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 THE SERVUCTION MODEL (Hoffman & Bateson)

This model used to illustrate factors that influence service experience, including those
that are visible and invisible to consumer.
Invisible component consists of invisible organizations and systems. It refers to the
rules, regulations and processes upon which the organization is based. Although they
are invisible to the customers, they have a very profound effect on the consumers
service experience.
Visible part consists of 3 parts: Serviscape (inanimate environment), contact
personnel/service providers, and other consumers.
Servicescape- It refers to the use of physical evidence to design service environments.
It consists of ambient conditionssuch as music, inanimate objects that assist the frm in
completing is tasks, such as furnishing and business equipment. All non-living
features present during service encounter. Contact personnel: :Employees other than
primary providers that interact with consumer.
Service Provider: Primary provider of core service, such as dentist, physician or
Other Customers- Customer A : Recipient of bundle of benefits created through
service experience and customer B : Other customers who are part of Customers A’s
Servuction model demonstrates consumers are an integral part of service process. The
Slevel of participation may be active or passive, but always there. Managers must
understand the interactive nature of services and customer involvement in production
process. The four components of the servuction model combine to create the experience
for the consumer and it is the experience that creates the bundle of benefits for the
 A model to illustrate the factors influencing the service experience

 Includes those factors that are visible to the customer and those that are not

 Visible component is of three parts: inanimate environment, contact personnel /

service providers and other customers

 Invisible component consists of the invisible organisation and the systems

 Demonstrates that consumers are an integral part of the service process, through
either active or passive participation


 All non-living features present in the service encounter

 Create tangibility in intangible service parameters

 Consumers look for tangible cues surrounding the service on which to base their
service performance evaluation

 Furniture, flooring, lighting, music, carpets, stationery, clothes worn by service



 Contact personnel: employees other than the service provider briefly interacting
with the customer (parking attendant, receptionist, telephone operator, floor

 Service providers: primary service providers (waiters, dentist, painter)

 Could be at service provider’s location or at consumer’s location

 Whether the service is provided at the provider’s location or the customer’s

location, the impact of the service is huge


 Consumption of services are called as “Shared Experiences” since they often

occur in the presence of other customers
 Other customer (Customer B) experiences can impact the service experience of
the first customer (Customer A)

 Customer B’s influence on the experience of Customer A can be active or passive

and either positive or negative


 Visible components of service firms have to be complemented with invisible


 The invisible components reflect the rules, regulations and processes of the

 Though invisible, they have a great impact on the customers experience