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TP' KOB «6eCCMepTHbJJOl - Tex napcon, 'ITO lUAR B nO.\.0Ae aa KOAeCHHIl,eii naps C nOAH.srTb.lMH KOITbH:MH. Tlepcsr CpaJKaAHCh xpa6po, 80 TOJKe He H35eJiU1AJoI. l'H6eA.H. A OHHA pa3AeAI1A caoe BORCKO aa 01'PR.,II,bl - no BoopY;)KeHHIO H no IltlPOA80CTH. OAHH OTP.Sl.Abl CpaJK aAHCh , APyrHe B 3TO spexsr OT,II,bIXaAH, a nOTOM CMeH.srAH YCTaBwHx 1'1. paaeusrx,

«Bo BpeM$I 3THX CXBaTOK l.IaPb,- rramer I'epo- 11.0'1',- aa6AlOAaA sa XOAOM CpaIKeH.Ha H B crpaxe aa csoe BOHCKO TPK)I{,II,b.1 BCKaKHBaA co CBoeTO 'rpOHd». MO)l{eT 6hlTb, Kcepxcy H lie 6blAO crpamao, OAHdKO nOBH'!'b ero COCTOHHHe MOJKHO: orposoroe BORCKO OC'fanOBHAOCh nepez, ropcrxofi repoea.

Hamexcsr npeaarexi, - 113 AIOAeR, )l{HBIIWX B ropax H aaaanrax MeCTBOCTb. OEl npoaex nepcoa rponoso B ThlA rpeKaM. BHAH 6e3BbIXOAHOCTh nOAOJKeHH$I, AeoHHA .II]JHKd3dA BceM YXOAHTb B Fleaorronaec, a CaM C 'I."PeMJa: COTHlIMH CIIapTdHl.IeB OCTMCR rrpaxpsm, OTXOA. Tlepcis nanaxa na MYJKeCTSeHl'IhlX 60HQOB CO

17

scex CTOpOH. CnapTdHIJ;bJ «aantamaxacs Me"IdMFI, Y xoro OHH erne 6bll\H, a 3dTeM PYKdl';IH FI 3yUaMH, noxa napaapsi He 3aCblIIdAH HX rpaAOM CTpeA ... J) [FepoAOT).

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Me.lKAY rpeqeCKUMH BOeBd'l:MbBHKaMH CUDBd Ha"laAHCb cnopsr. EOAbllillHCTBO rrpeaxaraao opraID130BdTb conporaaxeaae nepcax na Y3KOM KOPHHCpCKOM nepenreaxe, KOTOPhIM Flexorronrrec COeAH}HleTcs co cP€AHeii '1aCTbID C1"paHbI. TYAa JKe lIpeAAaraAH OTlIeCTFI Q>Jl.OT. IDeMHCTOKA npJIXOAHA B OT'ldKHFle 01' MhiCAH, 'ITO 6YAeT OTBeprnYTO ero npeAAOJKeHHe Ad'T.'I> MopCKoe CpaJKeHHe Y CdAdMHHd. <PAOT nepcon, rElaBllIHHQI aa rpe'leCKJIM, Y.lKe cocpeAOTOqHBaAC5I II06AK30CTFI, a nHpee.

MO)KeT CTaTh CdAaMHHCKHH rrpOAHB: 01'1 Y3KFlH, B HeM MAoro MeAeH }l IIOABOAHbIX KaMBeH, nepcaaCKf1M KOPd6J\SIM B HeM 6YAeT TeCHO, nee OHH OAHOBpeMeRHO He CMorYT BOHTH B cpaxceuae».

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cDUJ-lUKUiiCKUU Kopa6Ab.

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18

TIoTepRTb TaKliIM 06pa30M IIOAOBHBY $A01'a COI03- HHKH He peuraxacs. EblAO aasraxeao AaTb Cpa.lKeHHe B CdAdMHHCKOM IIpoAHBe, HCIJOAb3Y.5! ero Y3KOCTH.

repOAOT rrmner, 'ITO H nocxe aroro ace erne WAIf cnopst. <I>eMHCTOKA 6YATO 6bI nOCAdA - noz, BHAOM rrepe6eJKt:rHKd - rrpeaaaaoro CAyry B CTaB Kcepxca CKa3aTh, gT06w nepcsr TOPOITHAHCh aaneper's B rrpo- 1II'fBe rpet:reCKHH !pAOT, HHa.'1e OB YHAeT B Ilexononnee, TaR 3TO HAI'I. He TaK, HO B HO'lli rrepez, aOeM nepCH:ACKTn'i rpAoT rrepemex H3 OyxThI <I>dAepoH B Calla.MHllCKHR rrpOAHB 11 CTM 3dlITIMdl'b fJ03111l,MlO Y MaTepHKoBoro 6epera - HafJpOTHB rpesecxoro Q>AO'ra.

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2'

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gAR nog'heAW napYCOB.

19

P I!lllAIO Ll..\EE CP A)K EH 11 E

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CeH'fH6pbCKd5I HO"lb CTOH1' BaA 3reii:cKHM MopeM.

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Hacryrraao yrpo 27 ceHTHGp51 480 rOAd AO B. 3.

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nepBhIMH ABHHYAHCh B d.TaKY a¢IiHCKHe KopaGAl1.

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20

KPOBHO, TIIJ;aTeAbHO BbIOHpdAIl I.\eAb, TO<JHO TapaHHAH ee, 3aBH3bmdAH aEioPAd)KHhIe CX.BdTKlf.

B paarap CpaJKeHI1SI o'I'pSIA rpeaon BblCaAl'lilC5I 'lEI IlcHTrdAlllO II IIl:!pe61IJl. TaM nepcon.

B nepsoji CXndTKe <pAO'fOB nepcst 3dXBdTHAH :WITHCKHiij Kopa6Ab I'J CdMOMY xpa6pOMY rpexy nH¢eJO'fbI IIOMUfLIl1h orol - Aa.POBflAH JKH3Rh, Terreps :3Ta 'rpnepa 6 blAa R3J'T'I'a B 11 11 et-I, x.pa6pbTH 60 H EI. OKa3t1ACH y CBOHX.

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ABecTH Kopa5Aell: nOTepHAI1 rrepcu Y CaAuMl1HiI, fpeKIl TOAbKO COpOK. Tall. 3d.KOH'-IHAOCh CaA<lMllH.cKoe cpaxceaae.

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B aaapre rpe'leCKuecpAoToBOAIJ;hI HfiMepeBdAliCb IIOCAaT.b CSOI!I Kopa6AI1, '-IT05bl paepyurare nepenpaay nepea feAAeCI10HT. 1-10 acxope OTKd3all.HCb 0'1' csoero HdMepeHHH', paCCYAHB, '-ITO no HcnpaBHbJ.M MOCTaM Kcepxc 6bIcTpee yfieperca H3 Fpenaa:

PUMCKa.JI rpupena.

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KOP AEA11 11 OPY)K11E

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22

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23

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28

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Hopsraaasr (HlIJ'l sapam) - lI]lCAKH coapesreaBbTX A dT'laH , aopaascrtea H IDBeAOB,- )KHBllIHe, x.ax 11 CAa:BKBe, aa 6eperax EaATMKH, B VIUXI nexax UPOCAa:BMAHCh KaK OTBdJKlThle MopexoAbl. 11x He60AblllHe, HO apenxae cy Ad IlAaBdA.Fl He TOAhKO B EaA 1'l1HCKOM H Ceaepaeos MOpHX. OIeIH XOAMAli B Mope CpCAM3eMHoe, x 6eperaM FpenxaaAHH, a rAe-TO 13 1000 rOAY AOCTBrAH 6eperOB Ceaepaoit AMepRKff.

flepssre ITAaBaH1Uf aaparoa 6bIAH ToproBhle. Ho C Te'leHHeM BpeMeBH KYlIe'leCKHe 3KcneAMIJ;1ill cenepnn nee 60Abme 1IpHo6peTiiAH xapexrep na-

40

paTCKHx Ha6eroB. B cepeaaae IX BeKa HOpMaBHht na<raAH BeCTH caM:hIe RaCTO~l1Ille 38BoeBaTeAblible nOXOAhl. lAM MBoroe YAdAOCb: ORR 3dXBaTIlAii 3eMJ\H B AHI'AHH, <DpaB~, BCIO lO)KHyro HTdAHlO, CHD;HA HKl , OCBOBbma$l TaM CBOH rOCYAapCTBa. CTpaHhI 3andAHOfi EBPOlIbI RaxoAHAliCb B COCT05IBHR ct>eOAaAhHOH pa3AP06I1.eHHOCTH. I'epnora, KHH 3 b.!l. , rpacpbJ, 6apOHhI' CCOPHAaCb K B08BaAH MeJKt\y C060H, II03TOMY He cMorMI OPTaHH30BaTb ornopa HOpMaBHaM. BHKIDII'H na cnOHX CYAax BXOAMAH B pexa If IIO JUfM npOABHI'dAHCh B (,Ay6b repPHTOPH:H. Tax, aSH pa3f'pa6lfAH H CO)KrAll HeMe1\KHe l'OPOA8 Kf\Ah:s, Aaxes, Tpap, cppaWZY3CKHe Typ, AIDKOfI, )UOTen;H.1O [reneps ITapIfJK).

ECTeCTBeHSO, 'lTO HOPMdHHbl He OCTaBAl'IAH oea BHHMdHlUI CAdBRHCKHe 3eMJ\l!l. Ho PYCCKMX reppaTOpHii: 3imoe-BaTh He CyMeJ\H, KaJ{ H TeppHTopHli 'fYAH, MepH, BeCH. ApeBHepYCCKoe rocYAapCTBO B TO BpeMJI 6blAO CHAbHJillIIl, COC'f'05lRHe <tJeoA8AbilO:H pa.3APo6AeHHOCTH, AeAelIHH sa MeJl.KHe, BpaJKAYIDIqHe MeJKAY co6aH KHIDKeCTBa eme He aacryna- 11.0. MaAO'mCAeHHhle BapH)KCKHe A pYJKKHhl , lIOcrynaamae aa CAYJKOY K PYCCKHM KRH3MIM, IIOCTelIeHHO CMeJJl:HBdAHCb C xopeHHhlM HaceAeHHeM, paCTBOpHAHCb B HeM.

OrracHbIMH AAlI PYCH I:IOPMaBHbl C'I'd.I\l1 'fOTAd.

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AeT ToprOBA1Q C 6Jlli3KHMH H AilAeKHMH crpeaaaa, 3aIqHTIITh rrpana H AOCTOIDICTBO PYCCKKX sa oaA' Tm'iCKOM: Mope Ii era 6eperax BblcaAa '1eCTb BeAHKOM)' HOBroPOAY.

rOCnOAI1H BEAl1KMfi H( BfOP A

CAaBJme_ nOCTpOHAH HOBropOA ae 6epery IlOAROSOAHoro BOAXOBa, HCAilAeKO or Taro MecTa, rAe pexa BhITCKaCT aa VIAbMeHb-03epa. OTcIOAa, eCAF:! llAbITb aa ceBep, OTKPMBilAC~ rryrs - no BOAXOBY (220 KHAOMeTpOB), AaAO:IKCKoMY oaepy (100 KHAOMe'rpos), pexe Hese (75 JU[AOMeTPOB) -B <DllliCKHH 3dAIIB 11 AdAee B 6aATHHcKoe l>lope, K CTpaHdM CeBCPHOH Esporu,t. ECAH IlAbITh aa IOr -QCpe3 VlAbMeS1>-03epO, no pexe AOBaTH,- TO, npeoaoAce BOAOKlI, MO)KHO 6bIAO norracrs B AHenp, BOAry, no HHM cnyCTI'IThCK B '4epHoe II KaCITHHCKoe MOP5l.. HOBrOpO,ll,IJ;aM rrpHHd,II,Ae:IKaA sees ceaap OT (J)mlcKoro 3aAHsa ,1.1,0 YpdAbCKOrO xpeora. HOBrDPOAIJ;hl no Cenepaoa ABBlIe, Onere, f1eQope IIJ\aBaAl'! B CeBepHJillf }\eAOBHThIM OKeaH.

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HenCKQJl BUTsa. 15 wo""," 1240 roga.

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6aATHHCKliX H ceaepasrx aapcaoa, TO CTaHeT acao, KillUIM 3aMaH'lJiBhIM DB 6blA AAK nmeAOB. TTpHe3- }Kern ae ToprH B HOBropOA. BapJDKCKHH rOCTb-KYneu BHAeA 3AeCh nee, 'ITO POAHT 3eMAK Ii AeAalOT 'IeAOBe'l'eCKHe PYKH: IIleAKa, KOBPbI, KpaCKH H npna OCTa IO)KHbrx CTpaH, TKalIH, KpY;}KeBa, opyacaa, 30AO'I'ble H cepebpaasre yxpameaaa CTpaH 3aDd,II,Ill>IX, Aoponre Mexa, MOPJKOBYJO KOCTb, MeA, BOCK, IIeHbKY B AeH caMKX HOBrOpOAI.J;eB. Bee ero, xaaaAOCh, AerI{Q 6hlAO B3HTh Me'IOM.

Hananerraa IIlBeAaE sa ToproBhle eYAa HOBTOpOAn;eB CAeAOBaAH OABO aa APYT1{M. B 1164 rOAY nmeAhf nblTaAHCb B351Th KpeIlOC1'b }\aAory, UPH-

41

xptaaasnryto AaAhlllIe noacryrna K HOBrOpOAY. HenpH5ITeJl.hCKHe CYAa IIOAOillAH K KpeIIOCTH H BhICiiAHAH TPeXTbICK'fHhlR AeCaHT. AMOJKaHe 130 rxaBe C nocaAHHKOM HeJKaTOIO sersrpe AHSI OT6HBaAH nrrypra. lilBeAhI, B3BypeBHhIe aT8KaMH, OTOillJl.H K pexe BOpOROBKe H TaM 6blAB paarposrxeasr nOAOcnesurea HOBropOACKOH parsro. npOTHBHUK noTepHA H3' 55 CYAOB 43, aa oCTaBwmcC.II cyaax n06HTbIe WBeAbJ cnacxacs 6erCTBOM.

Honroponcxae BoeBOAhI nOHlIMaAH,'ITO nraeaoa seAb3.11 YTHXOMHPHTb, TOAbKO H,3rOU.II$I: HX U3 pycCKHX 3eMeAh. A;ur 06eCneqeSHJ'I MOPCKOH ToproBAX aa EdATHKe HOarOpOAQbl CTaAH rOTOBHTb 60AblIIOH MOPCKOH noxoz, sa Illserraro. B ::ITOM noxoae, IIO 3aMhICAY aosropoanes, .sYJKHO 6.hIA0 HaUeCTH YAap no BaJKHOMY 3KOHOMHQeCKOMY H nOAHTHqeCKOMy nearpy CTpaHbI - TOPOAY Carryae (reneps aa ero xecre pacnoxoacea CTOKrOAbM). AASI nOXOAa 6liI.11. nOAJ'OTOBJl.eH MHOrO"lHCJl.euHhlii: ¢AoT C CUJl.bHblM AecaHTOM. COI03HUKaMU nosropoanea CraAB xape-

Abl.

AeToM 1187 rona rrocxe nO'l'TR MeC.If1IHOrO nxaBaHlHI IIO peKaM H MOPIO HO.BrOpOA:IJ,bI AOCTHrJl.H illBeAcKHx 6eperOB H OCd.,1I,HJl.H CHITYHY. 14 HIOAK ropon 6blJl. B3KT WryPMOM. IIoGe,1I,RTeA.H B Ka"leCT'Be Tpocj:le.ll YBe3J1.H C C060R 3HaMeHHTble car-ryaCKHe M€AHble apara H nOTOM YCTaaOBH.II.H ax B HOBroponcxox coeope CB5ITOH COcj:lHH. YpOK WBeAaM 6blJl. AaH XOPOITlHH. AKTHBHhIe AeikTBRfl aosropoacxoro cj:lAoTa H AeCaHTHblX BOHCK BhIH)' AHJl.H ureeaon a 1201 rOAY 3aKAlO'l'BTb MHPHbIH AorOBOp C PYCCKHMH.

CTPAWHASI OnACHOCTb

YpOKH, AaJKe xoponrae, 11: CO}f{aAeHHIO, 'qaCTO sa- 6bIBalOTCSI. B 1240 rOAY illBeAbl IIPeADpHHKAH BOBhIH nOXOA, naxepesaacs aa STOT pas 3dXBaTHTb Hosropoa. Ho rrpezcae qeM rOBOpHTb 0 IIoXOAe, HaM C TOGOH, qHTaTeAb, HMO nOCMOTpeTh na nepeMeHhI, xoropsre K 3TOMY BpeMeHH npoaaonrxa aa PYCCKOH 3eMAe. Moryaaa KHeBCKaK Pycs pacnaAaCh na MHOJKeCTBO YAeJl.hHhIX KHjl)KeCTB. 3TH KHHJKeCTBa 6hIAH BpOAe MaAeH.hKHX rOCYAapCTB, "IaCTO BPalKAOBaBlIlHX MeJKAY COGOD. HOBTOPOA erne paasme, rrporaas caoero KBH3.H, OTIldJI. OT KHeBCKOH PyCH. (rocnOAliH BeAHKHH HOBropOAT8K c.TaAa Ha3bIBaTbCH aoaroponcxen cj:leOAaAbBaH pecny6AHKa.) A ryr erne IIpKmAa crpamaaa 6eAa - nOAQHm.a TaTapo-MoHroAoB 3axJ1.eCTsYAH. pyccxae 3eMJl.H. He cYMeB o6':beAHHHTb CHAhI AAfl crnopa rp03HOMY spary, pyccxae KBJ'lJKeCTBa ru6- AH OAHO sa ApyrRM. C 1237 roaa no 1240 rOA spar pa30pUJI. BAaABMHp, MOCKBY, KHeB, ~epHHroB H MHOJKeCTBO APYrHX ropOAOB. OcrdJI.HCh BeTpOBYTbIMH TOAbKO 3eMA.H TenepeillHeD Bexopyccaa B 3eMAH Bexzxoro Hoaropoaa.

OA8a1<0 CKa3aHHoe enie Be I'IOAHOC.TbIO 06PHCOBhIBaeT ooaCHOCTh. PhIll,apCKHe BOBcKa MBOrHX eaporrejicxnx cTpas - KpeCTOHOClthl - IIOTepIIeAH nopascesae B apa6CKHX crpaaax, KYAa OBB sarrpenaxacs «OCllo6oJKAaTb rpoG rocnoaear,», a aa CaMOM AeAe aa COKPOBHIl:laMH BOcrOqHbLX BAaAblK. TIPUBhIKHya 11: pa36oIO H rpaQeJKY, aepayanraeca B EBPOIIY psmapa He xOTeAl'r CHAeTb AOMa. TIana

42

PHMCKHH, KOPOAH H KHH3hH I'epxaaaa, lliBe~H II AaBHll HaIllA.H AAfl HKX HOBoe AeAO - KpeCTOBblH nOXOA aa fl3bl'lHKKOB TIpH6aATHKU H «H€IIpaaOsepasrx» aosropoanee.

AOBOAbHO 6hICTpO psrnapa 3aBoeBaAH 3CTOH1IIO, 3Ba'l'HTeAhsyID qaCTb AaTBHH 11 sToprAHCb Ii AnTBy. TIo6eAHTeAH: He npOCTO 06pam.aAll 1l06e)KAeHHhIX B KaTOAHqeCKYIO nepy, a CdMhlM JKeCTOKHM oGpa30M HcrpeGAlIJI.H 3CTOHn;eB, AaThITIIeH B AHTOB:IJ,eB - oCBoGOJKAaAH 3eMAH AJI.5! CBOlIX IIOCeJl.elI:HH. «BOHCKO no BceM AOpOraM H AepeBHKM,- rramer «J\HBOHCKaH xpOHHKa)),- Hcrpe6HAo MHoro HapOAY H npeCJl.eAOBaAO GeJKaBITlHX B rrpxxeraBWHe 3eMAH, H B3AAO B nxea JKeHm.HB H AeTeH. Macrae H3 H:3bl'l'HKKOS, 6e)KaBmHe a xeca H aa MOPCKOH A€.A, 3aMep3J1.H H noraexa».

nOA06HaJ'l yqaCTb rOTOBH.II.aCb H cxaasnax. TIoXOA nmeACKoro ~Jl.OTa, 0 KOTOPOM rOBOpHAOCb Bblwe, nAaHHpOBaJ\CH KaK aaxaao 3aBOeBaHK.II ceBepO-3anaAHOH PYCH. CAeAOM aa WBeAaMH aaMepeaaxacs no cyme ABHHYThCH aa l1360pCK Ii TICKOB HeMell,KHe phIll,apH. Tlocxe B35ITHH lIIBeAaMH }\aAorH, a SeM:IJ,aM.H -Vb60pcKa H TIeKoBa apara rrpennoxaraxa oG'beAHBeHHblMH CHAaMH narrac'rs na Hoaropoa,

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HOSTOPOACKHR KHK3b AAeKcaHAP .HPOCAaBHq 38- 6AarOBpeMeHHO OpH1<a3dA H)KOPCKOMY crapejinraBe neArYCHIO BhICTaSHTh na MOPCKOM 1I0GepeJKbe CTpaJKY H CAeARTh aa rrOH:BJl.eHHeM Bpara. CTPaJKd oGHapYJKHAaillBeAOB, KorAa OHH BXOAHJI.K B Hesy. Tyr JKe XOBBb!H rotten 6hIA OTlIpaBAeH B HOBrOpOA·

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nOCAe Mopcxoro IIepeXOAa illBeACKHH !pAOT OCTffBOBHACJI AAH OTAhlxa aa Hese, B TOM MeCTe, rAe B Bee BIId.,1I,deT pexa .I1JKopa. CYAa nOAoOIJl.H K Gepery, C RHX CIlYCTHAH CXOAHH. A;l.H Baprepa I{ PhIll,apeH MeJKAY peKoH H xecosr cxyra ycraBOBHJl.H warep C 30AOThIM aepxox H OaAaTKH. CORAK C KOpa6A.IJ, Baprep nepBblM AeAoM nOCAaA AAeKcaBA-

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CKPblTble .ll.eCOM, HOSrOp0AJ.IbI rrpl1rOTOBHAHCb K araxe na ilIBeACKHH .ll.arepb. Ebl.ll.o 15 HIOAH. TPH H.II.ll. qeTblpe xaca AH5I. TIPOTPyOHJI. por. KOHHbrn OTP5IA faBpHAhI Axexcnxa BbICKO'lllJl. H3 xeca H PHHYAC.II BA0J\.b pexa, COHBa5I CXOAHH, cny~eH_Hhle C Kopa6Aell: Ha 6eper. 3TO 6bIA rrpccroji JII O"leHb 3CPcpeKTHBHblll: MaHeBp. lilB8Abl, HaxOAHBIllHeCR Ha Kopa6A.I{X, He MOrJl.JII rrpHHTH aa nOM01ll;b TeM, KTO 6bIJ\. ae 6epery. A C 6epera He Tax rrpOCTO 6bIAO y6eJKaTb aa Kopa6AH. HenpH.lITeAb OKa3Ma! pa3beAH:HeHHbtM aa Ase "LIacnl. TYT IKe DCHOBHoe BOHCKO HOBrapDALJ;eS so rwase C caMHM AAeKCaHApor-t HaHeCAO DO ilIBeAaM rAaBHblH YAap. Ha 6epery 3aBR3aJ\.CJl .>KeCTOXHH 6o.H.

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APYIKHHHHK I'espaxa AAeKCH'I cpa.IKaJ\.c.II y caMDH BOAbl, He nYCKaJl nerrpasrrexsr C 6epera aa KOpa611.H H C Kopa6Aen na 6eper. Korz,a OH YBHAeA, 'ITO UlBeAbl" YBOAJIT aa KopaaAb KopOAeBH'Ia, TO aa xone PHHYAC5! aa HHM .. lllBeA.hl CTOAKHYAH xpa6pe- 1:Ia BMeCTe C Ko.HeM co CXOAHeii B BOAY. ApY.lKHHlllIK Bbl6paAC5I na 6eper H OKd3aIl.C5I na6AH3DCTH OT IllBeACKOro BOeHa'ldJI.hHHKa CnHPHAaaa. Cpa3H11.C5I C HI1M, y6H11. ero, 3aTeM py6HACII C eIIHCKorrOM H TO.>Ke y6M.

nOA npHKpbITHeM KOIDIblX APYIKHHHHKOB neIllHH OTP.5lA aoaropoanea paapymax HeIIpH5ITe.ll.bCKH€ Kopa6AH. OTpJlAOM KOMaBAOBaA Mama (KpOMe HMeHI1, AeTOIIHceu aa-rero He C006ll1aeT 06 3TOM -qeAoBeKe], OTP5!AY YAaAOCb rrDTDIIHTb TpH xopaeMj,

ApYJKHHHllK Caaa npD6HJ\0l na KOBe K II1aTPY EHprepa H nOAceKTonopDM UlaTepHbIj,i: CTOA6. HDBfDPOAl.Ihl, y"UfAeB, KaK I1aAaeT ura'rep, BOOAYrneBHAHCb em;e 60Abwe - 3TD 6h1Jl.0 PaBHOCHAbHO 3aXBaTY Bpa.>K€CKOrO 3HaMeHH. C HOBhlMH CHAaMH OHH npOAOAJKaAH cpascenae H K Be'lepy OAepJKd.II.ll IIO.II.HYIO na6eA Y,

YueAeBnme llIB€AbI, IIpopBaBIIIHCb na Kopa6AH .• IIOAHJlA!1 napyca H rtocnenrao yIIIJ\.H B CTOPDHY ¢JHHcKOro.3aAHBa. HaBTopOAD;bI BCJ\.eA HM nYCTH.AH ABa 3axsa'leHHhlX Kopa611.51, aarpyaceaasrx y6HTblMH sparaeca.

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43

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44

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47

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53

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KOPd6A.H Baaxepca cpasy R3MeImAJ{ xepaxrep OOSI.

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CrpOUTeAbCTBO Kopa6Aei1 HQ AgJl1upaATeucKoi1 seprpu B Ilereptiy pre (Ha CTp. 58, 59).

57

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rOB. Y PeH'1'epa ace Kopa6AB Aep:>KaAHCb na BOAe, XOTH TO)Ke nOJ\Yq'RAH MEloro nOBpeJKAeHHH.

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61

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66

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67

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69

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73

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74

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BnoCAeACTBHH 6bl11. asotiperea rpe6HOH BBBT. OHTO H rrpOH3BeA pesOAKJL\HIO na ¢lAoTe. BBBT aaxoAHACK TIOA BOAOH, rrepcsyro Marmrny YCTaBaBAHBdAH TA y60Ko B TPloMe - H BHHT H MdDlHHa 6bl11..H reneps AOBOAbBO HdAeJKHO 3dIIlHI:QeH.bl OT CHap5lAoB xerrpaaTeM.

MopCKHe Aep)KaBbI c03AaSaJUI HOBble !PAOTh]napoeuie. Ho OCHOBHbIMll Kopa6MMg AII.H seAemUI 50H ace erne OCTdSaAHCb rrapycasre AHHenHble KOpa6J1.H.

80

BCJTUpeUHUJI nUAy6a AUHeUHOrO Kopu6JlJ1 Hcr4uAa XIX sexo.

HEOEb5IBJ\EHHbIE BOI1HbI

BPAfJif-COI03H

OCTilBHM na BpeMSl Kopa6AH. BepReMCJlII; nOAHTHxe. Cenepaare 6epera qepHoro Maps! [[pRHaAAe)KaT POCCR.H. Be ¢AOT AOCTOllHO nxaaae'r 110 MOP5lM, coaepnraer xpyrocaertrere I1AanaH1UI, I1pOCAaBAlur ce6.1l TaJCI:iMlol BeAHKKMB OTKpbITJUIMH, KdK OTKpb!TIIe AHTdpKTIIAbL PYCCKHe KdIlKTdAHCThl Ha6HpalOTCSl CHA. KdIlHTaARCTaM AHrAlIl'I J::I <DpCiHI:J;IfH - CdMbIM MorylIIeCTBeHHhlM 'B MHpe ~ llpHXOAHTCSl TeCHHThCSl, 'ITO- 6b! BbfCB060MfTh PYCCKHM MeCTO aa psnrxax C6b1Ta, 6e3 yq:aCTHf( POCCHH YJKe Be pemaeTCJI In[ OABO MHpOaoe co6J>1THe. B qaCTblX ccopax If ApaKax rOCYAapCTBd 3aIIAAHOK BBpOn1>1 eraparorcs 1I0Ay<nITbS COI03RHKH POCClolIO.

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Oc06eHHO xoaapna AnrAllSl. 3a 110JlTOpa aexa C TO- 1'0 BpeMeHH, KaK Flerp I KalidA OTBoeBbiBaTb Y TYPOR A30B, U AO KPhlMCKOK BoaHbI ARrAHSl TPH paaa BCTynaer B COI03 C POCCHeH, xersrpe paaa OTKPbITO CTilHOBIITC$[ ee rrpOTl1.BHHKOM H ceMh pas OKd3b1BaeT POCCHH KOCBeHHoe rrpOTKBOAeHCTBHe - He 06'blfBA5HI Bo:ibn,[ ga 6YMare, BpaJKAyeT sa AeAe. Tefie, KOHe'!RO, HHTepeCHO 3sa'rh, KaK HAyr aeo6bSlBAeHHble BoaBbl. 11 XOTSl Ham pa3TOBOp 0 BoeHsO-MOPCKOM HCKYCcrae, HO ABa rrpassepa MbI paCCMOTpHM.

POCCHn, AaTAl1JI H ABCTpI'HI n 1798-1800 rOAax BeAH.BoiiHy rrp0T111.1 <DpaJHllu,r. B :noif BOHHe 6AecT~e

u06eAbI H«A aerrpnarexesr OAepJKHBaAH PycCKHe nOHCKa H PYCCKlolH ¢AOT. 3cKdApa UOA KOMilHAoBaHHeM YlIIaKOBa B CpeAH3eMHOM Mope B3JIAa Y ¢pa~y30B spenocrs Koprpy, C'lHTanmyIOC$I nerrpacrynaoa. BoaCKa C)'BOpOBa B l1TdAHH pa36HAil cppa.a:U;Y30B Y Typana, y HOSH, aa pexe TpeG6Jil1 H aa qeTbtpe MeOJ:na OCBo60AKAH sees cesep CTpaHbI. CYBOPOB MOl' 1I0CAe sroro noaecraaoiicxa BO <DPaJIIJ;HlO, ne napll)K. [lOAKoBOAe:u; He COMHeBaACK B no6eAe HaA HanoxeoHOM. vI BOT dHfJl.lif'IaHe a aBCTP:u:H~hI, 60lfBllIHeCH Hanoxeoaa KaK CaMOH CMep'l'll, erne 60Ahme acrryraARCh B03MO:>KHOH no6eAbI PYCCKHX BaA CPPdH.QY3dMH. KaK 6b1 TorAa B03BblCHAaCh POCCH5l! COlO3HHKH AOOUARCh, 'ITO CYBOpOtlCKHe BOKCKa H3 [.ilTaAHH ObIAH nOCAaH:b[ He BO tDpa~HIO, a .B lIIBe:ihJ;apulO, 3aKSlTYlO Q'>paa:u;Y3aMH,- sa CoeAI1HeHlle C a BcrpHft:u;aMll. flo 3aCHeJKeHHbIM rrepeaaxasr, ITO 06AeAeHeBlllHM ropHblM AOpOraM, .B XOAOA H seIIorOAY ABHraAOCh pycawe soaexo. VI KorAa OKa3aAOCb OHO B CaMOK fAy- 6I1He rop, Bl>llICHHAOCb. 'ITO aaCTPHHCKiUI apM'I'IJI YIUAa H3 UJ.se~HH. CKAaAOB rrpOAOBOAbCTBHl'l H 60eIIpmTaCOB, xoropsre 06J13aJ!:J:,[ OblAH cAeAaTh B ropax a.BCTPHH:U;bl, Be 6blJ\o. A xapra, nOArOTOBAeHHaR aacrpHii:CKHM nrra6oM, rrpanexa BOHaa a -ryIIHK. Aopora, HMeBllIiUI npoAOAJKeHHe na xapre, ua caMOM AeAe 06pbIBaAaCb Y rrporracra. rOAOABble, 3aMep3aIO.Ill;He AIOAH, C)'BopOBCKHe'lY AO- 60rdTblpH, KaJK,I),blif ,l),eHh OT6HBdAH aTaKH rrpeaocxoaanrax CRA rppaanyaoa, naaocaxa liM [lOpaJKeHHJl H BbIlllAM ace }Ke 1i13 xonymxa, 13 iii 14 CeHTJl6p51 1799 TOAa BeAJ{KJdi nOAKOBOAeII C OOJIMH COBepIDllA caOH 3HaMeHJilTbiK nepexoz, xepea CeB-foTaPA R "4epToB MOCT. C0103HHKH npocro-xanpOCTO HdMepetlaAHCb 3ary6HTh PYCCKYIO apMHIO.

Hneopuncxoe CpOJKeHUe (Ha CTp. 82-83).

81

TIpcAaTeAhCTBO 6blAO COBepmeHO H IIpOTIm YmaKOaa. AH:r!Ul::l':i:CKHH aAMJlpaA Hexscoa, 'lTo6b1 pyccxae He OlMaAeAH PHMOM, TaHHO nOCAaA x Q:JpaHqy3aM, 3aHllMaalIIHM 31'01' ropoa caOHX napAaMeHTepOB 11 npeAAO>KHA 11M BbITOAHhle yCA08H~ Ka:IIHTYA~FlH.

B TO BpeM.sJ HMllepaTOpOM POCOUl 6b[1I. Tlaaex I. 3TH CA)T'IaH H APyrHe IIOAo6Hble paCCepAHlI.H ero, OH Bb1- urex 1<13 COI03a. POCCH.sJ npaxparaxa BOHHY C HanoxeoHOM. Boxsure Toro, Tlasex I H Hanoaeoa C1'aAI1 DeCTH neperouopsi 0 COBMeCTHOM BbIcrylIAeRHH rrpOTHB A.HrAJIH. Flepercsopsr mAlI Tax ycrrettrno, 'ITO HanoAeOH nOCB.sJTHA ITaBAa B CBOHllAaHbI 3asoeBaHIIH J1HAHH. Ha.rrOAeOB C'tHTaA: eCAH OTH.sJ'I'h y AElJ'AHH 3TY KOAOHIDO, AmAHll npespa'ra'rcs a 6eAI-we STOpOcrerreaaoe rOCYAapc'I'BO. vh illKOAbHOH HCTOPUlf Tht 'J'dKJKe 3 aaenn, , 'ITO Ilasex I 6bIA MacTep OTAaadTh aa nxany KOMilHAhl. OM K TY1' OCTaACH sepea ce6e. AorOBopa C ¢paHIJ;Heii erne He 6hIAO, a PYCCKl'IH asotepe-rop 12 JIHBaPH 1801 rcaa ornpaaax aT8Maay BoBeKa. AOHCKOJ'O renepaxy OpADBY pacnopazceaae:

BeMeAAeFlHO ABHHYTb Ka3a'lhH nOAKH K Opeatiypry, a OTTYAd - B l1JIAHIO, "lTOOhi «rropaaa'rs aetrpaarexa B ero cepAQe!!, AsaAQaTb TpH ThlC.sJ<nl Ka3aKOB C apTHAAepHeii 6e3 upOMeAAeRHR BbiCTYIIHAH B noxoa,

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B HO'll> C 11 aa 12 MdpTa 1801 rOAd B MHXaHAOBCKOM 3aMKe B Flereptiypre ITaBeA I 6hlA 3ilAymes 3aJ'OBOP:r_qHKdMli-IJ;apeABopIJ;aMH. KOJ'Aa aro H3BeCTHe ITOhY'iHA Hanoxeon, OH B .sIpOCTH BOCKAHKHYA: «Oua npoMaxllYAlfCb no Mae 3-1'0 HHB03a, ao nOnaAI1 B Meli5l B Flereptiypre!» Koro I1MeA B BRAY Hanoxeou, rosops «OUH»? AHrAU'laH. AIIJ'AH'laHe 6b1AI'I rrpauacruur K ueYAa'lliOMY nOKYllleHHIO ne Harroxeoaa 3-1'0 HHB03a, TO eCTb 24 AeKa6p.sJ: 1800 roz,e. Hanoxeou exaA B onepy Ha npesrsepy oparopaa [aHAHa, KorAa no6AH- 30CTH OT xapersi B30padAaCb ('ilAch.aS! xianrmra». KoUe'ilIO, cpeAH rrenocpeacraenasrx HCIlOAHKTeAeH 060HX 3aJ'OSOPOB ue 6bIII0 aMI' AHRCKHX nOAAaHHbIX, NO KaK B ITapHJKe, Tax H B Flereptrypre ilHI'AH"laae caoe AeAO AeAaAJI.

HAJJAPMHCKOE CPA)KEHHE

nOCMOTpl1M erne OAHH npaxep BepOA.OMCTBa aFJrAH'laH, na 3TOT paa HeYAaBmerOCff. HaM rrpHAeTCS! oTrJpaBKTbC5I as toro-aanaa fpeQHH, S HasapImCKYIO 6yxry. TaM rrpOK30IDAO CpaJKeHHe, nOCAe KOToporo BO sceM Enpone BOIllAO B MOAY CYKHO «IJ;BeTa aaaapnncxoro AblMa C IlAilMeaeM».

He BhIAepJKaB I'HeTa rypenxoro CYA 'raaa, BOCCTaAa Tperraa. AeAa lJOBCTaRlJ,eB nOCAe napasrx YCIIeXOB mAIl nee XYJKe H xyJKe. TYPKI1, YCHAeHHhIe BoiicKaMH H IPAOTOM ErHl1Ta, 3aAHAH CTpaHY KpOBblO, paspymaAll ropoaa, CJKHl'aAH cexa, 13hlpy6aAH BHHorpaAIillKH

ITapoxogorjJpel'QT «BllaguMUp».

H, KaK B npezcaae npexeae, YS03HAH rpexon B HeBOAIO. 80 ncex esponeacxax crpaaax AlOAlf 5hIAH rrorpaceust 3BepCTBaMn TYPOK, JKaAeAH I'peKOB H Tpe6oBaAVI' OT CBOHX npemrrexscra nOMO'lb HeC'IaCTHOMY HapoAY·

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Pycckoe npaBJ:ITeAhCTBO npeAAOJKHAO AHI'AHH 1'1 <DPaHQHIl BMeUraTbC.II B rpexo-rvpeuxae AeAu, nocAaTb aa IIOMOIQb rpexasr COI03RYro 3CKaAPY. ORo 3U:m1HAO, 'ITO B cllyqae OTKa3a eAI1HOAH~HO rrpearrpnMeT petmrrexsnste AeHCTBH.II. ([)paHIJ;H.II COI'AaCHAaCh. <!>PBt1QHH RY}I{HO 6hlAO 3axpeITHThC.II B Ernrrre. FlocKOAbKY erHIIe'l'CKtl.H nama nOMOraA TypeI.J;KOMY CYATaHY. rrpeACTaBAIIACH YAo6H:hIH MOMeHT rrparryrnyrr, uanry. COJ'AaCKAaCh Ii AHrAH.H, XOTSI OHa liHKOKM: oopa30M fie XOTeAd UOAphIBaTl> CHAY TypQHJI: Typtras, KaK Mhl 3HaeM, 6blAa flYJKHa eft AAJI IIOCTOHHHOll 60PbObi C POCCHeH. Ho aarAHHcKoe npasHTeAhCTBO 6mIAoCb YPOUHTb ce6sr B rxesax 06lI\eCTBeHHoro MaeRWI, erne ORO onecaxocs, 'HO B CAY'la8 uo6eAbI ITOBCTaaIleB yrrycrar H3- ITOA csoero BAHHHHH I'pernno, 3dHI1MaroW;Y10 TaKOe BaJKHOe rr OAOJKeHHe aa M 0PCKHX coofimeauzx. 6brAO y aHrAH'laft FI TPeTbC cooopaxceHRe, KOHKpeTHoe - IIpHI'AHAeTb sa PYCCKFlMH xopaeARMH, KaK 6bl ORM 'IeI'D He aaTBOpJilAI1 C TYllKBMtl.. BeAI> COlO3HHKH no corAaCOBaHHOMY pemenmo AOAJKAM 6bIAH CBOJfM npHCYTCTBHeM AHIIlh rronyra-rs rypox, 3acTasHTb I1X nOHTH .aa nexoropute ycrYITKI1 rpexaa.

EbIA 1827 rOA, 3cKaA pa COID3HbIX Kopa6AeH nOIIIAd

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CoeAHHeHHaJi 3cKdApa COCTOJIAd 1\13 10 AHHei:fIlloIX Kopa6J\8ft, 9 cj:Jpera1'oB Ii 7 MeHbIillIX CYAOE, scero 26 Kopd6AefI C 1300 opYAIi.llMM.

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85

mrraa nepBOrO paara Maxsax IleTPoBH'I Aasapea, OTBa>R.ftbUf MopeXOA, ae3ilAOArO AO 3TOrO BM8CTe C <DBAAeeM <l>ilAAeeBH'l"eM E8MIIHCraY3eHOM OTKphIBIIllI:H AHTapKTlIAY. Aasapea HCIIOAHM II AOA.lKHOCTh cpAar-KaIIIITaHa PYCCKOI{ 3CKaAPbI, no ElaIIIHM noaaTHEM 6bIA HaqaAbHHKOM urrada.

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feHAeE H Aaaepes HaCTORAIT, '{To6hI UPOTIlB TYPOK 6b1AH rrpeanpaaarst peinaraaaasre Aeii:cTBHSl. AETAH'IaHHH H cppam:r;y3 He MorA~I He COrAaCIIThCH. EblAO perneiro BBeCTH KopaGAn B HdBaplIHCKYlO 6YXTY II nOCTdBHTh ax, KaK 13 fioro, rrepez, Kopa6AlfMH ReIIpIUlTeAK, «Aa6bI Tp03Hbl:M rrpHCYTCTBHeM TdM CIiIA CBOllX YAepJKaTb KPOBOIIpOAATlIe MYCYAhMaH ••• ».

B npnxaae KOAPHHrTOaa 0 [[Op5IAKe BxoAa 3CKaAP.bl 13 6YXTY H IlOCTdHOBKe TaM Kopa6Aeu 6bIAII TaKHe CTJ)OKH: "HII aa OAHOH IIYlliKU He A0A..IKHO 6hITE. Bb1- naxeao C coeAl1HeHHOTO cpAOTa IIpeJKAe CAeAaHHOro aa TO CIITHaAa. Pa3Be TOAhKO B TaKOM CA Y'l"ae, 'ITO OTKPOf01' oroas C rypenxoro cpAOTa, 13 TaKOM CAY'1ae 're H3 TYpell,KHX CYAOS AOAJKHbI OblTb l'ICTJ)e6AeHbI HeMBAAeHHO», KaK. BHAHlIlb, rrpaxaa 8tITAH'l:8H1IHa 6epe>R.eT TypOK. A 3HBprnq}Jble CAOBa "AOA.lKHbI ObITb KCTpe6AeH@ HeMeAA8HHo»? OHH HaIIHcaHbI IIO HeOOXOAHMOCTII, OHn npoae IIIl1.pMbI, sa KOTOPOH earAH'l:dEe CKPhlBaJOT csoa acraaasre aasrepeaas. B KOHue KOHIJ,OB He TaK Bd.lKHO, ecxa KaKOM-i\1I60 1'ypeU;"KHH Kopa6Ah, He J3bIAep>R.aa acxymeaaa, BAPyr OTKpoeT Ol"OHb 11 IIOAY'IHT OTBeTHyro nopumo HASP. Ba.IK1'1O, 'lTOObl -rypeu;KO-erHneTcKm'l CPAOT OCTaAC5I ~eA. He CAY'laHHO KOAPIIHTI'OH rrpaxaaax cppaHU;Y3cKIIM KOpa~AHM BC'raTb 13 6yxTe nporan erllIIeTCKHX xopabAeu, na. KOTOPbIX CAYJKHAH cppaHU;Y3cK11e O¢lIIWPhI:

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Ho BhIllIAO ace He xax 3dAYMb!BdAH aarxa-raae.

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• A 6 y K II P - MhlC aa erHIIeTCKOM II06epeJKbe, OK 0110 31'OrO Mhlca a 1798 rOAY aHI'lI.H"'f8He YIIH'ITOJKHAH rppaanyaCKHH tPAOT. T P a tP a /I h rap - MblC a6AI13H fH6paATapcxoro rrpoxaaa, TaM B 1805 rOAY 8nrAH'IaHe pa36H/I~ rppaaKO-HcnaHcKHil cP/lOT.

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nEPBblE SOH Y CEBACTOnOA

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14 CeHT5IOp51 1854 roqa. Ilpunas n. C. Haxuuoea

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1'13 30nUCOK HeU3BeCTltorO y urep-oduuiepa

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20 HOJl6pJl 1854 roga. 11'3 nUCbMa ap1·UIlAepUUCKoro oqsuuepc; il. H. TOACToro 6paTY

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113 gHeBHUKQ y~acTHuKa 060POHhi

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95

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12 OKTROPR 1854 roga. 113 nUCbMQ KanUTaH.O sroporo ponra M. M. Kol..te6y M. CP. PeU.HeKe

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113 nUCbMa M. CP. PeUHeKe Il, C. Haxu uosy 19 oxTJlOPR 1854 roga

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