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Central Office Concepts

High Level Overview


Introduction to Telephony Basics

Created by:
Eddie Phillips

Revision date: 6/2002

Verizon Course # YYJ8166


1
C.O. Concepts - Table of Contents
Slide Topic__________

Purpose
7 Purpose of High Level Overview

Introduction
9 Telephone Services
10 POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service
11 Special Circuits – Generic Types
21 Special Circuit Overview
23 Sound versus Frequency
25 Analog lines, Digital trunks
26 Converting an Analog signal to Digital
27 Filtering, Sampling & PAM
29 PAM – Pulse Amplitude Modulation
30 Quantizing Error
31 PCM
32 Voice to PAM to PCM

2
Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide Topic_____________

Data Rate Overview & low bit-rate circuits


33 Why Digital?
34 Effect of Noise
36 Digital Signal Rate 0 – DS0
37 Data Rates - DS0, DS1, DS3
39 Time Division Multiplexing – TDM
43 DS1 - Digital Signal Rate 1
47 Uni- and Bi-polar signals
51 B8ZS - Binary 8-bit Zero Substitution
53 DS3 Multiplexer
55 DS-30 format
58 Lines versus Trunks
59 Signaling
63 Robbed-bit Signaling
68 Extended Superframe – ESF
70 ISDN BRI
73 ISDN PRI
76 Central Office Layout
77 Main Distribution Frame
79 MDF - Pair protection 3
Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide Topic_____ ______

89 DSX-1 cross-connect
96 D4 channel bank
100 Dual Ringing Generators
102 Special Circuits
108 ISDN channel bank
112 Digital Cross-connect System - DCS
115 DCS 1/0 - DS1 input/DS0 cross-connect
122 DCS Functional types
126 Hi-cap circuit
127 DS1 versus T1
129 Line Termination Shelf
130 T1 Repeater Housing
133 Repeater Housing Symbol
134 T1 Repeatered Span Line
137 HDSL
143 Fractional T1 (DS1)
147 DSX-3 Cross-connect
153 M13 Asynchronous Multiplexer
148 Fiber Systems - Asynchronous
159 Fiber Optic Systems – interoffice components 4
Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide Topic_____________
166 SONET Fiber Optic Systems
169 SONET Hierarchy & Rates
173 SONET Rings - UPSR
174 SONET Rings - BLSR
176 Fiber Cable Termination - LGX
189 Tracing an FX circuit through an office
190 Wave Division Multiplexing
193 Dense WDM
196 Wideband DCS
199 Broadband DCS
201 Microwave Radio
208 Digital Loop Carrier (DLC’s)
218 MDF in DLC’s – Equipment protection

5
Table of Contents (Continued)
Slide Topic_______________________
220 ADSL
231 Timing
242 Power Diagram
249 Main Power Board feeding Trans. Dist. Power Board
253 Batteries
256 Generator
257 AC Transfer Switch
258 Grounding - protection from lightning, etc

The pictures on this page are of


antique operator cordboards. 6
Central Office Concepts

Purpose:
To provide an high level overview
of the signal formats, circuits and
equipment types that are found
in a typical telephone office.

7
Central Office Concepts
Overview - Part One
• Telephone Services - POTS Vs. Special Circuits
• Analog to Digital Conversion
• Data Rates - DS0, DS1, DS3
• Main Distribution Frame
• DSX-1, DSX-3 Jacks
• D4 Channel Bank
• ISDN Banks
• DCS 1/0 - Digital Access Cross-connect System

8
Telephone Services
ISP CLEC IXC Operator
Special Circuits

POTS
PBX
Telephone
Office
CLASS
Centrex

ACD
Automatic Call
ADSL Distribution
DS1
Hi-caps
9
Call Center
POTS
Plain Old Telephone Service

Telephone
2 wires, 1 pair Office

Voice Signal
Maximum distance from telephone office – 18,000 feet.
Under 12,000 feet is preferred. 10
Special Circuits
Everything Else but POTS
Overview of Generic Types
Central Office
Analog Phone To distant office

ISDN phone To ISDN line circuit

Utility company circuit Alarm & control circuits

Computer circuits Digital Circuits

Personal Computer To Internet

DS1 Hi-cap to Network To customer’s network

11
POTS & Special Circuits
Telephone Office

POTS Digital Switch


Phone line
Phone line

Special Circuits Trunk


Analog Phone
ISDN phone Network
Utility company circuit
Transmission
Computer circuits
Equipment
Personal Computer
DS1 Hi-cap to Network
12
Digital Switch – Nortel DMS-100

13
Digital Switch
- Automatic
Electric
GTD-5

14
Transmission
Equipment

15
Transmission
Equipment

16
Main
Distribution
Frame
- terminates
copper outside
plant cables &
equipment cables

17
Copper outside plant cables

18
Copper cable splice closures
in vault

19
Fiber Optic cable
& jumper
termination

20
Special Circuits Overview
3 Broad Categories
• Voice-grade circuits
– Foreign exchange - draws dial tone from a ‘foreign
office’
• Analog Data circuits - non-digital
– ex. Circuits for real-time measurements;
– pump starting, water levels, door open/close etc.
• Digital Data circuits
• digital circuits, ISDN, hi-caps, etc.

21
Introduction Summary
What a telephone office does:

• POTS – normal 7 or 10 digit dialing for


calls we make everyday.
• Special Circuits – unique circuits requested
by the customer to meet a specific customer
requirements.
22
Sound versus Frequency

Frequency -
Electrical representation of sound

- unit of measure is
Sound Waves
Hertz or cycles per second
Human ear - 20 -10,000 Hertz (and higher)

Analog Signal - electrical signal analogous to real sound 23


How voice circuits go
through the network
POTS, Special Circuits

Telephone Telephone
Office
Network Office

Voice or Analog Digital signal Voice or Analog


signal signal
- analog signal
converted to a
binary code - 1’s and 0’s. 24
Analog lines, Digital trunks

1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Telephone
Office Line

Telephone 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1

Office Digital Trunk


Line

Telephone
Analog Signal
Office

Line
25
Converting an Analog Signal to a
Digital Signal
Analog Signal Digital Signal

1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
Binary digit or ‘bit’

‘1’ - presence of a pulse


Binary 8-bit word or ‘byte’
‘0’ - absence of a pulse
26
Filtering, Sampling & PAM - Pulse
Amplitude Modulation
Original Voice 20 Hz to 10,000+ Hz
Frequency Signal

Low-pass Filter
20 Hz - 4000 Hz
Output

8000 times per second Measuring signal levels


in real-time
(Hertz) sampling

125 microseconds 27
Voice signal voltage ‘sampled’ at
125 microseconds intervals.
- 8000 times per second
Voltage

T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 Time

125 microseconds between measurements 28


PAM - Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Voltage level compared to Quantization level
Quantization
Level
3-bit binary code
7 - 111
6 - 110
5 - 101
4 - 100
3 - 011
2 - 010
1 - 001
0 - 000
T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 Time
Decimal - Binary
29
Quantizing Error – small distortion
Quantization of signal
Level
7 - 111

6 - 110

5 - 101

4 - 100
3-bit binary code
3 - 011
Quantizing Error

2 - 010

1 - 001

0 - 000
30
Decimal - Binary T0 T1 T2 Time
8-bit
PCM
Binary
Code
Pulse Code Modulation
11111111 128
PAM pulse
Each voltage level has a pre-assigned code

10000110 6
Maximum Quantization
10000101 5 distortion error
10000100 4
10000011 3
10000010 2
10000001 1
00000000 0 time
00000001 -1
00000010 -2
00000011 -3
00000110 -4
00000101 -5
00000110 -6

31
01111111 -128
Voice Encoding
Voice to PAM to PCM - 8-bit word

Each PAM value 125 microseconds

converted to
8-bit word PCM encoder
8000 samples/sec X 8 bits/sample
= 64,000 bits/sec digital stream per voice channel

DS0 = 64,000
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 bits per second
8-bits 8-bits
32
Why Digital?
Analog Transmission Noise Problems

Analog Signal

Signal Plus Noise

After Transmission Attenuation


Plus Increased Noise

Amplified Signal Plus Noise

33
Effect of Noise
Analog versus Digital
Analog-only signal plus noise:
Signal Noise Received Signal

+ =

Digital Signal plus noise:


Noise PCM + Noise Received
Signal Encoded (PCM)
Signal

+ =
34
Summary
• Analog lines, digital trunks
• Voice frequency:
– Filtered
– Sampled – PAM – Pulse Amplitude Modulation
– Quantized – PCM – Pulse Code Modulation
8-BIT word – 8,000 times per second
• PCM – 64,000 bits/second = 1 DS0

35
Digital Signal rate 0 - DS0
8-bit format - 64 kbs
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1

125 microsecond
interval per 8-bit word
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DS0 = 8000 8-bit words per second = 64,000 bits/second = 64 kbs

Fundamental digital signal in telecommunications


Building block of most of all other signals
36
Data Rates & Formats
• DS0 - 64,000 bits/sec (64 kbs) channel
- digitized voice or data

• DS1 - 24 DS0's = 24 x 64,000 = 1.544 Mbit/sec

• DS3 - 28 DS1's = 28 x 1.544 Mbs + overhead


= 44.736 Mbit/sec

- 672 DS0’s = 24 DS0’s x 28 DS1’s


37
Information is on leading edge
8-bit word represents a of pulse
125-microsecond 8-bit word can occupy less
sampling interval time than 125 microseconds
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Information is on the
‘leading edge’
of the pulse. Same 8-bit word, but occupying less time.

10110101 Width of each pulse is ‘squeezed’


to occupy less time so other circuits
can be added in the same time frame.
38
12345678
Time Division Multiplexing - TDM
The pulse widths of bits in the 24
DS0 - 64 kbs
channels are ‘squeezed’ to put all 24
channels on one high-speed channel.
1

3 TDM
DS1 - 1.544 Mbs

Bi-directional multiplexer.
Only one direction is shown.
24

Low-speed side High-speed side 39


Time Division Multiplexing
TDM - 24 DS0’s into a DS1
TDM - Interleaved together in time.
Only one direction shown One frame
= 24 channels X 8 bits/chan. + 1 framing bit
Channel =193 bits/frame
DS0 10101010 1
Rate = 193 bits/frame X 8000 frames/sec
2
3
4 = 1,544,000 bits/sec = 1.544 Mbs
5

TDM

21
22
23 Framing bit
DS0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 24
24 1
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0
40 DS0
Voice to Digital to TDM

2
Time
Analog Division
3
to Multiplexer
Digital 24 channels ‘multiplexed’
Converter together in time.

24
41
A/D-Mux - TDM – Demux-D/A
24 channels ‘multiplexed’
together in time.

1 1

2 2
Time Time
3 Analog Division Division Digital 3
to Multiplexer De-multiplexer to
Digital Analog
Converter Converter

24 24

Only one direction is shown. 42


DS-1 Digital Signal rate 1
24 channels TDM + Framing bit
Framing bit
DS1 Frame
193 bits/frame

DS0’s 24 3 2 1
1 DS1 frame is:
24 DS0 channels (64 kbs) plus one framing bit
= 24 channels X 8 bits/channel + 1 framing bit
= 193 bits/frame.
Rate per second:
193 bits/frame X 8000 frames/sec
= 1,544,000 bits/sec -OR- 1.544 Mbs.
Framing Bit indicates the beginning of the frame. 43
Bits in a DS1 are Bi-polar
Every other ‘1’ bit is reversed in polarity

DS1 bit stream

0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

DS0 DS0 DS0

Max bit rate = 1.544 Mbs Max frequency = 772 kHz


44
One 24-channel frame
A DS1 has a signal going in both directions,
a Transmit signal and a Receive signal
125 microseconds

Framing Bit 8-bit channel


1 24

(24x8) +1 = 193 bits/frame

1 8 1 8
One 8-bit channel One 8-bit channel 45
One DS1 frame
RX - Receive TX - Transmit

125 microseconds
24 8-bit words +1framing bit = 193 bits
24 8-bit words = 192 bits

1 24

Framing bit
(1 bit only)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Least Significant Bit


7-bit word
8-bit word 46
Uni-polar & Bi-polar Signals
Signals look different, but binary codes are the same

Uni-polar signal

1 0 1 1 0

Bi-polar signal

1 0 1 1 0
47
Line Frequency of Uni-polar and
Uni-polar signal
Bi-polar signals
6 times crossing reference line

1 0 1 1 0

3 times crossing reference line


Bi-polar signal

1 0 1 1 0

‘B’ has half the frequency of ‘A’ 48


Bi-polar signals cut the effective
Uni-polar signal
frequency in half
6 times crossing reference line

1 0 1 1 0

3 times crossing reference line


Bi-polar signal

1 0 1 1 0

‘Bipolar’ has half the frequency of ‘Uni-polar’ 49


Bi-polar Signals
Doubles digital signal distance on copper wire
Uni-polar signal

Distance

Bi-polar signal

2 times Distance

Cutting the frequency in half,


doubles the distance the signal can travel 50
The Zero Problem
B8ZS - Binary 8-bit Zero Substitution
A code is substituted when all zero’s appear.
One 8-bit word with all ‘0’s
Flat line

8 zero’s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Rule: Every 8-bit word MUST have at least one ‘1-bit’

Solution: Bi-polar violation (by design)

Substitute
with B8ZS
line encoding

8 zero’s line code 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1


51
Summary
• DS0 – one digitized voice channel
• TDM – combines 24 voice channels into a DS1
– Mux – multiplexes DS0’s together in time into a DS1
– DeMux – de-multiplexes DS0’s from a DS1 into individual
channels.
• Binary digits in a digital bit stream are bi-polar
• Bi-polar signals have lower frequency & can travel
further on copper wire.
• B8ZS – substitutes a special code for eight zero’s.

52
DS3 Multiplexer
TDM - 28 DS1’s to 1 DS3
DS1 - 1.544 Mbs
Multiplex : 28 DS1s to 1 DS3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

28 DS1’s DS3 - 44.736 Mbs


DS3
Low-speed side
Multiplexer
High-speed side

26

De-multiplex : 1 DS3 to 28 DS1s


27
28

The pulse widths of the bits in the 28 DS1’s are ‘squeezed’ to put
53
all 28 channels on one high-speed DS3 channel.
DS3 Frame Format
24 DS0 channels for each DS1

DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 Header

28 27 26 5 4 3 2 1
DS3 rate = 44.736 Mbit/sec
• 28 DS1 channels plus DS3 framing
• 672 DS0 channels
= (28 DS1’s X 24 DS0’s/DS1)
• Bi-directional - TX and RX
54
DS-30
DS-30 Frame

193 bits/frame
DS0’s 32 3 2 1

• Like a DS1, but with 32 channels instead of 24 channels;


no framing bit used.
• 30 channels voice, 2 channels control
• European standard
• Sometimes used by switch vendors inside digital switches
55
Comparison
Bit rate DS0, DS1, DS3
44.736 Mbs
DS3
28 DS1’s

2.048 Mbs DS-30


DS1
1.544 Mbs
32 DS0’s
24 DS0’s
DS0
64 kbs

Digital voice
56
Central Office
• Switching
– Lines, Trunks
• Transmission
– connection between offices
– special circuits
– most anything else
• Switching & Transmission are blending
together

57
Lines versus Trunks
Trunk - connection from office-to-office

Telephone Telephone
Office Office

Line Line

- access from customer 1 Trunk = one 2-path digital voice circuit = 1 DS0
to the network
Transmit & Receive on two separate facility paths
1 Line = one 1-path voice circuit
Transmit & Receive on 1 cable pair
- analog or digital connection
58
Signaling
Signaling is the process by which two or more
telephone offices communicate between each
other to setup and take down a telephone call.

Telephone Telephone
Office Office

Line Line

59
In-band Signaling from Telephone
office to Telephone office
A B
Telephone Telephone
Office
Trunk
Line Office Line

A informs B of incoming call.


B checks line for on-hook or off-hook condition.
B informs A of status of line.
B applies ringing to the line.
When phone answers, voice path is created between A & B.
If off-hook, a busy tone is sent from B to A.
When a phone is again on-hook, path is dropped. 60
Signaling
Calling-office to Called-office

Telephone Telephone
Line Office Office Line

Digital Trunk - DS0

Robbed-bit Signaling is used to transfer signaling information


from calling-office to called-office.
Ex. when calling-phone goes off hook; sending dialed digits.
61
Signaling
Called-office back to Calling-office

Telephone Telephone
Line Office Office
Line

Digital Trunk - DS0

Robbed-bit Signaling is used to transfer signaling information


back from called-office to calling-office.
Ex. When called-phone answers, or hangs up.
62
Robbed-Bit Signaling in DS1
Every 6th frame is robbed of the least significant bit in all channels
A frame Bit is used for signaling, not voice.
1 6 12 18 24

DS1 – 24 frames shown


Dot is
193 bit frame 193 bit frame
robbed-bit
channel 1 Channels 24 1 Channels 24

1 8
1 8 1 8 1 8 63
Robbed-bit Signaling
56 kbs - Computer to Computer

Telephone Telephone
Office Office

Line Line

Digital Trunk - DS0

Robbed-bit Signaling limits the maximum digital bit rate to 56 kbs


(DS0=64 kbs).

64
SS7 Signaling - Signaling System 7
Out-of-band signaling
SS7 Signaling uses a separate Really Big City
data paths to send call setup Big City SCP database
information from the calling
office to the called office. STP

This Town data paths That Town

Host Voice path Host


- Trunk
Office Office
Line
Line SSP SSP
SSP - Signal Service Point - local office
STP - Signal Transfer Point - one per regional area
SCP - Signal Control Point - database for customer info
SS7 is implemented nationally & regionally and is required for 65
advanced features such as caller id, etc.
Summary
• Lines – many one-path circuits
• Trunks – fewer two-path circuits
• Signaling is used for telephone offices to
communicate so a telephone call can be set up and
taken down.
• Robbed-bit signaling is an in-band signal system
that uses the least significant bit in a DS0 trunk to
send signaling between offices.
• SS7 is an out-of-band signaling system with
advanced features.
66
DS1 Superframe
One frame - 193 bits
DS1 Superframe – 12 frames
1 6 12

Framing bit 193 bit frame


at beginning 1 24

of frame before
first 8-bit word
1 8
1 8

Superframe = 12 frames grouped together 67


DS1 Extended Superframe
ESF
Extended Superframe = 24 frames grouped together
One frame (193 bits)

1 6 12 18 24

DS1 ESF = 24 frames


Framing bits – 1st bit in each frame
- Framing bits of 24 frames = virtual 8000 bits/second channel – just like a DS0.
‘Framing Channel’ used to send call setup information
without ‘Robbing bits’ from the bit stream.

This allows the entire 64 kbs bandwidth in each DS0 voice channel
to send voice information.

Also, the Framing Channel sends error checking codes &


information about the status of the facility.
68
ISDN - Integrated Subscriber
Digital Network

Telephone
Office
1 cable pair

Digital Line

• all digital connection from telco to phone


• higher quality voice circuits
• high speed data lines

69
ISDN
BRI - Basic Rate Interface
2 digital voice channels ISDN
Entire 64 kbs channel phone
ISDN line card used for voice.
in line bay or
channel bank Network
Termination 1

2B + D = 160 kbs 1 Bearer channel


BRI NT1 64 kbs
Local 2-wire loop

1 Bearer channel
Digital 1-path
64 kbs
circuit
Demarcation
ISDN
phone
Telephone office and local loop Customer Premise 70
ISDN
BRI - Basic Rate Interface
One 128 kbs channel
ISDN line card
in line bay or
channel bank
2 Bearer channels
128 kbs
2B + D = 160 kbs
BRI NT1
Local 2-wire loop
Network
Digital 1-path Termination 1
circuit

demarcation

Telephone office and local loop Customer Premise 71


ISDN BRI
BRI - Basic Rate Interface – all digital circuit

D 16 kbs

64 kbs
2B 160 kbs channel
64 kbs
16 kbs
Overhead

2B + D - 2 Bearer channels (2 DS0’S) - 64kb each (voice or data)


1 Data channel - 16kb
plus 1 overhead channel for signaling - 16 kb

BRI = 2 x 64kb + 16kb + 16kb = 160kb/sec


72
ISDN PRI - Primary Rate Interface
• DS1 format, but channels are - 23B + D = 24 channels
• 23 Bearer channels – 23 DS0’s
- 64 kbs each (voice or data)
PRI = 23B + D
• 1 data channel - 64kbit – 1 DS0
1.544 Mbs DS1 rate
125 microseconds
8-bit, 64 kbs channels

1 24

Framing
Bit BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBD
73
Internet Service
PRI Trunking
Provider (ISP)
ISDN BRI Line
Internet connection
Telephone Telephone
Office Office

PRI – DS1 PRI – DS1


2B + D

PRI, a DS1, uses each entire 64 kbs DS0 channel for information.
Signaling information is sent via the Data channel & ESF.
Allows for clear channel data transfer – ALL 8 bits in each DS0.
No Robbed-bit signaling is used.
74
Summary
• ISDN BRI – Basic Rate Interface
– 2B+D - 2 ‘Bearer’ channels, 1 Data channel
– Full 64,000 bits/sec – no robbed bits
– Higher quality, all digital phone lines
– Used also for data connections.

• ISDN PRI – 23B+D


– DS1 with 23 full 64kbs rate channels
– Used by Internet Service providers for higher speed
connections and ISDN connections.
75
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 76
cable jumpers
Main
Distribution
Frame – C.O.
- 2 sided frame Horizontal
side

Vertical side
- cable protectors
Horizontal side
- line blocks
Vertical
side 77
Main Distribution
Frame -
Vertical side
- pair protection
Protectors
- termination
of cable pairs
- may also have
blocks 78
Main Distribution Frame in a
typical central office
• Pair Protection
– Protectors
• terminate the outside plant pair
• provide lightning protection on the pair
– Blocks
• terminate the lines from the equipment
• wired out to a cross connect cabinet
Protector Terminal block
Line
Equipment
Copper pairs Line equip. jumper Equipment Bay
in outside cabling
plant cable 79
Vertical side – Cosmic frame

80
Main Distribution
Frame cable pair
protector (connector)

- 100-pair termination
of cable pairs
- lightning protection;
sends lightning surge
to the c.o. ground field

81
Protector module (solid state)
Main Frame
Cable pair
protector
- jumpers to
line circuits of
telephone switch.

82
Main Frame
Horizontal side

Blocks
- termination
of line circuits

83
Blocks on
Main Distribution Frame

84
Blocks – Cosmic frame

85
‘Tipping’ cables
from frame
to vault

86
Vault – Splice Closures
- connects ‘tipping’ cable to
outside plant cable

87
Summary
• Main Distribution Frame terminates all
voice grade connections in a telephone
office.
– Outside Plant cables
– Line cables
– Special circuits
• Pair protection – each cable pair is
grounded if a lightning surge occurs.

88
Central Office Functional Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 89
cable jumpers
DSX-1 Cross-connect
Connecting DS1 circuits
between equipment
30-pair high-frequency
30-pair high-frequency
cabling from equipment
cabling from equipment
jacks
Light jacks
DS1 LED Bantam patch cord LED
DS1
MON (dual) MON
OUT OUT
Terminates DS1’s IN Terminates DS1’s
IN
from equipment from equipment

DSX-1 module 5-wire jumper DSX-1 module


(flipped over) 90
DSX-1 Bays
Terminations for DS1’s
Cross-connects to other DS1’s

91
DSX-1 Bays

92
DSX-1 Bays
5-wire jumpers

93
DSX-1 jumpers – what NOT to do

94
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 95
cable jumpers
D4 Channel Bank
A/D, D/A conversion + TDM
A/D, D/A TDM
• Aggregates many low
24 Voice
Frequency 24 DS0’s 1 DS1 speed circuits into one
circuits high speed circuit for
1 transport
D4
• 24 low speed circuits
24 Voice channel 1 DS1 - converted to
bank
channels 64kbit/sec – DS0
24
• 1 DS1 high speed side
- 1.544 Mbit/sec
Low-speed High-speed
side side 96
D4 channel 12 channels
bank Common cards
for one di-group
12 channels
Alcatel (Charles Ind.)
- dual di-group
- two - 24 channels
- common cards in the
middle of each
di-group (digital group) 97
D4 bank to D4 bank

Office ‘A’ Office ‘B’

1
DS1 1
24 Voice D4 D4 24 Voice
channels channel channel channels
bank bank
24 24

98
Nortel D4
- dual di-group
- two - 24 channels
- common cards
on right side of
shelf
99
Dual Ringing Generators

100
Summary
• DSX-1 jacks – terminating DS1 cables,
providing cross-connections between DS1
circuits.
• D4 Bank – Combines 24 incoming voice
channels into 1 DS1 output.
24 Low-speed VF – A/D, D/A – TDM –
High-speed DS1.

101
Special Circuits
Voice Grade:
– FX - Foreign exchange
historically most popular special circuit
used for extending dial tone from another
office
Local office Foreign Dial tone office
– Austin, TX – Washington, DC

DS1 DS1
Network
Line

Channel
102
Banks
Special Circuits
Voice Grade:
E & M - Ear & Mouth
- used for trunk circuits in electromechanical offices.

Analog Analog
trunks trunks
DS1

Channel
Banks

103
Special Circuits
Analog Data:
- ETO - Equalized Transmission Only
used mainly for sending analog data
• on/off condition
• real-time measurements, etc.
• utility company circuits
Channel
Data center
Banks

DS1

104
Special Circuits
Digital Data:
- Data rates 64 kbs or less (1 DS0 or less)
• 2.4 kbs, 4.8 kbs, 9.6 kbs, 19.2 kbs, 56 kbs, 64 kbs
- Fractional T1 - data rate multiples of 64 kbs
• 128 - 384 kbs (2-6 DS0’s)
- operates at a DS1 rate,
but with only the DS0’s used turned on.
Typically used with Frame Relay circuits.
Channel
Banks

Digital data DS1 Digital data 105


Special Circuits
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
– digital connection from telco to phone
– 3 DS0's per low speed circuit – 3 slots used.
• ISDN card occupies one slot in channel bank, but
the 2nd & 3rd slots are unusable for anything else.
• 2 ‘Slot-Blocker’ cards are used to prevent other
cards from being placed in the 2nd & 3rd slots.
– 8 ISDN channels MAX per D4 bank or
di-group. Channel bank Channel bank
ISDN DS1 ISDN
circuit circuit
3 DS0’s used
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

106
Slots in channel bank
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 107
cable jumpers
ISDN Channel Bank
Office ‘A’ Office ‘B’

DS1
ISDN ISDN
channel channel
bank bank

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

• 3 DS0’s per physical slot


• Only 8 physical slots, not 24 channels
• Can interface another ISDN bank, D4 or DACS
108
Adtran
BR1/10 ISDN
dual-channel banks
- two di-groups
(digital groups)
per shelf.

109
Summary
• Special Circuits:
– Foreign Exchange – dial tone from a different c.o.
– E & M – Ear & Mouth – analog trunks
– ETO – Equalized Transmission Only – analog data.
– Digital Data – data rates from 2.4 kbs to 64 kbs.
– ISDN in channel bank uses 3 slots.

• ISDN Banks have 8 channels per di-group.

110
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 111
cable jumpers
DCS
– Digital Cross-connect System

• Partial elimination of channel banks


• Device to access the DS0’s in a DS1 bit stream, while
keeping the circuits all digital
• No analog to digital conversion necessary.
• Facilitates a cost-effective management of
special circuits in an office.
• Higher quality circuits DS1 DS1

DS1 DACS DS1

DS1 DS1
112
DCS
Digital Cross-connect System
24 DS0’s each DS1
DACS
DS1 DS1

DS1 DS1

DS1 DS0 DS1


cross-connects

113
Why have a DCS?
Before DCS: Back-to-Back D4’s
VF circuits VF circuits

D4 Jumpers D4
DS1 Channel Channel DS1
Bank Bank

D4 D4
DS1 Channel Channel
DS1
Bank Bank

D4 D4
DS1 Channel Channel DS1
Bank Bank

Main Distribution Frame 114


DCS - 1/0
DS1 input / DS0 cross-connect
Back-to-Back D4 elimination
Permanently
Port cards
connected
DACS ‘virtual’
DS1 1/0 cross-connected
DS1 DS0 circuits.

DS1 DS1
DS1
DS1 D4
.
.
Channel .
DS1 DS0 Bank .
cross-connects
in matrix
D4 bank for
115
DS0 cross connects in 1/0 DACS local circuits.
Digital Cross-connect System
Unit shelves & Matrix
Unit Shelves Unit Shelves
Matrix
28 DS1’s 28 DS1’s

28 DS1’s
28 DS1’s

28 DS1’s
28 DS1’s
DS0
28 DS1’s cross-connects
in matrix
Inter-shelf bus
DS1 input / DS0 cross-connect 116
DSC - ALCATEL
DEXCS Bay layout
Fuse Panel Fuse Panel
Fuse Panel Fuse Panel Fuse Panel
Filler DS1 Unit DS1 Unit
Panel Shelf Shelf
Admin
Shelf DS1 Unit DS1 Unit
Shelf Shelf
Disk Drive
Unit Bay Expansions
to 5,376 DS1s
Matrix DS1 Unit DS1 Unit
Shelf Shelf Shelf

DS1 Unit DS1 Unit


Shelf Shelf

Admin and/or DS1 Unit Bay DS1 Unit Bay


Matrix Bay

Dual, on-line matrices and dual data paths for full circuit protection
Fully distributed A and B power feeds
Dual power supply architecture
Single DS1 per port card
Distributed processing

117
Alcatel DS1 Unit Bay
1 DS1 per port card
28 ports per unit shelf

28 ports per unit shelf

28 ports per unit shelf

28 ports per unit shelf

112 ports per bay 118


Alcatel
DEXCS 1/0
Bay lineup
Unit bays

Matrix bay

Admin bay

119
Alcatel DEXCS Unit Shelf
28 DS1 Ports per shelf
Unit cards ( 28 1-DS1 cards )

Power Controller
Supply cards
card
Power
Supply
card

120
Alcatel Narrowband
DEXCS sizes - matrix Size
• CS1S - 84 DS1's - small Fuse Panel
Filler
Panel

Admin
Shelf
• CS1 - 336 DS1's - medium Disk Drive

Matrix
Shelf

• CS1L - 1544 DS1's - large

• CS1VL - 5376 DS1's - very large


121
Digital Cross-connect Systems
Functional types – Generic terms
• Narrowband - 1 / 0
– DS1 input, DS0 cross-connect
• Wideband - 3 / 1
– DS3 & DS1 input, DS1 cross-connect
• Broadband - 3 / 3 / fiber
– DS3 & fiber optic input, DS3 cross-connect

122
Summary
• 1/0 DCS – DS1 input, DS0 cross-connect
• DCS accesses all DS0’s in a DS1 bit stream,
while keeping the circuits digital; no A/D
conversion
• reduces the need for back-to-back channel
banks for ‘through’ circuits.
• Saves on equipment quantity and cost,
keeps quality of signal high.
• Easier to add, delete, & manage circuits.
123
Central Office Concepts
Overview Part Two
• T1 Span lines, HDSL
• M13 Multiplexer
• Introduction to Fiber Systems
• Fiber Cable Termination – LGX
• Broadband DCS
• Digital Loop Carrier
• ADSL
• Timing - BITS Clock
• Power - AC/DC, Batteries, Generator
• Grounding - protection from lightning, etc. 124
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
ISDN
DCS DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 125
cable jumpers
Hi-Cap
High Capacity Line – DS1 to Customer
DS1 Frame
Framing bit 193 bits/frame
DS0’s 1 2 3 24
Business or
Industry
Telephone
Office DS1

• Various services can be carried on a hi-cap circuit:


PBX trunks (voice), Frame Relay, ATM, ISDN PRI, video, etc.
• Hi-caps can connect directly to local telco network or
pass through to another carrier. 126
Max bit rate = 1.544 Mbs
DS1 versus T1
Max frequency = 772 kHz
DS1 - low voltage levels, typically 5-12 volts.
+ 5 Volts Limitation of 400 ft in an office.

0 Volts

- 5 Volts

T1 - has added DC power component


used to power line repeaters.
+135 Volts

+130 Volts

+125 Volts

0 Volts
DC power component added
127
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
ISDN
DCS
1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 128
cable jumpers
Line Termination Shelf
(span shelf)
12-slot shelf Two
12-pair
Two Shielded
12-pair Cables
Shielded
D Cables
S
X To
1 cable
pairs
Wired to
DSX-1 jacks
Wired to block
C.O. repeater cards
On MDF to access
cable pairs
129
T1 Repeater Housing
Telephone pole

12 - Position
Aerial or Buried Cable 25 - Position
50 - Position
Local Cable or Housings
Toll Cable (T-Screen)

From previous repeater housing To next repeater housing


130
Span line repeater housing
regeneration of signal

Pulse degenerates into: Repeater makes a new pulse:

Line repeater card

From previous repeater housing To next repeater housing


131
New Pulse Generation symbols
One pair
in and out Side 1

Side 2
Repeater makes a new
pulse in each direction 132
Repeater Housing
Symbol
Side 1

Side 2

133
T1 Repeatered Span Line
Central Office ‘A’ Central Office ‘B’
Line Termination Shelf Line Termination Shelf
C.O. repeater
Repeater Housings

Line
Repeater,
12, 25, 50 slots

Outside plant
copper cable
134
T1 Span Line - Schematic
DC power component Spacing Between
added to signal to power Housings
repeater housings
- 3000-5000 feet
- see slide ‘DS1 vs. T1’
Office A Office B
DS1 in T1 signal (DC powered DS1) DS1 out

DS1 out C.O. DS1 in


Repeater
T1 Repeaters Line termination
Line termination
shelf
shelf
135
Typically, no new T1 span lines are placed, except in rural areas.
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 136
cable jumpers
HDSL
High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line

Delivers DS1’s to remotes, DS1’s for


customer high-caps WITHOUT a repeater
up to 12,000 feet.
Remote /
Central Office Customer Premise
HDSL HDSL
No repeater housings

Up to 12,000 feet 137


HDSL
• 2B1Q - 2 binary, 1 Quaternary
01 • Two Binary digits per pulse
• 4 Pulse levels
• cuts line frequency in half from T1
00 HDSL=384 kHz; T1=772 kHz

Distances up to 12,000
without a repeater. 10
11
138
HDSL shelf & wiring

H D S L
C
H H H H H H H H H H H H H
N
T T T T T T T T T T T T T
T
U U U U U U U U U U U U U
R
R R R R R R R R R R R R R
L

12-pair high-frequency 12-pair high-frequency


cabling to DSX-1 jacks cabling to main
distribution frame

139
HDSL shelf
Two
12-pair To
Two 13-slot shelf Shielded cable
12-pair Cables pairs
Shielded
D Cables
S
X
1 MDF
Block

Wired to Wired to block


DSX-1 jacks HTU-C cards
on MDF to access
cable pairs
HDSL controller card
140
HDSL
HTU-C & HTU-R Customer Premise
Central Office
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s


HTU-C HTU-R
DS1
DS1
2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s

DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

HTU-C - HDSL Terminating Unit - Central Office


HTU-R - HDSL Terminating Unit - Remote
Up to 12,000 feet 141
HDSL Repeater
doubles the distance
HTU-C HDSL Repeater HTU-R

2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s 2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s

DS1 DS1
2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s 2-wire circuit 12 DS0’s

12,000 feet 12,000 feet


Customer
Central Office Premise

Two HDSL repeaters may be used to go 36,000 feet

142
Fractional T1 (Fractional DS1)
• DS1 rate, but with only a portion of the 24 DS0’s carrying
traffic - can be delivered via a T1 span line or HDSL
• customer wanting MORE than ONE 64Kbps channel
• typically 2-6 DS0's - rate - 128kbps to 384kpbs
• Can be provisioned on one pair
6 DS0’s shown

24 6 1

Framing bit
(1 bit only)
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

24 8-bit words +1framing bit = 193 bits


143
Fractional T1 over HDSL
Fractional DS1 (6-DS0) 2-wire circuit
Customer Premise
Central Office 1 6 12
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

12 6 1

High-speed Low-speed DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

side side
2-wire circuit, 2-6 DS0’s, 12 max
D4 bank
DS1 HTU-C HTU-R Customer’s
LC Only one pair required
4-wire Equipment
circuit
Up to 12,000 feet
MDF
6 DS0’s in D4 bank
Fractional T1 with 6 DS0’s carrying traffic
1 24
DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0 DS0

24 1
144
Summary
• Hi-cap – DS1 to customer
• T1 span line – transports DS1’s on copper
cable facilities from one office to another;
uses T1 repeater housings 3000-5000 feet
apart.
• HDSL – transports DS1’s on copper cable
facilities up to 12,000 feet without a
repeater housing.
145
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 146
cable jumpers
DSX-3 Cross-Connect
- connecting DS3 circuits
between equipment
coaxial cabling Rear Light
Rear coaxial cabling
from fiber
optic terminal MON Front Front From M13 mux
MON
IN IN
DS3 OUT OUT DS3
I-X Patch I-X
jacks jacks
O-X cords O-X
Cables
DSX-3 module DSX-3 module flipped over

cross-connect cables
(backside of modules)
147
DSX-3 Bay – front

148
DSX-3 Lineup

149
DSX-3 Bay-
Rear View
- equipment
termination
- cross-connect
cables

150
Coaxial Terminations

151
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 152
cable jumpers
M13 Asynchronous Multiplexer
• 28 DS1's multiplex
up to 1 DS3
• typically use Nortel
DS1
DMT-300 mux or
1 M13
. DS3 Telco Systems
. Multiplexer
to DSX-1 jacks .
RC-28D
.
.
.
to DSX-3 jacks
28

153
Nortel DMT-300 M13 multiplexer
4 drawers per shelf
30-pair
High-frequency coaxial cables
Cabling for for DS3
28 DS1 terminations
terminations

Multiplexer empty slot 154


(mux) drawer
Telco 828 M13 multiplexer

155
NEC RC-28D M13 Multiplexer

156
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered
DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 157
cable jumpers
Fiber System - Async
Fundamental structure

DS3 working
Tx
D
S
.
.
Fiber Optic Rx
X
3
.
Terminal
. Tx
Rx
DS3
protection
158
Fiber optic system -
interoffice components
Point-to-Point configuration
Office A Office B

DS3’s DS3’s
D D
S
Fiber Optic L L Fiber Optic
S
Terminal Terminal
X G G X
3 FOT X X FOT 3
Outside plant
Inside plant fiber cable
Fiber termination
‘mic’ cable panel
Fiber optic
159
splice closure
Basic Fiber Optic Terminal
Simplified block diagram
To DSX-3 panels To outside plant
135 Mb/s
fiber facilities
45 Mb/s D
M X
DS3 #1
S
C working
3
U V
D X R Light – 1300 nm
DS3 #2 S
D
Tx or In
3
E X wavelength
M C
DS3 #3 D
U V
S
protection
Rx or Out 3 X R

Low-speed side, or High-speed side, or


3-DS3 Facility side
Equipment side
Fiber Optic Terminal
160
FD-565 Fiber Optic Terminal
Power Fiber jumper slack storage
supplies
Controller
card

Working side
Optics cards
(Tx, Rx,
Mux, Demux)
Coaxial
termination Protection side
Optics cards

161
DS3 interface cards Transmit card Receive card
Multiplexing Hierarchy & wiring
DS0 64 Kbs
channel 1 1.544 Mbs
D4 DS1 #1
45.736 Mbs
Channel DS3
bank M13 Fiber Optic
DS0
channel 24 mux Terminal

DS1 #28 FOT

25-pair
Fibers to
24-gauge 30-pair next office
voice 24-gauge
frequency Coaxial
shielded
cable cable
cable
162
Test Equipment
DS1, DS3, SONET T-Berd
Acterna Products - formerly TTC

163
Mux, DSX-3, & F.O.T.
connections
coaxial
cross-connect
cords
DS1
DS3 working
DS3 Fiber Tx
M13 . Rx
MUX . Optic
. Tx
coaxial Terminal Rx
High- DS3
cable coaxial protection
frequency
DSX-3 DSX-3
cabling cable
PANEL To fiber termination panel
PANEL

164
Summary
• DSX-3 jacks - terminating DS3 cables,
providing cross-connections between DS3
circuits. Connects to M13 muxes & FOT’s.
• M13 Multiplexer – TDM device combining
28 DS1’s into one DS3.
• Fiber Optic Terminal – TDM device
combining lower speed DS3 (and DS1)
circuits together into a high speed circuit.
This high speed circuit is converted into light
pulses and connected to a fiber cable.
165
SONET
Synchronous Optical NETwork
• SONET is a standard for synchronous data transmission
on fiber optic equipment.
• STS-1 Synchronous Transport Signal rate 1.
- fundamental bit rate within SONET hierarchy.
• SONET rate = 51.840 Mbs. When transmitted via light,
called Optical Carrier rate 1, or OC-1.
• STS-1 typically is a DS3 signal within a SONET frame.

SONET Frame DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 DS1 Header

28 27 26 5 4 3 2 1
166
DS3
SONET Frame
Synchronous Transport Signal Rate - 1
Optical Carrier - Rate 1
STS-1 – electrical, OC-1 - optical
Transport Overhead
90 Columns

87 Columns
9 Rows

8-bit word
Payload 8-bit word
Frame Rate=9 Rows X 90 Columns X 8 bits/sec X 8000 frames/sec = 51.84 Mbs
Payload = 50.112 Mbs, Transport Overhead = 1.728 Mbs 167
SONET
Advantages:
• Mix and match fiber vendors on same span.
• Since the SONET bit streams are byte-
interleaved and timed from a common,
stable clock source, the individual lower-
rate bit streams can be accessed without de-
multiplexing the entire bit stream.
Vendor “A” Vendor “B”

. . SONET SONET . .
. .
.
.. Fiber Optic Fiber Optic .
.
.
. . .
.. System System .
. 168
DS3 DS3
SONET Hierarchy & Rates
# DS3's SONET OPTICAL Rate Capacity - DS1's
1 STS-1 OC-1 51.84 Mbs 28 DS1's
3 STS-3 OC-3 155 Mbs 84 DS1's
12 STS-12 OC-12 622 Mbs 336 DS1's
48 STS-48 OC-48 2488 Mbs - 2.4 Gbs 1344 DS1's
192 STS-192 OC-192 9953 Mbs - 9.9 Gbs 5376 DS1's

. SONET
.
.. Fiber Optic
.. System
.
DS3
169
Lucent DDM-2000
Processor
Transceiver cards OC-3 shelf cards

Timing Cards

DS1 Interface
cards – Group A
28 DS1’s
Drop down door
Group B - empty
Group C - empty 170
SONET Fiber Optic System
Synchronous Optical NETwork – OC12
Transceiver cards

Operational
Controller Timing
OPC cards

Processor
card

DS3 or DS1
Interface cards
Fan shelf 171
Fujitsu FLM-150 Fiber Shelf

172
SONET Rings
UPSR - Uni-directional Path Switched Ring
OC-12 UPSR Ring
Number of available STS-1’s = rated capacity of system (N)
12 STS-1’s maximum available around the ring.
DS3’s P M M M M M M
DS3’s
BB
P M M M M M M

A
R A A A A A A
R A A A A A A O O S
O O S C O P P P P P P
C O P P P P P P C C W T
C C W O P P T P P P P P P
O P P T P P P P P P T - - I I
- - I N O O . E E E E E E
I 12 12 T M
N O O . E E E E E E T W W
12 12 T M M R R R R R R I
T W W M R R R R R R X X C
X X C I R E E A 14 14 14 14 14 14 N
R E E A 14 14 14 14 14 14 N C C H
C C H O R R P D D D D D D G
O R R P D D D D D D G V V E
V V E L P S- S- S- S- S- S-
L P S- S- S- S- S- S- R R R
R R R E 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' 1'
E 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' R S S S S S S
R S S S S S S

12 STS-1’s
Example:
A-B - Ch.1 working
B-C-A - Ch.1 protection P M M M M M M

C
R A A A A A A
O O S
C O P P P P P P
C C W T
O P P T P P P P P P
- - I I
N O O . E E E E E E
12 12 T M
T W W M R R R R R R I
X X C

X – where DS3 interfaces


R E E A 14 14 14 14 14 14 N
C C H
O R R P D D D D D D G
V V E
L P S- S- S- S- S- S-
R R R
E 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' 1'
R S S S S S S

the ring.
DS3’s 173
SONET Rings
BLSR –Bi-directional Line Switched Ring
Number of available STS-1’s = N/2 * number of nodes
Each segment is has ½ working STS-1’s and ½ protection STS-1’s

½ STS-1’s working &


½ STS-1’s protection
DS3’s
P M M M M M M
DS3’s
A
P M M M M M M

B
R A A A A A A R A A A A A A
O O S O O S
C O P P P P P P

B
C

A
C C W T O P P P P P P
O P P T P P P P P P C C W T
- - I I O P P T P P P P P P
N O O . E E E E E E - - I I
12 12 T M N O O . E E E E E E
T W W M R R R R R R 12 12 T M

OC-12 BLSR Ring


X X C I T W W M R R R R R R I
R E E A 14 14 14 14 14 14 N X X C
C C H R E E A 14 14 14 14 14 14 N
O R R P D D D D D D G C C H
V V E O R R P D D D D D D G
L P S- S- S- S- S- S- V V E
R R R L P S- S- S- S- S- S-
E 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' R R R
E 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' 1'
R S S S S S S R S S S S S S

6 STS-1’s available
in each segment.
½ STS-1’s working, P M M M M M M ½ STS-1’s working,
C
R A A A A A A
O O S

½ STS-1’s protection
C

½ STS-1’s protection
O P P P P P P
C C W T
O P P T P P P P P P
- - I I

C
N O O . E E E E E E
12 12 T M
T W W M R R R R R R I
X X C
R E E A 14 14 14 14 14 14 N
C C H
O R R P D D D D D D G
V V E
L P S- S- S- S- S- S-
R R R
E 1' 1' 1' 1' 1' 1'

174
R S S S S S S

DS3’s
Summary
• SONET – standard format for fiber optic
equipment.
• Accesses bits in the bit stream without
de-multiplexing the entire bit stream.
• Allows concatenation of signals together
for higher speeds.
• Equipment must be synchronized or timed
together.
175
Fiber Cable Termination
OSP cable - closure - fiber panel
fiber
Fiber closure connector panel

Outside Plant Inside Plant


fiber cable fiber cable
(mic cable)
176
LGX
Light Guide Cross-Connect

Fiber
connectors

Pigtail (or jumper)


6-pack
Bulkhead connector
177
- mates to fiber optic connector Fiber optic connector
Fiber optic connectors
Bulkhead connector in
termination shelf

Fiber optic connector

Fiber optic Fiber optic


pigtail jumper
Mated together
in fiber termination shelf
facility side equipment side
178
Fiber Optical connectors

ST SC FC Biconic
Most commonly Used in video Older type,
used in telephony applications not being
placed in
new systems
179
Fiber Termination Bays
- Lucent

LGX
– Light Guide Cross-connect

also called,

OSX
- Optical Signal Cross-connect

Facility-side bay &


| equipment-side bay
180
Fiber Termination Bay
- ADC

Fiber termination panel


– jumpers slide out to side
181
Fiber termination shelves
Fiber pigtail (72 in bundle) Connectors (72 per shelf)

Fiber jumpers

Fiber termination
shelf

Designation
strip

182
OCEF
Optical Cable
Entrance Facility

MIC cable from LGX bay

183
Fiber Jumper Inter-connect
Fiber closure LGX panel
Fiber
Optic
Terminal
Outside Plant Fiber Jumper
MIC cable
Fiber
- terminates - connects to
on back of front of
LGX panel LGX panel

184
Fiber Jumper Connections
Inter-connect
Fiber optic
connectors

LGX panel Equipment


Jumpers (4)
Fiber closure – top view

Fiber
MIC cable
Optic
12-, 24-, 72-fiber, etc. Terminal

185
Fiber Jumper cross-connect

LGX panel LGX panel


facility side equipment side
Fiber closure
Fiber
Optic
Terminal

mic cable Fiber X-C Fiber equipment


- terminates Jumper Jumper
on back of - terminates - terminates
on front on rear
LGX panel 186
Fiber Jumper Connections
Cross-connect
LGX panel
LGX panel
equipment-side
facility-side
Equipment
Fiber closure Jumpers (4)
Fiber
Optic
Terminal
MIC cable ST connectors
12-, 24-, 72-fiber, etc.
Cross-connect Jumpers (4)

187
Summary
• LGX – fiber cable & jumper termination;
allows for fiber cable management.
• MIC cable is fire retardant
• ST & SC connectors are the most
commonly used in telephony.
• Inter-connect & cross-connect are both
used.

188
Tracing an FX circuit through an office
Summary of circuits, signals & equipment
FX circuit

M13
DS3 D D DS3
DS1 Multiplexer
D4 DS1 S S Fiber Optic
channel DSX-1 DSX-1 X X Terminal
bank
3 3
DSX-1 DSX-1 prot
work

DS1 DS1
Fiber jumpers LGX
DS0
MDF matrix
LGX
Outside Plant
DACS fiber cable

Over network to
‘foreign exchange’
for dial tone
189
Wave Division Multiplexing
WDM
WDM is used to place multiple wavelengths of light on a single fiber.

Fiber Optic Tx Fiber Optic


WDM WDM
Terminal #1 Rx Terminal #1
Device Device

Office A Office B

Fiber Optic Tx
+
Fiber Optic
Terminal #2 Rx Terminal #2

190
Wave Division Multiplexing
Wavelengths of Light

Nanometers – nm

Wave length(s) Lambda - λ

Fiber optic lasers traditionally operated at 1310 nm, 1550 nm.


Dense Wave Division Multiplexing uses finer increments
of wavelengths – 0.1 nanometers.
DWDM uses wavelengths such as 1557.1, 1557.2, 1557.3,
1557.4, and higher. 191
Basic Wave Division Multiplexing
Both 1310 nm and 1550 nm light signals are on same fiber in one direction.
Only the Working side is displayed.
Office A Office B
WDM WDM
Fiber Optic Tx Device Device Tx Fiber Optic
Terminal #1 Rx Rx Terminal #1

1310 nm λ−1 λ−1 1310 nm


WDM - passive devices,
no power required

1550 nm λ−2 Fiber optic cable λ−2 1550 nm


Fiber Optic Tx Between telephone Tx Fiber Optic
Terminal #2 Rx
offices Rx Terminal #2

Requires ONLY four fibers, NOT eight fibers.


192
Not shown are the fiber termination panels, etc.
DWDM – Four wave length system
Office A Requires only four fibers, not sixteen fibers. Office B
F.O.T.#1 1557.1 Tx Rx F.O.T.#1 1557.1

F.O.T.#2 1557.2 Tx Rx F.O.T.#2 1557.2

F.O.T.#3 1557.3 Tx Rx F.O.T.#3 1557.3

F.O.T.#4 1557.4 Tx Rx F.O.T.#4 1557.4

F.O.T.#1 1557.1 Rx Tx F.O.T.#1 1557.1

F.O.T.#2 1557.2 Rx 4-input 4-input Tx F.O.T.#2 1557.2


WDM WDM
F.O.T.#3 1557.3 Rx Device Tx F.O.T.#3 1557.3
Device
F.O.T.#4 1557.4 Rx Tx F.O.T.#4 1557.4

Transmitter and receivers must be matched properly. 193


Only the Working side is displayed.
DWDM – 8 wavelength system
Office A Office B
8-input 8-input F.O.T.
F.O.T.
Transmitters WDM device WDM device Receivers
1557.1 1557.1

1557.2 1557.2

1557.3 1557.3

1557.4 1557.4

1557.5 1557.5

1557.6 1557.6

1557.7 1557.7

1557.8 1557.8

Requires only four fibers, not thirty-two fibers.


194
Only one direction of the working sides shown.
Summary
• Wave Division Multiplexing is used to add
another fiber optic system to the same set of
fibers, but with optic cards with different
wavelengths.
• DWDM adds many fiber systems to the
same set of fibers, with optic cards only
0.1 nm apart in wavelength.

195
Wideband DCS
DS3, SONET fiber input, DS1 cross-connect
-‘Grooming’ DS1 circuits
Verizon approved from one port to another.
Tellabs Titan 5500 - Reduces back-to-back equipment.
DCS Port cards

DS3 3/1
DS3

DS3 DS3
DS3
SONET Fiber optic
DS3 DS1 interface
cross-connects
in matrix OC-1, OC-3, OC-12
196
DS1 cross connects in 3/1 DCS
Tellabs Titan 5500
SONET 3/1 DCS

197
Titan 5500 unit shelf
DS3 input

198
SONET Broadband DCS
DS3, SONET fiber input, DS3 cross-connect
‘Grooming’ DS3 circuits
from one port to another.
DCS Port cards
3/3
DS3

DS3

SONET Fiber optic


DS3 DS3 interface
cross-connects
in matrix OC-1, OC-3, OC-12
199
DS3 cross connects in 3/3 DCS
Summary
• Wideband DACS – DS3/fiber input, DS1 cross-
connect; management of DS1 circuits.
• Reduces the need for M13 multiplexers,
DSX-1 jack panels, etc.
• Broadband DACS – DS3/fiber input,
DS3 cross-connect; management of DS3
circuits.
• Reduces the need for fiber optic terminals;
allows direct interface of fiber optics.
• Reduces the need for DSX-3 jack panels.
200
Microwave Radio
Point-to-Point Radio Transmission

201
Microwave Radio
Point-to-Point - DS1 & DS3 circuits
2 – 11 GigaHertz
Microwave carrier Parabolic Dish
frequencies Antenna

Waveguide

Telephone Telephone
Office Office

Tower
202
structure
Microwave Radio
Waveguide
Waveguide

DS3 Parabolic Dish


Microwave Antenna
Radio
Terminal
DS3
coaxial 3-DS3 maximum
DSX-3
cable per radio Tower structure
Panel 203
Microwave Radio Equipment
Telephone Office
Wave guide

Radio/Antenna Interface - Rigid Waveguide

Ports

MW Radio
Equipment Tower structure

DS1 or DS3
Inputs 204
Microwave Radio
Frequencies & Distances
• 2 GHz – now used for PCS.
Existing systems - grandfathered
• 6 GHz – 11 to 30 miles
• 11 GHz – 3 to 15 miles
• 18 GHz – 0 to 5 miles
• 38 GHz – across the street
Typically, transmit power is only
one Watt.
Microwave dishes are from 2 – 15 feet
in diameter. The larger the dish, the
higher the gain, hence greater distance
is achieved. 205
Microwave Radio
Passive
Reflector

Reflectors are used to bounce


microwave beam over or
around an obstruction.
Telephone
Office Telephone
Office

206
Summary
• Microwave Radio – used to transport telephony
signals in lieu of fiber cable; over mountains,
bodies of water, etc.
• Both DS1 and DS3 circuits are transported

207
Digital Loop Carrier
Existing copper plant
450 homes
Distribution cables
Telephone
Office 500-pair feeder cable
600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable

100-pair feeder cable

Distribution cables 75 homes

208
Digital Loop Carrier
DLC added in growing subdivision
450 homes
Distribution cables
Telephone
Office 500-pair feeder cable
600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable

100-pair feeder cable

DLC

75 homes
Distribution cables 300 new homes

209
Digital Loop Carrier
DLC distribution cable
& span cable added
450 homes
Distribution cables
Telephone
Office 500-pair feeder cable
600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable

100-pair feeder cable


New T1 ( or HDSL)
Existing span cable
distribution cable DLC
New DLC
75 homes distribution cable
Distribution cables 300 new homes

210
Digital Loop Carrier
DLC is cutover; old feeder cable is
free to be reused
450 homes
Distribution cables
Telephone
Office 500-pair feeder cable
600-pair ‘Feeder’ cable

Existing 100-pair feeder cable 100-pair feeder cable


can be reused for other customers New T1 ( or HDSL)
span cable
New distribution cables DLC
for another subdivision New DLC
75 homes distribution cable
Distribution cables 300 new homes

211
NGDLC
Next Generation Digital Loop
Carrier
To provide telephone services to areas where
it would be economically unfeasible to place copper cable.

Fiber or copper DS1’s DLC cabinet


to central office Cross-connect
cabinet

• POTS
• Special Circuits Concrete pad
- ISDN, FX, etc. AFC AccessMax (formerly UMC-1000A),
Alcatel Litespan,
• Hi-caps Zhone (formerly Nortel) AccessNode,
• ADSL Lucent SLC-96, SLC-5, SLC-2000
Marconi DISC*S (Reltec), and others. 212
Digital Loop Carrier cabinet site
672 lines maximum

Generator
Cross connect
cabinet
Digital Loop
Carrier cabinet

AC Power
cabinet

Outside plant cable


213
Walk-in Cabinet
672 to 2688+ lines

214
Walk-in
Cabinet
Digital Loop Carrier
equipment (lines)
directly cabled
to protectors. Protectors
Cabled to external
cross-connect cabinet
– no blocks, no jumpers
required in DLC cabinet.
215
DLC bays Protectors
DLC
Digital Loop Carrier
Universal arrangement
Central office / remote COT - Central Office Terminal

MDF
Central Office Fiber optics or DLC cabinet 672 lines
Line bay
DLC copper DS1’s

672 lines

Cross-connect
Jumpers cabinet

240 lines

216
DLC
Digital Loop Carrier
Direct interface into switch
Host central office

DS1 port bay DLC cabinet


Central Office
DLC 672 lines

4-6 DS1
Fiber optics
connections
DS1 no lines Cross-connect
interfaces cabinet
DLC cabinet
4-6 DS1 672 lines
connections

Line termination shelf Copper span lines


217
Main Distribution Frame in
DLC’s & walk-in cabinets
• Equipment Protection
– Protectors
• terminate the lines from the equipment
• provide lightning protection on the equipment
– Blocks
– terminate the outside plant pair
– also used in walk-in cabinets
Terminal block Protector
DLC
line
Cable pair Line equip. jumper Equipment cabling equipment
218
Digital Loop Carrier
DLC is telephone line
protectors Cross-Connect cabinet
equipment placed in 1600-pair
an area where it is 800-pair Field side
Equipment
more cost effective Side jumpers
than placing copper DLC
facilities to the area. terminals

Fiber Inter-cabinet
termination cabling
Fiber cable panel Outside
to central office Plant
Ground rods distribution
219
for ground field cable
ADSL
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber
Line

Telephone
Office
ADSL

Basic phone circuit


And
Digital Subscriber Line for High Speed Internet Service
On
One cable pair
220
Asymmetrical Digital
Subscriber Line
Signal level
ADSL

Cable Pair Spectrum High speed internet with


phone both working at same time.

ADSL ADSL
POTS
Upstream Downstream
bandwidth bandwidth Frequency

4kHz 20 kHz 140 KHz 1.1 MHz

Signal versus Frequency 221


Basic phone circuit – before ADSL
POTS Telephone Office
Line Bay
Regular
NID
Jumper

LC

Line
Line Block Protector Cable Pair
cabling

LC-line card
Main Distribution
222
Frame
Basic phone circuit - with ADSL
POTS Telephone Office
Line Bay Splitter
Line Protector
Block NID
LC
ATU-R

Line Jumpers
Cable Pair
cabling
DS1 to
Frame Relay
switch Ethernet
A
T connection
ADSL U
| Splitter Block
C
xLC=xDSL line card
Fujitsu Speedport Main Distribution 223
ADSL
Frame
Fujitsu ADSL shelf
MDF-mounted
splitter block -
passive electronics

48 circuits per shelf.


16 circuits per splitter block. Jumper to line circuit, and
3 splitter blocks required per shelf. jumper to cable pair
224
Newer installations use rack-mounted splitter
ADSL Service Offerings
• Bronze CIR=10 kbs
256 kbs downstream / 64 kbs upstream
• Silver CIR= 32 kbs
384 kbs downstream / 384 kbs upstream
• Gold CIR = 64 kbs
768 kbs downstream / 768 kbs upstream
• Platinum CIR = 192 kbs
1.5 Mbs downstream / 768 kbs upstream
• Platinum Plus - Multi-User CIR=384 kbs
1.5 Mbs downstream / 768 kbs upstream
CIR = Committed Information Rate
225
‘Carriers’ used by ADSL
to send high-speed digital bit stream
QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation.
Signal level 2-8 bits per carrier.

Bit rate Bit rate 3 kHz spacing


64 Kbs-768 Kbs 256 Kbs-1.5 Mbs between carriers
Upstream Downstream

POTS

frequency
0 kHz 4kHz 20 kHz 140 KHz 1.1 MHz

ADSL “carriers” or “channels ‘Weak’ frequency in cable


227 maximum carriers pair 226
ADSL Components at
Test Board
in C.O. Customer Premise
RADSL Modem
6 Line Protector CAT 5 Patch Cable between
RJ48 and Modem

RJ48 ADSL
Data

Power Supply
RJ11 Voice

CAT 5 Patch Cable between


Modem and NIC card in PC

Homerun RJ48 if Customer has second line.


Network Interface Card 227
G.Lite
Universal ADSL
Universal ADSL or G.Lite
• Lower bit-rate & lower frequency ADSL service
– 1.5 Mbs downstream / 384 kbs upstream Microfilter

• Splitter-less NID Cable pair


• Works through special
Regular G.Lite
line card in existing NID
line bay.
Upstream Downstream

POTS

20 kHz 140 KHz 550 KHz 228


0 kHz 4kHz 1.1 MHz
G.Lite
POTS Universal ADSL Microfilter

Line Bay Regular


2-wire NID
jumper
1-pair
xLC
G.Lite
Line
Line Block Protector Cable Pair
D-BIC
cabling
- Splitter-less, lower bit-rate ADSL
DS1 to - 1.5 Mbs downstream
Frame Relay - 384 kbs upstream
switch - Standard protocol - works with
Modification any vendor’s ADSL equipment
to Line bay; - Small modification to line bay
D-BIC xLC=xDSL line card
Data-Bus Main Distribution
Interface Card Frame 229
Summary
• ADSL – POTS & high speed data over
same cable pair.
• Keeps Internet traffic off of the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
• G.Lite – lower speed & splitter-less version
of ADSL.

230
TIMING - What is it?
• Everybody is marching to the same 'beat'

• BITS - Building Integrated Timing Supply


– Stable timing source for digital networks

• allows equipment to synchronize or


'sync up’ to one reliable timing source so
digital circuits are timed together.
231
TIMING - Why is it?
• Required for prevention of Binary Digit Slips
• a slip is loss of a block of bits due to
frequency shift, phase shift, etc. between
networks.
• causes outages, loss of data, audible clicking
on line, facsimile distortions

Bit Slip

Original Signal
232
TIMING - For what equipment?
• Purely analog circuits DO NOT require
timing.

Timing required for:


• D4 channel banks – only for digital circuits
• SONET fiber systems
• DACS
• Digital switch
233
TIMING - How?
• BITS Clock
Building Integrated Timing Supply Clock
– accurate & stable clock oscillator
– obtains timing from the GPS - Global
Positioning System
• GPS distributes a timing reference to
non-GPS sites

234
GPS & BITS Clock
GPS satellites

gathers timing references


from multiple satellites GPS receiver
on roof
power cable
to roof mounted Coaxial or fiber cable from
receiver roof to timing shelf
Stratum 2
Clock

235
GPS
Antenna

236
3 clock levels of timing
- Stratum Levels
Telephone Telephone
Office Office

GPS GPS

Stratum 1 Stratum 1

Stratum 2 Stratum 2

Stratum 3 Stratum 3 Stratum 3


Telephone Telephone Telephone
Office Office Office

237
TIMING - Stratum levels
• Stratum 1 Clock - directly from GPS receiver
– typically put at host offices with Stratum 2
– stability – infinite – continuously connected to GPS
• Stratum 2 Clock - stability - 28 days w/out external
input
• Stratum 3 Clock - stability - 5 days w/out external
input
– typically put at main wire centers other than hosts
• Stratum 4 Clock - stability - less than 24 hours
– typically for clocks put on fiber optic cards
238
BITS Clock/Timing Distribution Shelf
& GPS Antenna control shelf

239
BITS
GPS Antenna

Power cable to Coaxial cable or fiber cable


roof mounted from roof to timing shelf
receiver
Stratum 2 Timing
Clock Outputs

“TOCA” output “TOTA” output.


or ‘composite clock’. TOCA TOTA DS1 outputs
DS0 outputs Output Output to digital switch,
1/0 DACS, 3/1 DACS,
to channel banks,
Broadband DACS,
ISDN banks, DLC’s.
SONET fiber optic
terminals, etc.
240
Summary
• Timing – keeping all digital circuits and
equipment synchronized together to prevent loss
of information.
• GPS – Global Positioning System – an accurate
timing source sent from satellites to a roof
mounted receiver.\
• BITS – Building Integrated Timing Supply –
supplies accurate timing signals for all equipment
in a telephone office.
241
c.o. Power
Common bus for (+) & ( -)
ground bus

+ - +
-
- + To
shunt
AC -48V -48V C.O.
meters equipment
DC DC
Fuses
AC -48V

Rectifiers Power Board


Batteries
AC to DC
Output power:
Input power:
large office - 600-10,000+ Amps @ -48 VDC
- 120/240 Volts-AC small office - 100-600 Amps @ -48 VDC
242
- 208 or 440 Volts-AC 3-phase
Main Power
Board
4 main fuses (600 Amp)
- for feeding secondary
power boards

Distribution:
32 ‘A’ fuses (30 Amp)
32 ‘B’ fuses (30 Amp)
- for feeding fuse panels
in equipment bays. 243
POWER
Main Power Board
• measures voltage & current used by office
Shunt
– Shunt - measures current - ammeter
Voltage Current
• provides main fuses to power
secondary distribution boards
• may provide distribution fuses for
transmission racks (remote)
• provides a 'battery return' bus for
battery grounds
Fuses
244
Shunt – used to measure office current
individual plates

Shunt - Measures current by measuring voltage.


- provides protection for power plant
- plates heat up & fall out or burn up
Measured Current = Voltage drop across shunt
Resistance plates - known, accurate
245
POWER
Secondary Power Distribution
Boards
Switching – PDC
- Power Distribution Center
– located in switching lineup

Transmission - BDFB Voltage Current

- Battery Distribution Fuse Board


– located in transmission equipment area
246
Nortel Switching
PDC

Power Distribution Center


for digital switch

247
POWER
Transmission Distribution Power
Board
shunt shunt
• provides secondary power distribution
Voltage Current
to transmission racks
• may be fuses or breakers
B-side • A & B sides - 2 Shunts, 2 voltmeters,
2 ammeters
• powers A & B battery & ground to
fuse panels with 2 power inputs
• distribution fuses typically 10 to 30 Amp
A-side
• requires two 600-Amp fuses from Main
Power Board for diversity protection
Fuses or breakers 248
Main Power Board feeding
Transmission Power Board
Main Power Transmission
Board Power Board

shunt shunt shunt

Voltage Current Voltage Current ‘A’ side

-48V
To Transmission
Racks to Power
‘B’ side fuse panels.

30-70 Amp fuses / breakers


600 Amp fuses BDFB 249
Power Distribution
Dual power feeds with ground

Ground
Battery plant cable Ground leads
BDFB
Ground Bar Ground Bar
Fuse panel
Shunt
shunt Shunt Shunt

Voltage Current
Voltage Current
‘A’ side Telephone
-48V Equipment

‘B’ side
Equipment
Rack
Main Power Board BDFB 250
Power cables

Transmission Feeding power


Board, and
Powering other
Distribution Equipment.

Power Board
A side
Distribution

Meter Panel for A & B sides


30 Amp breakers B side
Distribution
251
Secondary Distribution panel

Shunt panel
Meter panel

Main Distribution panel


Secondary Distribution panel

Remote building
Two Rectifiers,
Power Board 100-Amp each
with Rectifiers exceed 100
- Load not to

Amps
(Maximum load
+1 rectifier) 252
Batteries
C.O.
Common bus for (+) & ( -)
ground bus

+ - - +
To
- + Shunt
C.O.
AC -48V -48V equipment
Voltage Current

DC DC -48V
AC

Rectifier Batteries Power Board


AC to DC Main or
3-hour backup with Generator
8-hour backup without Generator Distribution 253
Batteries
24 Cells
-48 Volts nominal
-52 Volts Charge
voltage
Wet Cell -
lead calcium
20 -25 year life

254
Batteries
- Sealed ‘Dry’ cells
- Valve Regulated
- GNB “Absolyte”
has Absorbent glass mat.
- 20 year life

255
Backup Generator
• provides electrical power to run the office in event of A/C
power failure - typically 7.5 kW to 60 kW units
• larger sizes for main central offices – 250kW to 750kW+
• runs on propane (older installations) or diesel fuel (newer
installations.

Shown is a
365 kW diesel
Generator.

256
AC Transfer Switch
Commercial
AC Power
Automatic
Transfer Switch
Normal

AC Load
To: rectifiers
Emergency
air conditioning
lights
Backup Generator 257
Grounding
Keep People & Equipment Safe from Lightning

4 Grounding Elements:
– Producers
– Absorbers
– Isolated Ground Zone - IGZ
– Non-Isolated Ground Zone - Non-IGZ

258
Grounding
MDF
Producers – anything protectors

that allows lightning


gets into a telephone
office.
– sheath of cables
entering office Outside plant
– firing point of protector Copper cable
modules Grounding points
– radio towers connected to ground bar

259
Grounding

Absorbers – anything Telephone


Office
that absorbs a
lightning surge.
– ground field around
office - 5 ohm ground
desired
– building structure /
metal water pipes
Ground field/ring – 8-foot deep ground rods buried 8-feet apart
260
Grounding
Master Ground Bar – MGB

• • • •
• • • •

Producer Absorber Non-IGZ IGZ

261
Master Ground Bar - MGB

Producers Absorbers Non-IGZ IGZ

P.A.N.I. bar 262


Grounding
IGZ
IGZ - Isolated Ground Zone
– All cards in equipment bays are isolated from
the bay ironwork.
Digital switch has a separate IGZ bus bar -
Ground Window Bar - GWB
– GWB connects to IGZ zone on MGB
Ground Window Bar - GWB

To IGZ • •

MGB
(digital switch) •

263
Grounding
Non-IGZ
Non-Isolated Ground Zone
Transmission equipment: Fuse panel
– May not have the cards
isolated from the shelves
– May not have the shelves Transmission
Cards
isolated from the bays Equipment

shelf

– i.e. the cards & shelves may


be grounded to the ironwork Transmission
Equipment
which violates the IGZ concept Rack
264
Central Office Layout Outside
2B + D Plant cables
BRI
DCS ISDN

1/0 DS1

M
Digital switch

D4 Channel VF signal
DS1 DS1
Bank
D
DSX-1
DSX-1
DS1
HDSL
HDSL DS1
F
DS1
DSX-1 DS1
DS1 line
Span powered

DS1
termination shelf DS1 (T1)

OSP fiber
DS3
cable
M13 Mux DSX-3
coaxial DS3 Fiber Optic
cable DSX-3 LGX
coaxial System fiber 265
cable jumpers