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FORCES IN THE HOISTING WIRE OF A CRANE BARGE IN WAVES

Zu DEYAo*

Harbin Shipbuilding Engineering Institute. China

Abstract-In this report a description is given of a method by which the influence can he determined of the dynamic motions of a derrick barge and of the object to he hoisted on the forces in the hoisting wire. The results of these calculations are used for an optimization study in which several parameters of the hoisting system have been varied. It is also shown that the results of these preparatory calculations can he used for establishing the maximum sea conditions in which hoisting operations can still be executed without the maximum allowable stress in the hoisting wire being exceeded.

INTRODUCTION

USUALLY one only considers the weight of the hoisted object when determining the force in the hoisting wire. However this method will not be correct when dealing with the case of lifting articles at sea by means of a floating structure. This is especially so when considering the raising of submersibles or other sub-sea structures of large dimensions.

The dynamic wave loads on some underwater parts of such large objects will contribute significantly to the total force in the hoisting wire. As a consequence of the dynamic loads it may happen that the stress in the hoisting line will exceed the breaking strength. leading to the fracture of the hoisting line.

It is therefore essential that in the design stage due attention is given to dynamic wave loads on the hoisted object when determining the forces in the hoisting line. From such calculations it will be possible to ascertain the wave conditions during which lifting activities can be continued without the hoisting wire being damaged.

The combination consisting of crane vessel and object to be lifted can be considered as a system that in general will consist of 12 degrees of freedom: 6 degrees of freedom of the crane vessel and 6 degrees of freedom of the hoisted object. When the system is linear then the behaviour of this complete system can be described analytically by means of frequency-dependent transfer functions which may follow from the 12 coupled differential equations of motion. The behaviour of each motion component corresponds to the summation of contributions generated by each excitation force component in any degree to freedom of the system.

When all the excitation forces in each degree of freedom originate from one and the same source. e.g. waves. then all excitation force components will have the same frequency of oscillation. In that case it will be sensible to introduce the transfer functions between each component of the system's behaviour and the harmonically oscillating input source (wave motions). Each motion component of the system (while neglecting the transient motions) will have a frequency of oscillation equal to that of the excitation

Present address: co Dr J. P. Hooft. Marine Research Institute of Netherlands. 1 Haagsteeg , P.O. Box lX.

Wageningen. The Netherlands.

2

Zu DEYAO

phenomenon. However the amplitude of motion of the system will differ from that of the excitation phenomenon, while both motions will be shifted in time relative to each other (phase lag).

DESCRIPTION OF THE HOISTING SYSTEM

In the present study a hoisting system is considered of reduced complexity as is shown in Fig. 1.

\~.M

x

z

Wave

1-----L/2----

I~-----Lh-------

FIG. I. A lifting system consisting of a crane barge (body I) and a cylinder to be lifted (body 2).

The dimensions of the barge are supposedly:

Length L ::: 100 m Breadth B::: 16 m Draft T ::: 5.5 m.

The boom tip is located 20 m above the still water surface and 55 m abaft the centre of the barge. The lO-m deep submerged circular cylinder has a diameter D; of 2.5 m and a length L; of 15 m perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the barge.

When considering the operation in stern waves then the differential equation of the heave motion of the barge reads:

(1)

in which it is assumed that the pitch motion of the barge has no coupling effect on its heave motion. In Equation (1) the following notation has been adopted:

z, = heave motion of the barge,

m; = mass of barge,

azs = added mass in heave direction,

bzs = heave damping coefficient of barge.

Czs = heave spring coefficient of barge.

Zws = vertical wave exciting force on the barge.

Z, = tension in the hoisting line.

Forces in the hoisting wire

3

The pitching of the barge can be described by the following differential equation of motion in which the heave coupling effect is neglected:

(2)

in which:

IjI = pitch motion of the barge (in rad.),

lq, = moment of inertia around the lateral axis,

a~J = pitching moment of inertia of added mass,

b~J = pitch damping coefficient of barge,

c~J = pitch spring coefficient of barge,

Mw = pitching wave excited moment on the barge,

M, = -Zr.Lh = pitching moment on the barge due to the tension in the

hoisting line,

Lh = - 55 m = longitudinal distance between centre of gravity and

hoisting line.

The vertical motion of the hoisted object can be described by the following differential equation of motion:

(3)

in which

z, = heave motion of the cylinder,

me = mass of cylinder,

aze = added mass in heave direction,

bze = heave damping coefficient of cylinder,

Zwe = vertical wave exciting force on the cylinder,

Z; = apparent weight of cylinder = difference between gravity weight

and buoyancy force.

Since Equations (1) - (3) contain four unknowns (viz. zs' 1jI, Ze and Zr) one has to develop a fourth relation. For this purpose one approximates the tension in the hoisting line to be proportional to its stretch:

(4)

while assuming that the line remains taut constantly due to the pretension introduced by Ze. The spring coefficient in Equation (4) is determined by:

P EA

c = -- = -- = 29106 N m-1

r /s L; L, .

(5)

for a steel hoisting wire (E = 1.1011 N m-2) with a diameter of 50 mm (A = 0.45 x 1.96 10-:1 rrr') and a length of 30 m.

In Table 1 a review is given of the hydrodynamic coefficients applied in this study about the behaviour of the above described system.

In the further elaboration of the behaviour of the system some properties of the system will be varied. such as the dimensions of the barge, the diameter of the hoisting line and

zc DEnO

the weight of the hoisted object. These variations are applied in order to evaluate the influence of these properties on the overall behaviour of the' system.

TABLE 1. REVIEW OF HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS

Designation

Approximation

(see reference in brackets)

Value

p L B T

( 7T ) (Bhattacharyya. 1978)

c p [124 Be. L (Papanikolaou, 1980)

9.02 X 10° kg 13AO X lO° kg

pg L B

7.6 x lOoN m-I s 16.09 x lO" N m-I 0.847 rad S-l

Vczs/(rn, + az,) (0.25L)2 rn,

fLaZX2dx

) L

f b{, x2 dx

L

f Tx2dx

VC,v/(/w + ad,)

1.15 p (: D~) t;

(inclusive 15% overweight)

c p (: Dn i; (Sarpka ya and Isaacson. 1981) arbitrarily chosen

0.15 p g (: D~) t;

5.64 X 10" kg m2 11.17 x 10" kg m2

6.0 X io' Nms

13.41 X to" Nm

0.893 rad S-I

7.02 x tO~ kg

1.11 X lOci N

WAVE EXCITATION FORCES

In this study only approximate methods have been used for the determination of the wave loads. It is taken for granted that by doing so it will be possible to establish satisfactorily the influence of each of the design parameters on the overall behaviour of the system. It is suggested that the actual behaviour of the designed configuration will be determined by more accurate methods after the optimal properties have been chosen from this parameter study.

For the determination of the wave excited forces on the barge use is made of the strip

Forces in the hoisting wire

theory. With the small body approximation one then finds the following vertical force per unit length (strip) of the barge:

Z'ws(X,t) = B p(x,t) + (c P ; B2) ~(x,t).

(6)

In deep water one finds:

p = p g ~a e-KT sin(wt - KX)

(7)

~ = -w2 ~a e-KT sin(wt - KX)

when the surface elevation is described at a location which in longitudinal direction corresponds with the centre of gravity of the barge:

~(t) == ~" sin wt .

(8)

When integrating Z' ws over the length of the barge then one finds the vertical excitation force on the barge:

Z",s(t) = Zwsa sin(wt + EZ.J

(9)

with

_ZZ,'" = 116.09 X 10° - 13.40 X 10° w21 e-:'i·5K Si~g~K and K = w2/g.

(10)

When integrating the moment M' w = -Z' ws'X over the length oLthe ship then one finds the pitch excitation moment on the barge:

(11 )

with

~:a = 116.09 x 100 _ 13.40 X 100 w21 e-:·5K (cos SOK _ Si~~~~ ) . (12)

For the determination of the wave excited force on the hoisted weight use is made of the small body theory as discussed by Hooft (1982). In this theory it is assumed that the wavelength is more than five times the significant dimension of the body (diameter DJ. One then finds that the vertical wave excited force on the cylinder amounts to:

Zwc(t) = (pAc + alc) ~ (t) = Zwca sin(wt - KLh) which for deep water leads to:

(13)

(14)

6 Zu DEYAO

with a phase lag of ~zwc = 321.2w2 degrees.

In Table 2 a review is given of the wave loads according to Equations (10), (12) and

(14).

TABLE 2. THE WAVE EXCITING FORCES

w Zwsal~a Ezws u:»: Emw Zwc)L Ezw('

(degrees) (degrees) (degrees)

0.1 15.86 x 106 0 1348.8 X 104 90 1442. 3.2

0.2 15.1 x 106 0 5170.4 X 104 90 5593.3 12.8

0.3 13.66 x 106 0 10,613 X 104 90 11,955.7 28.9

0.4 11.39 x 106 0 16,193 X 104 90 19,809.7 51.4

0.5 8.31 x 106 0 19,932 X 104 90 28,221.5 80.3

0.6 4.84 x 106 0 19,744 X 104 90 36,339.1 115.6

0.7 1. 73 x 106 0 15,062 X 104 90 43,323.5 157.4

0.8 0.19 x 106 180 7551 x 104 90 48,475.5 205.6

0.9 0.68 x 106 180 1316 x 104 90 51.441.1 260.2

1.0 0.28 x 106 180 842 x 104 270 52,437.4 321.2

1.1 0.0012 x 106 0 45.8 X 104 90 51.111.9 28.7

1.2 0.169 x 106 180 363.8 x 10* 90 48,242.4 102.6

1.3 0.214 x 106 180 1142 x 104 270 44,063.5 182.9

1.4 0.182 x 106 0 1342 X 104 270 38,827 269.6

1.5 0.302 x 10° 0 964 X 104 90 32,773.4 2.8

1.6 0.154 x 106 180 1411.3 x 104 90 27,593.7 102.3

1.7 0.247 x 106 180 953 x 104 270 22,016.0 208.4

1.8 0.192 x 106 0 887.8 X 104 270 17,461.7 320.8

1.9 0.101 x 106 0 1072.7 X 104 90 13,145.8 79.6

2.0 0.195 x 106 180 27.87x 104 270 9904.8 204.9 RESPONSE FUNCTIONS OF THE SYSTEM'S BEHA VIOUR

Once the excitation forces in regular waves are known it will be possible to determine the transfer functions of the motions of the system relative to the wave motion. For this purpose the wave excited forces are substituted in Equations (1)-(3) from which each of the three relevant motions can be resolved. For further analysis Equations (1 )-(3) are rewritten in combination with Equation _( 4):

22.42.106zs + 4.31.106zs + (16.09.106 + cr)zs

(15)

16.81 109~ + 3.59.109tj, + (13.41.109 + 552cr)1jJ

+ 55crzs - 55Crzc = MWa sin(wt + Ezws)

(16) (17)

The results of the calculations of the motions from these equations are presented in Tables 3 and 4 together with the amplitude of the load Zra in the hoisting wire which follows from:

Forces in the hoisting wire 7

Zr(t) = Zra sin(wt + EZr) =

= -Cr(Zsa sin(wt + Ezs) +

+55\)1a sin(wt + E",) - Zea sin(wt + Eze)). (18)

TABLE 3. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS OF THE MOTIONS OF THE HOISTING SYSTEM AND THE HOISTING LINE

TENSION FOR A STEEL WIRE OF 3 em DIAMETER (ALL DAMPING HAS BEEN NEGLECTED)

(1l Zsa €zs I)J EI\> Zco Ezc Zr ... 10-4

~a (degr) ~a (degr) ~a (degr) ~a

0.1 1.0 0 0.00102 90 1.0 3.2 0.167

0.2 0.994 0 0.00407 90 1.02 12.8 0.277

0.3 0.971 0 0.00898 89.9 1.10 27.5 1.43

0.4 0.912 -0.2 0.0153 89.8 1.28 43.6 4.14

0.5 0.795 -0.5 0.0221 89.6 1.54 57.4 8.19

0.6 0.611 -1.5 0.0278 89.2 1.8 67.6 13.58

0.7 0.355 -5.1 0.0308 88.5 1.94 75.9 18.01

0.8 0.136 -127.9 0.0324 88.3 2.07 89.7 19.38

0.9 0.331 -15.0 0.0172 254.2 0.999 -85.5 17.92

1.0 0.0496 -2.0 0.00271 78.4 0.145 71.0 3.54

1.1 0.00493 28.4 0.000475 -34.9 0.0227 160.5 5.55

1.2 0.00999 17.9 0.000596 262.6 0.0232 31.9 5.20

1.3 0.0072 4.0 0.000752 106.3 0.0711 44.3 5.85

1.4 0.00658 -168.7 0.000788 89.5 0.0131 129.3 3.59

1.5 0.00732 -178.4 0.000396 -73.3 0.0567 -208.8 5.10

1.6 0.00351 9.9 0.000523 267.7 0.0143 -22.7 2.72

1.7 0.00436 -1.8 0.000287 100.9 0.036 14:1 3.55

1.8 0.00292 -176.8 0.000232 81.0 0.0273 171.9 2.87

1.9 0.00147 -187.0 0.000241 -88.2 0.00761 196.9 1.88

2.0 0.00233 -3.1 0.0000286 149.0 0.0254 -18.5 2.58 SEA CONDITIONS

In this study the behaviour of the system will be considered when operating in irregular longcrested waves. For the analysis of such a sea, use is made of the spectral distribution Sew) of the recorded wave ~(t):

(19)

in which ~a(w) is the amplitude of the Fourier transform ~(w) of the recorded wave:

+:x:

~(w) = ( ~(t)e-jUJI dt

"-:x:

(20)

with ~(t) according to the values recorded during the measuring time 2Twhile ~(t) = 0 at any other time.

Since no actual wave record is available it is assumed in the following that the sea-state

~ ZL' DEY.\o

TABLE 4. RESPONSE FUNCTIONS OF THE MOTIONS OF THE HOISTING SYSTEM \ND THE HOISTING I.I:\E

TENSION FOR A STEEL WIRE Of 5 em DIAMETER (ALL DAMPING HAS BEEI\ I\EGLECTED)

W --;<l Ezs W E," "'1.';( ElL: Z,,, IW"

~" (degr) ~a (degr) ~" (degr) (,

0.1 1.0 0 0.00102 90 1.0 ' ., 0.403

_"I.-

0.2 0.994 0 0.00407 90 1.02 12.7 lU32

0.3 0.971 0 0.00898 89.9 1.09 27.2 1. OUo

0.4 0.912 -0.2 0.0153 89.8 l.26 HO 4.062

0.5 0.795 -0.5 0.0221 89.6 IA9 56.9 7.913

0.6 0.61 -1.4 0.0227 89.2 1.71 67.7 13.50

0.7 0.354 -4.8 0.0307 88.6 1.82 76.6 16.95

0.8 0.13 -130.9 0.032 88.5 1.92 90.7 !lUO

0.9 0.331 -14.7 0.0185 -104.4 0.966 -85.7 17.77

1.0 0.0491 -1.9 0.00269 79.4 0.158 05.4 3.21

1.1 0.00436 28.4 0.000425 -35.7 0.011 -45.1 11.15

r.z 0.01 15.4 0.000559 -96.8 0.0211 -60.3 4.48

1.3 0.00763 3.1 0.000749 103.6 0.0452 71.2 4.87

IA 0.00655 -170.9 0.000768 89.6 0.034 Ill1.o 2.88

1.5 0.00766 -178.9 0.000393 -77.2 ll.O28 234A 3.92

1.6 0.00356 7.1 0.00051 -91.7 0.0229 -76.0 1.98

1.7 0.00158 -l.2 0.000281 - 97.7 (J.OI75 52.0 2.-U

1.8 0.00309 -178.1 0.000225 84.1 0.013 127.0 un

1.<) 0.0015 176.0 0.000235 -88.9 o.or I 256A 0.78

2.0 0.00248 -1.6 0.0000166 141.8 0.00628 -IO.(J 1.38 can be described by a spectral distribution function according to the formulation of Pierson-Moskovitch:

(21 )

in which

g = 9.81 m S-2 ct =8.110-3

~ = 0.74

U = wind velocity in m S-I at 19.5 m above the sea surface.

Considering a wind of strength Beaufort 5 then its velocity will amount to lJ.25 m s - 1 at 10 m above the sea surface. Applying the "one-seventh" law then one tinds U to be 10.2 m s -I for application in Equation (21). One then tinds for the fully developed sea in a wind at a strength of Beaufort 5:

(22)

In Table 5 the spectral distribution for various sea-states is presented.

Forces in the hoisting wire <j

TABLE 5. SPECTRAL DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF FULLY DEVELOPED SEAS FOR VARIOUS STRENGTH OF

WIND (BEAUFORT NUMBER)

w Beaufort 4 Beaufort 6 Beaufort g Beaufort I ()

0.1 0 0 0 0

0.2 0 0 (J 6.1l)()

0.3 () 0 3.636 l)g.54

0.4 () 0.026 Ig.45 52.40

0.5 0 0.l)47 13.l)6 21.41

0.6 0 2.070 7.577 l).312

0.7 0.0003 1.979 3.9g7 4.457

O.g O.00g2 1.444 2.177 2.324

O.l) O.()3g 0.967 1.249 1.201

1.0 0.076 0.635 0.752 0.772

1.1 0.099 0.421 0.472 0.4g1

1.2 0.102 0.284 0.30g 0.312

1.3 0.093 0.195 0.207 0.209

1.4 0.079 0.137 0.144 0.145

1.5 0.065 0.099 0.102 0.102

1.6 0.052 0.072 0.074 0.074

1.7 0.042 0.054 0.055 0.055

i.s 0.033 0.040 0.041 0.041

1.l) 0.026 0.031 0.031 0.031

2.0 0.021 0.024 0.024 0.024 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM'S BEHAVIOUR

According to the description in the previous sections it is presupposed that the whole system will react linearly with the wave motion. In that case the irregular behaviour of the system in irregular waves can be described by its spectrum SAw) that follows from the relation:

(23)

in which

x = some output variable of the system; either a motion or a force. etc.

S, = spectral density of system variable x

S~ = spectral density of the wave

xj~a = response amplitude operator as a function of the frequency of oscillation of the regular varying wave.

In Tables 6 and 7 a review is given of the spectral density distribution of the hoisting wire force SZr(w):

(24 )

10

in which

Zra/'a follows from Tables 3 and 4 Stew) follows from Table 5.

Zu DEYAO

TABLE 6. SPECTRAL DENSITY DISTRIBUTION SZrCw) OF THE FORCE Z, IN THE HOISTING WIRE OF 3 em DIAMETER

w

Beaufort 4

Beaufort 8

Beaufort 6

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

o o o o o o

9.49 E6 308.3 E6 1.23 E9

95.8 E6 304.7 E6 276.1 E6 318.9 E6 102.3 E6 169.1 E6

38.7 E6 52.3 E6 27.2 E6

4.69 E6 14.0 E6

o o o

44.3 E6 6.39 E9 3.82 ElO 6.42 ElO 5.42 ElO 3.11 ElO

796.2 E6

1.29 E9 766.7 E6 669.4 E6 177.6 E6 256.9 E6

53.4 E6 67.3 E6 33.3 E6

5.52 E6 16.0 E6

o o

741.5 E6 3.16 ElO 9.37 ElO 1.40 Ell 1.29 Ell 8.18 ElO 4.01 ElO

942.0 E6

1.45 E9 831.5 E6 709.9 E6 185.5 E6 265.5 E6

54.8 E6 68.7 E6 33.8 E6

5.59 E6 16.2 E6

From the spectral distribution of the hoisting wire tension one reduces the standard deviation SZr and the average period of oscillation t Zr of the time varying force Zr(t) in a given sea-state:

SZr = ~ (N) (25)

- rmo

Tzr = 21TV ~-- (s)

m2

in which

mo = J'" SZr(w) dw o

m2 = J'" S Zr( w) w2 dw . ()

(26)

When assuming that the hoisting job will take about 20 min then the most probable

Forces in the hoisting wire II

TABLE 7. SPECTRAL DENSllY DISTRIBUTION S Zr( W) OF THE FORCE Z, IN THE HOISTING WIRE OF 5 em

DIAMETER

W Beaufort 4 Beaufort 6 Beaufort 8

0.1 0 0 0

0.2 0 0 0

0.3 0 0 368.0 E6

0.4 0 56.31 E6 4.01 E10

0.5 0 5.93 E9 8.74 EI0

0.6 3049.57 3.81 E10 1.39 Ell

0.7 84.09 E5 5.69 E10 1.15 Ell

0.8 277.9 E6 4.89 E10 7.37 E10

0.9 1.21 E6 3.05 E10 3.95 E10

1.0 78.53 E6 652.7 E6 772.3 E6

1.1 1.23 E9 5.23 E9 5.86 E9

1.2 205.1 E6 569.6 E6 617.7 E6

1.3 221.2 E6 464.3 E6 492.4 E6

1.4 65.88 E6 114.3 E6 119.4 E6

1.5 99.65 E6 151.4 E6 156.5 E6

1.6 20.53 E6 28.36 E6 29.1 E6

1.7 24.63 E6 31.74 E6 32.4 E6

1.8 11.10 E6 13.58 E6 13.8 E6

1.9 1.59 E6 1.87 E6 1.9 E6

2.0 3.99 E6 4.56 E6 4.6 E6 maximum value of the hoisting wire force during this period of operation follows from:

Z, max = S Zr v'21nN

(27)

with

N = 1200lt Zr = number of oscillations during 20 min.

The results of the calculations according to the above descriptions are presented in Table 8. From these results it will be possible to deduce the most probable maximum stress in the hoisting line:

Zr max ar max = A . wire

(28)

TABLE 8. MOST PROBABLE MAXIMUM FORCE (ton) IN THE HOISTING LINE FOR VARIOUS SEA-STATES

Rope Beaufort Beaufort Beaufort Beaufort Beaufort Beaufort Beaufort Beaufort

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

2cm 12.36 29.57 52.44 69.84 81.09 87.93 92.11 94.70

3cm 5.72 23.73 45.24 61.6 72.5 79.37 83.71 86.46

4cm 5.20 22.23 42.99 59.44 70.27 77.22 82.03 85.34

Scm 6.18 23.48 44.06 60.08 71.19 78.29 82.59 85.19 12

Zu DEYAO

The results of the stress calculations are presented in Fig. 2. By indicating in the same figure the maximum allowable stress of the wire material it will be possible to determine directly the workable sea conditions. When for example the allowable stress of the metal of the rope is 60,000 N cm-2 then the hoisting operations can be continued up to wind conditions of about Beaufort 6 for a wire diameter of 5 ern,

INFLUENCE OF DAMPING

In the evaluation presented so far the contribution of damping had been ignored.

However the forces in the hoisting wire will decrease by about 25% when taking into account the amount of damping as presented in Table 1.

The reduction of the force in the hoisting wire is caused for about 10% by the damping of the barge's heaving and for about 10% by the damping of the barge's pitching.

100 X 104 (N cm-2)

99 95 90

80 70

- d = 2 crn.,

...... -

/

/ d = 3 crn "

/ ;':-1 I

/ f.--'"' - ,.....- Id=14L-

......

/ / 1--- d=15 c~

/ _.,.

I V V I--'::': I I 1

I Maximum allowable stress

II ~ VV

i

I

I I

1 I ~ 60 ~ 50 E 40

:;)

§ 30

x ro

E 20

OJ

:0

ro .a o 10 C.

..,

'" o

E

OJ s:

I-

10- o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Wind condition (Beaufort)

FIG.' Review of the expected most probable maximum stress in the hoisting wire in comparison with the maximum allowable stress.

Forces in the hoisting wire

INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF THE BARGE

It might be questioned whether the barge considered is not too big with respect to the weight of the object to be lifted (about 86 tons). To clarify this aspect additional calculations have been performed in which the size of the barge was reduced to:

Length L = 40 m Breadth B = 12 m

Draught T 3 m

Distance L; = - 25 m

(the boom tip is located 25 m behind the centre of gravity of the barge).

In Table 9 the results are presented of the estimated most probable maximum force in the hoisting wire when applying a 40-m barge. For comparison also the same aspects are presented in Table 9 for the 100-m barge.

TABLE 9. COMPARISON OF MOST PROBABLE MAXIMUM FORCE IN A 5-cm HOISTING WIRE FOR lWO SIZES OF CRANE BARGE

Wind condition

40-m barge

100-m barge

4 6 8

10

Z, max = 12.2 tons 52.4

66.5

7l.3

6.2 tons 44.1

71.2

82.6

INFLUENCE OF NON-LINEARITY OF THE WIRE FORCE

From the first order approximations using transfer functions it is found that the amplitudes of the force oscillations in the hoisting wire exceed the pretension (supposed to be about 10 tons). This means that the linear relation in Equation (4) is not correct since the force in the wire line will remain zero as long as the hoisting wire is slack, viz. when the distance between boom tip and centre of hoisted object is less than 30 m.

In order to determine the correct hoisting wire force some time domain computer simulations have been run according to the description by Mitchell and Gauthier (1976). The mathematical model of that system was based upon the differential equations of motions (l ), (2) and (3) in addition to the following description:

Zr = -Cr (z, - wLc - zc) when z, - wLc - z, > 0 (taut line)

(29)

and Z, = 0

when z, - wLc - Zc < 0 (slack line).

The time simulations were run for three pretensions in the hoisting wire of about 11. 22 and 38 tons during three sea-states caused by wind conditions of Beaufort 5. 8 and 11. In Fig. 3 the frequency distributions of the peaks of the force oscillations in the hoisting wire have been presented as was obtained from the computer simulations.

14

Zu DEYAO

It is remarkable that at a low overweight of the hoisted object, i.e. a low pretension, the oscillating force in the rope remains lower than the initial pretension. This may be explained by an average upward force which for small oscillations of the boom tip may be generated by the non-linear behaviour of the spring character of the hoisting wire.

From the distribution shown in Fig. 3 one determines the most probable maximum force in the hoisting wire and the corresponding maximum stress. The results of this evaluation are presented in Table 10, from which Fig. 4 has been composed,

TABLE 10. REVIEW OF MOST PROBABLE MAXIMUM STRESS IN A 5-cm DIAMETER HOISTING WIRE FOR VARIOUS CONDITIONS

Pretension Wind condition

11 tons

22 tons

38 tons

B5 B8 B11

1.1 X 104 N cm-2 3.0

4.3

3.5 X 104 N cm-2 7.9

10.4

5.2 X 104 N cm " 10.4

12.8

From the information in Fig. 4 it will be possible to determine the maximum sea-state in which hoisting will be possible without the maximum stress exceeding the maximum allowable stress. When for example an allowable stress is considered of 6 x 104 N crn " then the maximum workable sea-state is found that is generated by a wind of 5 Beaufort when the hoisted object of 86 tons has a weight of 40 tons in water.

It will be obvious that the information in Fig. 4 will be more precise than the information in Fig. 2 about the 5-cm diameter hoisting wire. For example one finds in Fig. 2 a maximum workable sea-state generated by a wind of Beaufort 6.5 irrespective of the overweight of the hoisted object. However from Fig. 4 it may be concluded that the working limit is determined by the underwater weight of the hoisted object. A higher condition than Beaufort 6.5 is allowed if the weight is less than 30 tons, while hoisting has to be stopped before Beaufort 4 when the weight is larger than 40 tons.

CONCLUSION

(1) From the results listed in Table 8, for a certain lifting system (crane vessel, heavy object and lifting rope) in a certain sea-state, one finds an optimum rope diameter from a point of view of most probable largest force in the rope.

(2) It can be seen from the results in Table 9 that the size of the crane vessel influences -the lifting force due to the variation of the motion responses to waves. Thus the same lifting equipment on a bigger ship will have a different capacity from that on a smaller ship.

(3) The most probable largest force in the rope can be decreased by increasing the damping of the pitch of the ship or of the heave of the ship or of the heave of the hoisted object. In moderate seas the reduction of the pitch motion will decrease the force in the rope much more effectively than the decrease of the heave motion. In high sea-state this tendency will be opposite. It is recommended to choose a type of crane vessel with optimal sea-keeping qualities.

Forces in the hoisting wire

15

Beaufort: 5 ------ Pretension

8000 12000

N

100

Beaufort: 8

~ ------ Pretension

15

'"

.0

0

...

~50

0

~

~

c

IU

~

c..

0 12000

N Beaufort: 1 1

- -- -- Pretension

o

4000

12000

N

FIG. 3. Frequency distribution of peak values of the forces in the hoisting wire of 5 em diameter for various pretensions.

(4) In the same sea-state the increase of pretension in the rope will increase the dynamic components of the forces in the hoisting rope. This finding becomes more obvious in higher sea-states although the distribution of the dynamic contribution remains almost the same (see Fig. 3).

If, Zu DEL\O

Most Probable

maximum stress: 10.104 N cm~2

8.104

6.104

'" 4.104

C 40

2

c 30

0

.;;;

c

"' 20

Q;

a:

10

0

0 5 10 Wind condition (Beaufort)

FIG. 4. Influence of sea-state for various wind conditions and pretension on the maximum stress to 11.:: expected in 5-cm diameter hoisting wire.

(5) When comparing the results from a harmonic analysis with the results from simulations then it is found that at lower sea-states the harmonic analysis leads to exaggerated results. This discrepancy most probably will have been caused assuming a linear spring character in the hoisting wire (even function of the load-excursion relation in the hoisting line).

Acknowledgements-This paper was written during my stay at the Netherlands Ship Model Basin. Wageningen. I am indebted to Dr J. P. Hooft for his helpful suggestions and discussions. For the use of computer. I thank Mr A. de Jong. Mr Drinoczy and Mr Benard.

REFERENCES

BHATfACHARYYA. R. 1978. Dynamics of Marine Vehicles. Wiley Interscience. New York. HOOFT. J. P. 1982. Advanced Dynamics of Marine Structures. Wiley Interscience. New York.

MITCHEI.L. E. L. L. and GAUTIlIER. J. S. 1977. Advanced continuous simulation language. Simulation 26 (3). 72-7H.

Ocru. M. K. and BAI.ES. S. L. 1977. Effect of various spectral formulations in predicting responses of marine vehicles and ocean structures. O.T.e. paper No. 2743. Houston (1977).

P·\PANIKOLAOU. A. 19HO. Hydrodynamische Koefficienten fur die linearen Schwingungen von schwimmenden Zylindern. Schiffstechnik 27. 127-168.

SARPKAYA. T. and ISAACSON. M. 1981. Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

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