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· Handbook of

: . Conveyor & Elevator Belting



XGP·BC·39

© THE GOODYEAR TiRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Akron, Ohio 44316

Printed ill U.S.A.

(

(

1975

TRADEMARKS OF THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

The following terms, used III this handbook, are trademarks of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company.

Chernigum Chemivic

Glide Natsyn Permalon Plio flex Plylon SCOR

Stacker

Super Thermo-Flo Wedge-Grip

The information contained in this handbook applies to conveyor and elevator belting manufactured by The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company in the United States. Consult your Goodyear representative for specific information on belting manufactured in other locations.

iii

Section

1

2

3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title

lNTRODUCTlON , .

SOME FUNDAMENTALS OF BELT DESIGN .

I Introduction .

II Definitions .

III Coefficient of Friction. .. . .

IV Tension Relationships " .. , .. ,.,., .

Page

1-1

2-1 2-1 2·1 2-1 2-2

V Centrifugal. Tension 2-3

VI Creep". , .. , , .. , , , , , .. , . , , , , .. , .. , .. , . 24

VII Torque and Horsepower Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

VIII K Values ,. 2-5

IX Face Pressure , . . . . . . . . 2-5

X The Goodyear Belt Flexing Formula , , , .. "... 2-5

XI Tension Ratings ... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTRUCTION .

Elastomers .. , " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

3-1

A. B. C. D. E. F_ G_ H. l. J.

Introduction. _ _ _ .

Na rural Rubber .

Plioflex .

Butyl and Chlorobutyl _ .

Ethylene Propylene .. __ _ .

Chernigum . _ . _ , , . , , , .. _ .

Chloroprene _ .

Hypalon _ _ .

Urethane

Fluoroelastorners .

3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-2

II Reinforcements _ __ . . . . . 3-2

A. Fibers.. , . , __ .. , . , _ , . , _ . . . . . 3-2

B. Yarns and Weaves __ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

C. Carcass Fabrics .. . _ . . . . 3-5

III The Assembled Belt .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

A_ Carcass Construction _ . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

B. Breakers _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7

C. Covers _ _ , _ _ .. . . 3-7

D. Design and Manufacturing Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . 3-7

E. Molded Belts ,. _ 3-10

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section

4

5

6

Title

Page

CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN AND SELECTION CONSID-

ERATIONS .

Basic Design Considerations '.

A. Tension .

B. Minimum Ply .

C. Maximum Ply .

D. Impact .

E. Flex Life .

4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-3

F. Covers 4-3

II

G. Other Considerations .

Procedure for Selecting Belt ' .

A. General .

4-3 4-3 4-3 44 44 4-7

B. C. D.

Data Tabulation .

Width and Speed Selection .

Typical Conveyor Belt Selection

CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS .

5-1

Cross-Sectional Area of Load and Tonnage Capacity -

Normal Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,1

II Cross-Sectional Area of Load and Tonnage Capacity -

Slumping Materials (Dry, Free Flowing, or Very Wet) .. 5-3

III Cross-Sectional Area of Load and Tonnage Capacity -

Wood Chip Conveyors 5-3

IV Flat and Picking Conveyors 5-3

V Rate of Loading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5·3

VI Size of Lumps 5-3

VII Capacities for Special Conditions 5-7

A. Package Conveyors _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7

B. Log Handling Belts 5-7

C. Fully Skirted Belts 5-7

VIII Belt Speed _ _ . . . . . . 5-8

IX Weights of Materials 5-9

POWER REQUlREMENTS AND BELT TENSION .

I Conveyor Power .

II Belt Tension and Horsepower Due to Friction .

A. Friction Factor (C) and Length Factor (Lo) .

B. Q Factor and Belt Weight .. ' .

6-1 6·[ 6·1 6·1 6·3

C. Proper Value of Length (L) on Incline Belts. . . . . 6-3

D. Components of Belt Friction 6-4

E. Empty Conveyor Friction Force 64

F. Load Friction Force 6-4

G. Fully Skirted Conveyors 6-4

VI

Section

7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title

Page

III

Belt Tension and Horsepower for Elevating or

Lowering Load .

A. Force or Power Due to Grade .

B. Additional Force or Power for Trippers .

Effective Tension, Belt Horsepower, Drive Losses

A. Effective Belt Tension and Belt Horsepower .

B. Drive Losses Not Transmitted by Belt .

Effect of Belt Speed .

A. On Power .

B. On Tension .

Slack Side Tension .

Tension Due to Weight of Belt on Slope .

6-5 6-5

. 6-5 6-6 6·6 6·6 6-7 6·7 6·7 6-7 6-7

rv

v

VI VI!

VIII Maximum Belt Tension (Arithmetic Method) 6-8

IX Computer Analysis of Conveyor Belt Tensions _...... 6·8

X Graphical or Tension Diagram Method for Determining

Belt Tension Distribution 6· J 5

XI Acceleration and Braking Forces 6-20

A. General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20

B. Method of Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21

C. Effect on Belt Tensions - Tension Diagram

Method 6·22

D. Effect on Belt Tension - Arithmetic Analysis of

Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6·23

E. Rules Governing Algebraic Signs of All Conveyor

Belt Forces 6-24

F. Effect of Adding External Braking or Accelerating

Forces to Gravitational Forces 6-24

G. Examples of Tension Diagrams for Accelerating

and Braking Forces 6·26

XII Conveyor Coasting 644

A. General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

B. Method of Calculation 644

C. Example of Coasting Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

THE BELT CARCASS SELECTION .

7-1

Carcass Selection, Maximum Operating Tension Basis. . . 7-1

II Carcass Limitations, Minimum or Maximum Ply Basis. . . 7-3

III Limitations on Working Tension 7-3

A. General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

B. Fatigue of Duck 7-3

C. Stretch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 7-3

D. Vulnerability to Accidental Damage. . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

E. Splice Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7·5

F. Deterioration of Reinforcement 7·6

G. Pulley Bending Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 7-6

H. Lateral Mal-dist ribution of Tension. . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section

8

9

10

Title

Page

BELT QUALITY - COVER GAUGES, HEAT AND OIL

PROBLEMS 0 •• 0 0 • 0 0

8-1

General Purpose Belts o. 0 0 .0 • 0 • 0 0 0 •• 00 ••••• 0 • • • • 8-]

A. Quality Levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 8·1

B. Carcass Quality 8-2

C. Conveyor Cover 8·2

D. Pulley Cover 8·5

II

E. Cover Gauges for All-Gum Steel Cable Belts .

Special Purpose Belts .

A. General . 0 o' 0 ••• 0 •••• 0 •••••• 0 ••••••••

8-5 8-6 8-6

8.. Hot Materials and High. Temperature Belts 0 0 • • • • 8·6

C. Oil. Bearing Materials ..... 0 • 0 ••• 0 '0 • • • • • • • • 8-8

THE DRIVE, PULLEYS, AND MOTORS .

9-1

Introduction 0 0 • • • • •• 0....... o' 9·1

II Drive Types 0 0 0 •• 0 •• 0 0 •• 0 0 • 0 0 ••• 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9-1

A. Single Pulley Drive ... 0 • 0 ••••••• 0 • • • • • • • • • 9-1

B. Adjacent Two Pulley Drive 0 • • 9-2

Co Miscellaneous Drives 0 0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9-8

III Pulleys.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9·9

A. Pulley Diameters, . 0 • 00 0 •••••••• , •• , ••• 0 ., • 0 9-9

B. Pulley Crown. , , .. , , .. , , , , . , . . . . 9-9

C. Face Width of Pulleys 9-9

IV Pulley Laggings 9·11

A. General , , . , , . 0 • ' • , ' •••• 0 •• " •• , • , • • • • 9-11

B, Grooved Lagging, , , , ' , , .. , , , . , , . , , , , . ., . ' 9-11

V The Power Unit ",.'." , ,. 9·[2

A. General , . , . : .. , 0 , • • • • 9-[2

B, Squirrel Cage Motors. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9·13

C. Wound Rotor (Slip Ring) Motors 0 ••• 0 • 9-13

0.. Electrical, Fluid, and Centrifugal. Couplings 9·14

E. Progressive Movements of Belt During Start .. 0 • • 9-14

TAKEUP

10·1

[ Purpose of Takeup , . . . . . . . . . . 10·1

II Types of Takeup .. , , "., ,...... 10·1

III Movement Required of Takeup , .. , ,., 10-2

A. Manual Takeup ... , .. o •••••••••••••••••• , • • [0-2

B. Automatic Takeup , .. , .. ,., .,' . , , , , .. , .. , , 10-2

C. Amount of Belt Stretch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4

N Initial Position of Takeup . , . , , , ... , ... , . . . . . . . 104

V Effect of Takeup Location , . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . lOA

VI Effect on Counterweight of Reversing Belt Direction

or Reversing Stress at Drive , "..... 10·6

VII Recommended Minimum Tension 0 • • • • 10·6

viii

Section

11

12

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title

Page

VIII Amount of Takeup Tension Required

10-7

IX Mechanical Precautions at Takeup lO-7

CONVEYOR LOADING, IDLERS, AND AUXILIARY

EQUIPMENT .

I Loading .

11 -1 11-1

A. Feeders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1

B. Chutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3

C. Skirt Boards 11-5

D. Loading Conveyor at Loading Points 11·6

E. Intermediate Loading 11·6

F. Loading Point Impact I 1-6

II Trajectory of Material Discharged Over Conveyor

Head Pulley 11·10

III Idlers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 11-14

A. Diameter of Idler Rolls 1.1·14

B. Carrying Idlers 11-14

C. Return Idlers 11·15

D. Idler Spacing 11-15-

E. Graduated Idler Spacing 11-17

IV Self-Aligning Methods 11-18

A. General 11-18

B. Aligning Problems in Reversing Conveyors 1 1-23

C. Spacing of Self-Aligning Idlers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23

D. GUiding Devices on Belt 11·23

V

Cleaning Devices .

A. General .

11-24 Il·24 JI-24 11·24 11-24 11-24

B. C. D. E.

Scrapers .

Brushes

Loca tion of Cleaners .

Cleaning Pulley Side of Belt .

F. Twisted Belt 1l·24

VI Covering the Conveyor [ 1·25

VII Continuous Weighing I 1-25

VIII Magnetic Separation .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11·25

IX Braking and Restraining Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-25

A. Brakes (Table 11-G) 11·25

D. Anti-Rollback Devices (Table II-G) 11·26

C. Restraint of Decline Conveyors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27

OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS _ .

[ Maximum Angle of Incline .

12-1 12-1 12-1 12·1 12-3 12-8

II

Vertical Curves .

A. General .

B. C.

Concave Vertical Curves Convex Vertical Curves

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Title

Page.

13

14

III Transitions , •.. , , , .

A. General. . .. . , .. " , " ,.

12-10 . 12·10

B. Recommended Terminal Pulley Location 12-11

C. Minimum Recommended Transition Distances 12-11

D. Transition Idler Arrangement 12-13

N Twisted Belt Considerations, , , .. " , . , , , , . . 12-14

A. B. C. D.

General .,.,', .

Twist Length Calculations .. , , .. , .

12-14 12-14 12-14 12-15

Belt Sag in Twist Area """"""

General Twist Comments and Recommendations ..

INSTALLATION, FASTENING, VULCANIZING, TRAIN-

ING, REPAIRING, TROUBLE CORRECTIONS .

I Determination of Belt Length, , , , .. , , ..

II Handling the Roll of Belting .

A. General , , , .. , .

B. Pulling the Belt on the Conveyor .

] 3-1 13·1 13·1 13·1 1.3·1

III Tensioning the Belt ,., ,.,............ 13-2

A. General, , , , .. , , . . . . 13·2

B. C.

13-3

Average Empty Running Tension

Average Loaded Running Tension and Required

Splicing Tension ., , .. , , .. , .

13·3

D. Measuring Splicing Tension , . . . . 13·5

E. Tensioning Plylon Belts. .. 13·5

IV Fastening Belts Endless .. , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6

A. Types of Fasteners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13·6

B, Effect of Fastener Bolt Tightness ." ,... 13·8

C. Fastener Limitations . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13·8

V Vulcanized Splices , , ,... 13-8

A. General................................. 13·8

B. Types of Splices " , 13·9

C. Length of Splices .. ,...................... 13-9

D. Belt Splicing Equipment ,...... 13-9

E. Limitations On Use of Vulcanized Splices .. . . . . . 13-10

p, Strength of Vulcanized Splices , ... , ... ,. , , . . [3-11

VI Conveyor Belt Repairs ... ,...................... [3-11

VII Training the Belt """" , ,., ,.. 13-12

A. General , , , . . 13-12

B. Factors Affecting Training of a Belt ., ' , . 13-13

C. Sequence of Training Operation 13-15

VIII Conveyor Belt Troubles - Causes and Corrections 13-16

SAFETY DEVICES , , ,.

I General .. " . . . . . . . . . .. . .. , , ..

14-1 14·1 14-1

II

Personnel Protection Devices . .

A. Emergency Stop Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

x

TABLE OF CONT.ENTS

Section Title Page

B. Warning Horns IA-I

C. Belt Crossover Stile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14-1

D. Pulley Guards , ,. 14-2

E. Painting Pulley or Idler Heads , . . . . . . . . . . 14-2

F. Walkways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2

G., Protection Beneath Conveyors ,.,." ", .. , 14-3

H, Lighting , , , , . , .. , , , . . . 14-3

L Training in Conveyor Operation and Procedures. , 14·3

III Belt and Equipment Devices .. , , , ' . . . . . . . 14-3

A. Limit Switches, . , ... , ... , , .. , , . , .. , ."... 14-3

B. Rip Protection, .. , .. , .. , , . . . . . . . . . . 14-3

C. Slip Protection , , , , , .. , ,.',.. 144

15

D. E. F. G, H. I. J. K. L.

Sequence Protection .. , , .. " .. ,",., ..

Overspeed Protection .. , , ' .

Chute Plugging and Full Bin Protection .. , .

Overrun on Stopping , "

Overload Protection , , , , ,

Takeup Protection , .. , , .. , .

Emergency Stopping , , ' , , .

Restraining Stopped Belts ., .. , ".,." .

Transfer Point Monitor

PACKAGE CONVEYING , .. , " , .. , .

14-5 14-5 14-5 14-5 14-5 14-6 14·6 14-7 14-7

15 -I

] Description and Uses , , .. ,.. 15-1

II Belt Width, Speed, and Capacity """"",.""" 15-3

A, BeltWidth , .. '.' ' , , ... " , 15-3

B. BeltSpeed .. ' , ".,', , 15-3

C. Belt Capacity " , , ,. 15-3

III Package Conveyor Data Tabulation .. , , , , , , , , 15-3

N Belt Tension and Horsepower , , , . , . . 15-6

A. Unit Load Factor (U), , , .. , , , , , , , ' , . , . _ , . 15-6

B. Friction Factors "., , .. , , , . , 15-6

C. Effective Tension (Te) , ' .. ,' , ., . , """ , 15-6

D. Maximum Tension (T m) and Belt Horsepower (Bhp) 15-6

E. Symbol Identification , , , , 15·6

F. Belt and Roll Weights .. , .. , ' , . , .. , , 15-6

V Ply Selection , , , ' , , . , , , , , , .. , , , , . ' ' , , . . 15-6

VI Pulley Sizes ,', ' " .... ,......... 15-7

VII Idler Spacing , " ,., .. , " .. ,. 15·7

VIII Type of Belt Surface Required " , . , . , , .. , . . . . 1 5-7

A, Pulley Side . . , " .. , , 15-7

B. Carrying Side " , , , .. , 15-8

IX Fasteners and Splices ", .. ,' , . , , , . . . . . . . . 15-10

X Live Roll Conveyors .. " ' .. , . ' , . . . 15·10

xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section

16

17

Title

GRAIN CONVEYORS AND ELEVATORS .

I Grain Conveyor Belts .

A. General .

B. Belt Speeds .

C. Carrying Idlers and Capacities .

D. Idler Spacing .

E. F. G. H.

Angles of Incline .

Chutes and Transfers .

Belts for Grain Conveyor Service

Belt Tension and Horsepower Calculations .

II

Grain Elevator Belts .

A. Types of Elevators .

B. Bucket Spacing .

C. Belt Speeds .

Page

16-1 16-1 16-1 16-2 16-2 16·2 16-3 16·3 16-3 164 16-5 16-5 16-5 16-5

D. Goodyear Theory of Centrifugal Discharge . . . . . . 16-5

E. Pulleys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 16-8

F. Buckets for Grain Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8

G. Light Materials Elevating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16·9

H. Elevator and Bucket Capacities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10

I. Components of Maximum Belt Tension 16-10

1. Maximum Tension, T m (Pounds) 16-10

K. Effective Tension and Horsepower 16-11

L. Belt Carcass Requirements 16·11

M. Belts for Grain Elevator Service 16-12

N. Belt Width and Bucket Length 16-12

O. Double Row of Buckets 16-12

P. BucketandBeltPunching.... 16-13

Q. Elevator Belt Installation and Splicing. . . . . . . . . . 16-13

INDUSTRIAL BELT ELEVATORS .

I General .

II Types of Elevators .

17-1 17-1 17-1

III Loading the Elevator 17-1

IV Speed and Elevator Discharge 17-1

V Buckets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2

A. Sizes and Shapes .17-2

B. Bucket Weights and Theoretical Volumes 17·2

C. Bucket Spacings 17·3

VI

Elevator and Bucket Capacities .

A. Volume of Material in Each Bucket, V (Cubic

Inches) .

B. We igh t 0 f Ma teria I in Each Bucket ,w (POUll ds) .

C. Elevator Capacity in Tons per Hour .

VU

Belt Tension and Power Calculations

A. Components of Maximum Belt Tension .

B. Maximum Tension, T m (Pounds) .

xii

174

174 174 174 17·5 17-5 17·5

Section

APPEND1X A

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title

Page

VIII Belt Carcass Requirements 17·5

A. Minimum Plies for Belt Tension 17·5

B. Minimum Plies for Bolt Holding 17·5

C. Maximum Plies for Pulley Diameters. . . .. . . . . . . . 17·5

IX Belt Covers and Breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5

X Belt Widths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5

XI Head and Boot Pulleys 17-9

X[] Takeup...................................... 17-9

XIII Belt Punching .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10

XIV Belt Bolt Holding Ability 17·10

XV Elevator Belt Installation and Splicing 17·10

A. General 17·10

B. Installation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17·]0

C. Splicing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 17-10

D. AttachingBuckets......................... 17-]2

Index

A·] 1·1

xiii

SECTION

1

INTRODUCTION

Page

IV

Road Bed

1-1 I-I 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 J-8 1-8 1-8 1-8

History.

II Capacity

III Adaprion to Ground Profile

V Least Degradation of Ma terial

VI Environmental Considerations

Vll Minimum of Labor _ .• __ .

VII] Light Weight of Conveyor Structure

IX Multiple Gathering and Discharge Point Capabilities

X Mobility and Extensibility .

XI Lowest Power Requirement

XII Versatile Power Supply.

XIII Control

XIV Early Warning of Failure

XV Safety

XVI All-Weather Capabilities XVIl Purpose of Handbook .

)

SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION

I. HISTORY

Transporting bulk materials by conveyor belts dates back to approximately 1795; most of these early installations handled grain over rei a lively short distances,

The first conveyor belt systems were very primitive and consisted of leather, canvas, or rubber belt traveling over a flat or troughed wooden bed_ This type of system was not an unqualified success but did provide incentive for engineers to consider conveyors as a rapid, economical, and safe method of moving large volumes of bulk materials from one location to another.

During the 1920's, the Colonial Dock installation of the H. C. Frick Company showed what belt conveyors could do in long-d istance hauling, This installa lion was underground and handled run of mine coal over some five miles. The conveyor belt consisted of multiple plies of cotton duck and natural rubber covers, which were the only materi.als used to manufacture belting at that time. Although outmoded by toriay's standards, this material handling system was selected in preference to rail haulage, which has proved to be a proper choice.

During World War II, natural components became so scarce that the rubber industry was forced to create synthetic materials to replace them. Today, Goodyear produces bel ting with an almost endless list of polymers and fabrics to meet the design requirements of any conveying situation. Possible uses of conveyor belting have broadened considerably since the Frick installation.

The basic advantages of conveyors over other means of transport (such as truck, rail, skip-hoist, and aerial tramway) for bulk haulage are numerous. The following paragraphs indicate why today's belt conveyors have become the primary method for bulk material handling.

II. CAPACITY

Conveyor belts have no equal in capacity among competing transport means. At a belt speed of 650 feet per minute, a 60-inch-wide conveyor belt delivers more than 100 tons per minute of material weighing 100 pounds per cubic foot.

','

'~--' - .

. . ~~

Modern COIIJ!eyor Systems Call Be Extended Many Miles

1-1

SECTION I

III. ADAPTION TO G RO UNO PROFILE

Conveyors can follow ordinary natural cross-coun try terrain by virtue of their ability to traverse relatively steep grades (up to and including 18 degrees, depending on the material being carried), With the development of high-tension synthetic fabrics and/or steel cable reinforcing members, one flight can extend for several miles.

IV. ROAD BED

A belt conveyor system operates on its own "bed" of idlers, thus requiring a minimum of attenrion. Repair or replacement is both fast and easy, and the cost of rou te maintenance is m inimal.

V. LEAST DEGRADATION OF MATERIAL

The smooth ride of long center roll conveyor belt systems produces little degradation of the material being conveyed.

Eight-Foot-wide Goodyear Conveyor Belt Helps Make This Coal-Loading Facility the Largest and Fastest ill the Nation

VI. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

Electrically powered conveyor belt systems are quiet (an important feature ill procuring right-or-ways and in complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Act regulations). Belt systems C31l be covered to help ensure clean air. They even can be buried out of sight for quiet, functioual, and aesthetic reasons.

VII. MINIMUM OF LABOR

One man per mile of line IS more than adequate in a properly designed belt conveyor system. Contrast this with the number of drivers on a truck operation handling equal tonnage

VIII. LIGHT WEIGHT OF CONVEYOR STRUCTURE

Low weight of load and conveyor structure per linear foot allows simple structural design for bridging gulleys, streams, highways, or other similar obstacles. Likewise, a conveyor structure 011 a hillside requires little excavation and cloes not invite hazards from earth or rock slides, Because the structure is compact, it requires a minimum of covering for protection.

INTRODUCTION

World's Strongest Conveyor Bells: Goodyear Twill 4400 piw Steel Cable Belts Hall/BOOO tph at Arizona Copper Mine

1-3

SECTION I

COIIPeyor Systems Call Adapt to Virtually AllY Natural Terrain Utilizing a Simple Supporting Structure

_.,;.

' .

... _ .

..

...

Mobile Stacker aile! Trippel' Belt Combine fa Discharge Material Over Large A rea

\-4

IX. MULTIPLE GATHERING AND DISCHARGE POINT CAPABILITIES

These capabilities are important in mining or excavation, where two or more digging operations can feed to a central loading point. At the discharge end, material can be dispersed in s veral directions from the main line. Or material can be discharged along any pan or any line by a tripper. Pendulum or caterpillarmounted belts can be swung in a 180-degree arc to follow a digging shovel or call be used on the discharge end for stockpiling.

X. MOBILITY AND EXTENSI BllITV

Modern modular conveyor lines can be extended, shortened. or relocated with :1 minimum of labor and time.

INTRODUCTION

Xl. LOWEST POWER REQUIREMENT

Conveyor require the least power per ton of any means of haulage. Decline conveyors. depending on degree of slope, often generate powei that can be fed back to the line for other uses.

XII. VERSATILE POWER SUPPL V

Belt conveyors, which generally are powered by electric motors, can adapt to whatever fuel or power source that is in greatest supply (such as coal, hydroelectric, natural gas, nuclear, and solar).

XIII. CONTROL

Properly designed conveyor systems have control reduced to pushbutton proportions and can be selfcontrolled by interlocking limit switches.

Goodyear Plylon® and Steel Cable Belts Combine to Economically Strip Overburden from Future Mine Site

@Trademark, The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio.

1-5

SECTION I

VERSATILE USES OF GOODYEAR CONVEYOR BELTS

1-6

Wedge-Grip@ Rough Top Belting for Handling All Types of Packages

Glide® - Tough, Long-Wearing Conveyor Belting for Underground Mining

Plylon® All-Purpose Belting for a Wide Range of Applications in All Industries

GOOD/yEAR

Permalon® Belting/or All Food-Processing Industries

Custom Built Steel Cable Belting to Master Tough High- Tension Applications

Super Thermo-Flo ® Belting for Transporting Hot Materials Up to 400 Deg F

GOOD;!yEAR

INTRODUCTION

.. 'I \ ,~4 .,.~ ,-'"

L ,:'t, """fI.-;-

- .~·.I ~.;. ",

1·7

SECTION I

XIV. EARLY WARNING OF FAILURE

Generally, belts signal their failure from wear many months in advance. With proper safety devices and safeguards, accidental damage can be minimized and contained.

XV. SAFETY

Bulk material transport by conveyor belting is inherently safer than other methods, particularly in coal mines where safety records show very favorable resui ts with belt systems versus rail haulage.

XVI. ALL-WEATHER CAPASI LlTIES

For minimal cost, belt conveyors can be protected from rain, snow, and other inclement weather that could adversely affect rail or truck haulage.

XVII. PURPOSE OF HANDBOOK

The primary purpose of the Goodyear "Handbook of Conveyor and Elevator Bel ting" is to provide both de-

signers and users with a reference manual that allows them to select the optimum bel ting specifications for any given set of conditions.

Detailed discussions are presented Oil the fundamental formulas and their relationships in determining belt tensions. The charac teristics of the various types of reinforcements (cotton, rayon, rayon-nylon, nylon, polyester, and steel cable) and the elastomers (natural and synthetic rubbers) used with these reinforcements are discussed. Consideration of these three elements (belt tensions, reinforcements, and elastomers), along with other design considerations, results in the optimum belting specification for the service in tended.

Information not always readily available elsewhere also has been provided on subjects directly associated with the bel L While this handbook provides useful information on these subjects and in some cases establishes design criteria for elements other than the belt, this handbook is not intended as a design manual for any part beyond the belt itself.

l-8

....

SECTION

2

SOME FUNDAMENTALS OF BELT DESIGN

Page
In troduction 2-1
II De fini tions . 2-1
HI Coefficient of Friction 2-]
IV Tension Relationships 2-2
V Centrifugal Tension 2-3
VI Creep 2·4
VII Torque and Horsepower Formulas 2-4
VUl K Values 2·5
IX Face Pressure 2·5
X The Goodyear Belt Flexing Formula 2·5
XI Tension Ratings 2-6 )

SECTION 2

SOME FUNDAMENTALS OF BELT DESIGN

I.

INTRODUCTION

Many engineers and conveyor belt users are familiar with the theory and fundamentals of transmission belting. An analysis of the general aspects of conveyor belt driving relative to transmission belting provides a foundation for the design of belt conveyors and belt elevators. In both conveyor and transmission belting, a belt is driven by friction between the belt and drive pulley or pulleys. Certain other design elements also are much the same whether power is being transmitted or materials transported. The similarity between the two cases can be observed in the following discussion of the fundamentals of belt design as related specifically to belt conveyors and belt elevators ..

II.

DEFINITIONS

Tension in a belt is a force acting along the length of the belt and tending to elongate it. Belt tension is measured in pounds. When the tension is referred to some unit of cross-sectional area, it is known as unit tension and is measured in, or converted to, pounds per ply inch (ppi) or pounds per inch width (piw).

Torque is the effectiveness of a force to produce rotation about an axis and thus involves the size of the force and its moment arm .. Torque is the product of a force (or tension) and the length of the arm through which it acts. Technically, the units for torque are pound-inches (Ib-in.) and pound-feet (lb-ft), but common usage employs the same names as for energy and work unit (inch-pounds and foot-pounds) and depends on the context for clarity.

Energy and work are closely related and are expressed in the same units. Work is the product of a force and the distance through which it acts. Energy is the capacity for performing work, The units are the inch-pound (in-Ib) and the foot-pound (ft-lb). The energy of a moving body in foot-pounds is given by:

1 2 = vm2

- nlV .,'

2 2g ,

where

m = mass,

w := weight in pounds,

v = velocity in feet per second, and

g acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/se(2).

Power is the rate of doing work or transmitting energy. The mechanical power unit, horsepower (hp), is said to have originated from the rate of work that a strong draft horse could perform but is accurately defined as 33,000 ft-lb of work per minute. A corresponding electrical power unit is the kilowatt (kw). One horsepower equals 0.746 kw, or approximately 3/4 kw,

Power expended for a period of time produces work, giving rise to the terms, or units, horsepower-hour and kilowatt-hour.

III. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

If, as in Figure 2-1, a body of weight (w) rests on a horizontal plane surface and a force (p) parallel to the surface is just enough to cause the body to be at the point of slipping, the ratio of p to w is the coefficient of friction (f) between these surfaces. Thus,

f =.E...

w

(2·1)

Otherwise stated, coefficient of friction is the ratio of tangential to normal force when slip is about to occur.

w

Figure 2-1 - Coefficient of Friction

2·1

SECTION 2

IV. TENSION RELATIONSHIPS

Consider a rope or belt, as in Figure 2·2, hanging over a pulley that resists rotation. Tensions T A and T Bare caused by large and small weights, respectively. Common experience teaches that, if the coefficient of friction between belt and pulley is large enough, a considerable difference in tension is possible in such a system .. Experience also tells us that, when the arc of contact is reduced (as in Figure 2-3 with a freely turning idler), T B must be larger to keep the belt from slipping. The essential factors are the tensions, the coefficient of friction, and the angle or arc of contact.

If, in Figure 2-2 or 2-3, the unbalanced tension (T A - T B) is large enough to overcome the resistance, the pulley

Figure 2-2

FREEL.Y TURNING IDL.ER PUL.L.EY

Figure 2-3

will turn, but the action is limited by the length of the belt. It is an easy step to Figure 2A, where a joined or endless belt is applied to two pulleys. A turning moment or torque applied at shaft 01 causes a torque at shaft 02. Thus, the action described in Figure 2-2 is applicable continuously in a system like Figure 2-4, thus illustrating the fundamental tension relations in belt driving.

To find the relation of TA, coefficient of friction (f), and the arc of contact (a) in radians, refer to Figure 2-5, which represents a very small element of the belt of Figures 2-2, 2-3, or 2-4. The tension in the belt at b is T, and at a it is (T + LlT) due to friction. The element "ab" subtends the very small angle Lla. The forces are more

DRIVEN PUL.L.EY

DRIVING FUL. L.EY

Figure 2-4

-ts a

Figure 2-5

2-2

clearly represented in Figure 2-6, which shows that the force F n between this portion of the belt and the pulley is given by:

F n == 2T sin fl.2a (here fl.T is negligible). (2-2)

6.T = f F n (the belt being at the point of slipping). (2.3)

fl.T fl.a

_ fl.a S1l1 """2

fla

"2

= fT

Taking limits as fl.a approaches zero,

dT

da = fT.

In tegrating,

fa

f

o

da =

(2-4)

e 0.0175 fu.,

(2-5)

where "a" is the arc of contact in degrees, Of

TA

loglO == T = 0.0076 fa.

B

(2-6)

Equations 2-4, 2·5, and 2-6 are valid only under the conditions for which they were derived: (1) the belt is at the point of slipping and (2) centrifugal tension is not included in T A or T B (see also Equation 2-12). Note that

-

......

....

....

-

-

....

F n

Figure 2-6 - Force Between Belt and Pulley

BELT DESIGN

in Equations 2-4, 2-5, and 2-6, the left-hand term is the ratio of tensions; therefore, the only requirement for the tension units is that they be the same for both T A and T B'

Figure 2-7 illustrates the manner in which the ratio of tensions can be built up with increasing arc of contact. The larger arcs, of course, require multiple driving pulleys. The vertical scale gives the number of pounds of tight-side tension possible for each pound of slack-side tension for f = 0.35.

1 9

.1
RELATION OF ARC OF CONTACT AND j_
r--- MAXIMUM BE L T TENSION RATIO II
1 I
V
/
V
L
.> V
V V CALCULATED FOR f = 0.35 AND
~ BELT fT VE~GE OF,SL1PPtG 17

15

~ 13

til Z W I- 1 uJ o til :< 9 U <: .J Vl

o l-

II

'" I-

u, o 3

~

I« It I

o

120

420

480

60

160

240

300

360

ARC OF CONTACT (DEGREESI

Figure 2-7 - Arc of Contact versus Tension Ratios

v.

CENTRIFUGAL TENSION

In the usual conveyor and elevator installation, centrifugal tension is a negligible factor because the speeds are relatively slow. For the occasional case where this tension should be considered, a brief discussion is included.

The centrifugal force, Fe (lb), acting on a body weighing "w" pounds, moving "v" feet per second in a curved pathofradiusRfeet(whereg= 32.2 ft/sec2), is given by:

wv2 F =-

c gR'

(2-7)

If, instead of representing the weight of the body, "w" is pounds per foot of length, the centrifugal force for the element in Figure 2-5 is given by:

w v2 R 6.a

F ==----

c gR

wi fl.a g

(2·8)

2-3

SECTION 2

The centrifugal force acting on the elements of a belt is balanced by centrifugal tension (Tc) in the belt. From a relationship similar to Figure 2-6,

F 2T .. Lla

c = c Sill 2'

(2-9)

From Equations 2-7 and 2-8,

T = w v 2 Lla/2

c g sin Lla/2

Taking limits as Lla approaches zero,

wv2 T =_

. C g

(2-10)

Now,ifTI = TA +TcandT2 = TB + r., TI-Te

=-_=-= efa.

T -T

2 c

(2-11)

Note that "w" for calculating T c is in pounds per foot of length of belt of the same cross-sectional dimensions as those used for T 1, T 2 T A' T B' and Te' Thus, if the tensions are expressed in' pound's per ply inch, w must be given in pounds per ply inch per foot of length.

Where it is understood T c is negligible, Equa tion 2-11 is commonly written:

(2-12)

In this book, where speeds are known to be relatively low, Equation 2-12 is used.

VI. CREEP

Belt creep exists whenever a belt passes around a pulley and there is a difference between the entering and leaving tensions. Consider a portion or element of belt approaching a driving pulley. If the tension is high with reference to the torque, the belt element will travel at the same speed as the pulley face through some part of the arc of contact. Through the remainder of the arc of contact, this portion of belt will be under progressively less tension down to the slack-side tension at the exit point. During the slackening process, the belt element shortens (recovers from elongation) and consequently moves slower than the pulley face. This relative motion is creep.

If the load is increased, the arc in which creep occurs (the "arc of creep") increases. If the load is sufficiently increased, the arc of creep may become as large as the arc of contact, in which case the belt will be at the point of slipping, The remedy, of course, is to provide more slackside tension.

Whether the belt is being driven by a pulley or is itself driving a pulley, the arc of creep always starts from the exit point and progresses toward the entry point as the load increases.

Consider the action in the vicinity of the drive of a conveyor or elevator belt. If E is the dynamic modulus of elasticity of the belt and v 1 and v 2 are the entry and exit velocities, respectively,

Percent creep

100 T e E +T 1

(2-13)

Since T 1 is small compared with E,

lOOT

Percent creep = __ ._e (approximately).

E

(2-14)

Consider the belt velocity as it approaches the drive pulley as a base. The belt slows down by the amount of creep percentage where it leaves the drive pulley. The recovery of this velocity loss is spread over the entire conveyor or elevator in a manner depending on the tension cycle.

While the creep percentage is usually small enough to be neglected without appreciable error, it can be significant in cases such as weightometer calculations.

VII. TORQUE AND HORSEPOWER FORMULAS

In the following equations:

hp = horsepower,

S 0: belt speed in feet per minute,

T e = effective tension in pounds, and

rpm = revolutions per minute,

Thus,

(2-15)

hp = torque in in.v lb X rpm
63,000
hp ;;; torque in ft-lb X rpm
5250 (2-16)

(2-17)

24

Torque in in.Ib

= 63,000 X hp rpm

(2-18)

Torque in ft-lb = 5250 X hp rpm

(2-19)

Torque in in.db at drive pulley shaft = T X pulley diameter in inches

e 2

(2-20)

Torque in in.-Ib on high-speed side of reducer

T X pulley diameter in inches X. _. __ 1 _

e 2 speed red uc tion

(2-21)

VIII. K VALUES

As used in Section 9, K is the ratio of slack-side tension to effective tension for the applicable conditions of arc of contact and coefficient of friction. K is used in the determination of the slack-side tension required for driving with a given effective tension and specified operating conditions of type of takeup, pulley surface (coefficient of friction), and arc of contact.

Takeup provisions are included by using a lower coefficient of friction for manual takeup. In this way, a reserve of tension is provided initially to eliminate too frequent. adjustment of the manual takeup mechanism.

Since

efa (T c negligible) and

T 1 - T 2 =: T 2 (eJa - 1) ,

R - 1

(2-22)

where R = ratio of tensions.

K values from Equation 2-22 for the more commonly used arcs of contact and for both manual and automatic takeups are listed in Section 9. K values calculated from Equation 2-22 for dual or tandem drives are accurate only when there is a proper distribution of power between the primary and secondary drives. Section 9 contains a complete discussion of this and provides a means of deter milling K for such drives regardless of the power distribution.

BELT DESIGN

IX. FACE PRESSURE

In large, heavy-duty installations, it is advisable to check the face pressure to make sure that safe limits are not exceeded. The analysis follows Figures 2-5 and 2-6.

Since

p

TSin~ r L:la

2

Taking limits as L:la approaches zero,

T P =r

(2-23)

where

P face pressure in pounds per square inch,

r = radius in inches, and

T = pound of tension per inch width.

Extreme face pressures in conveyor belt applications are rarely if ever encountered because pulleys are normally large enough for other reasons to be well within safe Limits from a pressure standpoint. The problem from extreme pressure would be in the form of peeling or roiling away of a pulley cover, especially at drive pulleys where there also would be some creep.

High-tension steel cable belts are usually the only place where face pressure becomes a factor in pulley selection. Steel cable pulley diameters in Section 9 limit face pressures to a maximum of 140 psi.

X. THE GOODYEAR BELT FLEXING FORMULA

The results of extensive testing in the Goodyear laboratories and subsequent confirmation under field conditions are expressed in the following Goodyear belt flexing formula:

Flexing servicex

=

Flexing service a

(2-24)

2·5

SECTION 2

where

a ::: set of known conditions,

x = desired conditions,

d = pulley diameter,

= length of belt,

S belt speed

N number of plies or belt thickness, and

T 1 tight-side tension.

This formula was developed many years ago and was of great value in working with flat, cotton, transmission belts in heavy use at that time. With the materials and

constructions of today's belts, its value is greatly diminished, especially in conveyor belting where flexing service is rarely a cause for concern. However, the formula does provide a means of evaluating the relative severity of the various factors on any given drive where problems might exist.

XI. TENSION RATINGS

TIle assignment of definite tension ratings for various kinds and sizes of belts under various operating circumstances reflects what has been learned from experience and will provide user satisfaction. Actually, there is no distinct limit within which satisfactory results prevail and just beyond which lies certain failure. Results progress through a wide range of conditions so that decisions are based to some extent on economics. Tension rating values assigned to various belt constructions and operating conditions are given in Section 7.

2·6

SECTION

3

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTRUCTION

Page

Elastomers. .

II Reinforcements

3-1

3-~

HI The Assembled Belt

3-6

}

SECTION 3

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTRUCTION

I. ELASTOMERS

A. Introduction

The contemporary rubber chemist enjoys a broad spectrum of basic rubbers and compounding rna terials with which to build better and longer lasting rubber products. Whereas in the past natural rubber played the major role in the construction of conveyor belts, it now shares the lead with many very versatile elastomers.

In the last few decades, man-made rubbers have come into lise that offer advantages in economics and properties. The ever widening application of conveyor belts has demanded and expanded the skills of the rubber chemist and development engineer. Many of these new materials require unusual methods in compounding, processing, and assembling of conveyor belts, with the net result being a more satisfactory produc t. The new materials enable the conveyor belt manufacturer to accept operating conditions involving swelling oils, corrosive materials, and hot loads knowing that good service can be provided.

The following paragraphs describe briefly some featu res of the more popular elastomers used in conveyor belts. Table 3-A summarizes these elastomers and their typical properties.

B. Natural Rubber

The term "natural rubber" refers to the rubber-like materials produced by the coagulation of a plant or tree latex. Of the many, many varieties, the Hevea tree has achieved the greatest commercial use.

Natural rubber and synthetic polylsoprene. Natsyn. can be compounded to provide good tensile strength and elongation over a wide range or hardnesses. They provide excellent characteristics of resiliency and elasticity. Where these characteristics are important, natural and synthetic "natural" rubber can be expected to give the best results as compared to other elastomers.

Natural rubber has excellent low-temperature resistance. III addition, it can be formulated to provide good abrasion and cut-tear resistance, which are desirable properties in many conveyor belt installations.

C. Plioflex

Plioflex, SBR, is made by the copolyrneriza lion of styrene and butadiene and falls in the classification of 11011- oil-resistant synthetic rubber. Good abrasion resistance, low temperature flexibility, and low water absorption are characteristic of this rubber.

Styrene-butadiene rubbers can be polymerized by either a hot or cold process. The "cold rubber" grade exhibits improved abrasion resistance and has attained extensive use in belting.

D. Butyl and Chlorobutyl

Butyl rubber is a copolymer of isobutylene-isoprene and attained initial popularity because of a Jow rate of gas permeation. Good resistance to weathering, heat, and chemical attack expanded its application to many products. It exhibits some resistance to vegetable oils but is classed as a non-oil-resistant elastomer.

Chlorobutyl is the product of chlorinating butyl rubber, which results in many advantages. This chemical modification enhances the heat resistance of the ela tomer, widens compounding boundaries, and improves processing.

Both bu tyl and chlorobu tyl have been used for conveyor bel ts (0 u tilize their resistance to hea t and chemical attack.

E. Ethylene Prnpvlene

Ethylene propylene diene monomer, EPm"L i recognized for its great resistance to weathering and ozone

3-1

SECTION 3

attack. EPDM can be compounded for exceptional heat resistance as well as resistance to corrosive materials. Good abrasion characteristics are obtainable through proper formulation of this elastomer. The properties offered by EPDM make it an attractive building rnaterial for conveyor belts handling chemicals and hot materials.

F. Chemigum

The Chernigurn rubbers, butadiene-acrylonitrile copoiyrners, are designed to provide a high degree of oil resistance. These elastomers also can be compounded for good natural and heat aging characteristics and abrasion resistance .. They are specialty polymers and are used where their properties are advantageous for specific conveyor belt installations.

G. Chloroprene

There are many types of chloroprene rubber, also known as neoprene, that provide a wide range of properties for product design. All types produce vulcanizates with some resistance to oils, fats, and greases. Cbloroprene has ozone and sun-checking resistance as well as good abrasion resistance, Resistance to flame propagation, cut growth, moderate heat, and many chemicals is characteristic of the chloroprene vulcan izates, which makes the elastomer useful for specialized conveyor belting,

H. Hypalon(R)

Hypalon, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, is a medium oil-resistant polymer. In addition, Hypalo n provides good resistance to moderate heat, many chemicals, and weathering. Lightly colored compounds having good physical properties maintain their color and durability after long outdoor exposure. Hypalon does not support combustion. It offers good dynamic properties and resistance to abrasion.

I. Urethane

Urethane is a rather remarkable elastomer with unusually high physical properties. The urethanes are available in both liquid and millable form. The liquid urethanes can be cast or sprayed whereas the rnillable type is processed in the same manner as natural rubber. Its exceptional tear and abrasion resistance, coupled

(R)Registered tradenarne of E. l. DuPont de Nemours Co., Inc.

with its oil resistance, makes it useful for belts subject to impact and operating in an oil environment.

J. Fluoroelastomers

The tluoroelastorner family is noted for resistance to mineral oils and most solvents at high temperatures. The fluoroelastomer belt cover offers a low coefficient of friction and an excellent non-sticking surface for handling tacky materials. These qualities make it attractive for the unusual belt installation.

II. REINFORCEMENTS

A. Fibers

A variety of synthetic or man-made fibers is now heavily used in conveyor belts where cotton once was predominant. Vastly increased strength requirements, the desire to obtain equivalent strength at lower cost, and the need for special materials for certain applications all have led to these developments. Table 3-B lists characteristics of some of the more common materials used to make up today's conveyor and elevator belt carcass fabrics. Textile fabrics are the most commonly used materials in the carcasses of conveyor and elevator belts.

B. Yarns and Weaves

1. General

Fibers are made into yarns, which in turn are woven into the belt fabrics made of warp yarns (running lengthwise) and filler yarns (running transversely). Some of the more common fabric weaves are as follows.

2. Plain Weave

Most belt carcass fabrics are formed with a plain weave; that is, the warp and fill yams alternately cross each other as illustrated in Figure 3-1.

Since the warp yarns are the tension or load-carrying members, the fabrics are designed with the dominant strength in this direction. This can be accomplished by using a greater number of ends per inch in the warp; by using larger, stronger yarns ill the warp; or, in some instances, a cornbina tion of both of these fact ors,

3. Filling Rib Weave

This weave is similar to the plain weave except it has double warp yarns and single filler yarns (Figure 3-2).

3-2

TABLE 3-A - ELASTOMER CHARACTERISTICS

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTR UCTION

Comme r cia l name

Typical characte r is ti c s

Type

ASTM

n orn e nc Ia tu r e

Natural rubbe r

Na t s yn

Phoflex

Butyl and chlorobutyl

Ethylene propylene terpolymer

Chemigum

Chloroprene

Hypalon

Urethane

Fluoroelastomers

Isoprene, natural

Isoprene, synthetic

Styrene and butadiene

1sobutylene - isoprene and butyl, chlorinated

Ethylene, propylene, and non- conjugated diene

Butadiene and acrylonitrile

Pol ychloroprene

Chlorosulfonylpolyethylene

Polyester or polyether polyols and di-isocyanates

Vinylidene fluoride and herafluoropropylene

NR

IR

A good balance of high res i l i ence, ten sile strength, and tear resistance. Good wear prope.rties, Low permanent set, and good flex qualities at low temperatures. Superior tear and cut-growth resistance.

High resilience, tensile, tear, and cut-growth resistance. Good low-temperature properties.

Good mechanical prope r t i e s ranging slightly below those of natural rubbe r, Can be compounded for good abrasion, wear, and tensile prope rties.

Low permeability to gases and vapors. Excellent dampening propertie s , Resists aging f r orn weathe r , ozone, heat, and c he mi c a l s , Dielectric properties are good.

Excellent ozone, oxygen, and weather resistance. Good color stability, dielectric qualities, and Low t em pe r a tu r a properties. High elasticity and good heat resistance.

Excellent resistance to solvents, fats and oils, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Good aging propertie sand good abrasion resistance.

Good oil and chemical resistance. Heat and flame resistant. Good resistance to oxidation, heat, and abrasion.

Good oz o ne resistance and light stability with excellent resistance to weather, heat, and abrasion. Good chemical resistance to many acids and alkalies. Oil and grease resistant.

High abrasion r e s i stance, tear strength, and tensile strength. Good elongation, excellent shock absorption with a wide range of flexibility and elasticity. Good solvent r e si stance to lubricating oils and fuels.

High temperature resistance with good thermal stability. Resistant to oils, solvents, fuels and corrosive chemicals.

SBR

1IR, CIlR

EPDM

NBR

CR

CSM

FPM

TABLE 3·B - BELTING FIBER CHARACTERISTICS

Rayon
{v i s c o s e , Nylon
Characteristic Cotton high tenacity) (high tenacity) Steel Glass Polyester Asbestos
Specific gravity 1. 55 l. 53 I, 14 7.8 2.50 1.38 2.6
Tens ile (psi) 59,000 to 59,000 to 88,000 to 330,00 308,000 106,000 to 72,000
85,000 )12, 000 l39,000 168,000 average
Tenacity, d r y' 3.0 to 4. 5'~ 3.0 to 5.7 6. a to 9. 5 9.6 9.5 2.2+
(grams per d e ni e r ) (yarn l.3 - 2. 0)
Tenaci.ty, we t 100 to 130 61 to 75 84 to 90 lOa 92 70
(percent of dry)
Elongation at 3 to 7 9 to 26 16 to 28 1 to 2 2 to 3 LO to 13.7 6
break (percent)
Fiber diameter 0,0007 to 0.0004 to O. 0003 and 0.004 to 0,0003 to Same range 0.0000007
(in. ) 0.0008 0.0015 up 0.020 0.0004 as n vl o n "'Tenacity is strength per unit of weight as contrasted to the usual structural designation of strepgth per unit of cross-sectional area. It is expressed in grams of strength per denier of weight where the denier is the weight in grams of 9000 meters of the yarn or fiber being measured. Thus, a 2200-denier rayon yarn weights 2200 grams per 9000 meters of length. Strength in pounds per square inch ~ tenacity X 12,800 X specific gravity, .

Tenacity as measured in the yarn is much lower tha n the fiber tenacity for cotton and asbestos, but this loss is small for continuous-filament yarn such as rayon and nylon. Hence, yarn strengths are relatively greater in rayon and nylon.

3·3

SECTION 3

Figure 3-1- Plain Weave

Figure 3-2 - Filling Rib Wealie

Figure 3-3 - WOllen Cord

YARNS

Figure 3-4 - Straight Warp Wea)!e

f

WARP YARNS

BINDER WARP YARNS

o FILL YARNS

Figure 3-5 - Solid Weave

Figure 3-6 - Lena Weave

3-4

4.

Woven Cord

This cord is shown ill Figure 3-3 and consists mainly of warp yarns held in position by widely spaced, very fine fill yarns. There is no crimp (waviness in the yarn) in cord fabrics as in the plain weave so that stretch must be controlled only by the nature of the fiber used and the amount of twist in the yarn.

5.

Straight Warp Weave

In this weave, the tension bearing warp yarns are essentially straight with little or no crimp. Fill yarns are laid above and below the warps, and the warps and the fills are held together with binder warp yarns (see Figure 3-4).

6. Solid Weave

This weave consists of multiple layers of warp and fill yarns held together with binder warp yarn (Figure 3-5).

7. Leno Weave

This weave is an open mesh weave commonly used with breaker fabrics (see Figure 3-6).

C.

Carcass Fabries

1. Cottoll Ducks

Still ill surprisingly heavy usage are the 28-oz, 32-oz, 36-oz, and 42-oz all-cotton ducks, as covered by ASTM designation D-181-42. These fabrics, which have been used in belts for several decades, find their greatest usage in low-tension (RMA tension ratings Mp·35 to MP.50), light-duty service. They are made in a plain weave, as illustrated in Figure 3· [ .

2. Cnttou-Nvlon 0 LIcks (Goodyear H D N F Series)

The warp yarns of these fabrics are made with cotton that, in some cases, is reinforced with nylon, while the filler yarns are made with nylon or co mbinations of cotton and nylon. The fabrics are normally made in a plain weave like cotton. With the nylon in the filling, the transverse strength is much greater than that of the cotton ducks and will often even exceed the longitudinal strength. Several fabric weights are provided to cover low through medium tension ranges (RMA tension ratings MP-35 to Mp· 70), and the nylon provides resistance to substantially heavier service than the cotton ducks.

3.

Rayon Ducks (Goodyear Hand XH Rayon)

The rayon fabrics also are made up in a plain weave, They provide high tensile strength in warp and filling with much less weight and thickness than a cotton fabric. A rayon fabric with a tension rating at MP·70 win have a weight and gauge similar to a cotton fabric rated at about MP-3 5. Rayon fabrics are suitable for moderately heavy service and at medium tension ranges (MP.60 to MP-70).

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTRUCTION

4.

Rayon·Nylon DUGks (G oodyear HORN Series)

The rayon-nylon fabrics are made in a plain weave with an all-rayon warp and an all-nylon filling covering tension ranges from MP-90 through Mp·240. The high strength of these fabrics in both warp and filling make them suitable for very heavy duty service and the highest tension ratings assigned to textile-reinforced belts.

5.

Nylon Fa hrics

Now that the high-stretch characteristics of nylon can be controlled, fabrics of this material are being extensively used in conveyor and elevator betting. It has good resistance to moisture plus excellent abuse and impact resistance, making it suitable for all types of service. Goodyear nylon fabrics are made with the filling rib weave shown in Figure 3-2.

G. Polyester Fa brics

Polyester has many of the same qualities as nylon with even better moisture resistance and has replaced nylon and other fibers in lllany applications.

7.

Glass Fabrics

Glass fabric is a high-modulus, high-strength material; its greatest use has been in hea t-resistant belts where other materials may char or melt. It must be used with care be· cause of its susceptibility to mechanical damage (impact, trapped material, etc).

8. Asbestos Fabrics

Fabrics of asbestos are not used as tension-carrying members of a belt carcass but are occasionally placed between the carcass and the cover of a heat-resistant belt to retard penetration of incandescent lumps.

9. Cord Fabrics

Cord fabrics for belts are similar to those made for tires. They usually are made of rayon, nylon, or polyester and provide strength only in the longitudinal direction of the belt. Lateral. strength and stiffness in the belt are obtained with added plies of conventional belt fabrics. Figure 3-7 shows a typical cord belt construction.

BREAKER

I

COVER

I

f;-:-;-:-; .. ~ .~ 4 " ,;-;-;-;-;-;: .. .. .. .. '. .. •• ~ , • , .. • - .'~

I-······I ~., ' !I~ I

I !_. ~ :...!. -..!! "_: ~_~" ~ L .. :: :.!.. _:_: =-: .. z: . _:_" ~ "-=" =t -=

I

FABRIC PLIES

I

CORD PLIES

Figure 3~ 7· Tire Cord Type Conveyor Belt

3·5

SECTION 3

10_ Steel Cable

As illustrated in Figures 3-8 and 3-9, steel-cable-reinforced belts are made with or without a transverse reinforcement of fabric plies. These belts can be made to meet tensile strength requirements far beyond those met by fabric belts. They also can be made wi thin the strength ranges of fabric belts but. in constructions that are more troughable. Steel cables ranging from 1/8 in. to 1!2-in. diameter can be used, depending on tensile requirements, and they can be galvanized or brass plated.

COVER

INSULAT10N GUM

CABLE

Figure 3-8 - All-Gum Steel-Cable Conveyor Belt

CABLES

COVER

BREAKER

Figure 3-9 - Fabric-Reinforced Steel-Cable Conveyor Belt

11. Breaker Fabrics

Leno weave breakers usually are made in either cotton or nylon. They serve to improve cover-to-carcass adhesion and resist cover stripping or gouging. They also tend to provide some cushioning against impact-especially nylon breakers, which have greater strength.

Another type breaker wielely used is a nylon cord fabric usually laid over the carcass with cords running transversely across the belt to provide protection against longitudinal impact breaks. These also are used in pairs where they are laid on opposing 45-deg angles for added impact protection.

III. THE ASSEMBLED BELT

A. Carcass Constructions

1. MUlti-ply Type

The most common carcass construction in general use is the multi-ply type, which is made up of two or more plies of woven belt fabric previously impregnated with an elastomer. In most cases, a skim coat of elastomer is also located between any two plies of this type of belt.

Figure 3-] 0 illustrates a folded edge carcass with rubber covers top and bottom as well as around the edges. In this method, the outer plies are folded around the cut edges of the inner plies, and the resulting longitudinal seams of the aliter plies are located to avoid the bend line caused by the troughing idler,

Figure 3-J J illustrates the raw edge or cut edge carcass construction where all plies are cut to width and none are folded around the edge. In some cases, a breaker is included wi th the covers, which may be carried around the edges to improve edge cover adhesion.

Figure 3-12 shows a ell t-edge or raw-edge construction where the belt is trimmed to ordered width after it has been cured. Such belting is often supplied for stock in long, wide rolls that can be subsequently cut into shorter narrower individual belts as required.

[- = --- - - - - - - -_ - - -'1]

1 _

\. - - - - - - - - - - - - _.,

Figure 3- J a - RUbber-Capered, Folded Edge Carcass Conveyor Belt

1--------------1

==-- =_ = -= -= ~ - ---=- ---:_ ~ -= -= ~ -= ~=

Figure 3-11 - Rubber-Covered, Raw-Edge Carcass COllveyor Belt

Figure 3-12 - Raw- or Cut-Edge Conveyor Belt

3-6

2. Steel Cable

Steel cable belts are supplied in two different constructions, each of which uses a unlplane layer of galvanized or brass-plated steel cables as the tension member. These belts can be built with great strength at little sacrifice in flexibility, and they are virtually free of stretch or shrinkage. Fabric belts of similar strength would be impractical, because they would be too thick and stiff either to trough or bend around normal size pulleys.

Figure 3-B ilIustrates the all-gum type steel cable belt which, as its name implies, consists only of rubber and steel cable. A certain portion of the cover thickness of these belts is calculated as "carcass" rather than wear cover. With proper design and cover selection, the allgum belt is suitable for most steel-cable belt applications, including some with considerable impact loading.

Figure 3·9 shows the fabric-reinforced steel cable construction, which includes two or more plies of fabric and breaker for the most demanding load impact service. The fabric plies carry no belt tension but, rather, are designed with great transverse strength to absorb impact forces and abuse in that direction.

3. Cord Carcass Fabric

Thisconstruction uses a tire cord fabric that has good characteristics of strength versus gauge but lacks lateral strength and stiffness. For that reason, belt duck plies are added to the cord ply assembly to improve resistance to loading impact and the lateral stability of the belt.

These duck plies are calculated into the strength of the belt as cord plies and are counted upon as load carrying plies. Figure 3-7 is typical of this construction.

4, Single Ply Carcass

Single or mono-ply belts are made with a single ply of fabric usually of the types shown in Figures 3-4 and 3-5. The woven fabric is impregnated with an elastomer and then covered with appropriate covers. Breakers are not normally required with this type of belt.

B. Breakers

The various types of breaker fabrics are described above .. When used, the breaker is placed between the top cover and carcass because it is here that the belt requires protection from cover stripping, gouging, and loading impact cuts. If not included in the cover gauge, the processed breaker adds slightly more than 1/32 in. to the belt thickness.

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTRUCTION

Breakers are frequently brought around the edges of the carcass to help prevent stripping and gouging of the edge rubber. Also, in very severe service, a heavy pulley cover with breaker is often recommended for added impact protection and to minimize pulley cover damage.

C. Covers

Covers protect the carcass of the belt from load abrasion and any other IDeal conditions that contribute to belt deterioration. In a few.cases, these conditions may be so moderate that no protection and no belt cover are reo quired, In others, abrasion and cutting may be so severe that top covers as heavy as 1/2 in. or more are required. In any case, the purpose of cover selection is to provide enough cover to protect the carcass to the practical limit of carcass life.

The pulley side cover is generally lighter in gauge than the conveyor side because of the difference in wear resistance needed. Some belts, however, have the same gauge of cover on each side. Users sometimes turn the belt over when one side has become worn. In general, it is better to avoid inverting the belt because inversion after deep wear on the top side presents an irregular surface to the pulley, which results in poor lateral distribution of tension.

D. Design and Manufacturing Limitations

1. Width versus Thickness

There is no specific ratio of width to thickness that is always good design. Selection of the correct belt is discussed in Sections 4, 7, and 8. However, it can be stated here that the load to be transported governs the width of the belt. The length and/or lift of decline governs the carcass characteristic. Obviously, it is not desirable to have a narrow heavy belt nor a wide thin one. If the tension requirement is not the design criterion, then the belt may need investigation on a minimum ply basis to support the load or, in any case, from a maximum ply standpoint to permit troughing, Section 7 gives the limitations all the proportion of width and thickness.

With steel cable construction, there is more flexibility of design in that the tension member is uniplanar. Proper lateral stability can be independently built into the belt with added rubber thickness in the case of all all-gum belt or with fabric plies on the fabric-reinforced belt.

2. Length of Single Rolls

Conveyor belt roll lengths are limited largely by the ability of the manufacturer, the shipper, or the user to handle the finished roil. Figure 3-13 shows graphically the roll diameters for various belt lengths and thicknesses.

3-7

SECTION 3

1-1/2

1-1/4 1-1/8

7/8

180

90

) / / / /
V / / / /' ./
I-- f-- - - - -I- f-- -- -to- - v- - 7 r/ ~ L - ;7 ~-
FACTORY MAXIMUMS: 7 ~."
I /' 1/ / ~ V ;'
DIAMETER - 168 IN.
WEIGHT - 50 TONS. MARYSVILLE j' V / / / ~ /" ~
- 25 TONS. AKRON / V / V / V "
J / / V L- V .., "
I 'f' / V - V V
/ ,/ J
/ V , V V / ;' V" /'
/
j / V / V / k-"" ., , ..,
I( J / / V V ;' V J/
/ '/ ,/ 'f' / / / , ./ 10'" "" ..,.
J V I V / V / ,/ V io""" ..,. i-'"
II / V / / / / / ., , ./ 10'" J
J J "I 'J / / ~ , ,/ " ., V ..,. ~
l IL If, V V ~ ;' ./ , ." , J/ 1/ ~
., J V / / / / "'" ",. ,,/ ,/ .""" ..,.~ i-""""
/ / / V / / " / / """ " ./ "" i,...-o" ,....,.
II II / ~" ~,r /' ",. ./ ", "" ",. ..,.....
_.,
J / II , Vj , ~V~ , ./ ", / ",. ",.
J' -
I III '/ / V ~"/ "'" V ~ _,. ,.. ~ ioo"""
~J IJ J / ,/ r- ~ v- ./ , ./ L .,..,,....
If/. '/. 'I / ~ ./ ~ V ,,/ " I"" ..-- ...,.,. ---
/,'!J r~ v , / ~ v- ./ 10'" ",,' ~ ~ ~
_,.
v. '/ V / ./ V ..,.V ~ "...
r!J J / ..;1 ", V ",. ",.
V '/ / ,. i"""" .." ~
rJlf. , / ,,- .." V FORMULAS FOR OTHER LENGTHS AND GAUGES;
'1'/ / ", -
./ o =JI5.3Lt + 100 L = 02 - 100
'1/ ..,/ 15.3t -
-
j /~ o = DIAMETER IN INCHES
'1',/ L = LENGTH IN FEET -
, t = BELT GAUGE IINCHES) -
I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I
3/4

170

160

5/8

ISO

'140

1/2

7/16

130

3/8

120

110

5/16

100

80

1/4

'" III

I U z

3/16 W \!J ::J -c L')

I_j III

1/8 ID

70

'" III

I U

z 60

a: l!J

~ 50 ::;:

<{

o

_j 40 _j

o

Q:

I-

_j 30

l!J

III

o

III

I- 20 <{

a:

u

z

:J 10

o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600

BELT LENGTH IFEET)

Figure 3-13 - Uncrated Belt Roll Diameters

3-8

Note that the maximum manufacturing diameter is 168 in. and the probable variance of actual belt thickness from calculated thickness is plus or minus 5 percent. Information on the thicknesses of the various Goodyear belts is given in the appendix.

The maximum aUowable weight for one roll of belt is 25 tons (Akron, Ohio, plant) or 50 tons (Marysville, Ohio, plant). As belt roll weights and diameters increase, it becojnes more and more important to check for possible limitations that might be encountered either in shipping or in handling the rolls at the job site.

Both the weight and diameter maximum sometimes need to be further modified for certain widths and/or types of belt that must be processed through certain equipment that has less than the above maximum capacities.

It is sometimes necessary to determine the length of a roll of belt, especially in the field, where it cannot be easily rerolled and measured. Figure 3-14 provides a means of calculating the length.

i----A----

L=-(~IINI_B 12

L 0 0.161 (A)(N) .. B

','HERE

L 0 LENGTH OF BEL T IN FEET A = CISTANCE SHOWN IN INCH~S

N ~ NUMBER OF TURNS OF BELT COUNT TURNS ALONG DISTANCE "c". START COUNT AT INSIDE END OF BELT BUT DO NOT COUNT INSIOE END AS A TURN. BELT SHOWN WOULD HAVE 11 TURNS.

B = ESTIMATED OR MEASURED LENGTH OF BELT IN FEET ON LAST TURN BEYOND POINT AT WHICH COUNT OF TURNS WAS MADE.

NOTE:

FORMULA 15 INDEPENDENT OF BELT THICKNESS, SHELL SIZE. AND TIGHTNESS OF ROLL.

Figure 3-14 . Number of Feet in Roll of Belting

CONVEYOR BELT CONSTRUCTION

3. Tolerance

a. RMA Standard Width Tolerances

The standard tolerances on width of finished belt as agreed upon by the Rubber Manufacturer's Association are presented in Items (1) and (2), below.

(1) Molded Edge Belts
Standard belt Tolerance plus Maximum variation,
width (in.) or minus (in.) one roll of belt (in.)
10·24 1/4 1/4
26-36 3/8 3/8
4248 7/16 7/16
54 1/2 1/2
60 5/8 5/8
72·78 3/4 3/4
84 13/16 13/16
90 7/8 7/8
96 15/16 15/16
102 1 1
108 1 1/16 1 1/16
114 1 1/8 I 1/8
120 1 3/16 1 3/16 (2) Cut-Edqe Belting

Width tolerance: one-half t.hat shown above for molded edge belting.

Maximum variation in one roll of belt: same as shown above for molded edge belts.

With special attention, closer tolerances can be met. Such requirements should be discussed with the Goodyear representative.

b. Length Tolerance

Length tolerance for belts that are spliced endless at the factory is plus or minus 1/2 percent.

For roll lot belting, no length tolerances are specified but it is accepted by Goodyear that, where a roll of specific length is ordered, no minus tolerance is permissible. Only in cases where approximate roll lengths for stock purposes are ordered will any minus tolerance below norninallength be taken.

c.

Thickness Tolerance

No thickness tolerances are provided for conveyor belting since thickness variations from belt to belt of a given construction are normally of no consequence. In a few

3·9

SECTION 3

specialized uses of conveyor belting, uniformity of thickness from belt to belt and within a single belt is of importance. In such cases, individual agreement on acceptable tolerance is necessary.

E. Molded Belts

1. General

The normal conveyor bel t is of rectangular cross section and during vulcanization is formed by what amounts to a temporary mold of rectangular section. This mold is made up of press platens on top and bottom and edge irons of proper thickness at each edge. For any section other than smooth and rectangular, it is not practical to assemble a temporary mold in this way. For such special shapes, it becomes necessary to prepare metal, rubber, or fabric molds that are placed in the press and form the belt to the required shape or surface pattern. The following common molded belts are made by such methods.

2. Raised Edge Type

These belts generally run flat and at slow speed. They carry materials with a high liquid content or they may carry gelatine that is put 011 the belt in liquid form, allowed to solidify on the belt, and removed in sheets. Metal molds are required for each design.

3. V-Guide Strip

Some conveyors have a V-shaped guide strip vulcanized to the pulley cover. The strip is used for guiding where the belt is transversely out of level, as in certain types of

ditching machinery, or is for other reasons not subject to training by normal methods. Metal molds are required for each design.

4. Raised Rib Design

This design is used to j ncrease the permissible angle of incline. The shape of the design varies, although the chevron type is commonly used. It is especially desirable on materials having a high water content where slipping of the load bodily on the belt might otherwise occur. Gold dredging and wet gravel plan ts sometimes require such belts. A single standard design is provided from a metal mold (see Figure 3-15).

5.. Rough Top Designs

Various designs of rough surface belting, primarily for handling packages on inclines, are molded. While these belts are of rectangular section, the rough surface cannot be molded, practically, direct from the press platens. Molds are placed in the press for forming the one belt surface. These molds are usually rubber or fabric or a combination of the two ~I nd can be made to produce surfaces simulating fabric weaves of various degrees of roughness as well as lightly corrugated or creped surfaces. These designs are pictured in Section 15.

6.

Goodyear Wedge Grip Design

This diamond-shaped Lib-type rough-top design is molded in a continuous curing process (rotc-cure) where the design is machined into the center curing drum. This design is also pictured in Section .I 50

Figure 3- I 5 - Ribbed Top Conveyor

3·]0

)

SECTION

4

CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN AND SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS

II

Basic Design Co nsiderations Procedure for Selecting Belt

Page

4-1

4-3

CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN AND SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS

SECTION 4

I. BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Proper design of a conveyor belt involves many thingscareful consideration of engineering requirements, thorough and up-to-date knowledge of rubber compounding and fabric design, modern and efficient production facilities, complete understanding of the servicing and economic requirements of the market place, and trained personnel to bring all of these requirements together for the right recommendation.

Goodyear is guided by the proven premise that for each conveyor application there is an appropriate belt construction that will give the user the most service per dollar of investment. Therefore, when making a recommendation, all of the company's effort-focused through the considerations mentioned above-is bent toward arriving at that specification best suited for the job. The following is a brief discussion of basic conveyor belt design considerations, each of which is covered in detail in subsequent sections of tills handbook.

A, Tension

A conveyor belt is simply a means to an end-a means for transporting material from a start A to an end point B (see Figure 4-1).

B

A

Figure 4-1 - Conveyor Belt

To perform the work of moving material from A to B, the belt requires power that is supplied by a motor turning a drive pulley. The motor torque translates into a tangential force, called effective tension, at the drive pulley surface .. This is the pull or tension required of the belt to move the material from A to B and is the sum of the following:

a. Tension to overcome friction of the belt and conveyor components that contact the belt

b. Tension to overcome friction of the load

c. Tension to raise or lower the load through elevation changes

The relative contribution of each of these to total effective tension varies widely depending on conveyor incline and the load on the belt:

1. An empty belt (level or inclined) has an effective tension consisting only of empty friction (Item a)

2. A loaded level belt will have effective tension consisting of empty plus load frictions (Items a + b)

3. A loaded inclined belt will have effective tension consisting of all three load elements (Items a + b ±c). A slight incline with a light load will be mostly friction (Items a + b) while a steep, heavily loaded belt may be 90 percent or more incline load tension (Item c) with the balance friction. Item c will be plus when material is being elevated and minus when material is being lowered.

In the design of a conveyor belt carcass, it is necessary to determine the maximum tension to which it will be subjected while performing the maximum amount of expected work,

Refer to Section 6 for a complete discussion of belt tension as well as the necessary mathematical formulas and their derivations and usage.

4-1

SECTION 4

B. Minimum Ply

Tensile strength is 110t the only consideration necessary in the design of a conveyor belt carcass. Consider Figures 4-2 and 4-3.

Most conveyor belts operate over troughed idlers. The troughing angle of these idlers may vary from 20 to 45 deg. Obviously, this trough angle affects the belt by creating a line along which the belt is constantly flexed. The greater the trough angle the greater the Hexing action. When the belt is fully loaded, the portion of the load (X) directly over the idler angle forces the belt to Hex to a shorter radius. The heavier the load, the smaller the radius through which the belt must flex.

Figure 4-2 - Idler Troughing Angle (20 Deg)

Figure 4-3 -Idler Troughing Angle (45 Deg)

Consideration must be given to designing the belt with sufficient transverse rigidity and flex life so that, for a given idler angle and load weight, premature belt failure will not occur. This is done by designing the belt with sufficient transverse stiffness to "bridge" the idler angle within a satisfactory radius.

In Figure 4-4, the belt design is satisfactory in that it does bridge the angle properly under full load. In Figure 4-5, the weight of the load has forced the belt tightly into the angle and premature failure can occur. Other factors (such as belt sag, idler design, and placement) that also can promote this type failure are discussed in subsequent sections ..

Perhaps just as important, the belt in Figure 4·5 will wipe excess grease from the idler bearings. Grease will deteriorate standard rubber compounds and also cause premature belt failure. The properly designed belt in Figure 4-4 bridges this area so that grease will not normally reach the belt.

Figure 4-4 - Belt Design Unaffected by Load Weight

Figure 4-5 - Belt Design Affected by Load Weight

This design consideration is referred to as MINIMU!"l PLY DESIGN or, in other words. the minimum number of plies to support the load properly over the idler junction angle. Actually, in many cases where a belt has been designed for the minimum number of piles for load support, it also will have enough carcass tensile strength to meet the tension requirements.

Therefore, the experienced belt designer often will be able to judge when a given proper minimum ply design will be more than adequate for the tension requirement, thereby eliminating the necessity for tension calculations. Section 7 provides additional detail on minimum-ply design along with minimum-ply tables for Goodyear belt constructions.

Goodyear has found that conveyors up to 500 ft length (tall pulley to head pulley) and with 25 ft or less elevation change usually are minimum ply applications.

C. Maximum Ply

Figures 4-6 and 4-7 illustrate that the belt must be designed to be sufficiently flexible transversely to trough properly.

The empty conveyor belt must make sufficient contact with the center roll of the idler or it will not track properly. In Figure 4-6, the belt is too stiff to contact the center roll and, therefore, will wander from side to side with the possibility of causing considerable damage to the belt edges. In Figure 4-7, sufficient contact is made to steer the belt properly along the idlers.

4-2

CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN AND SELECTION CONSIDER.ATIONS

Figure 4-6 - Stiff Belt, Improper Troughing

Figure 4-7 - Flexible Belt, Proper Troughing

When designing the bel t carcass from a tension standpoint, where more than minimum ply is required, a check must be made to see that MAXIMUM PLY DESIGN is not exceeded.

See Section 7 for maximum-ply tables covering Goodyear belt constructions.

D. Impact

Another carcass design consideration is impact. It may be that the tension requirement for a particular belt is so small that a minimum ply design is indicated. However, ihe loading arrangement or material being handled may be of such a nature. that a minimum ply carcass would fail quickly through pure physical destruction. Therefore, the belt designer must take these requirements into consideration and, if warranted, increase the carcass strength beyond that required simply to meet tension and load support requirements. That is, the carcass must be "beefed up" through the use of special fabrics, breakers, and constructions so the belt will accept abnormal impact.

Impact considerations are detailed in Section 11.

E. Flex Life

Rubber quality, pulley diameters, belt speed and length, and troughing flexure all influence carcass flex life. Belt quality, as dictated by the requirements of the covers, normally results in an adequate carcass flex life. However, there are occasional applications involving short, high-speed belts and small pulleys where it sometimes becomes prudent to upgrade belt quality above that required by the covers to ensure a reasonable carcass flex life.

F. Covers

Once the carcass design is settled upon, attention should be directed to quality and gauge of the covers. The opti-

mum design would mean that the covers would wear out in normal service at the same time as the carcass. This theoretical "total belt" failure after long and useful service will seldom be achieved, but the designer should seek this goal.

Since the carcass of a conveyor belt will fail very rapidly once the covers have worn away, a very small premium for upgrading quality or adding cover gauge may be well repaid in terms of overall.belt life. Tables and suggestions are provided as guidelines for the designer, but experienced judgment in this area is the key. The final decision on cover gauge and quality must be tempered by the designer's knowledge of the application, or similar applications, as well as his experience and knowledge of other factors such as stock size and availability.

Complete cover selection is described in Section 8.

G. Other Considerations

The majority of conveyors are relatively simple in design and low in tension so that the foregoing items are all that normally need to be considered in making a belt selection. However, as conveyors become longer, more complex, or higher in tension, it often becomes necessary to investigate one or more of the following:

1. Acceleration and braking problems and tensions

(Sections 6 and 12)

2. Coasting time and distance (Section 6)

3. Vertical curve tensions and radii (Section 12)

4. Trough to flat transition distances (Section 12)

5. Twist lengths (Section 12)

6. Two-pulley drive problems (Section 9)

7. Takeup locations and problems (Section 10)

8. Multiple grade conveyor profiles (Section 6)

9. Graduated idler spacings (Section 11)

Attention also is drawn to special belt problems such as package and food belts (Section IS) and grain conveyors (Section 16).

II. PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING BELT

A. General

To make a recommendation for a particular installation, the designer has certain da ta available to him. For a projected installation, the peak hourly tonnage, lump size, material density, and proposed profile are known or estimated. For a replacement belt, not only are these data known, but also the designer is able to take advantage of the knowledge gained from an examination of the belt to be replaced and to determine weaknesses of the old

4-3

SECTION 4

design. Full advantage should be taken of the latter item in particular for determination of the proper carcass and cover for the replacement belt. With this information, by following a logical sequence, the correct belt for the job can be selected. In general, the selection sequence is as follows:

1. Tabulate conveyor data and (when required) select appropriate width and speed.

2. Check for maximum belt tension (Tm)'

a. Experience often indicates no check is necessary, that belt can be selected on a minimumply basis. Proceed to Step 4.

b. An accurate calculation of T m is to be used in aU cases where tension is a factor in belt selection (see Section 6).

3. List belts by fabric type and number of plies that satisfy maximum tension requirements. See Table 7-A for tension ratings.

4. Minimum-maximum plies-Select those belts from Step 3 that also satisfy minimum-maximum ply requirements (See Tables 7·B through 7·D).

5. Pulleys-Select those belts from Step 4 that also satisfy existing pulley diameters (see Table 9-C).

6. Carcass selection-From the Step-5 list, the final selection depends upon costs, past experience, past belt histories, and impact.

7. Quality selection-Evaluate conditions of heat, oil, abrasion, and cutting; then select the appropriate belt quality (see Section 8).

8. Cover gauge selection-See Table 8·A for a guide 'to minimum cover gauges.

9. Breaker selection-See Section 8 for a guide to the use of breakers.

B. Data Tabulation

A tabulation of all available data is the obvious first step of conveyor belt selection. A suggested form for use in collecting all available information is shown in Figure 4-8. This may vary widely from the projected conveyor (where the only information can be an approximation of the kind and quantity of material to be conveyed) to the established conveyor (where all or most of the listed data are available).

In the accumulation of data for existing conveyors, the importance of the previous belt history is emphasized. Theoretical and practical design considerations permit precise resolutions of some aspects of the jo b of designing a replacement belt. Other aspects depend heavily on a complete knowledge of what has happened to the pre-

vious belt or belts. This information is absolutely indispensable in making the best possible recommendation for a replacement conveyor belt. This cannot be stressed enough.

Previous belt history is particularly important in determining carcass design for resistance to impact and abuse, as well as establishing cover quality and gauge. In applications that involve heat, oil, and chemicals, previous belt history may be the only immediate source of facts 011 which to make design judgments.

Again, in any application where a replacement belt is to be recommended, it is incumbent on the designer to obtain complete PREVIOUS BELT HISTORY. A suggested form for use in maintaining a history of all belts on any given conveyor is shown in Figure 4-9.

It is important that a sketch of the conveyor profile be completed. The. following must be located by horizontal and vertical dimensions from the tail. pulley: drive (each pulley if tandem), beginning and end of vertical curves, vertical curve radii, takeup, change in belt elevation, height, and extent of movement of trippers if applicable (see Figure 4-10). Use of blueprints, profiles, etc .. , if available, is recommended.

C. Width and Speed Selection

For any particular problem of movement of bulk materials by belt conveyor, it is possible to recommend more than one combination of belt width and speed. Lump size permitting, increasing the belt speed permits a decrease in belt width for any specified hourly tonnage. Conversely, an increase in belt width allows a decrease in belt speed. In general, it can be sta ted that the belt should be kept as narrow as possible (depending on lump size) and run as fast as possible, within accepted limits, to transport the required tonnage. It is also important that the loading chute design be consistent with anticipated belt speed, belt widths, and lump sizes.

The general procedure for selecting belt width and speed is as follows:

1. List material type and size (specified).

2. List material weight in pounds per cubic foot (spec. ifled or see Section 5).

3. List peak capacity of belt in tons per hour (speci[jed).

4. See Table 5·K and list maximum recommended speed for material to be conveyed.

5. See Table 5-A and list the minimum recommended belt width for material (lump size) to be conveyed.

4-4

CONVEYOR. BELT DESIGN AND SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS

CONVEYOR BEL T ANALYSIS SHEET

(Separate Sheet Required for each Conveyor)

NEW _

COMPANY _

LOCATION

TAKEUP OAT A

GENERAL CONVEYOR DATA

• Bell widlh inc hes

'Ho,izontal C·C distance teet

*Max angle incline degrees

'Max angle decline degtee s

'Ove,all lift feel 01 drop leel

"Belt speed feet per minute

"Tr lppe r Height teet

Alignment _

Mainlenance _

ls conveyor e.nc~o.sed? _

DRIVE DATA

+Locatlon of driva _

'Numbe, of drive pulleys _

*Arc of contact in degrees __

'Are dr lve pulleys lagged __

Moiol type and hor secower _

Type 01 motor sla,ting _

CARRY ING I DL E RS

*Tloughing angle degrees

Equal length _

Long center .cu _

Othel _

=Spac ing _

Diameter _

ORR E P l AC EM E NT _

DATE

BELT DESIGNATION

*TYPE: screw or ccuiterweight feet

'*T,avel feet

If counterwe lght, weight Ib

Location on conveyor _

METHOD OF JOINING

'Vulcanized splice _

"Fas tenet s _

MATERIAL DATA

·Type _

'We ighl pe I cu bi G fool __

'Ma. load on conveyor short TPH

"'Max lump size _

Percent nnes _

'Temp: avg degrees M., ____Jdegrees

Abrasive charactet __

'Oesclibe II any oil condition ~ __

Other ccnu.t.cns ~_~ _

LOADING CONDITIONS

Nurncer 01 loading pornts __

Locations _

tncflne angle of bell at loading point ,degrees

+Ovet all vel tical drop of material onto bell __

Do loading chutes: __

Discharge in direction of belt travel _

Discharge material close to bell speed _

center toad on bell _

Load tines on belt liI51 __

'Aie impact Idlers provided' _

_______________ s pac ing Feet _

_________________________ years

Be st previ ous service __

Make and specltlcation of best belt _

Describe how this belt lailod _

__ yeals

GOODY EAR BEL TRECOMMENDA.TION

Add itional Inlol mation _

*Minimum informaton .equuec: however, ill Older to provide the best recommendation, i.e., lowest ultimate belting cost, all items should be

completed. --

tThis inlormation is absolutely incespenstb:e in making the best possible reccmrtenoanon fOI a replacement conveyor bell.

Figure 4-8 - Data Tabulation Form

4-5

SECTION 4

~
CONVEYOR BELT RECORD

COMPANY, LO<;ATION, DATE: SHEET NO,
DESIGNATION OF CONVEYOR: WHERE lOCATED,

BELT SPECIFICATIONS
COVER· TOPSIDE CQVER·PUllE'( SIDE FINAl. FAILURE
eEL T COVER MAHUF.i.CTUREFl COST DATE OATE TOT .... L FINAL
WIOTH COSTI
CARC .... SS COM POUNQ INCL.. n:.CL (;,I,UC.E IHCl eXCL " '" OUT TONN ... GE TO" COVER CARCASS MECH
CiAUG!: IJRI<.R 6R"R BRI(R BRKR FAtlU!=:E fAILURE DII.~ ... GE THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COI,lPAHY

Figure 4·9 . Belt Record Form

4·6

CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN AND SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS

Figure 4-10 - Conveyor Profile

DESIGN CALCULATIONS

Maximum Running Belt Tension ~~~~ Ib PIW Required -~----

Belt Horsepower Required BHP Counterweight Required ~-- Ib

6. Using the capacity tables of Section 5, list the widths, belt speeds, and idler angles that will handle the job.

The belt speeds in a tabulation of this type will frequently be less than the maximum permissible speed for the material to be conveyed. In Section 6, it is shown tha! an increase in belt speed at a given loading rate will reduce belt tension so that it may be appropriate to investigate the possible savings in belt cost .. However, the following factors often need to be considered in this regard:

1. If the belt construction is already controlled by minimum ply design for load support (Section 7), the reduced tension will offer no savings in belt cost.

2. While the higher speed will reduce belt tension, any savings in belt cost will be partially offset by the fact that the higher speed at a given loading rate also results in a higher power requirement. This will be a cumulative expense over the life of the conveyor as well as a higher initial expense for larger drive components.

3. Increased belt speeds at a given loading rate also will reduce the volumetric load on the belt; i.e., the width of the load will be reduced with the result that cover wear will be less uniform. Also, the decreased time cycle will increase the rate of the cover wear.

D. Typical Conveyor Belt Selection

To illustrate the general process of selecting the proper conveyor belt, an incline conveyor with a head drive

where tension has already been calculated by procedures shown in Section 6 is assumed.

1. Conveyor Data

The primary items of data needed to proceed with the belt selection are:

I. Width-30 in.

2. Maximum tension, T m = 5340 lb = 178 piw

3. Pulleys-24 in .. head, 20 in. tail and snub

4. Idlers-35 deg

5. Material: gypsum rock-SO pcf. Approximately 50 percent fines with lumps to 10 in.

6. Method of joining-fasteners

7. Assume all requirements have been met for normal fastener rating (Table 7-A)

2. Carcass Selection

The proper carcass must satisfy all of the following requirements:

1. Maximum tension

2. Minimum plies for load support

3. Maximum plies for empty belt troughing

4. Pulley sizes

5. Impact or other operating requirements

At this point, a reduction of the available fabric selections is possible simply by general knowledge of the operating conditions (with experience, the designer often will be able to narrow his carcass choices to one or two

4-7

SECTION 4

at this point). In this sample problem, the selection can be narrowed with the following eliminations:

1. All cotton can be eliminated because of the extreme impact abuse of lOin. lumps. Cotton- nylon (HDNF) will absorb the distortion and high Jocalized stresses of this type abuse much better than cotton, yet at no increase in cost.

2. Rayon-nylon (HDRN) can be eliminated because the application has a relatively low tension requirement-well below the range normally considered for HDRN.

This knowledge of the tension and abuse resistant reo quirements of the application reduces fabric choices to HDNF, all rayon, and Plylon.

Table 4·A shows possible HDNF, rayon, and Plylon carcasses based on the requirements of tension, minimum plies, maximum plies, and pulley diameters.

The following carcass eliminations now can be made:

1. 28 HDNF is eliminated because the minimum- ply requirement for tension exceeds the maximum-ply limitation.

2. 32 HDNF is eliminated because the pulleys are too small.

3. Four-ply 48 HDNF and five-ply XH rayon can be eliminated as being obviously more costly than

four-ply 42 HDNF and five-ply H rayon, respectively.

That leaves the following possible carcass constructions, from which the ultimate selection win depend upon such things as costs, customer preference, stock availability, and previous belt history. Aside from these factors, the following belts all can be considered suitable.

J. Five-ply 36 HDNF

2. Four-ply 42 HDNF

3. Five-ply H rayon

4. Plylon 2100

3_ Cover Selection

See Table 8-A for guidance in making cover gauge and quality selection. The following data are required.

Time cycle = 2L '" 2(600) = 3 min

S 400

Material: gypsum rock-very abrasive, lump size lOin.

With these data, refer to Table 8·A, which is intended to be used only as a guide; its proper use involves careful appraisal of all available service factors and conditions. In other words, the function of the cover is to protect the carcass. Therefore, all knowledge of this and similar applications must be applied to cover selection.

TABLE 4-A - CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

Nu m.be r of plies Pulleys
Mi n.irnurn i\.1axinlU'I"'tl ITml78piw
Fabric and -A- -B- -c - as pe r c e nt Carcass
fastener rating For For load For empty of n orrn a l suitability
(ppij':' Tm 178 pi w support+ t rou ghirig " rating for pulleys
28 HDNF (27) 7 5 6
32 HDNF (33) 6" 5 6 69 NO
36 HDNF (40) 5" S 5 71 OK
42 HDNF (45) 4" 4 4 74 OK
48 HDNF (55) 4V 4 4 64 OK
H rayon (45) 4 5" 5 60 OK
XH rayon (55) 4 5 II 5 51 OK
F'Lyl ori 2100 Plylon trougll,ing, Table 7-D 85 OK
I
,'. See Table 7 -A.

+See Table 7-B. 'fSee Table 7 -G.

S See Table 9-G.

IIThis number of plies selected for further consideration based On being (.1) equal to or greater than the -n i nirnu m ply requirements of both A and B columns and, (2) equal to Or less than the maximum ply limitation of column C.

4-8

a.

CONVEYOR BELT DESIGN AND SELECT.ION CONSIDERATIONS

Breaker

TOI) Cover

Style B - 1/4 to 3/8 in. Stacker - 3/16 to 5/16 in.

The presence of l Ovin. lumps suggests severe cover cutting and. gouging from loading impact. With no further specific knowledge of the load point design, the use of Stacker (RMA Grade J) quality must be considered for its superior cut and gouge resistance. However, if further investigation reveals that the loading chute and skirt boards are well designed, fines are loaded on the belt first, the vertical drop of lumps is held to a minimum, and a loading paint is equipped with impact idlers, then Style B (RMA Grade II) covers would provide adequate protection. At this point, knowledge of any previous belt specifications and performance also would be of great value in making a quality selection.

Without complete knowledge of previous belts and conveyor details with which to make a competent recommendation, the belt designer can only make assumptions and, in most cases, must proceed on the basis of assuming the worst.

b.

Pulley Cover

1/16 to 3/32 in.

If previous belt history includes failure due to pulley cover wear, use the heavier' gauge. Lacking belt history, use of heavier gauges is also indicated by excessive mao terial spillage, substandard maintenance, and badly pitted idlers.

c.

The Ifl-in, lumps dictate that a breaker strip should be included in the top cover for maximum resistance to gouging and cover stripping.

d. Miscellaneous

No other unusual conditions, such as oil or heat, that would affect cover quality considerations are indicated in the data.

4. Final Belt Selection

Combining all developed information yields:

Carcass

Covers

Five-ply 36 HDNF ) FO. ur-PIY.42 HDNF Five-ply H rayon

Plylon 2100

Style B - 1/4 to ) 3/8 in.

or

Stacker - 3/16 to 5/16 in,

Top cover including breaker"

1/16 to 3/32 in. pulley cover

The final selection then would be made based on previously mentioned operating conditions as well as considerations of cost, customer preference, stock availability, and previous belt history.

a No breaker required with Plylon.

4·9

SECTION

5

CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS

Page

Cross-Sectional Area of Load and Tonnage Capacity - Normal Materials, . . . . . . . . . ' . . .

5-1

II Cross-Sectional Area of Load and Tonnage Capacity - Slumping Materials (Dry, Free Flowing, or Very Wet) .

5-3

III Cross-Sectional A rea of Load and Tonnage Capacity - Wood Chip Conveyors. .

5-3

IV Flat and Picking Conveyors

5-3

V Rate of Loading

5-3

VI Size 01' Lumps

5-3

VII Capacities for Special Conditions

5·7

VIII Belt Speed. . , .

5-8

IX Weights of Materials.

5·9

)

SECTION 5

CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS

I. CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF LOAD AND TONNAGE CAPACITY-NORMAL MATERIALS

The volumetric capacity of a troughed conveyor belt is determined by the cross-sectional area of the load that can be piled onto the belt without excessive spillage either at the loading point or subsequently due to the small undulations of the belt in passing over idlers. This cross-sectional area is affected by the screen analysis of the material, its moisture content, and the shape of the particles, all of which influence the slope at which the material will stand.

Since it is usually impractical to evaluate these factors specifically enough to predict their effect on the crosssectional area of the load, capacity tables are made sufficiently conservative that any ordinary combination of the above conditions can be accepted.

Tonnage capacities shown in Table 5-A for normal bulk material on three-roll, equal-length idlers are based on a cross-sectional load area such as that indicated in Figure 5-1. This, of course, does not presume that load shapes are always as depicted here, as they will vary with different materials, dampness, lump size, etc. The load shape is influenced initially by the loading chute and skirt boards. The design of these parts is to some degree controlled by what is expected to happen to the shape of the load after it leaves the skirt-board confinement. However, tonnage capacities derived from this cross section

o " 0.055 W + 0.9 IN. W " WIDTH IN INCHES

Figure 5-1 - Typical Load Cross Section of Normal Bulk Materials on Three Equal Length Rolls

have been found attainable with most bulk materials and, with favorable combinations of material size and moisture content, loading rates up to 20 percent in excess of these values can be achieved. Cross-sectionalload areas derived from the Figure 5-1 configuration are shown in Table 5-B.

To obtain capacities indicated by this method, some normal precautions are required:

1. Free-flowing dry materials or slumping wet mixtures must be considered as special problems. Capacities are determined by methods given later.

2. Lump size limitations tabulated herein must be observed.

3. Skirt board location at the loading point must be properly designed to give the most a dvantageous initial load shape.

4. The belt must be trained to enter the loading point centrally.

5. The idler spacing must be suitably related to belt tension to minimize belt sag. This, in turn, will limit load settling and possible spillage.

6. The delivering chute must be pitched (by trial if necessary) to deliver material with a velocity in the direction of belt travel dose to that of the belt. This will reduce turbulence and hasten the settling of the load.

7. With lumps near the limit on size, it may be necessary to place lump deflectors on the skirt boards to move inward any surface lumps lying near the edges as the load approaches the end of the skirts.

8. The belt capacity thus determined must be considered against peak, not average, requirements,

5-1

SECTION 5

TABLE S-A - NORMAL BULK MATERIAL CAPACITY* OF TROUGHED CONVEYOR BELTS

Idle r
roll Material Width (in.)
angle d en e ity
Material (deg) lb/cu It 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Most bulk 20 30 10 13 17 22 33 53 78 108 144 183 228
rn a te r i a l s 50 16 22 28 36 55 88 130 180 240 305 380
Surcharge 75 24 32 42 54 83 132 195 270 360 458 570
angle: 25 deg
Edge distance 100 32 43 56 72 110 176 260 360 480 610 760
of load: 125 40 54 70 90 138 220 325 450 600 762 950
(0.055W + o. 9) 150 48 65 84 108 165 264 390 540 720 915 1140
in.
35 30 12 16 20 26 40 65 95 132 176 224 278
50 19 27 34 44 67 108 159 22 a 293 373 464
75 29 40 51 66 100 161 238 329 439 558 696
100 39 53 68 88 134 215 31.7 439 585 745 928
125 49 66 85 110 168 269 396 549 732 932 1160
150 59 80 102 132 201 322 -176 660 878 1118 1392
45 30 13 17 22 28 43 69 101 141 187 238 296
50 21 28 37 47 72 1 I 5 169 234 312 397 494
75 32 42 55 71 107 172 244 352 468 595 741
100 42 5& 73 94 143 229 338 468 624 793 988
125 53 70 91 117 179 286 422 586 780 990 1235
150 63 84 110 141 214 344 507 702 936 1190 1482
-_ --- -
Ma xfrriu m r e c- Uniform s i z e 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 10 II 12
o mme nded l.urn p -- c---- -- --
size+ Mixed w i t h fines 4 5 6 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 24
Idle r
Toll Material Width lin,)
angle density
Material (deg) Ib/cu It 66 n 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120
Most bulk 20 30 279 335 396 462 533 60B 688 774 864 959
materials 50 465 557 661 770 887 1013 1147 1289 1440 1599
Surcha.rge 75 697 837 992 1153 1330 1519 1722 1933 2160 2400
angle: 25 deg
Edge distance 100 930 1115 1321 1539 1774 2026 2294 2579 2880 3198
of load: 125 1163 1395 1653 1923 2217 2532 2869 3222 3600 3999
(0, 055W + 0,9) 150 1595 1672 1982 2309 2661 3039 3441 3868 4320 4797
in..
35 30 341 408 485 565 652 745 842 948 1058 1172
50 568 680 B09 943 1086 1240 1404 1580 1763 1958
75 852 1020 1214 1412 1628 1860 2105 2370 2645 2935
100 1135 1360 1618 1885 2172 2480 2808 3160 3526 3915
125 1420 1700 2023 2355 2714 3100 3509 3950 4408 4893
150 1703 2040 2427 2828 3258 3720 4212 4740 5289 5873
45 30 363 435 514 599 692 789 893 1003 1121 1242
50 605 725 851 999 1151 1314 1488 1672 1868 2073
75 90B 1088 1287 1499 1725 1973 2240 2510 2800 3110
100 1210 1450 1715 1998 2302 2628 2976 3344 3735 4146
125 1512 1810 2144 2498 2876 3287 3738 4182 4668 5183
150 1815 2175 2572 2997 3453 3942 4464 5016 5603 6219
-- ---
Ma xi rrnrrn rec- Uniform size 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
omrne ndecl lump .- ._-- --
size+ Mixed w it h fines 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 *

In tons per hour 12000-Lb tons) at 100 f prn belt speed (three equal-length idler rolls).

+Larger lumps often can be considered with special impact constructions and loadin_g point designs.

( 2QQ)

100

NOTE: Obtain capacities of other material densities and belt speeds by di rect 'inte r po lat ion , .ExampleFind the capacity of a 42-;n. belt c a r r vf ng 90 Ib bulk rrrat e r La l at 500 rpm on 35-deg, equal-roll idlers;

Ca pa c i t y = (439)

x

( (gO)

x

1975 t ph

(Table 5-A )

100 Ib rn a te r i a l

x

(Material)

c onve r . X

sian

(Speed)

con.vere ion

5-2

TABLE S-B - CROSS-SECTIONAL LOAD AREAS OF MOST BULK MATERIALS*

Width Area (s q , in. )
(in.) 20 deg idlers 35 de g idlers 45 deg idlers
14 15.3 lB.7 20.2
16 20.6 25.4 26.9
18 26. 9 32.7 35.0
20 34.6 42,2 45.2
24 52.7 64.3 68.7
30 84.5 103.2 110.0
36 124.8 152.2 162.3
42 172.9 211. 0 225. a
48 230.0 281. a 300,0
54 292.0 358.0 381.0
60 365.0 446.0 474.0
66 447.0 545. a 581. a
72 535.0 653.0 696.0
78 635.0 777.0 323.0
84 73B.O 905.0 960.0
90 852.0 1040,0 1104.0
-
96 972,0 1190.0 1262.0
102 1100.0 1349.0 1429.0
108 1236.0 1518. a 1605.0
114 1381.0 1691. a 1792. a
120 1535.0 1878.0 1990.0 *00 three roll, equal-length idlers. Surcharge angle ~ 25 deg, edge distance (D) ~ O. OS5W + 0.9 in.

II. CROSS·SECTIONAL AREA OF LOAD AND TONNAGE CAPACITY - SLUMPING MATERIALS (DRY, FREE FLOWING, OR VERY WET)

Materials that obviously will not stand at the angles assumed for the previous calculations must be handled at a lesser rate to avoid spillage. Such materials are grain, dry sand, cement, mixed concrete, and similar mixtures. Grain capacities are discussed in Section J 6. Other slumping material capacities are given in Tables 5-C and 5-D for various equal-length and long center-roll idlers as indicated, These capacities are based on the assumption that the belt is loaded to within two inches of the edge regardless of width with a surcharge angle of five degrees, Cross-sectional load areas are shown in Table 5-E.

III. CROSS·SECTIONAL AREA OF LOAD AND TONNAGE CAPACITY-WOOD CHIP CONVEYORS

The use of conveyor belts to handle wood chips in the paper industry has found wide acceptance. These conveyors may have more volumetric capacity than the normal bulk conveyor because of the lightness of the material and the fact that the belt can be loaded closer to the edge,

CAPACITY OF BEL T CONVEYORS

The cross-sectional areas of Table 5-F are the basis for the capacities of Table 5-G. The cross-sectional areas assume that the belt is loaded within two inches of the edge, regardless of belt width, and that the material has a surcharge angle of 30 deg on the belt.

IV. FLAT AND PICKING CONVEYORS

Flat conveyors are used only to a limited degree for bulk materials due to the loss of capacity when run flat. However, some materials can be removed by plows from a flat belt at any point along its run. It is a fairly common practice to accept reduced capacity in exchange for this simple distribution system in such materials handling operations as foundry sand or wood chip distribution.

For flat belts, it is usual to base capacity on a crosssectional area one-half that of the 20-deg, equal-roll, troughed belt; hence, capacity tables present in this section can be used for flat belts by taking one-half the tabulated value for bulk materials. This gives a capacity slightly less than the theoretical using a 25·deg surcharge angle and an edge distance CD) = 0.055W + 0.9 in., but the error is justified by the obviously greater tendency for edge spillage when the load settles as it moves over the idlers.

Picking conveyors have 20-deg long center roll idlers to provide wide shallow loads for picking, sorting, inspecting, and feeder applications, Table 5-H shows capacities for picking conveyors.

V, RATE OF LOADING

The preceding methods of calculating belt capacity give a value that is intended to be a peak rate and not an average for a shift, an hour, or even a few minutes. Even when feed to the belt is controlled by a feeder as it should be, it is not ordinarily safe to assume that the feeder can be set for a rate arrived at by dividing daily tonnage to be handled by hours worked. With the best of scheduling in mining operations, peak tonnage has been found to be 25 percent above the daily average and is often much greater. An estimate of produ ction delays that might result in idle or lightly loaded time for the belt must be made to arrive at a peak rate necessary to compensate for such delays.

VI. SIZE OF LUMPS

The width of belt required for a material containing large lumps is influenced in two ways by the size of the lumps, First, the cross-sectional area of the load is reduced because the load initially must be kept a greater distance from. the edge of the belt. Second, the chute

5-3

SECTION 5

TABLE 5-C - SLUMPlNG MATERIAL CAPACITY OF TROUGH ED CONVEYOR BELTS (EQUAL ROLL IDLERS)*

Idle r
roll Mate rial Width (in. )
angle density
Material (deg) Ib/CLl ft 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 -12 48 54 60
Slumping 20 30 5 7 10 13 20 35 I 53 I 73 99 128 161
mate rials 50 8 12 16 21 33 58 88 122 165 214 26q
Surcharge 75 II 17 24 32 50 86 131 182 246 321 403
angle: 5 deg I
Edge distance 100 1 5 23 32 .)2 66 1 1 5 175 243 329 428 I 538
of load: 2 in. 125 19 29 40 53 83 144 219 304 -Ill 535 73
150 23 35 -18 63 I 99 I'" 263 365 ·~93 642 '07
- .. - - - -- -j r~
35 30 7 10 1.,1 19 29 51 77 107 1 ·f5 188 237
50 11 17 2-1 31 4q 85 12 179 242 31 5 305
75 17 25 35 -n 73 127 193 268 362 I 473 502
100 22 34 I 47 62 q7 169 257 358 483 630 7 0
125 28 n , 5 78 121 I Z 11 322 -!-!8 605 788 gS8
150 33 I 51 71 03 1-1 254 386 537 725- 0-15 I 11::;5
I I
------ -- I I -- I--
45 30 s 12 16 21 33 58 89 I 123 167 218 27~
50 13 20 2, 36 % 97 I ).,18 205 278 363 -I5i
I 75 19 I 29 ~ 1 53 ."i 3 1-16 222 308 417 543 682
I
1 00 25 3 54 71 I III 1 Q-l 2') -Ill 556 725 010
125 31 "Q 6<1 I S I 1 3° 2-1-5 370 51 3 o 5 <)07 1 1 38
150 38 58 S I 106 167 I Z OJ H-I 616 S3-1 1088 11 3 Do
lei le r
roll Materia I II-iellh (i n . )
angle density
Material [d e g ] Ib/c\I ft 66 72 78 "'1=::; I ~-'" 108 II-! I 120
.--
Slumping 20 30 1<10 239 2t:Hi 315 3Sc) 4-45 'OS 56<:1 63" ,0
materials 50 332 3q~ -17, S5~ 647 7 .. 0 8-lZ 9-18 1062 1182
Su rcha.rge I 75 -198 5 8 ,14 3 ' I 071 I 1111 12(;2 1-122 1502 1773
angle: 5 cleg I
Edge distance 100 664 797 954 I 1117 12 3 1-181 1683 ISQ7 ZIZ-l Z 36-1
I I
of load: 2 in. 125 830 95 1191 1 C) 1618 1851 210-1 2370 265-1 2055
150 996 1195 1431 1675 I lQ-IO 2221 2525 2845 3186 35-16
- - --- ---~-- ~- -- 1---- _- -
35 30 292 352 -lZ3 -195 573 657 7-15 8-10 g-l1 10-15
50 -t88 585 705 825 <)55 10')3 1242 13' 9 1567 17-l-!
75 732 878 1057 1237 1-130 16 .. 0 18 5 21 0 2350 2615
100 976 1170 1409 16.,19 1909 2187 2-l84 27 9 31304 3-188
125 1220 1-163 1762 2062 2385 2733 3J07 3..J99 3917 -+3 50
150 146-4 J 7 55 z n.r 2-~ 7-l 2864 3280 3726 4198 4701 5232
---- -- -----
45 30 336 -103 -182 56 652 745 850 53 1068 1188
50 561 673 802 938 1085 1242 1-111 1590 1780 1980
75 842 1010 1205 1407 1626 1862 211 S 2385 2670 2.70
100 1121 1345 1603 1876 2170 Z-I85 2822 3180 3560 3961
125 1402 1681 2007 234·5 2711 3104 3529 3975 H50 -~9 50
150 1682 2018 2405 28H 3255 3727 4233 4770 53-40 50-11 '.-

In tons per hour (2000-lb tons),at 100 Iprn belt s pe e d ,

NOTE: Obtain capacities of other material densities and belt speeds by direct interpolation. ExampleFind the capacity of a 42 in. belt carrying 90 lb slumping material at 500 f prr; On 35 deg equal roll idlers:

Capacity = (358) X (19g0)

X

( 500)

100

1610 tph

5-4

CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS

TABLE 5-D - SLUMPING MATERIAL CAPACITY OF TROUGHED CONVEYOR BELTS (35-DEG AND 45-DEG LC)*

Width (ill.)
Ma t e r i a l 1. 3 - in.
density 9 in. trough rolls trough r o l.l s
Idlers lb/cu ft 30 36 ~2 ·18 5·~ 60 5~ 60
35degLC 30 ~3 58 72 88 105 121 I~q 17S
50 7Z 96 121 147 17-1 202 249 291
75 108 144 181 221 262 303 3H ·137
100 14-1 19Z 2n Z9~ H -104 498 582
125 ISO 240 302 I 368 n7 505 623 728
150 216 288 303 -1-12 524 60G 747 S7~
45degLC 30 SO 67 85 103 122 1-12 174 20-1
50 83 ii z 141 In 203 236 290 HO
75 IZ5 168 212 2.57 305 35-1 -136 SID
100 167 224 283 343 407 472 581 680
125 208 280 35-+ ~Z9 508 590 727 850
150 250 336 -tZ5 51 5 610 70S 873 1020 *In tons per hour j2000-1b to ns ) and lOO Jprr- belt speed. Slumping material 5 de g surcharge a.nglc . Long v c e n t c rr- r o l l idl e rs . Edge distance of load = Z in.

NOTE: Obtain capacities of ather rn at e r i a l densities and belt speeds by direct in-

terpolation. Exat-n ple - Find the capacity of a 36-in. belt carrying 40 lb mate r i.a l

at 730 Iprn on 45 de g idlers:

Capacity = (lIZ) X

( ;~ )

x

(;~~) = 655 tph

(Table 5 -D ) 50 Ib rnat;;:"ial

(Material)

X c o nve r . X

sion

(Speed)

conyer - s i on

TABLE S·li - CROSS-SECTIONAL LOAD AREAS OF MOST SLUMPING MATERIALS""'

Area [s q, in.)

Width 20·deg 35-deg 45-deg
(in. ) equal rolls equal rolls equal rolls
l~ 7. Z 10. 6 12. 0
16 11. a 16. 3 18.7
18 1 5. 3 22.6 25. 9
20 20.2 29.8 34. I
24 31.7 -+6.5 53.3
30 55.2 81.2 93.2
36 8-1.0 123.4 142.0
42 Ilb.5 172.0 197.0
48 158.0 232. 0 267.0
54 206.0 302. 0 348.0
60 258.0 380.0 437.0
66 319.0 468.0 538.0
72 382.0 562.0 645.0
78 458.0 676.0 770.0
84 536.0 792.0 901.0
90 622.0 917.0 1040.0
96 712. 0 1051.0 1193.0
102 809.0 1192.0 1354.0
108 910.0 1344. a 1526. a
114 1020.0 1503.0 171 0.0
120 1135.0 1675.0 1900.0 69.0 80.1
92.1 107.5
116.0 136.0
141.0 164.8
167.5 195.0
194.0 226 .. 0 9-in. trough ron

35· de8 LC roll 45-deg LC roll.

"o-, th r e e vr o llr i d le r s of egualleogth and long-center-roll id l.e r s . Surcharge angle = 5 dog, edge distance (D) = Z ill. - all widths.

5-5

SECTION 5

TAI3LE 5·F - CROSS·SECTIONAL AREA* OF WOOD CHIP LOADS ON VARIOUS IDLERS

Belt width (in. )
Idler type 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
20-deg equal rolls 64.1 105.7 157.0 221 301 384 483
35-deg equal rolls 73.8 125.0 189.0 262 356 458 573
45 - deg e qual rolls 77.0 131. Z 195.5 276 372 481 603
35-deg LC rolls ... 115. 2 163. Z 218 279 346 423
(9 -in. trough rolls)
'.l.5-deg LC rolls ... 121. 5 173 .. 0 230 295 365 445
(9-in. trough rolls)
" "j(

In square inches. Su rc h a r g e angle

30 deg; edge distance (D)

2 In.

TABLE 5-G - CAPACITY'" OF TROUGHED CONVEYORS CARRYING WOOD CHIPS

Belt width (in. )
Idler type 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
20-deg equal rolls 20 33 49 69 94 120 1 51
35-deg equal rolls 23 39 59 82 I 1 1 143 179
45-deg equal rolls 24 41 61 86 116 150 188
35-deg LC roll " .. 36 51 68 87 108 132
(9-in. trough rolls)
45-c1eg LC roll ... 38 54 72 92 114 139
(9-in. trough rolls) ~:..:

In tons pel' haul' (2000-1b tons) at 100 fprn , Wood chip weight - 15 pcf.

NOTE: To find capacity at other speeds, rnu l t iply by the desired speed and divide by 100.

TAI3LE 5-H - 20·DEG PICKING IDLER CAPACITIES'"

Slumping materials + Bulk ma.terialsf
Width Trough roll length (in. ) Trough roll length [in.)
(in. ) 5.6 7. 5 5.6 7. 5
24 39 i,' • 83 ...
30 61 .. . 127 ...
36 81 95 174 188
42 l03 121 227 245
48 l27 148 287 308
54 153 178 353 377
60 180 209 425 452
72 .. . 277 ... 622 *

In tons pel' hour 1200D-Ib tons) for'[ 00 p c f rn ate ri al s at 1 00 fpm belt

speed.

+5 - deg sur charge, 2 - in. edge dis ta n c a ,

*Z5-deg surcharge. O. 055W + O.9-in. edge distance.

NOTE: obtain capacities of other material densities and belt speeds by dire ct in te r po l a tion.

5-6

and skirt boards must be wide enough to pass any probable cornbina tion of lumps, which in t urn se ts the minimum belt width, independent of capacity requirements. It happens occasionally that the belt wid th required to handle lump size is greater than that required for capacity. This condition can only be avoided by crushing or by scalping off large lumps before deliver: ng rna terial to the belt.

Table 5-1 shows relationship of belt width to IUl11p size that should be maintained.

TABLE 5-[ - MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED LUMP SIZE FOR VARIOUS BELT WroTHS

Belt Lump size (in. )
width II mixed with
(in. ) If uniform 90 percent fines
12 2 4
18 4 6
24 5 8
30 6 10
36 7 12
42 8 14
48 10 16
54 11 20
60'and over 12 24 VII. CAPACITIES FOR SPECIAL CONDITIONS

A.

Package Conveyors

Belt conveyors handling large packages, cases, or sacks that feed to the belt singly offer no problems in capacity determination. The belt must be wide enough for the largest package and must run fast enough to take packages away at the peak rate at which they will be fed. There are, of course, limits on speed for package conveyors, sometimes set by the nature of the material and sometimes by the rate at which the packages can be taken away from the discharge end.

Belt conveyors handling packages of miscellaneous size and shape require an analysis of the size distribution of the packages and an estimate of probable combinations of package sizes that might make up a typical cross section. From such a cross section, belt width and speed can be established. In predicting a typical cross section, it must be known whether packages can be piled or must be kept single layer for inspection or removal. See Section 15 for more de tail on package conveyors.

CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS

B. Loy Handling Belts

Logs are handled all belt conveyors, both troughed and fla t, in pulp wood lengths and in short sa wed sticks. Here again it is necessary to analyze the size of the pieces to estirna te a typical cross-sectional load. Usually the wood will lie 011 these belts in a single layer. At some points, the load may occupy practically the full belt width with several small logs side by side, while at others a single log will constitute the load. The capacity given in Table 5-1 is based on 60 percent of the belt width and 75 percent of the length being covered with wood averaging 6 in. in diameter. This is a density of loading easily obtained and one that can be exceeded by 35 percent during periods of peak loading.

In calculating tension and power, cords can be converted to tons by using 4500 lb per cord of pulp wood. Then tph '" cor Is per hour X 2.25. The number of sticks per cord will be between 90 and 125.

TAl.lLE 5-J - LOG HANDLING BELT CAPACITY*

Belt Bell, peed (fpm)
width
(in.) 50 100 150 ZOO 250 300 350
-- --
3D 12 2-1 36 -+s 60 72 96
36 15 29 H 58 7Z 87 102
42 18 35 53 70 8 105 lZ3
-+8 20 ·,0 60 80 100 120 1·10
,4 I 23 45 6~ 90 113 135 158
60 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
L __ ,-_
Ln cords pi:'r hour. c.

Fully Skirted Belts

With most materials, skin boards running the full length of a conveyor result in cover abrasion and gouging and for this reason are seldom used for ordinary conveying purposes. They are used all some steeply inclined belts handling lumpy 111 a terials tha t tend to roll back and off the bell. In this case, they are set just off and above belt edge and are not intended to increase belt capacity. Therefore, the normal capacity tables should be used for such conveyors.

Full length skirts also are used on belt conveyors used as feeders. In this case, the cross-sectional area of load can be increased considerably beyond normal capacity since depth of load can be maintained for the full width between skirt boards and skirt boards call be set closer than 110rl11al to the belt edge. Speeds for feeeler belts depend 011 the abrasiveness of the material but normally do not exceed 100 fpm for nonabrasive materials and 60 fprn for abrasive materials.

5-7

SECTION 5

The depth of the load should not exceed approximately 40 percent of the width between skirt boards. With skirt boards separated 80 percent of the belt width and depth of load at 40 percent of the skirt board separation, the capacity is given by

T

W2MS 18,750

where

T tons per hour (2000 Ib tons),

M weight in pounds per cubic foot,

W belt width in inches, and

S belt speed in feet per minute.

The general capacity formula for any width and depth of load is

T =

AMS 4800 '

where

A cross-sectional load area in square inches.

With such. heavy loadings as this permits, the idler spacing and belt tension must be investigated to keep belt deflection and idler loadings within acceptable limits and minimize sag and spillage.

VIII. BELT SPEED

Selection of proper belt speed is influenced by capacity required, by the resulting belt tension and power requirement, and by limitations in the nature of the material being handled. Such limitations might be degradation of friable materials, windage losses of light or powdery materials, lump impact on carrying idlers, etc.

As far as capacity is concerned, it is desirable to select a belt speed that will result in a full belt. This produces a better pattern of cover wear. However, it is sometimes necessary to compromise in this respect in favor of belt tension. This is done by increasing speed, which reduces cross-sectional load (with the feed held constant) and thereby reduces tension, permitting a lighter bel t. The gain in troughability and saving in initial cost made in this way often offset the loss in cover wear resulting from a less than fully loaded belt.

Speed also has an effect on power requirernen t, particularly on belts with little or no incline. With tonnage rate held constant, power requirement goes down as speed is decreased. This is because the power to ope rate the belt and other moving machinery varies directly with speed while the power to move the live load remains constant as long as the ra te of loading is fixed. The degree to which speed affects power requirement depends on the ratio of payload to gross load. The higher the percentage

TABLE 5-K - TYPICAL MAXIMUM BELT SPEEDS (FEET PER MINUTE)*

Belt Grain or other Run of mine
width Hard or e sand
[i n, ) free flowing rnaterial coal and earth+ stone - primary crushed*
14 400 300 300
16 500 300 300
18 500 400 350
20 600 400 350
24 600 500 450
30 700 600 550
36 800 650 600
42 800 700 600
- 48 900 700 650
54 1000 700 650
60 1000 700 650
66 ... 800 750
72 .. - 800 750 ':'These speeds are intended as guides to general practice and are not absolute. +Moderately abrasive materials.

*Very abrasive rna t e r i a l.s ,

5-8

of payload, the less effect speed will have on power requirement. In the fairly common case of a level belt with weight ofload on the belt equal to the weight of all other moving parts, a 10 percent change in speed would have a 5 percent effect on power. On incline belts, the effect would be less.

Table 5-K indicates the bounds of common practice in conveyor belt speed.

Where space limitations and capacity require it, the belt speeds in Table 5-K have been exceeded by as much as 25 percent or more in some cases. However, under ordinary circumstances it is better to provide a belt of sufficient width to permit tabulated speed recommendations to be observed. There has been some tende ncy to limit belt speed when handling friable materials to avoid breakage at the discharge. However, unavoidable vertical drops have been shown to sometimes have a greater effect than belt speed so it may be futile to handicap a conveying problem with extremely low belt speed (250 fprn or less) for this reason alone.

Table 5-L covers special cases of belt conveying not covered by the bulk material speed ill Table 5-K_

IX. WEIGHTS OF P';lATERIALS

The unit weight or weight per cubic foot of many materials is subject to considerable variation. The size of material whether it is wet or dry, and-in the case of

CAPACITY OF BELT CONVEYORS

TABLE S-L - TYPICAL MAXIMUM BELT SPEEDS - MISCELLANEOUS MA TERlALS AND EQUIPMENT

Material

900 - 1000 50 - 100 100 - ZOO

Belt s peed I [pm)

Packages

Pulp wood (lags) Pulp wood

50 - 200

100 {m a xi rnu m for sorting)

300 - 400 (t r a ns po rt mg lower speed handicap slow discharge)

2000 - 2500

Car loaders - t r i rn . lllE:'rS - chargers

Portable conveyors - [unde rg r-ou nd}

Whee 1. excavators Picking belts

Belts unloaded by pl ows

250 - 450

minerals-the natural formations account for this variation. Hence, whenever possible, the weight per cubic foot, for the size and kind of material involved, should be accura tely determined.

Solid or compact weights, which are available for most materials, cannot be used in the determination of the capacity of belt conveyors and elevators that handle broken or loose materials,

The weights per cubic foot given in Table 5-M are based all material being broken and loose and in the size more frequently encountered in industrial service. Except where otherwise noted, the weights are given for dry materials,

5-9

SECTION 5

TABLE S-M - WEIGHTS, VARIOUS BULK MATERIALS

Material

We ight pe r cubic Ioo t (Ibl

we t gh t per \Veight per
c u b i c loot bushel
(Jb) (Ib)
6e
50 [0 60
4S to 50
45
70
80
50
20 [0 25
38 [0 47
40 to 45
8 I to 87
lH to 180
55 to 58
75 to 85
120 to 135
137 to 144
100
24 to 28
88 to 100
80 to 95
85 to 90
10 to 25
~ 0 to ~ 5
63 to 75
95 to 105
52 La 60
n to 5l
25 lu 34
Z3 t o 32
35 10 40
115 1 125
12010 100
90 ro 110
70 to 1; 0
10-1 10 112
OJ 10 75
8b
82
35 to ·10
I I a to 125
35 to ·15
~O to 120
96
96
~5
80 to 100
38 "18
16 to 20 20 to 2 S
H to ·18 -12 to 60
·15 50
~u 50
l5 31
Il 15
35 to 40 4': to 50
28 10 45 35 to 56
,6 32
18 23
45 50
46 57
48 bO
35 to 45
IJO to 180 Acid phosphate Ie r t i l iz e r Alun ..

Lurn p Pulverized Arn rn on i urrr nitrate Arrirn on iurn sulfate Dry

\\'et Asbestos

Ore Shredded Ash

Waod Soft coal A s ph a l tu rn

Ba r-y t e s , loose Bauxite

Al u rn i n urri ore Crushed, dry Brick

Comm cn and hard Fire

Caliche

Carbon black pellets Cement

Po r tl and , dry Clinke r

Chalk

Charcoal

Cfndc r s

Clay

Dry

Coal

Anthracite Bi t un .. i nou s Coke

Br e c x e

Loo s e

Refiners Concrete mix, we t Coppe r- Or-C

Dolomite, c ru s he d Earth, c orn rnou l o a rn

Dr)'

\\', t II r 1T1 Lid F"(>ld~pO!_r, powde r e d Flint, silled

F'Lc u r s p a r

Flour, wheat (196 Ib/bbl) Flue dust

F'uile rs e a.r th. r a w , or burnt

Glass, broken or c u l lc t Gneiss

Granite, broken Gravel, wa h eland

sc.reened

Gyps urn, b r o kc n Gr e m s

Barley

Bran Buckwheat

Co r n , sh e Il e d Corn, Ole al Cotton 5(' e d

Cor ton s c c d hu ll s Callan seed ru e a l Flax seed

Oats

Peanuts, s helle d Rye

Soy beans Wheal

Icc, crushed

Iron ore, crushed

Lr cn pv r i t e s {s ee l i rn e -t ne, and add 50 percent)

5-10

Ma te r i a l

Iron s u l ph a te , pickling tank Dry

We t

Ki e s e l g nu r . infusorial earth

Lignite

Lime

Qui k, dry Wet or rn o r ta r Hydrated

Li me s tone Broken

Lu rnp s , Z to 3-in. Lurn p s , 1-1/2 to 2-in. Screenings, 1./2-in. Dus.t

Ma g ne s i urn sulfate Magne s iurn oxide Marble, broken Marl

Mica

Flake Powde r Moly bde nurn o r e Nickel ore

Ores

Ca r b nates and l irne rack, b r-ok.r-u Sulphide!" au d o x r de s . b rc k en

Peal

Sol HI, dry LOUSI;', dr y P'h o s ph a te

Pe bb l e ROl..k

Po r a s h o r

Pu rn i c e s t.one , 'round Pyrites (sec li rn c rune and

added 50 pe rc ent ] Quartz, b roke n

Rock, soft {e x c a vetc d ' .... t t h shovel)

75
80
10 to 15
45 to 50
50 to 60
95
20 to 45 95 to 100 90 to 95 85 to 90 80 to 90 75 to 80

70 120 95 to 105 79

32 61 100 100

II to I ~ 0

llS tu l b U

100 75 to 85 r 5 lu 85 40

Q5 to IDO

IOU lu 110

Salt

B r okc n ruck Granulated Sand and g r avc I Dry

\\"el

Sand, pure quar tz

Dry also Io uuo t-v Moist

Sandstone, b ro ke n Sawdust

Shale, b r o k e n Shells, oyster

Si n te r

Slrtl!, I.! r an ul a t e d Slate. -br ken Soap

ake

Flake

Soa p s tcnc talc Soda ash

Soy be an s

Sugar, re finr-d or 1"3\\ Sul phu r , dry, crushed

c o rrrrn e rc i a.I Sulphur, I,005C

I'e c oui r e pe lle 1.5 Trap rock, broken

Wood "

Chips (dry) Hard

Sort

LIn

r e , crushed

4:; \0 5 I 70 to H 0

90 t o IDS

j 15 to j 2 5

90 to I 10

I 10 \0 12'!

85 to gO
13
90 to y:.
50 1"0 10 135 7S to CiU

bl 109u

-15 tu 511 :; to 15 130 2510 Dr ~b 50 [0 D5

70

50 t" 6 0 lib to UD 105 to II U

15 to 32 35 to 75 25 to 40

160

SECTION

6

POWER REG.UIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

Page

Conveyor PO\ver. .

II

Belt Tension and Horsepower Due to Friction.

6·1

III Belt Tension and Horsepower for Elevating or Lowering Load

6-.5

IV Effective Tension, Belt Horsepower, Drive Losses ..

6-6

V

Effect of Belt Speed

VI Slack Side Tension .

6-7

VII Tension Due to Weight of Belt on Slope.

6·7

VIII Maximum Belt Tension (Arithmetic Method)

6-8

IX Computer Analysis of Conveyor Belt Tensions.

6-8

X Graphical or Tension Diagram Method for Determining

Belt Tension Distribution.

6-15

Xl Acceleration and Braking Forces

6-20

A. General . 6-20

B. Method 0 f Calculation 6-21

C. Effect on Belt Tensions - Tension Diagram Method. 6·22

D. Effect on Belt Tension - Arithmetic Analysis of Forces 6-23

E. Rules Governing Algebraic Signs of All Conveyor

Belt Forces . . . . . . . . 6-24

F. Effect of Adding External Braking or Accelerating

Forces to Gravitational Forces . . . 6·24

G. Examples of Tension Diagrams for Accelerating

and Braking Forces . . . . 6-26

XlI Conveyor Coasting

6·44

SECTION 6

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

I. CONVEYOR POWER

The power to operate the conveyor is made up of frictional resistance to movement of the various parts, work of elevating or lowering tbe load, and mechanical losses of the driving system.

II. BELT TENSION AND HORSEPOWER DUE TO FRICTION

A. Friction Factor (Cl and Length Factor (Lo)

Frictional loads are due (0 weight of the belt, weight of the moving parts of the idlers and pulleys, drag of skirt boards and scraper, and drag caused by any minu te misalignment of pulleys or idlers.

ln addition, the weight of the material all the belt and the internal friction 1,[ that material as it shifts and reshapes passing over the idler rolls increase the friction of the system. The calculation of these frictional forces depends upon an assumption of a composite friction factor. The other factors (such as belt weight and material weight) lend themselves to accurate calculation. The accuracy of this assumption, therefore, determines the accuracy of the results obtained in the determination of frictional loads.

Mo t frictional force components vary directly with the length of the conveyor. However, there are a few COI11- ponents that are independent of belt length and therefore can be added in as a cons tan r. The tension and power formulas in this handbook give equally correct values for all center-to-center distances, based on actual data from existing conveyor units used to develop the Goodyear formula.

From Figure 6·1, it can be seen that the power. by the Goo lyear formula, is proport ional to (L + Lo) instead of being proportional to L where L is taken as the projection all the horizontal of the center-to-center distance (see Part C, below).

The L 0 factor is used as a means of including the constant frictional losses, which are independent of belt length and are commonly spoken of as terminal friction. Figure 6·1 shows that the Goodyear formula gives higher values for short center conveyors and lower value for long center conveyors than does a simple proportion between power and length.

Figure 6·[· Relationship a/Conveyor Length (L] to Power Requirements

The composite friction factor used in determining friction force is designated by C. The factor is used ill conjunction with a corresponding Lo factor as indicated in Table 6·A. The value of C depends upon the type of idlers, structure, and maintenance. 1 t also depends on proper relationship between idler spacing and belt tension as 8 means of limiting internal friction in the load. This relationship is discussed in Section I I, and the C factors tabula ted presume its proper LIse. With bel ts thai require restraint when loaded (that is, that are regenerative), a lower friction factor is shown to place any deviat ion from the estimated friction factor in the conservative direction (the direction that would indicate larger belt tension and larger power requ iremen t),

6·1

SECTION 6

TABLE 6-A - FRICTION FACTOR (C) AND LENGTH FACTOR (Lo) FOR CONVEYOR TENSION FORMULAS

Class of conveyor

0, 012

Friction factor (C )':<

Length factor (Lo), £t':'

For conveyors with permanent or other well-aligned structures and with no r rn a I rna irit en an c e

0.022

200

For temporary, portable, or poorly aligned conveyors. Also for con-

v e yo r s in ext r e rn.e cold weather

that are either subject to frequent stops and starts or are operating for extended periods at -40 deg F

or below.

0,03

150

For conveyors requiring restraint of the belt when loaded.

475

::~ The C and L factors have proven to be satisfactory for the great

a

rn aj ority of conveyor belt tension and hor s e powel' calculations.

However, when long, relatively level, heavily loaded conveyors are encountered where power r equi.r erne nt s are large and rn a d e up

pr irn.a r i ly of friction, it is r e c orrrrne nded that Goodyear (Akron) be consulted for additional engineering as sistance in selecting these factors.

TABLE 6·8 - AVERAGE VALUES OF BAND Q FOR PLY-TYPE BELTS (LBfFT)

Light- se rvice Medium - service Heavy - service
Width material to material aver material over
(in. ) 50 Ib/ell ft 50 to 100 Ib/eu it 100 lb/Cll ft
B Q B Q B Q
14 1 7 2 13 3 19
16 2 8 3 14 4 21
18 3 9 4 16 5 23
20 4 10 5 18 6 25
24 5 14 6 21 7 29
30 6 19 7 28 8 38
36 7 26 9 38 11 52
42 9 33 1 1 50 14 66
48 12 40 15 60 18 82
54 14 50 18 71 22 97
60 17 62 21 85 27 115
66 20 75 24 103 32 135
72 22 88 28 lZ'1 36 155 6·2

Decline conveyors or decline portions of multiple-grade conveyors that are marginally regenerative should be investigated both as regenerative and as though they required power (that is, by checking with both 0.012 friction and 0.022 or 0.03 as applicable). The most severe results should be used in order to provide a more conservative result.

B. Q Factor and Belt Weight

1.

General

The Q factor represents the weight of the moving parts of the conveyor system and is comprised of the belt weight (8) plus the weights of the moving parts of the idlers. It is expressed as a weight per foot of center-tocenter distance of the conveyor.

2.

Band Q Values

Table 6-8 gives average values of both 8 and Q for various widths of conveyors with ply-type belting. These values should not be used with steel cable belting, since both 8 and Q generally will run much higher. It is recommended that calculating a more accurate Q value in all cases be considered, especially in the following:

1. Level conveyors where horsepower and belt tension - are due primarily to friction.

2. Wide belts where estimated values of Q and 8 can vary widely from actual values.

3. In any case where actual weight of a selected belt varies more than 20 percent from average belt weight above, change Q accordingly and recalculate tension,

4. Conveyors with steel cable belts.

3. Ca.lculation of Q Values

Q can be calculated for any combination of belt and idlers as follows:

Q

2(8) +

w1 w2

-.-+--

11 12

where

Q = pounds per foot;

8 = belt weight in pounds per foot (see appendix) ;

weight of rotating parts of carrying and return idlers, respectively, i.n pounds (if actual weights are unavailable, see appendix); and

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

11 ,12 = spacing of carrying and return idlers, respectively, in feet.

c.. Proper Value of Length (L) onlnaline Belts

For incline belts, L is the horizontal projection of the center-to-center distance as measured along the contour of the conveyor. For empty conveyors, the amount of belt and equipment to be moved is determined slightly more accurately by the length along the contour of the conveyor.

For a loaded belt, the additional load friction force is determined by the horizontal projection of the center distance. In Figure 6-2,

I = peak capacity in tons per hour, 2000 T = material per hour in pounds, and 60 S = belt travel per hour in feet.

Then:

2000 I 100 I

=

60 S 3 S

'" material on each foot of belt in pounds.

and

100I L

-33 x cos A = total material on incline in pounds,

Also:

lOOTL 100IL

3 S cos A x cos A = ~

'" component at right angles to belt.

T

H

1

COMPONENT AT RIGHT ANGLE TO BELT

WEIGHT OF

MATERIAL ON INCLINE

Figure 6-2 - Load Weight Components

6-3

SECTION 6

The latter is the part of the load supported by the idlers. Since 100T/3S is weight of material per foot of belt, the load friction of an incline conveyor is the same as the load friction of a level conveyor having the same length as the horizontal projection of the incline conveyor ..

When L is used in calculating the empty belt friction, the resultant empty friction will be lower than actual. However, the small error will be less if L is taken as length along the contour when load friction is calculated. Consequently, this compromise definition of L is justified. Further, on incline belts, friction usually is small compared with incline load tension; hence error introduced in using a compromise L is small.

Therefore, for convenience, Goodyear recommends the horizontal length for both the empty belt calculation and for additional friction power due to the load. The horizontal projection for L does not insert a very subtantial error for the average computation. The maximum error is in a belt inclined to the maximum amount (approxima tely 23 deg) for the full length, in which case the length along the belt is 8.7 percent longer than the horizontal projection of the length. In the usual case, the difference is considerably less. This 8.7 percent difference enters only into the empty friction estimate and is a much lesser percentage on total effective tension.

D. Components of Belt Friction

Conveyor belt friction is made up of the following:

I. The friction force for the empty conveyor of length L.

2. The additional force to convey the load on the level for a distance L.

These two items are computed separately and are influenced by the type of equipment and the installation (in other words, by composite friction factor C, which is always an estimate).

The power to elevate the load, or the power generated in lowering the load, is independent of the class of equipment or the installation and is subject to exact predetermination.

In the following derivations, the losses in the driving mechanism are not included. The formulas give the amount of power or force that must be provided to the belt at its driving pulleys. Factors used are:

C friction factor (see Table 6-A);

Q

weight of the moving parts of the equipment in pounds per foot of center-to-center distance;

L

center-to-center distance in feet or horizcnta I projection of this distance for incline or decline belts;

length constant (see Table 6·A); and belt speed in feet per minute.

E.

Empty Conveyor Friction Force

The empty conveyor friction force can be calculated as follow:

C Q (L + L)

o

total friction force for empty conveyor in pounds

and

_C_Q-:{-:L_· "..+::-::-L.;;_o)_S = horsepower for empty conveyor. 33,000

In tension calculations, it U Hally is necessary to determine that portion of the total empty friction occurring on the return side and sometimes that occurring on the conveying side. These forces are calculated as follows:

1-, 'I fri ionf CQL xerurn side tnctton . orce = ~

Conveying side empty friction force = CQ(; + Lo)

F. load Friction Force

Load friction force can be calculated as follows:

C (L + L ) (100 T) =

o 3 S

friction force in poun.ls due to conveying material on the level

and

C(L+ Lo)(I~OST)C3,~OO) = C (L+ Lo)T 990

horsepower for conveying material on the level

G. Fully Skirted Conveyors

There are occasional in tallations where the load is conveyed between skirt boards over the entire length from the load to the discharge points:

(0.2) (d2) (L) (M) = friction force in pounds due to material dragging against the skirt boards

6-4

where

load depth in feet, conveyor length in feet,

material density in pounds per cubic foot, and

0.2 constant made up of average material repose angle and coefficient of friction.

d

L

M

To obtain horsepower, multiply this expression by S/33,OOO.

III. BELT TENSION AND HORSEPOWER FOR ELEVATING OR LOWERING LOAD

A. Force or Power Due to G fade

Use T, L, and S as in the previous derivations. Let H be the net change in elevation in feet and A the angle between belt and horizontal in degrees. In Figure 6-2 then:

H sin A

amount of belt in feet under load on incline

100 T

3S - amount of material in pounds per

foot of belt

100 T H

3S x sin A = total material in pounds on incline

100 TH ___::....:....::.....::...::.:;_ x si n A

3 S sin A

100 TH 3S

component along incline (this is force to raise or lower the load)

100TH 3S

S

TF!

= horsepower to raise load or horsepower generated in lowering load

x

33,000

990

In this formula, the tension due to incline load is inversely proportional to belt speed (that is, the greater the speed the less the tension when tons per hour is constant). The power required for elevating the load is independent of the speed and is a function of tons per hour and elevation.

A belt in which there are both incline and decline sections must be investigated under all Significant conditions of loading. That is, power or tensions should be calculated for the empty belt; the entirely loaded belt; for inclines only loaded; and for declines only loaded using the appropriate friction factor for each case. Under

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

certain conditions, the belt may generate power and under others may require power. The motor and the belt, therefore, must be selected for the worst condition of loading apt to exist.

B.

Additional Force or Power for Trippers

The ordinary conveyor usually discharges over the head pulley. However, it may be necessary to discharge the load at some point before it reaches the head pulley. If such is the case, it is common practice to use a tripper.

Trippers can be either fixed or movable, Both types can be arranged to discharge to either side of the belt or directly back onto the belt. Basically, it is a matter of elevating the load from the normal conveyor level and passing it over a tripper pulley into the discharge chute. The belt then continues on to the head pulley of the conveyor.

Movable trippers are used for stockpiling and can feed directly to the stockpile or bin or to shuttle belts that carry the load away from the main belt Oil either or both sides. Trippers can be moved by hand, by the power of the conveyor belt, or they can be motor driven. The last two types can be manually controlled or can be arranged to move automatically to distribute the load evenly between the tripper stops,

The tension of the belt at the tripper usually is the maximum in the system due to the elevation of the load. The elevation in a normal tripper is approximately 5 to 6 ft, depending on the belt width. Occasionally, trippers for stockpiling have elevated material as much as 50 ft. If more exact tripper dimension information is required, equipment manufacturers' catalogs will provide it. Since the tension at the tripper usually is high, it is important that pulley diameters be adequate and in accordance with recommended practice.

At the tripper, there are two requirements for power: one to elevate the load and the other for the friction of the tripper itself and the power to move it when the tripper is moved by the conveyor belt. If the elevation in the tripper has not been included in the net change in elevation for the conveyor, the power requirement should be calculated in the same manner as for the incline load and should be added to the power for lifting originally calculated.

Friction in the tripper itself or for movement of the tripper is small and for belt power calculation can be neglected. A movable tripper, for example, will have the maximum power requirement when the. tripper is as close as possible to the head pulley. Since this is not a constant position for the tripper and occurs only periodically, the tripper friction can be offset by the reduction

6-5

SECTION 6

in power due to that portion of the belt being empty between the tripper and the head pulley.

Movable trippers are commonly operated at speeds varying from 25 to 60 fpm, although this speed can be changed by appropriate changes in the tripper gearing.

As the tripper is moved opposite the direction of belt travel, the speed of the belt relative to the tripper becomes the sum of the belt speed and the tripper speed. Consequently, the rate of discharge through the tripper chute is increased proportionately; any belts or other conveyors taking the tripper discharge must have capacity for this increased rate.

IV. EFFECTIVE TENSION, BELT HORSEPOWER, DRIVE LOSSES

A. Effective Belt Tension and Belt Horsepower

In any belt drive, whether it is transmission, conveyor, or elevator, there exists a difference of tension in the belt on the two sides of the drive pulley. The larger tension is called tight side tension (T 1) and the smaller is called slack side tension (T2). Without slack side tension to prevent slipping, the belt cannot be driven. The difference between the tight side and slack side tension is known as the effective tension (T e)' since this tension actually does the work; it is the algebraic sum of the forces just considered:

T '" C Q (L + L ) + C (L + L ) 100 T + 100 TH

e 0 0 3S - 3S

'" C (L + L ) (Q + 100 T) + 100 TH

o 3S - 3S

To this sum would be added the friction between material and skirt board if the belt is skirted over its entire length.

The last quantity (100 TH/3 S) is added if the discharge is at a higher elevation than the loading point but is deducted if the discharge is lower than the loading point. In some cases, the discharge is so much lower that T e becomes a minus quantity, which indicates that the force generated by the material seeking a lower level is greater than the total friction losses. ln such cases, some means of absorbing the power generated must be provided, or the belt speed will become excessive whenever the belt is loaded. Customarily, this power is absorbed electrically as described in Section 9.

The belt horsepower at the drive pulley can be calculated as follows:

Belt horsepower

ST e 33,000

The effective tension also can be calculated from wattmeter power readings of actual installations. In this case, motor and drive losses must be deducted from the electrical input to the motor, thus leaving the power absorbed by the belt. Substituting this latter value in the above equations with the proper value of S provides the effective tension. Drive and motor losses must be added to the electrical output of the motor (generator) to obtain the belt horsepower where decline belts require restraint.

B. Drive Losses Not Transmitted by Belt

In the calculations of belt tensions in this handbook, only the power required at the driving pulley is considered. The friction losses of the terminal pulleys already have been included in the calculations by the Lo factor. It also is possible to estimate terminal pulley friction losses individually.

Methods of connecting the motor and the driving pulleys are numerous. Speed can be reduced through lise of belts, chains, gears, enclosed gear reduction units, or some combination of these. In general, the following values can be used in determining the losses in such power trains (see Table 6-C).

Losses incurred in couplings, used to control acceleration between motor and reducers, vary roughly from 3 percent to 5 percent. These couplings are electrical or fluid type. Their use and characteristics are detailed in Section 9.

TABLE 6-C - AVERAGE LOSSES, VARIOUS TYPES OF CONVEYOR DRIVE REDUCTIONS

Loss

Type reduction (1<)

Cut tooth gears, roller chain or 5

belting, each reduction

Self-contained spur or helical gears 5

(us e manufacture r ' s e Hi ciency rating)

Helical gear reducer coupled with 5

roller chain drive*

Herringbone gear reducer coupled 5

with roller chain d r i ve «

Worm gear, d i.r e c t coupled reducer 25

(use manufacturer' 5 efficiency rating)

Worm geal-, final chain drive 20

* Add 50 pe r cent to the s e values in case of exposure to the elements and dusty condition.

6-6

Thus, to determine the actual motor size, it is necessary to add to the calculated belt horsepower the losses caused by the reducers and the coupling. For example, if there are two reductions using open gears, there is a 5 percent loss of input for each reduction. These losses must be applied to the belt horsepower to ob tain motor horsepower.

V. EFFECT 0 F BELT SPEED

A. On Power

Belt speed does not affect the power required for elevating or lowering the material. The power required to convey the material on the level (load friction) is also independent of speed. However, the power required for the empty conveyor is directly proportional to the speed. Since this power generally is relatively small, the overall effect on the total power is not great. For example, in a typical conveyor, changing the speed from 300 to 500 fprn increased the power requirement by only 7.5 percent. The belt width and tons per hour remained fixed.

B.

On Tension

When the speed is increased, the empty belt friction tension is not affected. The tension due to load friction and incline load is inversely proportional to the change in belt speed. Using the same conveyor in (A) where changing the speed from 300 to 500 fpm increased power 7.5 percent, the effective tension was reduced 35.5 percent. This means that a belt of fewer plies can be used along with smaller pulleys, which is based on the premise that sufficient plies will remain to support the load and that the increase in speed does not adversely affect the material to be carried. For the user, it is therefore necessary to equate the saving in belt and equipment, a one-time saving, against an increase in power cost (a cumulative expense) and against effect of decreased time cycle. In some cases, however, clue to maximum tension limitations, an increase in belt speed may permit tile use of a single-flight conveyor system where a two-flight system would otherwise be required.

VI. SLACK SIDE TENSION

Usually, the slack side tension is obtained by a counterweight Dr by a screw-type takeup. The former is preferable since it maintains a constant tension automatically and can be set at the lowest amount at which the conveyor can be driven. This type maintains a constant tension under all conditions of load, starting, and stretch. Section 20 gives a more complete discussion of both types of takeup.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

The amount of the slack side tension necessary is determined by multiplying [he effective tension by the drive factor (K). Values of K depend upon the arc of contact between belt and drive pulley (or pulleys), type of takeup, and whether drive pulleys are bare or lagged. Proper values of K are given in Tables 9-A and 9·B in Section 9.

Calculation of the slack side tension by this method cloes not in itself necessarily end the problem of slack side determination. Certain belts, such as lowering conveyor with a tail drive, might require more slack side tension than that previously calculated to provide the minimum tension (To> specified in Table I O-E in Section 10. If such is the case, the calculated slack side tension must be increased by an amount necessary to provide the minimum tension (To) at the low tension point of the system. The methods of Part VIII (determining maximum tension) show when this is necessary. Conveyors analyzed by the tension diagram method illustrate graphically the location of minimum tension (T 0)'

VII. TENSION DUE TO WEIGHT OF BELT ON SLOPE

With all incline conveyors, the weight of tile belt on the slope causes tension at the top of the slope. This tension call be expressed as BH, where B is the weight of the belt in pounds per lineal foot and H is the net. change in elevation in feet. The formula is derived in the same manner as that for the incline load tension.

COMPONENT AT RIGHT ANGLE TO INCLINE

Figure 6·3 . Tension Due to H/eight of Belt on Slope

In Figure 6·3:

H sin A

feet of belt on incline

and

B x

H

=' total weight of belt on incline sin A

6·7

SECTION 6

C ·1']' BI-l . A BH

omponent a ong me, me= -:----A x sin "'.

. ~n

The extent. to which this tension affects the maximum tension is discussed later.

VIII. MAXIMUM BELT TENSION (ARITHMETIC METHOD)

The maximum belt tension is made up of the various components already discussed. For convenience, the formulas for these components are listed as follows:

I. Empty conveyor friction force '" C Q (L + Lo)

, CQL

a. Return side friction lorce= -_._ 2

b. Carrying side empty friction '" CQ ( ~ + Lo)

2. Friction force due to load > C (L + L ) (]OO T)'

o 3 S

3. Total friction force (sum of ] and 2)

= C (L + Lo) (Q + 1 ~o S T )

4 I I· I d jensi ] 00 TH

. nc me oa tension = 3 S

5. Effective tension (sum of 3 and 4) = C (L + Lo) (Q + I~OS T) ±

100 TI-I 3 S

6. Minimum slack side tension= K x effective tension

7. Belt slope tension = BH

8 .. Minimum tension = To (Table I O·E in Section 10)

With these formulas, it is possible to determine the tension at any point of any conveyor, but the various tensions must be assembled according to the layout of the conveyor.

Figures 6-4 through 6·12 indicate the composition of the maximum tension for different conveyor layouts. When two formulas are given, both should be computed; the larger value becomes the maximum tension.

The preceding examples provide a method of determining maximum tension for various types of simple conveyors, As the conveyor profiles become more complex with. combinations of incline, decline, and horizontal sections, the arithmetic analysis also becomes increasingly cornplex. It becomes more and more convenient to examine such conveyors either by using the computer as discussed in Part IX or by graphing the tensions as explained in Part X.

In making all arithmetic analysis of the more complex conveyor profiles, the following steps normally would be pursued:

I. Calculate T e for all logical loading conditions that might be encountered (empty, full load, declines loaded, and inclines plus horizontal sections loaded). In some extremely long overloaded conveyors, it becomes impractical to assume that all inclines would evet, be loaded simultaneously. Such profiles usually a re examined for long sections generally inclined, horizontal, or declined that can be assumed entirely loaded even though they may contain small intermediate undulations.

2. From the various Te values, calculate the minimum T 2 and counterweight tension required by the drive,

3, Using the counterweight tension frorn Step 2, calculate tensions along the conveying side for each load condition to the point of lowest tension. If the resulting tension is less than the minimum required (To), then the counterweight must be increased by the necessary amount.

4. Maximum tension may occur at the drive, head, tailor at some high point along the conveying side .. Tension will have to be checked at each probable point for each load condition to obtain maximum tension. After experience, one usually can know in advance the point of maximum tension and the load condition that will produce it.

In calculating tensions along conveyors of this type, it is necessary to add and subtract the various tension components from point to point along both the return and conveying sides (see Figure 6.13),

IX. COMPUTER ANALYSIS 0 F CONVEYOR BELT TENSIONS

Tensions on simple conveyors can be easily and quickly calcula ted arithmetically. This approach becomes more and more cumbersome, however, with longer conveyors where there are a large number of incline, decline, and horizontal sections. A computer program is available at Goodyear's Akron plant that will take the data for any conveyor profile and print out power requirements and crit ical tensions for all desired loading conditions.

Computer printouts for a conveyor similar in profile to Figure 6·[3 are shown in Figure 6·] 4. Power and tensions are shown for the empty, fully loaded, declines loaded, and incline loaded conditions. Maximum tension and maximum horsepower both occur with the incline only loaded; the same load conditionalso dictated the counterweight requirement.

6·8

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m)

USE 1(')Tm~T.+KT.

THE COL

LARGER (2) Tm ~ To - -2- + T.

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (T OWl)

(11 WHENTm ~ 11lABOVE:

Towt KT. (IF GWT IS AFTER DRIVE)

TOW' KT. + C~L IIF GWT IS AT TAILJ

(2) WHEN T m ~ (2) ABOVE:

TOWI ~ TO - C~L (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)

Figure 6-4· Level Conveyor, Head Drive (Preferred Drive Location)

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m )

USE 1(1) Tm ~ To + KT.

THE

LARG ER I<l T ~ T _ CO. L,

m 0 2 + Te

COUNTERWE IGHT TENSION (T )

CWI

(1) WHEN T m ~ I') ABOVE:

Tcwt

KT. (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVEl KT. + COL, IIF CWT IS AT TAILi 2

Tcwt

121 WHEN T m ~ (2) ABOV E:

COL, 2

T cwt

To

(IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVEl

TCWI To (IFCWTISATTAIL)

Figure 6-5 . Level COI'lJ!eyor (Drive on Return Side)

USE

THE LARGER

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m)

I (1) T m ~ T. + KT. 12)Tm~T.+To

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (T CWI)

(1) WHEN T m ~ (11 ABOVE:

TCWI KY. (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)

TCW! Tm - G~L IIFCWTISATHEAD)

(2) WHEN T m ~ 12) A80VE:

TCW! ~ To IIF CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)

Tcwt ~ Tm - C~L (IFCWTISATHEAD)

Figure 6·6· Level Conveyor, Tail Drive (Least Desirable Drive Location)

6-9

SECTION 6

MAXIMUM TENSION IT m)

jl1) T m ~ T. + KT e USE THE

LARGER I~) _ COL

L., T m - To - -2- + BH + T e

COUNTE RWE IGHT TENSION (T CW,)

(1) WHEN Tn, ~ 111 ABOVE:

Tow, t<T e II F CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)

Tow, KTe - BH + C~L (IFCWTISATTAILl

(2) WHEN Tm (2) ABOVE:

TOW' To - C~L + BH \IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVEl

Tow, To (IFCWTISATTAIL)

Figure 6-7 - Elevating Conveyor, Head Drive (Preferred Drive Location)

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m)

(1) Tm Te + KTe
(2) Tm Te + KTe COL2 + BH2
USE TH E 2
LARGER COL,
131 Tm To + BH, + T.
2 COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (T cwI )

11) WHEN T m ~ (1) OR (2) ABOVE:

Tcwt ~ xr , (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVEl COL,

Tow'~ KTe-BHl +-2- IIFCWTISATTAILI

(21 WHEN T m ~ 131 OR (4) ABOVE:

T - COLl + BHl IIF CWT 15 AFTER DRIVE)

o 2

Tcw'[

To \lFCWTI5ATTAILI

Figure 6-8- Elevating Conveyor (Drive on Return Side)

USE THE LARGER

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m) )(1) T.m ~ T. + KT. {(21 Tm; T. + KT.

+ 8H COL

'-2-

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (Tow,l

WHEN T m = 11) OR (21 ABOVE:

TCWI = KT. (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVEl

MAXIMUM TENSION T

m

MAY BE AT EITHER POINT

Figure 6-9 - Elevating Conveyor, Tail Drive (Least Desirable Drive Location)

6-10

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

(A) WHEN I.OADED BEI.T GENERATES POWER (PREFERRED DRIVE LOCATION)

Tm(WHENLOADEDBELT

T m (WHEN EMPTY BEL T DETERMINES Tm; THIS IS RARE)

USE THE LARGER

MAXIMUM TE.NSION (T m )

{(1) Trn ~ T. + KT. (USE EMPTYT.I

12) T rn = T e + KT. (USE LOADED T.)

13) Tm = To + BH + C~L + T. (USE LOADEDT.) COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (Tcw.)

(1) WHEN Tm = (11 ABOVE:

Tow, = K(EMPTY Te) (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)

T . COL

Tcwt: "" m :2

8H (IFCWTISATHEAD)

121 WHEN T m = 121 ABOVE:

T cwt = K ILOADED T.I II F CWT IS BEFORE DRIVEl

T cw t = K (LOADED T.) - BH . COL (IF CWT IS AT HEAD) 2

131 WHEN T m = (3) ABOVE:

T cwt To + BH + C~L (IF CWT IS BEFORE DRIVE)

TCW! To (IFCWTISATHEAD)

(B) WHEN LOADED BELT REQUIRES POWER (LEAST DESIRABLE DRIVE LOCATION)

USE THE LARGEA

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m)

III) T", = To + KTe (2) r m = To + 8H +

CO.L -2-

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (Tcwt)

(ll WHENTm = (1) ABOVE:

Tcwt KT. (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)
Tcwt Tm - 8H COL IIF CWT IS AT HEAD)
--2-
(2) WHEN Tm (2) ABOVE:
Tcwt TO + C~L + BH - T. (IF CWT IS AFTER DRIVE)
T-cwt TO (IF CWT IS AT HEAD) Figure 6-10. - Lowering COnveyor (Tail Drive)

6-11

SECTION 6

(A) WHEN LOADED BEL T GENERATES POWER (LEAST DESIRABLE DRIVE LOCATION)

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m)

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (Tom)

111 Tow, Tm (IFCWTISATTAILI

121 TOW! KT. \I F CWT IS BEFOR E DR IVE I

(COULD BE AT EITHER lOCATION)

(B) WHEN LOADED BELT REQUIRES POWER (PREFERRED DRIVE LOCATION)

MAX IMUM TENSION (T m )

(11 WHEN T m = (1) ABOVE'

Towt KT.IIFCWTISAFTERDRIVEI

Tow, T", IIFCWTISATTAlll

{ 111 Tm T •• KT.
USE THE • cal
LARGER t (21 Tm KT. • BH 2
(31 T = To
m NOTE: USE THE G REATE R OF EMPTY OR LOADED T. I N ABOVE EXPR ESSIONS

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (TOW')

121 WHEN T m = (21 ABOVE:

Tcwt

KT. (IF CWT IS AFTER DRive)

KT. + BH + C~L (IFCWTISATTAILI

(3) WHEN T m = (3) ABOVE:

TOW! To. T.nFCWTISAFTERQRIVEI

Tew' To. T. + BH + C~l (IFCWTISATTAlll

Figure 6·11 . Lowering Conveyor (Head Drive)

L.OADED BELT GENERATES POWER

MAXIMUM TENSION (T m)

1 (I) T m = T. + KT t COL.2 + BH 2

USE THE • 2

LARGER . . cal

(21 T m '" To'" -2- + 8H + T e

COUNTERWE I GHT TENSION (T )

ewr

111 WHEN T m = 111 ABOVE:

Tewl KT. (IF CWT IS BEFORE DRIVEl

cal,

TCW! = KT. - -2- - BH, IIF CWT IS AT HEAD)

(2) WHEN T m = 121 ABOVE' Cal, T" + -2- +

T.:w[

BHl (IF CWT IS BEFORE DRIVEl

TOW! To (lfCWTISATHEADI

Figure 6·12· Lowering Conveyor (Drive 011 Return Side)

6·12

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

STATIONS' THROUGH 5 ARE. POINTS

WHERE TENSION VALUES ARE NORMALLY CALCULATEO. THE COMPUTER PRINTS OUT TENSION AT EACH STATION ON BOTH TOP AND RETURN SIDES.

T

STATION 4

I

r------------------------------------L------------------------------------ __ -I

TENSION AT STATION 41RETURNI

COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION (TOW,)

TENSION ATSTATION' ITAIL!

Tcwtf'LUS OR MINUS THE FOLLOWING,

PLUS RETURN SIDE FRICTION (C~L)

PLUS BELT WE IGHT TENSION OF SECTIONS L3 AND L, (BH3 + BH1) MINUS BELT WEIGHT TENSION OF SECTION L2 (BH2)

THEREFORE,

TENSION AT ST ATION 2ITOP)

TST1 PLUS DR MINUS THE FOLLOWING,

PLUS EMPTY CONVEYING SIDE FRICTION OF SECTION L, [CO(i- + PLUS LOAD FRICTION OF SECTION L, ICIL + La) ~J .'::..!

L 3S l

('OOTH, MINUS INCLINE LOAD TENSION OF SECTION L, .----;s-)

MINUS BEL r WEIGHT TENSION OF SECTION L, (BH,)

THEREFORE:

TENSION AT STATION 3 ITOP)

TST2 PLUS OR MINUS THE FOLLOwiNG:

Pl.US EMPTY CONVEYING SIDE FRICTION OF SECTION L2 [COlt + Lo] L~

PLUS LOAD FRICTION OF SECTION L2 [Cll + Lal '~T] L:

(lOO3STH2 ) PLUS INCLINE LOAD TENSION OF SECTION l2

PLUS BELT WEIGHT TENSION OF SECTION L2 IBH2)

THEREFORE:

Tsn + [COlT + Lo)] L~ + [CIL + La) l~TJ ~ + 'O:H2 + BH2 TENSION AT STATION SITOP) CAN BE OBTAINED STARTING FROM STATION 3

TENSION IN THE SAME MANNER SHOWN FOR STATION 3 AND STATION 2.

HOWEVE R, A SIMPLER APPROACH IS TO START AGAI N WITH COUNTERWEIGHT

TENSION AND ADD EFFECTIVE TENSION,

THEREFORE:

T cwt + T e

ALSO:

Figure 6-13 - Adding and Subtracting Various Tension Components

6-13

SECTION 6

GIVEN DAT'A

5O·IN. OVERLAND CONVEyOR WliH HEAO DRIVE XVI POWER STATION DECEMBER 19XX.

i , rrrr n, ttL)R~lD~T4L lE ..... GTH IN Her '"

2. BE.l r WUGH'T IN PUu~IJS PER FOOT fBI ). FHICTION Herm. - POWER REf,luJREO '"

4. FRICTION FlCTOR. - RESTRb,ItH RfQult(£O

5. LENGTH FAC TOK - Po .. E~ R.EQuIHED '"

2150.00

ll .. 00

oJ.0220

o , a 120

lOJ.OO

6. UNGTt-I FACTOR - KESTRAJNl "'-E\,IUUHll 7~ ioj€IGtiT OF MOiliNG PIlRTS OJ;

6. TONS PEfI, HOuR PEA,;, c r I

:, r:5 ,00

asvoo

20vO.QU-

s , BELT SPEED I", FfEr PElot MINUTE 151 '"'

10. DIU vE FACTOR I KI "

500.00

0.31:100

11. ILlOw-,SLE SII,G eEr"EE~ tOlERS '''' FEET

0.1000

60· IN. OVERLAND CONVEYOR WITH HEAD DRIVE XVZ POWER ST ATION DECEMBER 19XX

CALCULATED DATA· fULL '( LOADEO

54/18.14

z • H[JRllU,...IAL UJ(.ArIUN IJF" HAX!,'1UM lENSIJ'I ..

5. CAlCuu.fED ~1"'iI'lUl'l LOAOEO rEr~SIUN r u = 4t1l2.9l

6. (ALCULATED :-1, .... J/I(OI1 E""PIY rENSJUI'Ii ru = bSo.2S

10. SL4L~ SIDE rENSllJN IT DR!'H PULLEY !II! Lbtl'H.IJ

r i . C .,.\1<.1 LtJ uSED .. ERE FOR CO"4'1'E'I'OR REIJUIR!NG Plh4tK

SfUJuN HORllwn.n VEI(TlCU LOAOeD 01( LOAD SIDE REHJRN SIDE

OIHANCE. ulSf,o,NCE NOt LUADED IENSIGN TENSIUN

o .J ~OO.OQ ~ 8 1 ~ • 00 .( L40 .JO 2150.uv

LUlIDE:U U)AOEI.l lUAOEIJ U)A,OE:D

L4.211. 4:1 12909.9) I.tHI{~.)O ltD 1,20.4) l,bOQ2.11

1,.0.00

0.0 2~O.OC itS. ~O 225. DO

14" l 7. 4J I020L.68 :".It, FlB.,.)I. ~214l.41 52041>. Q, I

6O·IN, OVERLAND CONVEYOR WITH HEAD DRIVE xvz POWER STATION OECEMB'EA 19XX

CALCULATED DATA· EMF'TY

t , MA;(P'oLJH. IE~SIUN IN BELT '"

lOlQc).H

1. TE'~5IUN IN CI\K .... yJNG SIDE AT OIS(H.\R,c.;E '" ZD4db.bb

'0-. EF":UrlvE. rf.I'tSIU~ .. 43,.4,50

B. CtJU.~TeR ... E I !.irt I Tt:NS,ION

L6120.42

r u.ur SIDE TEr.SION ,,\r OIUVE puLLer

16092.17

1.1. C AriD UJ U5EO h'EIH FOR CIJNVE.YOR rt.EfJu!fl.ING POPfE.R

STHIlJN HtJi'..llUNT.AL DJ 51A .... C.E

LOAL.I 51 DE TENS I ON

fU:ruRI't SlOE I ENS I ON

vfil;TIC.H IlL S U""CI;;

LOi.OEO a~ NO T LlJAIIE.O

O.J SOQ.OO lellS .00 ,n40.JO 21 '50 .00

14211. 't 1 lJqll.~a LO roe , 11 2049,. .... 11 lalt~l,;.bb

14211.4] llQO'l.91 1b8H. JD i s r zo , 't2 L6092. L I

~O. 00

0.0 .25G.OO 22S.I,IQ 225.00

EMPTY EMP r r EMPry EI'IPrY

LJ. 5It.r[u,-" LOc;,.TWN UF D~I"'E =

L4~ 5TAr!W. LtJCIlI!UN LJ'" (.uLJ~HElh(EIGHT

l~_ lUlU t.iWio'.E.:t LlF- }TATIOl'oS. "

CA.LCULATED DATA

nu s CALCULATlur~ FOil. fUllY LOAUtl'CU'mlrluN lliH'1

t , 1-cE'Iu/ol,r. SU]P1: FP..IC11IJN 'FUllY lLiADEDI

2. I'O"'AL HIUlUN !IF I;:MPT't CUN¥EI"LlR "

s , FIUC.'ID'~ hlttU nUE TU FuLL LDAD '"

to. "'~C.LJI'iE: LUAD TENSII..Jrl (FULLY lOAUEDI

5. tiElT wE IGHT feNS ION It.hjJ '"

') .00

laB":! .OU

CALCULATED D""YA, - DECLINES lOADED

6O-IN. OVERLAND CONVEyOR WITH HEAD DRIVE XYZ POWE R STATION DeCEMBER 19XX

I. MA,o;Ptu'" I[NS,luN IN !SElT

Z. HOAllOtdAl LU(ATIOI'i uF MAXIMUM TENS,hJ~ ""

Iblbl.t.8

lit. EFFECTIVE 1ENSION ,iii -3-989.11

S. CAlCULAIFD t'lJ.tdMUM LCJAOEO 1E~SION TO = 1t822.q~

6. (Al(UlAIED t'lJNJMUK El1pff rE~SION TO .. oS.b~2S

e , (uU"'.TER~I::IGtil' lENS-ION Loll:).4)

9. TJGHT SIDl; tEhI~dUN 1\1 uar vs PUll,E'f lb09t..lt2

~O. 5lA(1< 5IllE Hr-ISJUN H DRivE ~uLLE't' 1l101.2S

L I. C P,I'tD t o UlED wHE FOil. (ONVE.1"Ofl. l.tE""e-I(U(NG PO'MER:

STATION HORIZONTAL VEIHICAL LOADED OR LUAO SIDE REruRN SIDE:

nISTAr-.CE Olsr"NCE NOT lOADED rENSIO,'t fEf.4SI0N

0.0 '500.oJO I E3 7 ':i ~OJ a 2[40.00 z r so. oo

4Q.00

0.0 2.50.00 02.25,'010 22S.00

LOAUED EMPr1' LOIl,DEO LO.i.OEO

IBOT.9l I:J '~l.. 59 1'5053.10 ,22 D.,!)!J 12 10T.~:;,

1330'1.93 Illl2.<fl l6H.i.bti IbI20.,1.,3 I,lbO'H ... ,z

1. ~ul"'UI'III HNSION IN BELF

6O-IN. OVERLAND CONVEYOR WITH HEAD DRIVE. XVZ POWER ST AllaN DECEMBER 19XX

CALCULATEO DATA· INCLINE LOADED

2.. MORllONUl lOCATIO ... Of """XI"U~ TENSION ..

3, fE~SIOI'-4 Ok tlt.A,RVING 'tJOE U DISCHARGE' 56\",0.00

~. EFfeCTIVE TENSION· 1t2H7.dl

~. C'LCUlAno MINL,",UM lOADED reNSIO~ 10,. ... 822.9~

8. (OuNfEA;wE 1(;.,tJ TENSION ..

Lbllo.lo)

7. HOA:.5EPOW.ER ReaUIRED - 6"'1.bl

9. TlGHr SIDE: TENSION AI DRIvE PUllEY •

10. SU.(IC: SIDE rENSJOI'4 ..... ORlVE PULLEY

'5801; .... 0.00

i i , C .... D La uSE,) wEftE FOR CONVEV(JA. ~U"UJRJNG PO"{R

lbD91.l1

12. THJ~ (OND[1'IO,", CONfROLS rlH COU"'H~IlIIEIC.HT FOR HtE HSH',",

s r A.T IU ..

YfRTI(.AL DISU~['E

100.00

0.0 2'SO~OO 225.1jI0 225.00

Lo-'Oeo OR tiOT LOAD ED

E!'lPTY LOAOED EMPrv E""PTY

uu.o SIDE: lekS) 0"

'''ll T • .c,.] 1393L 90 58b60.04 SilH41.81 ')81,40.00

RETURN'S IDE HNS,lON

14111. \l 12909. <I) Jb8h. )0 U120.-\1 16092.11

HO~lZOHIAl OJ STANCE

0.0 '500~ 00 l8.7'j.,OO .n"'Q.OO 2_l50~00

Figure 6-14 - Computer Printouts for Multiple-Grade Conveyor, Drive at Any Location

6-14

X. GRAPHICAL OR TENSION OIAG RAM METHOD FO R DETERMINING BELT TENSION DISTRIBUTION

The relative tension at various points along a belt conveyor can be shown by a graphic summation of the tension gradients between those points. These tension gradients are the result of frictional forces and components of belt and load weight on inclines, whose quantitative calculation has already been described. The graphic summation is simply a means of showing the net result, in terms of relative tension, of the assembly of a group of tension gradients.

After the relative tension is shown at various points along the conveyor, a proper absolute value of tension at some one point, usually the counterweight or some paint of minimum tension, can be established. Thus, all other points become of known tension since their relative values have been shown. The tension established at the counterweight location, for that condition requireing the most counterweight (referred to as the worst condition in some of the example diagrams), remains unchanged for other load conditions on the same belt.

For this graphical analysis of tension, the profile of the conveyor is drawn to some convenient horizontal and vertical scale. Vertical scale on this profile need not be the same as used horizontally. In plotting tensions as vertical ordinates, some convenient vertical tension scale must be used.

In drawing this profile, for either head or tail drive conveyors, the drive pulley is located on the vertical axis (A-A) at the centerline. With this location of the conveyor profiles, carrying side tensions are presented directly below the conveyor profile while return run tensions are shown on the opposite side of A-A by 180- deg rotation about A-A as an axis.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

In drawing the tension diagram itself, tensions at terminals, drive locations, and points of grade change are represented as vertical distances to a suitable scale. With the drive at the center of the diagram, there is no tension change as the belt passes around the other terminal. Tensions on top and return runs at the other terminal, which are represented at the outer edges of the diagram, are therefore always equal, except when a conveyor is driven at both ends. The diagram heights, representing these tensions, at the two outer edges also are equal.

Figure 6-15 shows detail of the graphical method of determining tension distribution in a simple inclined conveyor. Figures 6·15 to 6-21 show the assembly only for various other sample conveyors. It is necessary to investigate complex conveyors under various conditions of loading; a belt, counterweight, and motor must be selected for the worst condition. Further, the drive requires power for any assembled diagram whose "cliff" opens to the right of A-A as in Example 1. The "cliff" represents the effective tension. If the "cliff" opens to the left as in the diagram for the loaded belt of Example 4 (Figure 6-18), the belt is regenerative. Regardless of whether a belt requires power or generates power, a large enough motor must be selected to handle the worst condition.

For regenerative belts, the drive losses are in favor of the motor and are to be deducted from the belt horsepower to determine motor size for the regenerative condition. For example, a belt generating 50 hp and having lO-hp drive loss would require only a 40-hp motor. The electrical losses of the motor itself also act in the same direction but ordinarily would not be large enough to permit further reduction in motor size.

In all the examples that follow, the various shading patterns denote the same tension component.

SECTION 6

Example 1 - I ncline Conveyor, Head Drive {Preferred Drive Location}

The various tension cycles are shown individually by way of explanation, but only the assembly diagram is required in actually solving a problem.

Empty and Load Friction Tensions

Empty friction tension is at its minimum where the belt leaves the drive. It builds up at a uniform gradient along the return run in the direction of belt travel and is unchanged in passing the tailor any other idle pulley. It then continues to build

up at another uniform rate along the top run to a maximum

at the drive.

Load friction tension is at its minimum where the belt receives its load and builds up at a un iform rate in the direction of the belt travel for that length of the belt that is loaded. If the drive is not at the head, the load friction tension extends, without further increase, from the point of load discharge

to the drive.

Incline Load and Belt Weight Tensions

Incline load tension is at its minimum at the lowest elevation in the conveyor and builds up uniformly with increase in elevation over any loaded portion of the belt. Incline load tensions that build up toward the drive are extended to the drive, without further increase, over any level or unloaded portions of the conveyor. Those that build up away from 'the drive are extended, without further increase, along the return run and back to the drive.

Incline belt weight tension is diagrammed the same as incline load tension but always exists for the entire inclined length of top and return runs.

Assembled Tension Diagram

In the lower diagram of Figure 6-1 5, a temporary baseline passes through any point 0 on axis A-A. The various tension cycles are plotted one above the other from this temporary baseline. The final baseline later must be drawn through a point F so that distance FG represents the necessary slack side tension. Point F cannot be raised above point X, which is To distance below J, because the tension at J cannot be less than To'

Distance DG represents the effective tension. Slack side tension FG equals effective tension times drive factor K. Distance GE represents the belt slope tension minus return slope friction and in some cases may be adequate for slack side tension. Regardless of where the calculated slack side tension shows the final baseline should be drawn, its final position must also provide To as a minimum tension {see Section 10) at lowest tension point J even though more slack side tension will be provided than actually necessary for driving.

Counterweight tension required can be read directly from

the diagram. This, for the normal counterweight operating in a vertical plane, represents one-half the weight of the counterweight. Customarily, the counterweight is placed at the

point of lowest tension in the system but, should other conditions dictate its location, counterweight tension still can be read directly from the scaled diagram at the selected counterweight location. Thus, if the counterweight is located at the tail pulley, the counterweight tension is represented by the distance JP.

CARRYING SIDE

A

RETURN SIDE

I

LOAD FRICTION TENSION

~IC\L+'Lo)

lOOT 3S

INCLINE LOAD TENSION

I

INCLINE BELT WEIGHT TENSION

I

, de"

W ..J <i () VJ Z o ii> z w I-

ASSEMBLED TENSION DIAGRAM

T

Figure 6-15 - Example 1 (Graphical Analysis)

6-16

(1:

CARRYING SIDE

AETU RN SI DE

A

CWT HERE I

EMPTY BELT DIAGRAM

F

CWT TENSION

----------- P

T DIAGRAM

W ..J « U <II

Z o <II z

~~raJ~~

J:~~~~S~O~ _

KEY, ® EMPTY FRICTION TENSION ® LOAD FRICTION TENSION

Figure 6~16 - Example 2 (Graphical Analysis)

A

RETU RN SIDE I CARRYI NG 51 DE

CWTHERE~

EMPTY BELT DIAGRAM I

°1

CWT TENSION

FINAL BASELINE J

------.--~---,- -- -~ ...... ~- _,-----

,

A

KEY:

@EMPTY FRICTION TENSION @ INCLINE LOAD TENSION ~ LOAD FRICTION TENSION ~ BELT WEI GHT TENSION

Figure 6-17 - Example 3 (Graphical Analysis)

p

POWE.R RE.QUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

Example 2 - Horizontal, Head Drive Conveyor (Preferred Drive Location)

For the empty belt, the top part of Figure 6-16 is made up wholly of belt friction (OFl. Since the conveyor has no slope, there is no belt slope tension.

For the loaded belt, the bottom part of Figure 6-16 is made up of belt friction (OF I and load friction (EF). Since the conveyor has no slope, there is no incline load or belt slope tension. The loaded belt determines the location of the final baseline and the counterweight that is necessary. The counterweight is located on the return run behind the drive pulley.

Example 3 - I ncline Conveyor, Tail Drive (Second Preference Drive Location)

The loaded conveyor determines the location of the final baseline. If it is not possible to put the counterweight on the top run, just before the loading point, it will be necessary to lower the baseline on the empty belt diagram (top part of Figure 6-171; a much heavier counterweight also will be needed. All tensions except belt slope tension carry around the head pulley and along the return run to the drive pulley. Example 1 shows that the head drive is preferable since maximum belt tension will be less, even though effective tensions are the same,

6-17

SECTION 6

A

RETURN SIDE 'I.;::b CARRYING SIDE

EMPTY6EL~1

I CWT HERE

__ !Te I

KEY:

® EMPTY FRICTION TE.NSION 10 INCLINE LOAD TENSION @lLOAD FRICTION TENSION ~ BELT WEIGHT TENSION

,;, COUNTE RWE IGHT TENSION

Figure 6-18 - Example 4 (Graphical Analysis)

CARRYING SIDE

z

o RETURN SlOE z

:)

<) a:

~I~

> l- DIAGRAM

- UJ

T~ ~

LOADED BELT DIAGRAM

I

KEY, ® EMPTY FRICTION TENSION ® LOAD FRICTION TENSION @ INCL.INE LOAD TENSION ~ BELT WEIGHT TENSION

* COUNTERWEIGHT TENSION

Figure 6-19 - Example 5 (Graphical Analysis)

Example 4 - Decline Conveyor, Tail Drive (Restraint Necessary on Loaded Belt, Preferred Drive Location)

The empty conveyor (see Figure 6-18) represents the worst condition and determines location of the final baseline. Distance JP should provide at least To pounds tension even though slack side tension is greater than necessary.

This belt is regenerative when loaded and running and requires restraint. The "cliff" of effective tension faces to the left, thus indicating a regenerative condition. Further. if the incline load tension is less, the belt will not be regenerative nor require restraint.

Example 5 - Incline Conveyor, Drive on Return Side (Drive Near Head Preferred)

In this example (see Figure 6·191. the head pulley is placed in the center. load friction and incline slope tensions build up to a maximum at the head pulley and are carried around the head pulley back to the drive on the return run and parallel to the return friction line.

Belt slope tension reaches a maximum at the head pulley and then is reduced after the drive by the amount of belt slope tension that is on the return side ahead of the drive pulley, The loaded belt diagram determines location of the final baseline.

6-18

Example 6 - Incline-Horizontal Conveyor, Head Drive (Preferred Drive Location)

For this conveyor, the friction tensions are drawn as in any ordinary incline conveyor. The incline load tension builds up to a maximum at the point of intersection of the two grades and then is carried to the head pulley parallel to the load friction line (that is. without further increase).

Belt slope tension also builds up to a maximum at the point of intersection of the two grades and is carried to the head pulley parallel to the load friction and return side friction lines for the carrying and return sides. respectively.

The loaded belt diagram of Figure 6-20 determines location of the final baseline.

CARRYING SIDE A RETURN SIDE

~I

, EMPTY eEL T DIAG RAM

cwr aaa ••

~J"C,j~,,~"~~ I-

LOA DE D BE L T DIAGRAM I

-hh_"~",'P"k'.~ I-

A

KEY: ® EMPTY FRICTION TENSION

® lOAD FRICTION TENSION e INCLINE lOAD TENSION ® BELT WEIGHT TENSION

* COUNTE RWEIGHT TENSION

Figure 6-20 - Example 6 (Graphical Analysis)

Example 7 - Multiple Grade Conveyor, Head Drive (Preferred Drive Location Except When Regenerative Horsepower is Greater Than Maximum Horsepower Input)

With this conveyor (see Figure 6-21), all significant loading condition diagrams should be drawn to determine the worst condition. I n this case, the diagram for the incline only loaded determines the location of the final baseline.

Friction tensions are plotted as in previous diagrams. Through portions considered unloaded. there is no increase in load friction.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSI.ON

Example 7 (continued)

Incline load tension is assembled on the friction tension portion starting at the point of lowest elevation along the loaded portion. Inclines toward the head pulley result in tension increasing toward it. I nclines toward the tail pulley result in tensions increasing toward the tail pulley. and which (incline load tension) carry around the tail. along the return, with no further change, back to the drive.

Belt slope tension is plotted similarly, starting at the point of lowest elevatlon,except that the plot is made simultaneously on the top and return run.

With declines only loaded, the conveyor is regenerative as the "cliff" of effective tension faces to the left.

Part XI describes the effect of acceleration and braking forces for this type diagram.

CARRYING SlOE R~TURN SIDE

~ A

~ _..-ORIVEPULLEV

I~JcG:>CU I

CWT HiERE I

EMPl y BELT DIAGRAM

I I

___ ~1~A~~~E~I~:ll ~:T_T~NS~~ _

KEY, A

® EMPTV FRICTION TENSION @ INCLINE LOAD.TENSION

@ LQAD FRI CT~ ON TENS!ON ® BE L T WEIGHT TENSION

Figure 6-21 - Example 7 (Graphical Analysis)

6-19

SECTION 6

XI., ACCELERATION AND BRAKING FORCES

A. General

Acceleration or deceleration forces sometimes affect the amount of counterweight required, When such a force passes through the takeup, the counterweight must be heavy enough to hold down the takeup or the force must be limited by lower acceleration or more gradual braking. Otherwise, the counterweight will be picked up, a nd the slack normally in tile takeup will accumulate at some point of lower tension in the system,

Table 6-D shows common conveyor arrangements and indicates those circumstances under which accelerating or braking forces are critical and cannot be ignored.

In some cases, the problem of acceleration is self-correcting. For example, if the counterweight or counterweight travel is insufficient on a head drive incline COllveyor having the counterweight following the drive, the belt will slip on the drive during starting because of lack of slack side tension, This slippage provides the self-

correcting feature in that the conveyor accelerates at a lower rate.

A belt may have a sufficient counterweight, but if the counterweight does not have sufficient travel it cannot take care of the added length tha t is crea ted in the system during acceleration or braking. Therefore, the takeup travel must be in accordance with the recommendations given in Section J 0_

The determination of accelerating or decelerating forces is important for conveyors that have concave vertical curves, The radius or length of the curve is dependent upon the maximum tension found in the curve; the greater the tension, the longer the curve. If accelerating tensions a re high and not taken into accoun t, the curve will be [00 short. As a result, the belt will lift off the idlers during start ing,

Where the vertical curve already has been established, the alternative to correction of the curve radius is limitation of the rate of acceleration. This limitation would prevent excessive tensions and lifting of the belt in the curve.

TABLE 6-D- EFFECT OF ACCELERATION OR BRAKING ON COUNTERWEIGHT TAKEUP

Conveyor geometry

Following drive

None

(bl Incline, heac! Following drive Li HIe or none
rI ri v e or at tail
{ cl Declin , tail At or near head Tends to lin
d ri \'0 counterweight if
decline is slight
( ell D e c l in then 1 e v c l At or near head Critical; lift s
portion, tail counterweight
d ri v c and feeds slack
to foot of
inclin ','
(e) C ornb i na t i o n s of Following head Little' or n o n e
i n c l i n e and de- ar low paint 1n
cline, head chive r ct u rn run Preferred t a k e up location

(a) Horizontal, head drive

(f) Sam as (e) except tail drive

Same as (e)

Acceleration e If e ct

Braking effect

Tends to lift

un t c rw ight;

I brakes not usually I large enough to c-ause trouble

I

Little or n.in e

None

I None

Critical when stopping with decline loaded; lifts counterweight and slack runs to foot of the decline':'

CriLical - lifts counterweight and reeds slack

to foot f decline':'

Little 01' none

Such takeup p ro b l e rn s can be handled by very heavy single c ount e rw ei.ght , by u s of double counterweight, tail end b r a k s, or by head and tail driving.

6-20

B. 1.

Method of Calculation

General

With the information in Table 6-D, the point can be determined at which it is necessary or desirable to calculate acceleration or braking forces. These forces can be calculated by the following formula:

F == rna = wa

g

where

w = weight to be accelerated or decelerated in pounds;

g - gravitational constant = 32.2;

a acceleration or deceleration rate of conveyor in feet per second per second; and

F == force, or tension, in pounds.

2. Weight to be Accelerated or Decelerated

Acceleration and deceleration forces are distributed about the conveyor in direct proportion to the weights of all moving elements in each conveyor section. Weights to be moved include the belt, load, and rotating parts of idle-rs. Pulley weights have not been included because they have a negligible effect in most cases,

For each significant condition of loading to be investigated on a given conveyor, the total weight to be moved should be calculated as well as the weight on each conveyor section along the top and return runs.

The weights in pounds per foot of conveyor center distance are calculated as follows:

I. Conveying side only (pounds per foot) w]

a. Empty belt: Q 1= B + -. -'

11

lOOT b, Loaded belt: Q2 = Q 1 + 3S

2. Return side only (pounds per foot) w2 Empty belt: Q3 = B + - 12

3. Total of conveying and return sides (pounds per foot)

WI w2

a. Empty belt: Q == Q1 + Q3 = 2B + -. +

11 12

100 T b. Loaded belt: Q + 3S

POWER REQUIREMENTS .AND BELT TENSION

where

100 T 3 S

load on belt in pounds per foot;

WI' w 2 = weight in pounds of rotating parts of top and return idlers, respectively (see appendix);

11' 12 average spacing in feet of top and return idlers, respectively; and

B '" belt weight in pounds per foot.

With these values, the total weight to be accelerated or decelerated can be determined for any sec tion of the conveyor and under any condition of loading. All that is necessary is to multiply the weight per foot, under the specified loading condition, by the length for the section of the conveyor being considered.

3.

External Acceleration Force, Rate, and Time

The starting characteristics of the drive must be programmed to accelerate the greatest power-requiring load condition that can reasonably be expected, For most power-requiring conveyors, this condition will be the fully loaded belt. Where there are combinations of inclines and declines, it is sometimes necessary to select that combination of loaded inclines most likely to require acceleration and to eliminate some where the likelihood of acceleration is remote.

When an assumed external acceleration force (Fa) is selected to accelerate the maximum power-requiring load condition, it is governed by the following limits:

1. Minimum limit - An acceleration force of 40 percent T e or more should be provided to ensure initial breakaway (total starting force is then 140 percent Te)'

2. Maximum limit .- The acceleration force is limited so that belt tension during startup does not exceed ISO percent rated belt tension.

An acceleration force of 50 percent T e > is commonly used and falls within these requirements. The total starting force is then 150 percent Te' Since this total starting force is available for other load conditions where T e is less, the accelerating force of those conditions is greater.

With the total motor starting force selected, the accelerating force for each desired load condition can be calculated. If accelerating rate, "a," is needed for other calculations, it can then be obtained from the formula F '" mao

a

6-21

SECTION 6

If all average accelerating rate, "a," is assumed or provided, then the accelerating force, Fa, is obtained from the formula Fa = mao A check should be made that the resulting Fa falls between the limits given in the paragraph above. Where a rate, "a," is provided, this rate can be a peak rate rather than an average rate. If the relationship between the peak and average rates is unknown, then the average rate is assumed as approximately half the peak. The average rate is to be used to calculate the accelerating force.

If the time required for acceleration is to be calculated, the following equation applies:

S

t=-

60a

where

time in seconds,

s

final belt speed in feet per minute, and

a

average acceleration rate in feet per second per second.

4.

External Deceleration Force, Rate, and Time

External deceleration forces have no minimum limit ationin the sense that the acceleration forces have. In many power-requiring conveyors, there will be 110 brake and the conveyor simply coasts to a stop with zero external deceleration force. The maximum braking force is limited so that the belt tension does not exceed 150 percent of the rated tension.

The necessary deceleration force, F d' usually is determined by a prescribed stopping time or deceleration rate. F d is determined through the following relationships:

S

t =-- 608

and

Fd = rna

In a regenerative load condition, the required external braking force must equal the effective tension, Te. plus the decelerating force, F d. In a power-requiring load condition, the required external braking force must equal decelerating force, F d' minus effective tension, T e-

C. Effect 011 Belt Tensions - Tension Diagram Method

1. General

An easy and practical manner of determining the effect of accelerating or braking forces on maximum tensions is

the use of the tension diagram, which already has been explained; this is especially true for conveyors having combinations of incline and decline or some combination of these two with a horizontal section. In some cases, these forces may be added directly to the funning diagram of the conveyor; in others, a free-running diagram is required. The following discussion indicates the type of diagram that should be used.

2. Required Type of Tension Diagram

Required types of tension diagrams are:

1. Accelerating Forces

a. Power-requiring load conditions - Add forces to normal tension diagram

b. Regenerat ive load conditions - Make a free running diagram to which externally applied accelerating forces are added

2. Decelerating forces

a. Power-requiring load conditions . Make a freerunning diagram to which externally applied decelerating forces are added

b. Regenerative load conclitions - Add forces to a normal tension diagram

Where the accelerating or decelerating forces can be added directly to a running tension diagra 111, the effect is to raise th.e normal baseline by the amount that these forces lie above the normal diagram at the counterweight location on the diagram .. If no other point in the system has less than To tension with this new baseline location, no extra counterweight is required. However, if the relocation of the baseline results in less than To tension between the baseline and the line of accelerating or braking forces at some low tension point in the diagram, additional counterweight must be added. In addition, a new baseline must be established for the original tension diagram on the basis of the additional counterweight required,

When no extra counterweight is required, the belt is designed on the basis of the maximum tension determined from the normal running tension diagram. In other words, momentarily higher tensions, produced by acceleration or braking, are neglected if they do not exceed 150 percent of rated tension. For the case requiring more counterweight, the belt is designed on the basis of the maximum tension read from the normal tension diagram using the newly selected baseline imposed by the accelerating or braking forces,

6-22

The same comments given in the preceding paragraph apply where the free-running diagram is used. The four examples in Part G illustrate how to calculate and use accelerating and braking forces.

3 ..

Derivation of Method for Constructing Free-Running Tension Diagrams for Applying Braking or Acceleration Forces

a. General

The basis of this method is a rope passing over a pulley with unequal weights suspended from the ends. If released, the heavier weight will raise the lighter weight with an acceleration influenced by both the sum and the difference of the two weights. A loaded decline conveyor, which will be accelerated by gravity when its brake is released, behaves Similarly. Likewise, a running conveyor being braked to a stop, after power is interrupted, has some similar aspects and is analyzed by similar calculations.

The free-running diagram represents a conveyor without application of any power to any pulley. Consequently, there is no tension change in passing around the head or tail pulley and the return run tension is equal to conveyor side tension at both head and tail pulleys, Therefore, the height of the diagram is always the same on each side of the center Axis A-A and is also the same at the two outer edges of the diagram. Thus, its purpose is wholly to show the rate of tension change between the head and tail pulley,

b.

Gravitational Forces of Acceleration or Deceleration

A regenerative conveyor that has been stopped will accelerate itself without external power due to the effect of gravitational forces of acceleration, F gao External accelerating force applied by the motor is in addition to this natural force.

Similarly, a power-requiring conveyor will come to a stop if power is interrupted due to the effect of the gravitational forces of deceleration, F gd: Externally applied decelerating or braking forces would bein addition to these natural forces.

In each case, the unbalanced force (F ga or F gd) a cling to cause the natural acceleration or deceleration is numerically equal to the effective tension of the particular load condition; that is:

Gravitational force of accelera tion '" F ga 1 Gravitational force of deceleration= F gdr=

T of the

e

particular

load condition

POWER REQUIREMENTS .AND BELT TENSION

This gravitational force is distributed about the various conveyor sections in proportion to the weights to be accelerated or decelerated ill the specific section involved. If the rate, "a," due to these forces is desired, this rate can be calculated from the formula F a or F gd :: rna. If external acceleration or deceleration a1so is applied, the rate clue to those forces is added to the rate obtained from the gravitational forces.

e. Assembling the Free-Running Tension Diagram

To assemble the free-running tension diagram, proceed as follows:

1. Plot all gravitational forces (F ga or Fgd) for beth top and return runs (see rules to, algebraic signs of forces, Part E)

2. Above the F ga or F gd force lines, pia t all normal running forces (fricfion, incline load tension, and belt weight tension). This plotting completes the free-running diagram and, if properly assembled, belt tension is the same on each side of each pulley since no external forces have been applied,

3. Where external acceleration (F a) OI braking forces (F d) are applied, they are added above the freerunning diagram; this results in a tension change, which occurs at the pulley where the force is applied to the belt.

D. Effect on Belt Tension - Arithmetic Analysis of Forces

To determine the effects of acceleration forces arithmetically rather than graphically, proceed as follows:

I. Calculate all normal running forces for each loading condition to be considered. Calculate that portion of each force that occurs in each section of the conveyor on both conveying and return sides.

2. Determine the largest counterweight required to satisfy all load conditions considered in Step L

3. Calculate the externally required acceleration, Fa, and/or deceleration, F d, forces that will occur with each load condition. Calculate that portion of each force that occurs in each section of the conveyor on both conveying and return sides by distributing in proportion to the weight to be moved in each section,

4. Where free-running conditions are to be analyzed, calculate the gravitational. forces of acceleration, F g'3 (regenerative belts), or deceleration, Fgd (power-requiring belts). Calculate that portion of

6-23

SECTION 6

each force that occurs in each section of the conveyor on both conveying and return sides by distributing in proportion to the weight to be moved in each section.

5. Start with the counterweight tension from Step 2 calculated for normal running conditions. Add and/or subtract all forces calculated in Steps 1, 3, and 4 in each direction from the counterweight for each load condition being considered (see the rules for algebraic signs of forces in Part E).

6. If the analysis of Step 5 reveals no point in the system where tension is less than the minimum required, To, then no additional counterweight is required.

7. On the other hand if there is a point where tension falls below the minimum, then the counterweight must be increased accordingly. This increases tension for all other conditions, including normal running.

E. Rules Governing Algebraic Signs of All Conveyor Belt Forces

Whether forces are to be graphically or arithmetically analyzed, the following rules for their algebraic signs are applicable.

1_ Belt slope tension, BH, and incline load tension, 100 TH

3 S

a. Plus (+) in uphill directions

b. Minus (-) in downhill directions

2. Empty friction [C~L and CQ(L + Lo) ] and load

frict ion [e(L + La) C 03° ST) ]:

a. Plus (+) with the direction of belt travel

b. Minus C-) against the direction of belt travel

3. Externally applied acceleration forces, Fa:

a. Plus (+) with the direction of belt travel

b. Minus (-) against the direction of belt travel

4. Externally applied deceleration forces, Fd:

a. Minus C-) with the direction of belt travel

b. Plus (+) against the direction of belt travel

5. Gravitational forces, F gd : to decelerate power requirement load conditions:

a. Minus C-) with the direction of belt travel

b. Plus (+) against. the direction of belt travel

6. Gravitational forces, F ga' to accelerate regenerative load conditions:

a. Plus (+) with the direction of belt travel

b. Minus (.) against the direction of belt travel

Table 6-E shows the application of the algebraic signs to each of the four conveyor examples in Part G_

F. Effect of Adding External Braking or Accelerating Forces to Gravitational Forces

1. Braking an Inclined or Other Power-Requiring Belt

On interruption of power such a belt would come to a stop by itself, with no externally applied force, because of the action of incline load tension and friction. For a single belt, no brake probably would be required. In a conveyor system consisting of several belts, it may be desirable to provide a brake to prevent dumping material on an earlier stopped bell. Thus, there are two alternatives: (1) no brake but an anti-roll back or (2) a brake to stop the belt more quickly to prevent overrunning and an anti-roll back.

2. Accelerating Decline or Regenerative Belts

When the brake on accelerating decline or regenerative belts is released, the belt is self-accelerated due to the action of the unbalanced force of incline load tension minus friction. The start can be arranged so that the motor is not started until several seconds after the brake has been released. The other alternative is to start the motor the same time the brake is released, thereby bringing the conveyor up to operating speed even more rapidly as the externally applied force would be assisted by the self-accelerating force.

3. Braking Conveyors in Sequence

Where several. conveyors operate in sequence, there probably will be some that are multiple grade, some inclined, and some declined, In other words, any partieular belt, when loaded or partially loaded, may require or may generate power. This can present a problem in stopping all the belts in the system. For instance if an incline belt follows a decline or regenerative belt, the natural rate (no externally applied force) of deceleration of the incline belt may be greater than the decline belt that is stopped with a brake at an assumed ra te of deceleration. This arrangement could cause a pileup of material on the belt that stopped first, in this case the one with incline.

For such conditions, each. conveyor that has a natural deceleration should be investigated to determine at what

6-24

POWER REQUIREMENTS ANO BELT TENSION

TABLE 6-E - EXAMPLES OF ALGEBRAIC SIGNS OF FORCES ACTING ON CONVEYOR BELTS

EXAMPLE, DRIVE

T

,

H TAl

~I L_[

EXAMPLE 2

EXAMPLE 3

T~DRIVEAOq

- , I

~ ~... HEAD

.--L l~'_-L2_j §

,

DRIVE EXAMPLE 4

TAIL ~~'T~2

HiI~~ I__L

I

§

Ll---L2-,

CONVEYOR SIDE FROM TAIL TO DRIVE T BH

+ lOOTH/3S

+ EMPTY FRICTION ITOPI LOAD FRICTION

l Fa IEXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCE) - Fel (EXIERNAL BRAKING FORCE)

Fgd (GRAVITATIONAL DECELERATING FORCE OF LOADED BEL TI

CONVEYOR SIDE FROM HEAD TO DRIVE + BH

+ IOOTH '3S

- EMPTY FRICTION (TOPI

- LOAD FRICTION

I Fd IEXTERNAL BRAKING FORCE)

- Fa (EXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCEI

- Fga IGRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATING

FORCE OF LOADED BELT)

CONVEYOR SIDE FROM HEAD TO DRIVE + BH (L Ii

• (lOOTH/3S)( L I)

- EMPTY FRICTION ILl AND L21

- LOAD FRICTION ILl AND L21

+ Fd (EXTERNAL BRAKE FORCES, L2 AND Lli

- Fa (EXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCE" L2ANDLI)

+ Fga (GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATING FORCES L 1 AND L21

- Fgd (GRAVITATIONAL DECELERATING FORCES Ll AND L21

l" RETURN AND TOP SIDE FROM COUNTER· WEIGHT TO TAIL TO DRIVE

+ BHI (RETURNI - BH I ITOP)

- lOOTHI13S

+ RETURN FRICTION (Lli

+ EMPTY FRICTION (Ll AND L2,TOPI + LOAD FRICTION (Ll AND L2, TOPI + BH2

+ IOOTH2/3S

+ Fa (EXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCES - L 1. RETURN; L 1 AND L2, TOP)

- Fd (EXTERNAL BRAKE FORCES - Ll. RETUR ; LI AND L2, TOPI

+ Fga (GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATING FORCES: LI RETU R N; L 1 AND L2 TOP) - Fgd GRAVITATIONAL DECELERATING FORCES L I RETURN; L, AND L2 TOP)

6-25

RETURN SI DE FROM TAIL TO DRIVE

,. BH

RETURN FRICTION

Fa IEXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCE) Fel (EXTERNAL BRAKE FORCEI

Fgd IG RAVITA TIONAL DECELE RATI NG FORCE OF LOADED BELT

RETURN SIDE FROM HEAD TO DRIVE + BH

+ RETURN FRICTION

- Fd IEXTERNAl BRAKING FORCEI

+ Fa IEXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCEI + Fga IG RAVITA T IONAl ACCE LERATING

FORCE OF LOADED BEL TI

RETURN SIDE FROM HEAO TO DRIVE

BH (L 11

+ RETURN FRICTION ILl AND L21 - Fel IEXTERNAL BRAKE FORCES, L2 AND l.j )

+ Fa IEXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCES, L2 AND LII

- Fga (GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATING FORCES Ll AND L2)

+ Fgd IGRAVITATIONAl DECELERATING FORCES Ll AND L21

L2, RETURN $1 DE FROM COUNTERWEIGHT TO DRIVE

+ BH2

- RETURN FRICTION IL21

- Fa (EXTERNAL ACCELERATING FORCE

L2. RETURN I

+ Fd IEXTERNAL BRAKE FORCE L2. RETURNI

- Fga IGRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATING FORCES, l~2 R ETU R NI

+ Fgd (GRAVITATIONAL DECELERATING FORCES, L2 RETURNI

SECTION 6

rate each conveyor will stop by itself. The brake size of the overrunning belt must then be selected to stop that belt at an equal or greater rate.

However, if this method of braking control is not used, such an investigation at least warns the user of danger of spillage due to overrun. This investigation also gives him the opportunity of arranging removal of such spillage and providing decking to protect the return run.

This problem is not encountered in starting since the various belts of the system are started in sequence, beginning at the discharge end of the system.

G. Examples of Tension Diagrams for Accelerating and Braking Forces

1.

General

In the examples described in Items 2 through 5, below, the difference between Land Lc is negligible (less than 1 percent) and the same numerical value (600 ft) is used for both lengths in all examples. Where the slopes are greater, the preferred method is to usc the projected length of the conveyor in calculating the various friction forces and the profile length for determining the weights to be accelera ted.

Symbols used in all examples have been defined previously.

2.

Example 1: Incline Conveyor (Head Drive, Head Brake)

DRIVE AND BRAKE

T

H

_j_

CWT
LET T 700 C 0.022 11 3.5
W 36 0 37 12 10
S 300 K 0 .. 38 01 22.7
H 50 B 10.4 02 100.5
L 600 wI 43 03 14.3
Lo 200 w2 39 To 500 Using previously derived formulas and a friction factor (C) of 0.022, the following funning forces and weights to be accelerated or decelerated can be calcula teel in pounds:

Item

Friction factor, C (0.022)

Return slope friction

Total empty friction

Load friction

Incline load tension Effective tension (loaded) Effective tension (empty) Necessary slack side tension Belt slope tension Counterweight tension Maximum belt tension

2441b 6511b 1370lb 3890lb 5911 Ib

651 lb 2246lb 520lb 1970lb 81571b

The weights for an empty belt are:

I. Return side, Q3L = 8580 lb (38.6 percent)

2. Conveyor side, Q 1 L = 13,620 Ib (61.4 percent) Total = 22,200 lb (100 percent)

The weights for a loaded belt are:

I. Return side, Q3L= 8580 Ib (12.5 percent)

2. Conveyor side, Q2L = 60,300 lb (87.5 percent) Total = 68,880 Ib (100 percent)

a.

External Accelerating Forces and Belt Tensions, Loaded Belt (D iagram 1 of Figure 6-22)

The rninimum external force required to ensure breakaway should be 40 percent of the loaded effective tension; that is (0.4) (5911) = 2364 lb. The maximum allowable force must be such that belt tension during startup does not exceed 150 percent of the rated tension. For example, assume a rated tension of 8400 lb, which limits starting tension to (1.5) (8400), or 12,600 lb. Maximum tension occurs at the drive pulley on this conveyor so t he result is:

T 1 ::: 12,600 Ib (force during start) T2 = - 2,2461b

J 0,354 lb (total starting force)

-5,911 lb (effective tension) 4,443Ib

which is the maximum permissible accelerating force, Fa'

The value for Fa presumes a constant T 2' which is true only when the counterweight is located at that point. With the counterweight at the tail, the slack side tension is reduced during start and increases the starting force by the amount of that force developed along the return side. However, the above method is simple and is conservative from the belt standpoint in those cases where the counterweight is remote from the drive.

Assume in the example that the minimum external accelerating force, F 3' of 2364 lb is used. This force is distributed around the conveyor during a loaded start in proportion to the weights to be accelerated as follows:

Return side = 12.5 percent of 2364 '" 295 Ib Conveyor side = 87.5 percent of 2364 = 2069 lb

Belt tensions developed during a loaded start are visualized easily on tension Diagram 1 of Figure 6-22, or they can be calculated as follows,starting from the tail pulley, where the counterweight maintains a constant tension:

Tension Before Drive (T1 If Lb

• +1970 T cw t (tail)

+ 407 empty conveyor friction (65 J - 244) +1370 load friction

+ 3890 incline load tension + 520 belt weight tension

+2069 conveyor side acceleration force, Fa +lO,226 total T 1 during start

Tension After Drive (T2), Lb

+1970 Tewt (tail)

- 244 return side friction + 520 belt weight tension

- 295 return side acceleration force , Fa

+ 1951 total T 2 during start

This analysis discloses no reasons to increase the counterweight beyond that required for normal running conditions, which is usually the case with simple profiles of this type.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

h. External Braking Forces and Belt Tensions, loaded Belt (Diagram 2 of Figure 6-22)

When loaded and running, a power-requiring conveyor will stop by itself jf power is interrupted and thus an external braking force is usually not required. However, for illustration purposes, an external braking force will be applied in this case.

With the power interrupted, the gravitational decelerating force, F gd' that will stop the belt is in the amount of the running erfective tension, or 5911 lb. This natural force is distributed about the conveyor in proportion to the weight to be decelerated; that is, 87 .. 5 percent, or 5172 lb, on the top side and 12.5 percent, or 739 lb, on the return. In this case, the rate of natural. deceleration from the formula F gd = rna would be 2.77 ft/sec2• where Fgd. = 5911 Ib and m = 68,880 Ib/32.2.

Now assume that an external braking force is applied to increase the stopping rate an additional 1 ft/sec2_ This force, F d> would be 2139 lb, again applying the formula F d= rna where m = 68,880/32.2 and a = 1_ The force is distributed about the conveyor in proportion to the weight to be decelerated i t ha tis, 87_5 percent, or 1872 lb, on the top side and 12..5 percent, or 267 lb, on the return,

The resulting belt tensions can be visualized in Diagram 2 of Figure 6-22, where external deceleration forces are plotted over the free-running diagram; or, they can be calculated as follows starting with the constant COUllterweight tension:

Tension at Drive (Carrying Side), Lb

+ 1970 T cwt (tail)

-5172 gravita tional force on top side, F gd

+ 407 empty conveyor friction (651 - 244) + 1370 load friction

+3890 incline load tension

+ 520 belt weight tension -1872 top side brake force, F d

+ 1113 total tension before drive

Tension at Drive (Return Side), Lb

+1970 + 739 + 520 + 267

T cwt (tail)

gravitational force on return side, F gd belt weight tension

return side brake force, F d

244 +3252

return side friction total tension after drive

6-27

SECTION s

c.

External Braking Forces and Belt Tensions, Empty Belt (Diagram 3 of Figure 6-22)

The empty belt also will tend to slop by itsel f, just as the loaded belt does .. The difference is that there is only the total empty friction to decelerate the empty belt. As this friction is presumed to dissipate the kinetic energy of the moving parts where it exists, the friction is not plotted 3S a cumulative Force, and diagram height is simply counterweight tension plus the belt slope tension. This empty friction decelerates the conveyor at a rate that call be calculated as before. Since the decelerating force (empty friction) is 65! lb and acts on the total weight (22,200 lb) to be decelerated, the rate call be determined as follows:

CARRYiNG SIDE RETURN SIDE

~ ~'VE ANO BRA~E

\ LOADED STARTING. DIAGRAM 1

C~VT HE RE

iQ.nB LB

C'" 0.022 I

I

ACCELERATING f'OACE ~9:'f 2069 - 23611 LEi

CWT TENSION 1970 LB

5911 LB

22'16 LB RUNNING

195'1 LB ACCELERATING

LOADED BRAKING. DIAGRAM 2

CWT TE~SlaN

EMPTY BRAKING. DIAGRAM 3

BRAKING BASELINE

~-I-- --

FINAL 8-ASEL~ - RUNNING ~

M Er.1i'lY ;. RICTION ~ LO~D Fq,CTiQN

l~ II\ILLII\'E. LunO TE.\,J::;IOF\J ~aEI. r ',\IEIG~ll' rt_~·J~'Clf\

651 X 32.2 = [1945 ft/sec2 22,200

This rate is very close to the previously assumed value of 1 ft(sec2, and no brake is required unless it is desired to stop the belt at a greater rate. However, since an external brake was applied to the loaded belt at a predetermined rate for illustration purposes, that same external braking force will be acting on the empty belt even though not necessary. Thus, the external braking force, EF, of Diagram 2 is applied to Diagram 3. This force is proportioned over the diagram on the basis of the ratio of the weight of the section being considered to the total weight to be decelerated.

DIAGRAM 1

This is the normal tension diagram with acceleration forces plotted by a dotted line. Accelerating forces are a minimum just behind the drive pulley and a maximum just ahead of the drive. Counterweight tension is marked in all diagrams. Counterweight was determined by loaded diagram requirements (normal running conditions).

Actually. no acceleration need be plotted. but this case represents the simplest diagram portraying method used for more cornpl icated cases.

Empty belt acceleration forces were not plotted since the loaded diagram provides the most severe case. The total starting force for the empty belt is assumed to be the same as the loaded belt; in other words, its rate of acceleration would be higher than that of the loaded belt.

DIAGRAM 2

The brake is located at the head pulley, and braking forces are represented by a dot-dash line, Braking forces are plotted over a free-running type diagram. Distance GO represents the counterweight tension determined by Diagram 1. The plot is begun from a line drawn through any Point 0 on Axis A-A.

On the return run, distance aT represents deceleration force IF gdl at a natural rate caused by gravity 1739 lb). Distance

TF is belt slope tension. GC is return friction.

On the conveyor side, OP is deceleration force IF gdl of the loaded belt 15172lbl. PR is the incline load tension. SR is total empty friction, and ST is load friction.

Externally applied braking forces, at a rate of 1 ft/sec2. are plotted over the free-running diagram Itotal of 21391bl. In this case, the rate of deceleration due to gravity was found to be 2.77 ft/sec2. thus indicating no brake is required, just

an anti-roll back device. However, for purposes of illustration, the calculated external braking force is plotted.

DIAGRAM 3

This is similar to Diagram 2. Since there is no unbalanced load [Incline load tanslonl. distance FO equals belt slope tension and determines the gradient of lines AF and GF. Total effective pull for the brake. EF. is the same as in Diagram 2.

Figure 6-22 - Example I (Tension Diagram)

6·28

3.

Example 2: Decline Conveyor (Tail Drive, Tail Brake)

LET T 700 K 0.38
W 36 B 10.4
S 300 wI 43
H 50 w2 39
L 600 II 3.5
Lo 200 or 475 12 10
C 0.022 (power required) 01 22.7
0.012 (regenerative) 02 100.5
0 37 03 14,3
To 500 Using previously derived formulas and friction factors (C) of 0.0 J 2 and 0.022, the [allowing running forces and weights to be accelerated Or decelerated are calculated in pounds:

Item

Friction factor, C 0,012 0.022

Return slope friction Total empty friction Load friction

Incline load tension Belt slope tension Effective tension

Empty Loaded

Necessary slack side tension Empty

Loaded

Counterweight tension Maximum belt tension

2441b 651 lb

1331b 4781b 10051b -3890Jb

520lb

651 lb -2407 Ib

247lb 9151b 500lba

35601ba

The weights for an empty belt are:

1. Return side, Q3 L'" 8,580 lb (38.6 percent)

2. Conveyor side, Q 1 L = 13,620 lb (61.4 percent) Total = 22,200 Ib (100 percent)

apart c of this example shows that the 500·lb counterweight calculated above for running needs is not enough to maintain minimum tension when accelerating the loaded belt. The additional required weight increases the above values to T cwt '" 718 Ib and T m = 3778 lb.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

The weights for a loaded belt are:

1. Return side, Q 3 L = 8,580 Ib (12,5 percen t)

2. Conveyor side, Q2 L = 60,300 Ib (87.5 percent) Total = 68,880 lb (JOO percent)

a. External Braking Forces and Belt Tensions, Loaded Belt (Diagram 1 of Figure 6-23)

Assume that a decelerating rate of 1.0 ft/sec2 is desired for the conveyor in Example 2. This rate gives the same decelerating force, F d ' as calculated for Example 1; that is, 2139 Ib total distributed (1872 Ib on the top side and 267 Ib all the return side), which is in proportion to the weights to be decelerated.

Since tid conveyor is regenerative, these decelerating forces are added to the funning tension diagram as illustrated by Diagram I of Figure 6·23. The total brake force required is 45461b, which is the sum of Te (2407 lb) plus a decelerating force of 2139 lb.

Belt tensions at the drive pulley during braking can be calculated as follows, starting with the constant counterweight tension at the head or discharge:

Tension Before Drive (Lb)

+ 7] 8 T cwt from loaded acceleration

requirements

+ ] 33 friction on return + 520 belt weight tension

- 267 brake force on return side, F d + 11 04 total tension before drive

Tension After Drive (Lb)

+ 718 T cwr from loaded acceleration

requirements

- 345 empty friction on top side (478 - 133) ·-1005 load friction

+ 3890 incline load tension + 520 belt weight tension

+1872 brake force on top side, F d +5650 total tension after drive

The 56S0·[b tension created during braking should be checked to see that it does not exceed 150 percent of rated tension of the bell selected for this conveyor. In the event that this limit is exceeded, then a higher rated belt can be selectee! or :1 reduced stopping rate can be used that will reduce the decelerating force,

6·29

SECTION 6

External Accelerating Forces and Belt Tensions, Empty Belt (Diagram 2 of Figure 6-23)

The empty belt represents the maximum power-requiring condition for this conveyor. In this case, the assumption is made that the empty conveyor is to be accelerated at a rate of 1.0 ft/sec2• Using the formula Fa = rna, the accelerating force, F a' can be calcula ted as 689 Ib, where m = 22,200/32.2 and a = I. The 689·lb force is distributed .according to the weight to be accelera ted; that is, 61.4 percent of 689= 423 Ib on the top side and 38.6 percent of 689 = 266 Ib on the return side. The addition of these forces to the regular running forces is illustrated by Diagram 2 of Figure 6-23. The total starting force is the sum of T e (651 Ib) and the accelerating force (689 Ib), or 1340 lb.

b.

Belt tensions at the drive pulley during empty acceleration can be calculated as follows, starting with the constant counterweight tension at the discharge:

Tension Before Drive [Lbl

+ 718 T cwr from loaded acceleration

requirements

+ 244 friction on return side + 520 belt weight tension

+ 266 acceleration force on return side, Fa + 1748 total tension before drive

Tension After Drive (Lb]

+ 718 T cwt from loaded acceleration requirements

407 friction on top side (651 - 244) + 520 belt weight tension

423 acceleration force on top side, Fa

+ 408 total tension after drive

The tension after the drive is less than the minimum (T 0 = 500), but this 408-lb tension is acceptable since this is only true during the brief acceleration period and there is no load on the belt.

c. Accelerating Forces and Belt Tensions, Loaded Belt

(Diagram 3 of Figure 6-23)

Upon release of the brake, the fully loaded belt - being regenerative • will accelerate itself. This natural accelerating force, F ga' is equal to the running effective tension, or 2407 lb. In the formula F ga = rna, where F ga = 2407 and m = 68,880/32.2, the natural acceleration rate becomes 1.12 ft/sec2. This accelerating rate is enough to bring the belt up to speed in a reasonable time before the motor is started, and this is commonly done. At other times, the motor is started with the release of the brake, thereby adding additional external accelerating forces,

Fa. It will be assumed that the motor is started when the brake is released in order to illustrate how an accelerating situation can sometimes dictate the need of a greater counterweight than was necessary for just the running conditions.

The gravitational forces totaling 2407 Ib are distributed about the conveyor in proportion to the weight to be accelerated: 87.5 percent (2106 lb) on the top and 12.5 percent (301 lb) all the return side.

The total starting force of 1340 lb supplied by the motor also must be included. This force is also distributed by weight proportion, which gives lin Ib on the top run and .168 lb on the return.

Diagram 3 of Figure 6-23 shows the assembly of these forces plus all the funning forces into a free running type of diagram. Following is an arithmetic summation of all of these forces starting with the counterweight tension and working toward the drive 011 both top and return runs.

Tension Before Drive (Lb)

+ 500a T required for running conditions

cwt .

+ 301

F gravitational acceleration force,

ga

return side

friction, return side belt weight tension

accelerating force, return side (F)

+ 133 + 520 + 168

+ 1622 a total tension before drive

Tension After Drive (Lb]

+ 500a T cwt required for running conditions -2106 F gravitational acceleration force, ga

top side

- 345 empty conveyor friction, top side

(478 - 133)

-1005 load friction

+ 3890 incline load tension + 520 belt weight tension

-1172 accelerating force, top side (F )

a

+ 282 a total tension after drive

a The 282-1b tensionafter the drive is 2181b less than the minimum required (To = 500). Therefore, the counterweight tension must be increased to 718, which makes the tensions after and before the drive 500 lb and 1840 lb, respectively. This increase in counterweight tension also must be applied to all other tension diagrams or analysis where a lesser counterweight had previously been adequate.

6-30

RETURN SIDE

A

CARRYING SIDE

DRIVE

AND

BRAKE

C=O.OI2 Ef

267 +1812 = 2139 LB 1

'Count-erweight tension is determined b ...... OiJgram 3.

LOADED ACCELERAT.ION, DIAGRAM 3

"Counterwalqht tension of 718 Ib was detarrnlned by loaded ecceleration to maintain minimum- tension (To" 500) ~I P?int F. ThisTcV\I1. must now be used on alt other tens.cn dlaqrams.

1m! EMPTY FRICTION ~ LOAD FRICTION

5:j'NCLiNE LOAD TENSION ~ BEL T WEIGHT TENSION

POWER REOUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

OIAGRAM 1

This is the normal tension diagram with braking forces plotted by a dash-dot line, Braking force is a minimum of the tail pulley on the return side and is a maximum at the tail

pulley on the conveyor side, This force is on the basis of a rate of deceleration of 1 ft/sec2, The total braking effort

is 2407 + 2139 = 4546 lb.

The empty braking diagram is not drawn since the loaded belt is a more severe braking condition.

DIAGRAM 2

Since empty belt requires power, acceleration forces are added directly to running diagram (see a dotted linel. .This acceleration force (689 Ibl is sufficient to produce an "a" of 1 ft/sec2 on the empty belt. EF is the sum of this acceleration force and the

total empty friction (689 + 651 = 1340 lb] and is the total starting force for this belt,

D.IAGRAM 3

Because the loaded belt is regenerative a free-running diagram

is required to show acceleration forces, To plot the free running diagram, start from a line drawn through any point 0 on Axis

A-A. Distance OPis acceleration or F ga force of the conveyor side due to gravity (2106 lb). PT is the incline load tension, and TF

is the belt slope tension. Distance NG is the empty friction

of the conveyor side. UN is load friction, OR is acceler-

ation of F gil force of the return side 1301 lb]. RS is total

empty friction, ST is load friction, and TF is belt slope

tension.

Externally applied acceleration forces are shown with a dotted line. Total applied force EF is the same as in Diagram 2, This force is proportioned between the conveyor and the return side on the basis of the ratio of the weights of the respective sides to the total weight to be accelerated. JU is the proportional part of EF applying to the top run.

Figure 6-23 - Example 2 (Tension Diagram)

6-31

SECTION 6

4.

Example 3: Decline Conveyor With Horizontal Section (Tail Drive, Tail Brake)

DRIVE AND BRA"'"

CWT
LET T 700 B 10.4
W 36 ° 37
S 300 wI 43
H 50 w2 39
LI 350 11 3.5
L2 250 12 10
L 600 °1 22.7
C 0.022 (power required) °2 100.5
0.012 I regenerative) Q3 14.3
La 200 or 475 To 500
K 0.38 Using previously derived formulas and friction factors of 0.012 and 0.022, the following running forces and weights to be accelerated or decelerated are calculated in pounds:

Item

Return slope friction Total ernpty friction Load friction

Completely loaded Decline only loaded Horizontal only loaded

Incline load tension Belt slope tension Effective tension

Empty

Completely loaded Decline only loaded Horizontal only loaded

Necessary slack side tension Empty

Completely loaded Decline only loaded Horizontal only loaded

Counterweight tension Maximum belt tension

Friction factor, C 0.012 0.022

1331b 4781b

2441b 651 Ib

1005 Ib 7701b

770Ib -38901b 520lb

6511b -24071b

-2642Ib

1421lb

2471b 9151b 10051b 5401b 1197 Ib a 4492 Ib a

apart c of this example shows that the 1197 lb counterweight tension calculated above for running needs is not enough to main lain minimum tension when accelerating the loaded belt. The additional required weight increases

the above values to T ::: 2933 lb and T ::: 6228 lb

cwt . m .

The weights for an empty belt are:

1. L1 (return side) '" 03 L1 = 5,005 lb (22 .. 6 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = Q3 L2 = 3,575 Ib (16.1 percent)

3. L 1 (top side) = Q 1 L1 = 7,945 Ib (35.8 percent)

4. L2 (top side) = Q1 L2 ::: 5,675 lb (25.5 percent) Total = 22,200 Jb (100 percent)

The weights for a loaded belt are:

1. L1 (return side) = Q3 L[ = 5,005 Ib (7.3 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = Q3 L2 = 3,575 lb (5.2 percent)

3. L1 (top side) = Q2 L1 = 35,.1751b (51 percent)

4. L2 (top side) = Q2 L2 '" 25,125 Ib (36.5 percent) Total = 68,880 Ib (l00 percent)

The weight for :3 decline (L1) only loaded belt are.

L L 1 (return side) :: Q 3 L 1 = 5,005 Ib (10.2 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = Q3 L2 = 3,575Ib (7.3 percent)

3. L1 (top side) = Q2 Ll = 35,175 Ib (71 percent)

4. L2 (top side) = Q 1 L2 = 5,675 Ib (11.5 percent) Total = 49,430 Ib (100 percent)

The weights for a horizontal (l2) only loaded belt are:

1. L1 (return side) = Q3 L1 ::: 5,005 Ib (12 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = Q3 L2 = 3,575 Ib (8.6 percent)

3. L1 (top side) '" Q[ L 1·::: 7,945 Ib (19.1 percent)

4. L2 (top side) '" Q 2 L2 '" 25,125 I.b (60.3 percent) Total = 41,650 lb (100 percent)

a. External Braking Forces and Belt Tensions, Loaded and Decline D nly Loaded (D iagrams 1 and 2 of Figure 6·24)

In this example, the necessary brake probably would be designed to stop the fully loaded condition within some given time or distance to control any overrunning of the load onto the following conveyor. The decline only load condition has a slightly greater negative effective tension, less weight to be decelerated, and 250 ft of horizontal conveyor before the load reaches the discharge pulley. Therefore, a brake designed for the fully loaded belt will be more than adequate for the decline loaded condition.

Assume it is specified that the fully loaded belt is to be braked to a stop at a deceleration rate of 1 ft/sec2. From the formula F d'" ma, a deceleration force (F d) of 2139 lb is calculated, where In '" 68,880/32.2 and a = I. As in previous examples, this force is distributed about the

6-32

conveyor in proportion to the weight to be decelerated as follows:

1. Ll (return side) = 7.3 percent of 2139, or 156 Ib

2. L2 (return side) = 5.2 percent of 2139, or 111 lb

3. Ll (top side) :; 51 percent of 2139, or 1090 Ib

4. L2 (top side) :; 36.5 percent of 2139, or 782 lb

The total braking effort required will be the sum of the effective tension (2407 lb) plus the deceleration force (2139 Ib), or 4546 lb.

Belt tensions developed during a loaded stop are illustrated by Diagram 1, where deceleration forces are added to a normal running tension diagram. Tensions can be calculated as follows, starting from the head pulley where there is a constant counterweight tension.

Tension Before Drive (Lb)

+2933 T t from Diagram 4 of Figure 6-24 cwt

+ 133 friction on return side

+ 520 III

belt weight tension

brake force, L2 return side (F d)

156 brake force, L 1 return side (F d) +3319 total tension before drive

Tension At Point K (Lb)

+2933 T cwt from Diagram 4 of Figure 6-24 144 empty friction, L2 top side

418 load friction, L2 top side

+ 782 brake force, L2 top side (F d) +3153 total tension at Point K

Tension After Drive (Lb)

+3153 tension at Point K

201 empty friction, Ll top side 587 load friction, Ll top side +3890 incline load tension

+ 520 belt weight tension

+1090 brake force, Ll top side (F d) +7865 total tension after drive

If the maximum tension (7865 lb) developed during braking should exceed 150 percent of rated belt tension, then stopping time should be increased or a higher rated belt should be used.

In braking the decline loaded condition, the total braking effort has been established by the fully loaded condition.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

Therefore, the deceleration force for the decline loaded condition is the total braking effort (4546 lb) minus effective tension (2642 lb), or 1904 lb. From the formula F d = rna, a deceleration rate of 1.24 ft/sec2 can be calculated, where F d = 1904 Ib anel m = 49,430/32.2. The J 904·lb force is distributed about the conveyor in proportion to the weight to be decelerated as follows:

I. L 1 (return side) :; 10.2 percent of 1904, or J 94

Ib

2. L2 (return side) = 7.3 percent of ] 904, or 139 Ib

3. Ll (top side) = 71 percent of 1904, or 1352 Ib

4. L2 (top side = 11.5 percent of 1904, or 219 Ib

Diagram 2 illustrates these forces added to a normal running tension diagram. Belt tensions also can be calculated as follows to check for maximum tension during braking:

Tension Before Drive [Lb]

+2933 T cwt from Diagram 4 + 133 friction on return side

+ 520 139 194 +3253

belt weight tension

brake force, L2 return side (F d) brake force, Ll return side (F d) total tension before drive

Tension at Point K (Lbl

+2933 144 + 219 +3008

T t from Diagram 4

elY

empty friction, 12 top side

brake force, L2 top side (F d) total tension at Point K

Tension After Drive [Lb)

+ 3008 tension at Point K

201 empty friction, Ll top side 770 load friction

+ 3890 incline load tension + 520 belt weight tension

+1352 brake force, Ll top side (Fd) +7799 total tension after drive

Again, if the maximum tension (7799 lb) developed during braking of Uris load condition exceeds 150 percent of the rated belt tension, then increasing the stopping time or using a higher rated belt should be considered.

6-33

SECTION 6

b. External Accelerating Forces and Belt Tensions, H orizon1al (L 2) Section Loaded (Diagram 3 of Figure 6-24)

The maximum condition to be accelerated occurs when the belt is stopped and horizontal section L2 is completely loaded. If an accelerating rate of 1 ft/sec2 is specified for this condition, then the resulting accelerating force (Fa) of 1293 lb can be calculated from Fa = rna, where 111 = 41,650/32.2 and a= 1. The accelerating force of 1293 lb is considerably greater than 40 percent of Te, which is considered a minimum for breakaway purposes. The 1293-jb force is distributed about the conveyor in proportion to the weight to be accelerated as follows:

1. Ll (return side) = 12 percent of 1293, or 155 lb

2. L2 (return side) = 8.6 percent of 1293, or III Ib

3. Ll (top side) :: 19.1 percent of 1293, or 247 Ib

4. L2 (top side) = 60.3 percent of 1293, or 780 lb

The total starting force is the sum of the accelerating force (1293 Ib) plus T e (1421 Ib), or 27141b. Acceleration forces are added to normal tension Diagram 3, or belt tensions during acceleration can be calculated as follows:

Tension Before Drive (Lb]

+2933 T cwt from Diagram 4 + 244 friction return side

+ 520 + I II + 155 +3963

belt weight tension

accelerating force, L2 return side (F) accelerating force, L 1 return side (Fa) total tension before drive

Tension at Point K (Lb]

+2933 170 770 780

T t from Diagram 4

cw

empty friction, L2 top side

load friction, L2 top side accelerating force, L2 top side (Fa)

+ 1213 total tension at Point K

Tension After Drive (Lbl

+ 1213 tension at Point K

237 empty friction, Ll top side + 520 belt weight tension

247 accelerating force, Lr top side (Fa)

---

+ 1249 total tension after drive

c. E.xternal Acceleration Forces and Belt Tensions, Fully Loaded Belt (Diagram 4 of Figure 6·24)

As in Example 2, the fully loaded belt will accelerate by itself when the brake is released. The unbalanced force (F ga) causing this natural acceleration equates to the fully loaded effective tension of 2407 lb and is distributed about the conveyor as follows in proportion to the weight to be accelerated.

1. Ll (return side):: 7.3 percent of 2407, or 176 ~b F force

ga

2. L2 (return side) '" 5.2 percent of 2407, or 125 Ib F force

ga

3. Ll (top side) = 51 percent of 2407, or 1227 Ib F force

ga

4_ L2 (top side) = 36.5 percent of 2407, or 879 Ib F ga force

These forces along with the normal running forces can be assembled into a free-running type of diagram (see Diagram 4 of Figure 6-24). Since the motor is programmed to supply 2714lb of tot a! starting fcrceIlriagram 3), this force (F a) must be added to the free-running diagram; it, too, is distributed in proportion to the weight as follows:

1. Ll (return side) = 7.3 percent of 2714, or 198 !b

2. L2 (return side - 5.2 percent of2714, or 141 Ib

3. L (top side) = 51 percent of 2714, or 1383 lb 1

4. L2 (top side) = 36.5 percent of 2714 or 992lb

Following is an arithmetic summation of all gravitational acceleration forces (F ), acceleration forces (F ), and running forces, startin~a with the counterweight ~ension and working toward the drive on both top and return runs:

Tension Before Drive (Lb)

+ 1197a T t needed for running condition elY

+ 125

F force, L2 return side ga

+ 176

F ga force, Ll return side

+ 133 friction on return side

+ 520 belt weight tension

+ 141 accelerating force, L2 return side (F a) + 198 accelerating force, Ll return side (Fa) +2490a total tension before drive

a See footnote on page 6-35.

6-34

Tension at Point K (Lb)

+ J 197 a T cwt needed for running condition

- 879 F ga force, L2 top side

- 144 empty friction, L2 top side

- 418 load friction, l2 top side

- 992 accelerating force, L2 top side (F )

a

-1236 a total tension at Point K

Tension After Drive (Lbl -1236a tension at Point K

-1227 F ga force, L1 top side

- '201 empty friction, L 1 top side

- 587 load friction, L 1 top side

+3890 incline load tension

+ 520 belt weight tension

-1383 accelerating force, L 1 top side (F) 224 a total tension after drive

d.

External Accelerating Forces and Belt Tensions, Decline Only loaded (Diagram 5 of Figure 6-24)

This case is very similar to that of the fully loaded belt. The total F ga forces equate to the running effective tension of 264-2 lb and are proportioned by weight about the conveyor as follows:

1. L1 (return side) = 10.2 percentof2642, or270 Ib

2. L 2 (return side) = 7.3 percent of 2642, or 193 lb

3. L1 (top side) = 71 percent of 2642, or 18751b

4. L 2 (top side) = 11.5 percent of 2642, or 304 Ib

3Negative tensions cannot be permitted at Point K and before the drive. Point K requires minimum tension (T 0 = 500); to achieve this tension, an additional tension of 1736 Ib (1236 + 500) must be added into the system, which changes the above tensions as follows:

I. T cwt = 1197 + 1736 = 2933 lb

2. Tension before drive = 2490 + J 736 = 4226 lb 3, Tension after drive = -224 + 1736 = 1512 Ib 4. Tension at Pain t K= -1236 + 1736 = 500 lb

The T cwt of 2933 lb now must be applied to all other load conditions where 1197 lb formerly had been adequate.

POWER REQUIREMENTS AND BELT TENSION

The total starting force (2714 lb) of the motor is distributed by weight as follows:

1. Ll (return side) = 10.2 percent of2714, or 277lb

2. L2 (return side) = 7.3 percent of 2714, or 198 Ib

3. L1 (top side) = 71 percent of 2714, or 1927 Ib

4. L2 (top side) = 11.5 percent of2714, or 3121b

All forces can be plotted as in Diagram 5, or they can be arithmetically analyzed similarly to the fully loaded conditions as follows:

Tension Before Drive (l.b)

+2933 T cwt from full load acceleration + 193 F ga force, L 2 return side

+ 270 F ga force, L 1 return side

+ 133 friction on return side

+ 520 belt weight tension

+ 198 accelerating force, L2 return side (Fa) + 277 accelerating force, L 1 return side (Fa) +4524 total tension before drive

Tension at Point K [Lb)

+2933 T cwt from full load acceleration 304 F ga force, L2 top side

144 empty friction, L2 top side (Fa) 312 accelerating force, L2 top side (Fa)

+2173 total tension at Point K

Tension After Drive (Lb]

+2173 Point K tension

-1875 Fga force, Ll top side

201 empty friction, Ll top side 770 load friction, L 1 top side

+ 3890 incline load tension

+ 520 belt weight tension

-1927 accelerating force, L 1 top side (F) + 1810 total tension after drive

6-35

SECTION 6

DR IVE AND BRAKE A

RETURN SI DE

I I

COMPLETELY LOAOED BRAKING, DIAGRAM 1

c. - 0'0""" , : I

;~~SION ~ I

2933 LB

~ ~~~~~~~~~ _J

I I

DECLINE ONLY LOADED

I BRAKING, DIAGRAM 2 EI

C~DO'2 I

1904 LB

HORIZONTAL ONLY LOADED ACCELERATION, DIAGRAM 3

I

c ~ OD22

CWT TENSION = 2933 LB

~ EMPTY FRICTION ~ LOAO FRICTjON

~ INCUNE LOAD TENSION § BEL T WEIGHT TENSION

CWT TENSION 2933 LB

CWT TENSION 2933 LB

CWT TENSION = 2933 LB

DIAGRAM 1

The dash-dot line represents braking forces plotted over

the normal diagram. Final baseline is determined by Diagram 4. The belt must be designed for maximum tansian read from the final baseline to the top of the normal running diagram. Braking force is a minimum just before and a maximum just after drive pulley. The empty diagram is not plotted for braking forces since the loaded condition is more severe. Distance EF is the total effective pull required of the brake. EFis comprised of the effective tension of the fully loaded belt and the decelerating force at a rate of 1 ft/sec2 (2407 + 2139 = 4546 Ibl.

DIAGRAM 2

The conditions of braking and the method of plotting are similar to Diagram 1. Since the brake was. designed to have

an effective pull (EF) in Diagram 1, the same brake will be acting for Diagram 2 and the distance (E FJ of Diagram 1 equals EF of Diagram 2. Therefore, the rate of deceleration obtained in Diagram 2 is slightly greater than that (1 ft/sec2) used in Diagram 1. The total external braking force (EF] of Dia-

gram 1 minus the effective tension of Diagram 2 is proportioned over the conveyor length, by section, according to the ratio

of the weight of the particular section to be decelerated to the total weight to be decelerated. The final baseline is determined by Diagram 4.

DIAGRAM 3

The dotted line represents acceleration forces plotted over the normal diagram since the belt requires power with horizontal only loaded. Since this condition is more severe than empty starting, the empty starting forces are not plotted. Distance EF represents the total effective pull that must be provided by the motor during starting under this load condition.

Here, EF is composed of the running effective tension of

the horizontal only loaded belt and the accelerating force at

a rate of 1 ft/sec2 l1421 + 1293= 2714 lb). The final baseline is determined by Diagram 4.

Figure 6-24 - Example 3 (Tension Diagram) (Sheet 1 of2)

6-36

RETURN SIDE

CARRYING 51 DE

A

CWT TENSION' 2933 L 8

I I

COMPLETE L Y LOADED

ACCELERATION. I DIAGRAM 4

I C = 0.012

CWT TENSION' 2933 LB

CWT TENSION' 2933 LB

A

~ EMPTY FRICTION I§'l LOAD FRICTION

82jINCLINE LOAD TENSION §BELT WEIGHT TENSION

POWE R REQU I R EMENTS AN D BE L T TENSION

DIAGRAM 4

Since belt is regenerative under this condition of loading. acceleration forces are plotted over a free-running oiaqrarn, The plot is begun from a line drawn through any Point 0 on Axis A-A. Height OR is acceleration force IFgal, return run, due to gravity 1301 lbl, RS is total empty friction. and RT is total friction force. Distance OP, which determines gradient of GP, is acceleration force IFgal, conveyor side, due to gravity 12106 lb}, PT is incline load tension, TF is belt slope tension, AG is empty top run friction.

and AU is load friction.

Upon release of brake, the conveyor would start itself when fully loaded. However, under the load condition of Diagram 3. the motor provides an effective pull equal to EF 11421 + 1293 = 27141b). This force is proportioned around the conveyor according to the ratio of the weight of the section being considered to the total weight to be accelerated.

This diagram determines the location of the final basel ine. Distance JU is the acceleration force at counterweight location. The acceleration baseline must always ~e at least To below point K, which is the lowest point on the acceleration

line. In Diagram 4, acceleration baseline is placed To dis-

tance below K because the largest counterweight required for Diagrams 1, 2, or 3 was insufficient to hold the acceleration baseline at or below this point. The final baseline is then JU distance below the acceleration baseline.

DIAGRAM 5

This case is similar to Diagram 4. Plot of free-running diagram is accomplished as in Diagram 4. OP (2179 lb), as in Diagram 4 is the total Fga of the conveyor side. Distance NH 1304 Ibl is the Fga of the unloaded level portion of the conveyor side, measured below line OG. Distance OR 1463 Ibl is the Fga of the return side of the conveyor. The remainder of the plot is as in Diagram 4.

Figure 6-24 - Example 3 (Tension Diagram) (Sheet 2 0/'2)

6-37

SECTION 6

5.

Example 4: Decline-Incline Conveyor (Head Drive and Brake)

DRIVE AND BRAKE;

LET T 700 K 0.38
W 36 B 10.4
S 300 0 37
H1 25 w1 43
H2 50 1I'J2 39
L1 250 11 3.5
L2 350 1:2 10
L 600 01 22.7
C 0.022 (power required) O2 100.5
0.01.2 (regenerative) OJ 14.3
La 200 or 475 To 500 Using previously derived formulas and friction factors of 0.012 and 0.022, the following running forces and weights to be accelerated or decelerated are calculated in pounds:

Item

Friction factor, C 0.012 0.022

Return slope friction Total empty friction Load friction

Completely loaded L 1 only loaded

L2 only loaded

Incline load tension L 1 section

L2 section

Belt slope tension L 1 section

L2 section Effective tension

1331b 478lb

2441b 6511b

1370Ib

676lb

940lb

-19451b 3890 It

260lb 520lb

Empty

Completely loaded L 1 only loaded

L2 only loaded

6511b 39661b -791 Ib 5481 Ib

Item

Friction factor, C 0.012 0.022

Necessary slack side tension Empty

Completely loaded L 1 only loaded

L2 only loaded

Counterweight tension Maximum belt tension

248lb 15051b

300lb 2080lb 1702 Ib a 7561 Ib a

The weights for an empty belt are:

1. L 1 (return side) = 03 L 1= 3,575 Ib (16.1 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = 03 LZ = 5,005 Ib (22.6 percent)

3. L 1 (top side) = 0 1 Ll = 5,675 Ib (25.5 percent)

4. L2 (top side) '" O2 L2 = 7,945 lb (35.8 percent) Total = 22,200 Ib (100 percent)

The weights for a loaded belt are:

1. Ll (return stde)= 03 Ll = 3,57S·lb (5.2 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = 03 L2:; 5,005 Ib (7.3 percent)

3. Ll (top side) = Q2 L1 = 25,1251b (36.5 percent)

4. L2(topside)=02L2=35,175 Ib(51 percent) Total = 68,880 Ib (100 percent)

The weights for a decline (LI) loaded belt are:

I. Ll (return side) = 03 L1= 3,575 Ib (8.6 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = Q3 L2 = 5,005 Ib (12.0 percent)

3. L 1 (top side) = O2 L 1 :::; 25,1251b (60.3 percent)

4. L2 (top side) = Q[ L2 = 7,945 Ib (19.1 percent) Total = 41,650 Ib (100 percent)

The weights for an incline (L2) loaded belt are:

1. Ll (return side}> 03 Ll = 3,5751b (7.3 percent)

2. L2 (return side) = Q3 L2 = 5,005 Ib (10.2 percent)

3. L 1 (top side) = Q1 L 1 = 5,675 Ib (11.5 percent)

4. L2(topside)=02L2=35,175tb(71 percent) Total:::; 49,430 Ib (100 percent)

a Part d of this example shows that the 1702-lb counterweight tension calculated above for running needs is not enough to maintain minimum tension when braking the loaded belt. The additional required weight increases the above values to T ewt :::; 2924 Ib and T rn = 8783 lb.

6-38