

f 81' dl = - - f EI . n da

r c at 5

81 = i~r Eoeiwt (First order approximation of B)

The electric field in turn produces an electric field El from Faraday's law:

-t .... la ... _,.

. 1 El . dl = - cat fBI' da

Only the ends of the closed line integral contribute 2h EI (r)

.: a

2h EI (r) = - c 2 hat' f BCr) dr

WI rl '

E1{r) = - -- E e1wt 4c1 0

, I wlrl . ,

therefore, E = EI + a, =~J.,- "4 Cl) Eoe'W1

. Similarly,

i w3r3 ,

Bl = - -- E e1wt

16c 0

, 1 1

B = 81 + Bl = ~ E e1wt (1 - ~ )

2c 0 8cl

For higher frequencies the calculations should be carried out for higher terms and consequently. both the electric and magnetic fields are expressed in series expansion.

6.15 (·fI.tJ)

(}et) .. 1l,I_e·IWI w

_.

4"Q 4Q. (0) 41'1

471'a = - = - = E = °

"al al Z wal

• J68.

J )

} )

1(1)=loc·IWI .Q(I)

I

Azimuthal B: 2"gB.n = 410 "!ll. l' cal

(1) _ 2 10 9

Bop - cal

First order and second order

d

.1

BO) + B(2) =~!I (1- w2qI) :

.p op cal Scl

E =-< E(O) + E(l) = 4i 10 (I- ,Wl ~ ).

Z - Z 7. wa2 4c1

y_ 271' 161! / !ld9 (I _ wlq\ W"!r )

1671' wla4 0 2cI l6c4

- )

(a)

We and Wm:

W = _1_ r 1 E 11 d3x =

C 16" -v z

2 31 1 11 d I I

;; ~ f dx (J - ~x) ;; _0_ (I - ~)

wl a4 ° 2c1 WI a1 4c1

I ° dil wIa2

Will = - flB.nlId3x = -°2- (1 - -6 I )

1671' v l' 8c c

Since El. and B arc expanded to the second power of w, the w4 term obtained by squaring E and Bop arc incorrect. The correction can be made through the second ap;~oximation of the current (instead of I(t) = loc·1wt) The actual input current can be calculated from the total charge on the

plate 1 =- ~ = - iwQ wl;creas the surface charge 'density on the plate is

dt

a = _1_ E :; ~ ( 1 _. WI gl )

4" Z "a2w 4cl

a 'I 2 2

the total charge= Q ;; !71' f a (g).9d!l = 2-.L ( 1 - ~ )

° W Scl

therefore,

The better expression for the input current. is wIal

I = 10 ( I - 8c1 )

and We,m can be written in terms of'l instead .of 10 ___E_!L ( 1 _ wlal ) ( I _ w1al rl

We wIa2 4cl 8cl

lld w1nI . wlal

= wlal ( 1 - ~) ( 1 + ~ + ... )

=

(neglecting the w4 and higher terms)

.169.>

.. liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiOiiji;;;;;;;;;;;;;----------......,._-.-- __ __1, ~.::"-.-,r--_..,r_-----------'--

ir" II yiiJ

:~

I ~:,

I'itrt/

,I 'IiiJ

'iJ :f

I: ).1

:.: ~

I \) ) '",) )

, <,)

, ) ~!~.,)

, )

I.,J

I,

'J

1,;

.~ J.J 4J ~ ~ .).)

4i

i, "-J

.Jj

J.J ~ ~ JiJ

~ilT1i1arly, I 1

" Wm,=:! ~ (1 + wla2 )

Bcl , 'J2cl

4w " -d d w1a1.

The reactance is X= fjTf(Wm-:Wc)=4CU(W2al+ 8c2(1+ 12c1»

, r"

Comparison with "X = wL - ---gives wC

a2 C=-

, 4d

This gives the

. .. .. ,

d L = 2c1

-. 1 .

resonant frequency wres = -- = 2 V2::_ ~ 2.828 5_

, . "'. VLC a a

This compares favorably with wres = 2.405 ~ s • found from the first root

of J'o(x).

6.16

I,

A dielectric sphere' of dielectric constant e and radius a is -located at the origin. There is a uniform applied electric field Eo in the x direction. The sphere rotates' with an angular velocity w about the z axis. Show that

there Is, a magnetic. field H = - V'l)M' where ,

"t; 3 e - 1 . w a

,'I ; .. <I>M '=" '5 (e ... 2) Eo c ( r)$ xz

>

.• i I ~ ,.III i . J; i

where r> ),5 the, larg~~ ~f rand a.

-I> = _3_(~ E ~ Po 411' e+2) 01

-I>

V W • •

- = - [-y i + x j 1

c c

-> 3 e-1 W·

~ff = ~(e + 2 ) Eo c- x k

'I'

x

'------~

A

-I> ->

V . Merr = 0 except possibly at the

surface.

Merf = Ax k 0 (a-r)

-I> _,. il . or

gM = - V • Merf = -Ax -az0(a-r) = Ax Ii (x= a) ill

Aa sinO cosO cosopc') (r - a)

= Aa rSlI' Ii(r-a) [_y + y ]

y -'15 2 1,1 1,1

·170.

<P = f gM(X') d3x'

M ! -> ->, I

x-x

" £

- 'f' 411 Aa3 Ik TL Y. (0 f y. ' [ y

-1.'m2Hl YY15 r~l £,m,op) Rm - 1,1

~ p J' 'I

2 '411 1

411 Aa3 rR;;" rL r

- --V ~ -..- [-Y11 + Y2.d = -Au' +sinOcosOcoSop.

5 2 15 r~ , , 5 I~

For r > a

For r < a

411 411 3 e - I w

'.I>, M = -5- Arl sinOcosOcos.p = - A (xz) = - (--) Eu-xz

5 5 e+2 c

<I>M = 2. (i::.!_) E ~ (~)s xz

5 e + 2 0 c rol

It is a typical quadrupole field.

6.17(·6.16)

.... ....

(a) With no magnetic field, E = goJ is..: statement of OIUll'S law. Wjth B

~plied, we seek general form, linear in J. but up to second order in B, for E. TJ;«:..,.unstated assumption is that quantities like go are replaced by functions of .!l:!!, which wJ~n.... expanded in Taylor's series give rise to terms like PI (U'U) but not !U IJ .

-> ........

Linear in B : B is axial vector :., Bxl is only polar vector that is possible •

Quadratic in B:

.... _,. ....

and (B·J) U

The general form is

_._..,. ....... -+ -+ -+~ .....

E = (go + IlIB'D») + R(Bx) + Ill(S·J.IB

(b) Under time reversal, this generalized Ohm's law does not remain Invariant. In fact, it changes into

The Hall effect term does not change sign, but the others do. This reflects the physical fact that Ohm's law describes the irreversible conversion of energy from e-m fields into mechanical motion. Under such circumstances it is incorrect to require time-reversal invariance of the generalized Ohm's law.

·171 .

6.18 (*6.17)

(a)

, eh

Force in"'rncuian plane of a dipole of magnetic moment u = -2- is

137" m

" Dirac monopolc > g = (-2-n) e

:: .. \_, ,

: . '1 "

, and _e _ ~ 6.82 X 10'1 dynes. (Coulombic atomic force) ala

IF I

- If r = ao ~ "0.5' X 10'8 em, -:-----:-

I Fcoulombl I

-+

:. , I FIE! n X 1.1 X 10'6 dynes.

\ '.\ \.

....

(b) See above for comparison of electrostatic forces with F monopole- Spin

!' ,,'" _ orbit forces are of the order of (137)'1 times Coulombie forces in 1;): a~oms. Thus I F I monopole: ,- I FI spln-orbit for electrons' ' The possibility of 0' f' binding' 0'[ monopoles to' nuclear magnetic moments is tricky and needs ·\::q~a~~um.mechanics'(see DC'1n1s Si vcrs , Phys. Rev. D2,:2048 (1970». But

_,: ,the ~orees are not totally negliglb'le and so the possibility exists.

6.19 (*6.18)

(a)

z

-,'!

"I "

• (h)

·172 .

(a) Dirac monopole vector potential

-+, _.. -+ ')

.... -+ dl x (x - x

A(x) = g J 1-+ .... '13

' X - x

where di' == dz' x; (-;t-~') I x+ fy + x(z-z')

-+, .... +. • !\ dz'

dl x(x-x) = (xJ- yl) Z

-+ -+ ,. 0 dz' ,

." A(x) = g (xj-yi).L (Xl + yl + (z-z')l )312

Now x] - yi = V Xl + yl ctp ='r sinO Cop and

o dz'

.[ [Xl + yl + (Z_Z')lJ3/2 ~ r2(1+cos8)

:., A (x) "= g sinO eop

r (I + cosO)

= &(1 - cosO) e :. g lan(0/2) ~tp

rsinO tp r

... ~ ..,.

B = V x A • With Ar = AO = O.

..... ... 1 a, . 1 a )

VxA = -, - - (slnOA,II) er + (- - ~ (rA",) co

mnO ao .,. r or

(b)

This gives B = ~ ~ ( !.( I-cosO) ) = !.. cr (Coulomb-like field)

rsinO ao r rl

(c)

x

(d)

',i

We can compute the flux of B through the loop of radius RsinO by spanning lo~e. by spherical cap. Then for coss > 0, f B'n da = 21Tg(l-cos(J). For cosO < 0, we still go around loop, clockwise and define the

normal to the surface as upwards. Then fB·J;da;; -21Tg(1 + cosO).

5..,. -+

1 A' dl = 21TrSinOA ;; 21Tg(l- cosO) for all

y cosO.

Comparing (c) with (d):

............ { 0; cosO >0

z<O,;therc is a 1A'dl-fB'l1da =

flux or 41Tg c ' , 41Tg; cosO < 0

coming up the (Total flux) - (Radial flux)

z axis (Inside the

"String")

·173·

-- -- -_ .. ----~".-~~-~-:-:-~~--:",':':".';:".:::-_ ...,--,--...,.-----------

) )

) ) ) )

,-

/-_ .. _--

---_"- ---.--:----------_,__--__,"--- ......... ~

I'"
) ,
"-'
Ill.-
l
I'v
)
\1-'
\ ):
I-
I
),
1'---
" )
(( .........
,1.1 ..I:;.
I
I
1- \
,1;
_J
__ '
I
_,
,
_;'"
_:
,,-,' CHAPTER 7

Plane ElectrcmagnetlcWaves and Wave Propagation

I

N

f~)



"'"'.' N2 I u (x.o)1 <."

.'

) 7.1
,- .,.
~;
) .
,
.-
'. )
"
-
) -..J...~2 ;l--';_.,. x

C( -4

.'.

..

III (x, 0) 12;: J;- e- a I x I

I A (k) 11 max 8 a

.. ,'2 :: (a1 + 4 (t. k)"] rrJ/l

,~. ' .,'

,:.

'"

a A". = - '\:l 2

The rms of 6. x;

..... ,

(6. x)~,,= <: ·xl > - :< x >2

2a 00 2 2 .. }.

t. x :: -' -- f Xl e " cy x d x -. :: -. -

. ..;rr 0 'cy

1

, .

A~Ax

=-

2

" .

.174·

" _"

(b)

N f(~)

---

f(x) = N e 2

, . -"11 ,

and the normalization factor: - 2 (t.k)2

al

N = iF. h

2c I A (k) I' ;: --==---

vsr

t.k =_a_

V2

(e)

N

- a I x I

(n) f (X)I. N e 2 • u (x, 0); The normallzatlou factor N = a

. - a I x I

N 00 • k k

A (k) = -- f elx ( 0 - ) N e 2 d x

..(2; _00 .

8ey

I

x = -- therefore, t. x t. k ;:

a...,f2 I 2

I N (I - a I x I

f (x)= 10

I

-+e

a

2Nl f (1 - a I x I)' d x =

o

for a 1 x 1 < 1

for a 1 x I> 1;

-----;:t----- x The normalization factor N: o

N=£'

{ 3 a (I-alxl)l I J.I (x, 0) I' = . 0

A(k) :: j3 (~)2 [1 _ cos (t.k )]

.J1i t.k a

3 { t.k }2

I A (k) 12= - (~ )4 1 - cos (-)

1T t.k a

·175·

(6x)2=_1- 100:2 ,

'"

I

L\ x L\ k = --.!..-

0: ...;TO

aV6 =J+>1

1

[23 for I x I < a

I u (X,O) 12 =

o for I x I > a

(d)

r (x) = {oN for I x I < a for I x I > a

and N = (1 '"J2;;

rex)

IAI2

N

----~_a~~a--~x--~.a~--I

+3

k

, a

and L\x = --' .j3~ ,

thus

2 I 00 '

L\ k = an f () sin·2[(ko - k) a]dk ~HO •

. L\kL\x ._., > i

For' simplicity, we consider only the. case when the incident beam is normal to the interface. The Poynting nux

~ ~ c2

S'n=-- 871 w

Re { (0' . k) 1 E'\, 12:J .

·176·

....,

i I

I

I , I

I

and

where n, and n, are refractive ind ices for the respective 'media.

I Sr I =..!1.. I Er 12

I s, I nj EI

We have to calculate the ratio of magnitude of the square of electric field. Assuming that an incident wave comes from the left and a reflected wave travelling to the right and in the medium number 2 of thickness d the wave is the resultant of superposition of two waves travelling in opposite directions, and in the third medium, only a transmitted wave travelling to the left. This assumption docs not lose generality, In fact it is the observed consequences in the laboratory. Furthermore it is given that these media are nonpcrmeable

L~, PI= p,= P3= 1.

) ) )

, )

I

I

I

i

, I

I I

1

Medium 1 (

Medium , I

Medium 3 {

The boundary conditions:-

i\ continuous---- [el (Ej+E,)+e1Em]·r;= 0 (1)

Bl continuous ---- [1<1 X Ei + kl X E, - k, X Em] • f{ = 0 (2)

Ell continuous ----

H" continuous ----

rEI + Er ..., Em 1 X r; = 0 (3)

I ~ _. _, _. I ~ .-

{- (kl X Ei + k. X Er) - - (k2 X Em)]

P PI

X n = 0 (4)

Solving these equations, we obtlaned, (l + ~)

___ n..:,2_ eikJd-ikld EJ ;

2

.

(1- ~)

. n2

. 2

E+- 2 -

·177·

.:-::.:.---"".-:---:-<.,----.,---....,--------_. ,.-_'

I

• 5,

)

)

i \ .'

.. "

r

"1'

-: ....

<~I.et ftj be ratio (1 - nj )/(1 + !!L)

ni ni

The coefficient of reflection for medium 1,

R = f122 + r232 + 2T12f23COs2kld :;: (r.u'+ (23)'-': 4Tu.:fnsi.nlkld 1 + 2 r12 Tn cos 2k, d + Tt21 r,:l3 t 0 + r;~r~3? - . .4rI1123 sin2kl d

"" F .,., ....

The coefficient of reflection for medium 3, R = 1...:1.12 •

Eo .".

R = 4 I 1 11

1 +2rllr13COs2k~'d+r~,r~3 (1 +.nl/nd(I +n3/nl) .

= -:--'4 1 1. 12

(I + r12(23)2 - 4rllT13 sin' k,d (1 + nl/nd(l + n3/n,)

The transmission ;-

T '" r(1 +r12r23)' -:rllr13Sin2kld

Tho reader should notice that there are two forms of the results (i.e, one with consine and the other with sine in the expression, but they are identical).

. 2n

Case 1: n.= I, n/12, n3'" 3. where kl = - (or kj = niw/c)

A, :

R= 17 + IS cos (4dw/c) 96
.. T =
113 + 15 cos (4dw/c) i 113 + 15 cos (4dw/c)
:\ / 16 - 15 sin2(2nd/AlJ I
. I 48
, I
), = I =
64 - ]5 sinl(2nd/Al) I 64 - 15 sinl (2nd/Al)
-' . Case 2: n. = 3, n, = 2, n3 = 1. The results are the same as case 1.

"";:' Case 3: nl= 2, nl':;: 4, n..j= 1.', .

R = 53 - 45 cos (8dw/c) : T = 3_2-:- _

117-45cos(8d~/c) ,t 9(4+5sinl(21Td/Al)

I

16 + 180 sin'(21Td/A,) :

=

144 + 180 sin (2nd/Al) !

_, 53 - 45 cos (8dw/c) .- -'1'17 - 4S cos (8dw/c)

(b) For no reflected wave with r;~quency

. ,'. 1 . 2

R .~ . (T12 + r23) - 4rl2 r23 sin (21Td/A,)

. (1 + rl1r'13h - 4r12 rll sinl (k1Td/Al)

.178 -

therefore, the minimum occurs when the second term is maximum i.e., when (2nd/A,) = 1T/2 (the lowest term) Of d = ~

4

(fl :1 - f23Y . r:-

R :;: :1 = 0 jf fl2 = T23 :., n2'" V n,

(l-rl,rn)

0.6

CASE 1,2

1.0 CASE 3

0.8

0.4

11/2

n

311/1 111'

7.3

Two plane semi-infinite slabs of the same uniform, isotropic, nonpermeable, lossless dielectric with index of refraction n as shown in the Fig. with an air gap of width d.

(a) The ratio of transmitted power and the ratio of reflected power to the Incident power:

Polarization is perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The boundary conditions:

(1)

(Eo - EI) = (cosr. )(E2 + - E2-)

n cos I

E2+ elk2(xsinr + dcosr)+ E2 -eik,(xsin r + dcosr)

E3eikl (x sin i + d cos i)

El + eik1 (x sin r + d cosr} _ E2 -e-1k1 (x sin r + d cose)

(2)

(3)

(4)

= (n cosi ) EJ eikl'(x sin i + d cos i) cosr

Similar to the method used in problem 7.2, we obtained

= (nl cosl i _ cosl r) + (cos1 r _ n1cos1 i)e2ik2(x sin! + d cou) Eo

EI (cos r + n cos ill _ (cos r _ n cos i)' e2ik1 (x sin r + d cos r)

4e-ikj{xsinl+dcosl) Eo

E3= --------~~~<7~~~--~-------'~~c_~~~~~ (cos r + ncos i)le-Ik1 (d slnr + ~ co s r) _ (cos r _ ncos i)l elk, (x lin r + d ccs r)

·179 -

Let

A = (cos r + n cos I},

B = (cos r - n cos 0, C = n cos r cos i.

4CC·i(k, ~In 1- k2 5in r)x + '(kl cos i - k2t:OS r) • d) Eo

E3 = AI_B2e2Ikz(xslnr+dcosr)

The ratio of power' transmitted to the incident power is just the ratio of the Poynting vectors:

I 53 I = I EJ 12 = 16C1

So Eo A4 + B4 - 2AIBl cos 2kz (x sin r + d cos r)

The ratio of reflected power to the ratio ~ 2A2 Bl [1 - cos2~(xsinr + d cos r ) 1

of incident power I = ~ --...:...:.---=--------

. So A4+J34-2Al132cos2~(xsinr+dcosr)

" :;;::::,::,' .:' :;:;::; ::;:~:

, i:,:: : :;:'::}"" :: :::);::~

:;;: '. ': ", : ..

Case II Polarization parallel to the plane of

1i:~;~V'·.:' :: ,:: ::' ; : •

:::: ," ,'. .',.

lncldcncc,

Boundary conditions: At z = 0,

(Eo - E,) = cos ~ (El+ '- E2-) (5)

cos I

( E 1 ( + ) (6)

'0 + E1):: - Ez + E2-

n

At

z = d

= cos ~ [E1+ eikl (x sin r + d cos r) _ E1-c-ikl (x sin r + d co s r) (7) cos (

EJ elk, ex sin r + d cos i)

The ratio of transmitted power to incident power is:

I~ 1= 16 (ncosi cos r)2

So (n cos r + cos i)" + 2(nZcos2r_cos2i)2 cos(2k2€l)+(ncosr-cosi)4

where

E3 = ' 4 Eo (n cos i cosr)

(n cos r + cos i)2ei (kl ~I - k2~1) + (n ~~sr _ cos i)2el(kl ~I + k1b)

(cos2i - n1cos2r) e-ik2h -(cos2j + n cos2r)c-jkl~2

(n cos r + cos i)2e·ik2~1 + (n cos r - cosi)2e-k2~1

h = (x sinr + d cos r) ~I = (x sin i + d cos i)

and

·180·

and the ration of reflected power to incident power:

I~I=_I_ (cos2r - n1cos1r?+ (cos2i + n1cos1r)2 - 2(cos4j '7 n4cos4r) cos(2k11!2) So n (cos i + n cos r)4 + (cos i - n cos r)" + ~ (cos2j - n2 cos2 r) cos (2kzfl) (b) when the incident angle is greater than the critical angle io, the cosine Is purely imaginary

.1

sin I

= j P and rrrr: ;: a sim,

) ) )

cos r = I

where P and a arc real, then,

eik2(x sin r + d cos r) = e-k2Pdcik'2ax

The ratio of EI to Eo squared:

I !!.12 = (P2 + n2cos2j)2 (1 - 2e-2klPd cos2k1ax + e-4k2Pd)

Eo I (i(J + n cos i) - (iP - n cos i)le2k2 (-Pd + Idx)12

7.4

The nature of reflection and refraction in a conducting medium differs remarkably from that in non-conductlng medium. The propagation constants arc now defined as

Iml,lnery

rea'

Wl

W

(I)

=-

=7

w2t: iw6

(2) k12 + (4 IT),

=7 c2

The boundary conditions are:

c

[(Ei + Er) - e Er ] .• n' = 0

[kl X Ej + k,' X Er - kl X EI ] . n = 0 [Ei + Er - Ed X n = 0 .

• 181 •

~~-------r----------------------------.-'-.--~~--------------~

..,
t· .....
)''___'
\.._,.
L,
l.)
L'
I
J-
, )L'f
! . ~
i-:
" . .,
.l__,
, )I_
)l,_)
• I.._,
~
V
)I.._,
\....,
)
I
t-'
u
,
L-'
)
<C'
)
'- .-~ .. ',
)L- ...
.
, L
),
V
t .. .J
)l..,
I
Ii...,.
I
l.;
L ..
~
<.,.;
U
Lt ,......---~----_._---:----...;_---------__._------- ,.,,~-.__'------

a, :: ~ /£' [j} +' ( 4" 0)2 + 1 ] ~

c ';2· we

P, = ~ . € [Jl + ( 4" 0)2 _ 1 ] ~

, • c .../'2 we

''''r'~ •

Since the incident beam is normal to the Interface, the above second and the third boundary conditions can be reduced to

_. ~ ; k, _.

.. ; Ei - r = ( kr,,)~EL,. , _,

Ei + Er = Et

The amplitude IAI1="1~12 = [(at ,..-ad +Pl1] I [(al +a,)' +Pl']

Eo

where A is expressed in EI = Ae-iI.iEo .•• I A 12 is the ratio of the reflected amplitude to the, incident amplitude; and /) is the phase. ,It ~an be shown that "., . J , ..... n 1 iIP

. Aeil.i _ IXI - a, "I- ,.., e

- ((I + Ja,' + P,' e iIP

',f: 'e16 = ((1:1 - a,' - P,' - 2iIXIP,

(al + (2)' + P,' . • :.j (al - a,)' + P,1

, "

. .

... ~ 'it ... ,'. .

(b) • The lliniting cases of very poor conductor

.. , • '4' .,.

The above spproximation can -done, because ~ « 1 in the case of WE

. ' " 4no 2no

poor conductor, and for good conductor --» I. For-- » 1.

WE W

then we have

..,.~ 4w .

-, y2rrow

"':it 5?! 1 c _

1 1

+ -y 21fow )2 +":l .2rrow

c ' c.

(~

c

. 182·

1- 2w

..[2jiOW

4w

es 1 - e!

W fw + 2 + 2 Y 2rrow

J2r(;

_ 2w li where I.i 1

c . P,

the skin effect.

7.5

Incident normally on the conducting surface, the electromagnetic field in these media ()l = E = 1) are:

i

Medium 1:

EI = Eoeiklz - tWI,

kl Hr= -_ Er .

W

Medium 2:

3

Em = (E1+eik1% + E2-e-iklZ)c- IWl Hm = ~(El+elk2Z - El-eik2Z)e-lwt W

medium 3

For good conductor k, e! (I + i) ..[fTiW'U

'c

", ~: = ; and ~: = P (where P is given .fi!!i (1- n

Solving these equation at z = 0 and z = d, we obtained the following relation. ships with boundary condition Bland Ih and HI and 'HI are continuous at the boundaries

,

1 !

{P - 1)(1 + (J) + (1 - (3) (I + (3) c2ikld {l +p)2 _ (I _(3)'e2ikld

4 e-ik3d P E.

:.,.

Eo

and

But,

I

i, ~ ;

c

__ (Jl- J )(J + P) + (1 - (3)( I + (3) e- 2h

. therefore, EI Eo

( 1 + p? - (1 - p)' e- 2h

At z = 0: (P' -1){! -e- 2h)

. Er=--~--~~----~~

(I +p)' _ (I_P)2 e-2h

Then the expression can be reduc~d to

(1 _ p)2

Ei and e! 1 - 3P + •..

(I + P)

·183.

~ =~=~-_4_c-_A~(~e-_i_k_Jd~)~ __ ~_

Ei Eo (I - e-2A) + (1 + 3c-lA)

-iwd

Here there Is an extra term c C where d is the thickness of the second

. medium.

(b) For zero thickness i.c., d -+ 0 and c" A -+ I, Er/Ei = 0 and Et/Ej = 1.

l.c .• to say there is one medium so there is no reflection nor refraction and transmission is 100%. "

For d .... 00,

_§_ = -(1 -13)

Ei 1 + (J

and

This is just the solution for a seml-infinte slab of good conductor.

I ~ 12 - - 1 4 (J 2 w ( (J« r.

EI - - _ - (I + W ~ I - -c-o :., - I ror goodcoriductor)

which givesthe same result as it is in problem 7.4.

(c) Transrnlsslon coefficient T:

1· .. ·'

E 4(Je-A

T = 1~12 "'" I - 12

Ej - - (I _ e-2A

32 (Re (J")2 e- 2d/o •

= --~~~~~~~--~~~~

)~.~ e- 211/0 - id/O) (I _ c-2d/0 + 2id/b)

" 32(Re'(J)2e-2d/O

." .: J - 2e- 2d/0 cos (2d/b) + e - 4d/O

For "very small thickness','. e-2A is of th"';' ~rder of unity. Re (J = 10-2

--dis -e e .. cos(2d/) JogT
.r:'
l!4 0.6065 0.3679 0.8776 - 0.4734
)/2 0.3679 0.1353 0.5403 - - 1.3624
3/4 0.2231 "0,0498 0.0704 - 2.0025 -
0.1353 0,0183 0,0000 :"';2.5026
~,
·184·
"' ... ;
,-
...:'" -, )

Alternative method

(a) We may follow the procedure of problem (7.2). Let

(z<O)

(0 <z <d) (z >d)

Let k be the wave vector in vacuum and k' in the conductor. By Eq (7.79) for

V21TWO

= (1 + i) , (0)> w)

c

k = ~ k' = (I + i) V 21TWP.O

c c

The corresponding magnetic fields arc

.. _. B 'WI

H = - = -Boe-'

JJ.

where Bo is given by.

(z < 0) (O<z<d) (z > d)

I (J

ck' = (I + i) fE1_ so (J= ~O (I _ I). 0 = -=c== W J ----:- zc V 21TOW

where this (J is not that in section 7.8 of the text. but is the quantity used in the statement of the problem. Wc observe that I (J I « 1. Continuity of B, E at z = 0, d.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

E2 cik'd + E2'c-ik'd = E3C1kd

_!_ (E2c1kil _ E2'c-ik'd) = E3eikd (J

where ik'd = i(1+i)V21TWO d = c

d

(i - 1) 6' e! - h by definition of A ..

Equations (3) and (4) givc

II

·185 •

, '

I l~

~'" t

j::' r I:" i



\" :,

;'

I, Y ! Y

~ I

Lv

}-'

r

r ;j
i, !I
r I
r
! r
r'
r
)'
y
r
r
;
r
(
,
j'
(
l' i

t ) I
!
t ' I
/ I
{) "
I
f- I \
' -1 II,.:,
( ) iwd iwd

1 -

EI + EI = - [(1+(3)ef,,+(1-(3)e-A]e C E3 = [ChA + (3shA]e c E3 2

iwd iwd

EI ., EI'= _1_ [(1 +~p)eA _ (1 _ (3)e-A] e-c- E3 =I _(31 sh + chA] e-c- E3 211

Hence, ,

(cosh), + (3sinhX) - (31 (sinh), + coshx) ~ ~~ = ------------~----~-------

-.,Ei El (cosh A + (3sinhA) + ~ (sinh), + (3coshA)

&2 _ I) sinhA (fll - 1)(1 _ e-2A,)

~ .=, 2(3coshA~ + (I + (3)' slnh), : (1 + W - (1 - We 2X

"~/~\' (,6-l)(i'-e-Z~)',

.-":-'(1 't(3) - (1 - (3)1e'1+ p):-le:-2X

(1 - P), ,-'~

(1 + (3) E!! ),";,3. (3.

since; .

,(': 1(31.«1)'

.... -:.

, we- 'Can write . . " _', .' .'.

E; ... :·EI·' '-(l-(3)O'-e-2A) •...

T' = E; = (1 -e-. e-2A) + (3 (1 + 3e~2A)

..... "

Et. E3 •..•. 2{Je-iWd/c

=-=--.:__-.----..:__--------

El El ,(3 (coshA+ (3sinhA] + [sinhA+(3coshA]

Et 2 (3 eld 4(3e-A e-iwd/c

- = -----=------ =

'2(3 cos h A + (1 + (31) sinh), (1 - e- 21..) + 2(3(1 + e- 2A)

Also,

One could as well write

Er - (1 - e-2A)

- = ----==-::-::-.;_-~-

Ei (1 - e-2A) + 2(3( I + e-2X)

(b) For d = 0, A = O. We have:
Er, s,: 0, ~ E3 1.
=-= =-:
Ei El Ei EI ·186.

as expected.

For d ... 00, A'" (1 - i) DO, e-2X ... 0

For d ... DO the transmission should be zero, the reflection should be less

. ,

than 1 because of ohmic losses.

(c)

"

where we have made use of the fact that

(J = Rep (1 - i) !!. (1- 1)

e-A = e 6 •

and I e- A 12 = e-2d/6

,t_ -'- ~ d---L 1

o rr 21l (S J1lSketch log T, Rep = 10- •

-4d -2d

2d - - 2d

= log (32 X 10-4) - - - log (1 + e 6 - 2e 6 cosT) 6

Log T

"Very small thlckness'means d~5 or less .

.. Q

001

·187·

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

has poles at· w = two - ie, e > 0, but is regular for '17 ;;;. O. Since II> 0 or ~ '" 0 and since n(w) is regular for f/ > 0, the quantity 2/(n + 1) is also regular there. And the exponential is regular for all finite values of the real parameters, x and t. Thus, we can apply Cauchy's theorem to the the contour C: f/ =.0, -R ~ ~ ~ +R; e + f/2 = R", f/ > 0 and get

. Wo 2eiW(nx-ct)/e

o = 2if {(n+l) [wo2 -(w+ie)2] dw

(3)

We notice that as R -+ +00, the integral along the real axis in Eq(2) approaches ET(x, t) as R -+ 00. Convergence is good because of the w2 in the denominator as long as x > 0 and II ;;;. O.

Therefore, what we must prove Is that if x-ct>O

then the integral along the semicircular arc in Eq(3) goes to zero. Let us write

n = 1 + a + ill -~---<--t-----1.;,:- where both a and Il tend to zero as I w I -+ 00. Then the integrand along the arc becomes,

WPLANE

(since

I I

'l ( +')2 = -R1 [1 + O(l/R»))

WO - W Ie

I + I(a + ijl) inl+O( ~)} eitlx,(1+a)-ctl/c e-ll[x(1+a)- etJ/ee-(~ +ifl}jlx/c

1 + "2 (ex + i~),

We now see that if the exponential factors remain finite, since the length of the arc is 1IR, the 1/R2 factor dominates and the integral along the are, and hence the integral along the axis'; tends to zero as R goes to

00. The faSI. el~(x(l + a) - etJ/c . ' ,

,f .Is bounded' and can cause no trouble. If x - ct >. 0, we can always lind an ' R largeenough to make ex smal] enough that x(l + a) - ~t > 0 (if ex > 0, there is, Q.f course, no problem). Hence,

e-f/lx(1 + ex) - ct] ~ 1

Since '17 ;;, 0 on the arc. Finany

e-(~ + If/)Ilx/c ='~:"~Ilx/c e- if/Ilx/e ,

-

must be considered. The second factor has unit absolute value. but the

factor e" ~Jl.x/e

could cause trouble for ~ R;< - R.

Hence, we must impose the further condition that j.J. goes to 'zero fast enough as I wi .... 00 that I ~IJ I is bounded on the arc. ytith t1}is condition we have the required result. It is to be noticed that this problem has been omitted In the second edition •.

·192 •.

7.9

From Eq (7.93) in thc tcxt

l

'l . wp

n = I"'-~

w

shows that n is only real when w > wp, but it is purely imaginary when wp > w. It is desirable to look for the --_ ... 00----++---''--'---,'.-- relationship between the real and the

imaginary parts of the refractive index.

The refractive index can be represented as

00

new) = I + f F(w) dw

o

where F(w) vanishes as w -+ 00, which satisfies the given condition that new) = I, when w ~ 00 and F'(w) is analytic everywhere. Assume that there is Is a singularity on the real axis Wo > O. Let us study the expression

f n(w)-I dW

C W-Wo

At infinity new) -+ I, therefore the integration approaches to zero. It Is analytic everywhere. The integration has to be broken into 3 parts

(I) from _00 to Wo - g; (2) at Wo and (3) from Wo + g to 00.

lim to - g new) - I dw + r new) - I = Itr[n(wo) _ I)

<'i~o _00 w - Wo g + Wo W - Wo

Making use of Caushy Principal value notation we have p t n(w)-l dw = in[n(wo) _ I]

_00 w- Wo

Write the refractive index in the form of real and imaginary parts as new) = n'(w) + in"(w) and since n(w) = [ckCw)]/w which is an odd function with respect to w (k (w) is an even function)

i1l [n'(w)+ in"(w) - 11 = P t n'(w')+,in"(w)-I dw'

_00 w - I'AJ

",

1 00 n"Cw')
n'(o) - 1 = - P f dw ,
11 _00 w'-w
)+2.Pf 00 w n"(w')
n'Cw) = dw'
11 0 w''l_w'l Similarly,

n"(w) = _!._ t n'(w') - I dw' + K

11 _00 W - W

(c) ,It is more convenient to discuss part (c) first. In classical model the index of refraction is based on a collection of damped electronic oscillators.

·193·

- .- .... ~ ..

i I

, I

I I I

.. ...... ....-.,..i

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