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Shear and Bending Moment

Shear and Bending Moment Problem: For the loaded beam shown below, develop the corresponding shear force

Problem:

For the loaded beam shown below, develop the corresponding shear force and bending moment diagrams. The beam is in equilibrium. For this problem L= 10 in.

develop the corresponding shear force and bending moment diagrams. The beam is in equilibrium. For this

Shear and Bending Moment

Overview
Overview
Overview

Overview

Overview
Overview
Shear and Bending Moment Overview Anticipated time to complete this tutorial: 45 minutes Tutorial Overview This

Anticipated time to complete this tutorial: 45 minutes

Tutorial Overview

This tutorial is divided into six parts:

1) Tutorial Basics 2) Starting Ansys 3) Preprocessing 4) Solution 5) Post-Processing 6) Hand Calculations

Audience

This tutorial assumes minimal knowledge of ANSYS 8.0; therefore, it goes into moderate detail to explain each step. More advanced ANSYS 8.0 users should be able to complete this tutorial fairly quickly.

Prerequisites

1) ANSYS 8.0 in house “Structural Tutorial”

Objectives 1) Learn how to define keypoints, lines, and elements 2) Learn how to apply structural constraints and loads 3) Learn how to find shear and bending moment diagrams

Outcomes

1) Learn how to start Ansys 8.0 2) Gain familiarity with the graphical user interface (GUI) 3) Learn how to create and mesh a simple geometry 4) Learn how to apply boundary constraints and solve problems

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Shear and Bending Moment

Tutorial Basics
Tutorial Basics
Tutorial Basics

Tutorial Basics

Tutorial Basics
Tutorial Basics

In this tutorial:

Instructions appear on the left.

Visual aids corresponding to the text appear on the right.

are

labeled. However, only operations applicable to the tutorial are explained.

All

commands

on

the

toolbars

The instructions should be used as follows:

Bold >

Text in bold are buttons, options, or selections that the user needs to click on

Example:

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/DeleteFile would mean to follow the options as shown to the right to get you to the Element Types window

Italics

Text in italics are hints and notes

MB1

Click on the left mouse button

MB2

Click on the middle mouse button

MB3

Click on the right mouse button

Some Basic ANSYS functions are:

To rotate the models use Ctrl and MB3.

To zoom use Ctrl and MB2 and move the mouse up and down.

To translate the models use Ctrl and MB1.

MB3. To zoom use Ctrl and MB2 and move the mouse up and down. To translate

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Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

For this tutorial the windows version of ANSYS 8.0 will be demonstrated. The path below is one example of how to access ANSYS; however, this path will not be the same on all computers.

For Windows XP start ANSYS by either using:

> Start > All Programs > ANSYS 8.0 > ANSYS or the desktop icon (right) if present.

8.0 > ANSYS or the desktop icon (right) if present. Note: The path to start ANSYS

Note: The path to start ANSYS 8.0 may be different for each computer. Check with your local network manager to find out how to start ANSYS 8.0.

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Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

Once ANSYS 8.0 is loaded, two separate windows appear: the main ANSYS Advanced Utility window and the ANSYS Output window.

The ANSYS Advanced Utility window, also known as the Graphical User Interface (GUI), is the location where all the user interface takes place.

Graphical User Interface

all the user interface takes place. Graphical User Interface The Output Window documents all actions taken,

The Output Window documents all actions taken, displays errors, and solver status.

Output Window

User Interface The Output Window documents all actions taken, displays errors, and solver status. Output Window

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Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

The main utility window can be broken up into three areas. A short explanation of each will be given.

First is the Utility Toolbar:

of each will be given. First is the Utility Toolbar : From this toolbar you can

From this toolbar you can use the command line approach to ANSYS and access multiple menus that you can’t get to from the main menu.

Note: It would be beneficial to take some time and explore these pull down menus and familiarize yourself with them.

Second, is the ANSYS Main Menu, as shown to the right. This menu is designed to use a top down approach and contains all the steps and options necessary to properly preprocess, solve, and postprocess a model.

Third is the Graphical Interface window where all geometry, boundary conditions, and results are displayed.

The tool bar located on the right hand side has all the visual orientation tools that are needed to manipulate your model.

tool bar located on the right hand side has all the visual orientation tools that are
tool bar located on the right hand side has all the visual orientation tools that are

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Shear and Bending Moment

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys

Starting Ansys
Starting Ansys

With ANSYS 8.0 open select

> File > Change Jobname

and enter a new job name in the blank field of the change jobname window.

Enter the problem title for this tutorial.

> OK

window. Enter the problem title for this tutorial. > OK In order to know where all
window. Enter the problem title for this tutorial. > OK In order to know where all

In order to know where all the output files from ANSYS will be placed, the working directory must be set, in order to avoid using the default folder C:\Documents and Settings.

> File > Change Directory > then

select the location that you want all of the ANSYS files to be saved.

Be sure to change the working directory at the beginning of every problem.

With the jobname and directory set, the ANSYS database (.db) file can be given a title. Following the same steps as you did to change the jobname and the directory, give the model a title.

be given a title . Following the same steps as you did to change the jobname
be given a title . Following the same steps as you did to change the jobname

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

To begin the analysis, a preference needs to

be set. Preferences allow you to apply filter- ing to the menu choices; ANSYS will remove or gray out functions that are not needed. A structural analysis, for example, will not need all the options available for a thermal, electromagnetic, or fluid dynamic analysis.

> Main Menu > Preferences

fluid dynamic analysis. > Main Menu > Preferences Place a check mark the Structural box. next

Place a check mark

the

Structural box.

next

to

> OK

Place a check mark the Structural box. next to > OK Look at the ANSYS Main

Look at the ANSYS Main Menu. Click once on the “+” sign next to Preprocessor. > Main Menu > Preprocessor

The Preprocessor options currently avail- able are displayed in the expansion of the Main Menu tree as shown to the right. The most important preprocessing functions are defining the element type, defining real con- straints and material properties, and model- ing and meshing the geometry.

the element type, defining real con- straints and material properties, and model- ing and meshing the

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

The ANSYS Main Menu is designed in such

a way that you should start at the beginning and work towards the bottom of the menu in preparing, solving, and analyzing your model.

Note: This procedure will be shown throughout the tuto- rial.

Select the “+” next to Element Type or click on Element Type. The extension of the menu is shown to the right.

> Element Type

Select Add/Edit/Delete and the Element Type window appears. Select add and the Library of Element Types window appears.

> Add/Edit/Delete > Add

In this window, select the types of elements to be defined and used for the problem. For

a pictorial description of what each element

can be used for, click on the Help button.

what each element can be used for, click on the Help button. For this model 2D
what each element can be used for, click on the Help button. For this model 2D

For this model 2D Elastic Beam elements

will be used. The degrees of freedom for this type of element are UX, UY, and ROTZ, which will suit the needs of this problem.

> Beam > 2D Elastic 3

> OK

of this problem. > Beam > 2D Elastic 3 > OK In the Element Types window

In the Element Types window Type 1 Beam3 should be visible signaling that the element type has been chosen.

3 > OK In the Element Types window Type 1 Beam3 should be visible signaling that

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Before closing the Element Type window,

and with Beam3 still highlighted select the Options button.

and with Beam3 still highlighted select the Options button. > Options In the Beam3 Element Type

> Options

In the Beam3 Element Type Options window change the the Member force

+ moment output from Exclude out- put to Include output. This tells ANSYS to include the moment and force information needed to create the diagrams.

> OK

force information needed to create the diagrams. > OK Close the Element Types window . >

Close the Element Types window.

> Close

The properties for the Beam3 element need

to be chosen. This is done by adding a Real Constant.

> Preprocessor > Real Constants

> Add/Edit/Delete

The Real Constants window should appear. Select add to create a new set.

> Add

The Element Type for Real Constants win- dow should appear. From this window, select Beam 3 as the element type.

> Type 1 Beam3 > OK

Beam 3 as the element type. > Type 1 Beam3 > OK The Real Constant window
Beam 3 as the element type. > Type 1 Beam3 > OK The Real Constant window
Beam 3 as the element type. > Type 1 Beam3 > OK The Real Constant window

The Real Constant window for Beam3 will appear. From this window you can interac- tively customize the element type.

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Enter the values into the table as shown at the right.

> OK

Close the Real Constants window.

> Close

The material properties for the Beam3 element need to be defined.

properties for the Beam3 element need to be defined. > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material

> Preprocessor > Material Props

> Material Models

The Define Material Models Behavior win- dow should now be open.

We will use isotropic, linearly, elastic, struc- tural properties.

use isotropic, linearly, elastic, struc- tural properties. Select the following from the Material Models Available

Select the following from the Material Models Available window:

> Structural > Linear > Elastic

> Isotropic

The window titled Linear Isotropic Properties for Material Number 1 now appears.

Isotropic Properties for Material Number 1 now appears. Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's Modulus) and 0.3

Enter 30e6 for EX (Young's Modulus) and 0.3 for PRXY (Poission’s Ratio).

> OK

Close the Define Material Model Behavior window.

> Material > Exit

for PRXY (Poission’s Ratio). > OK Close the Define Material Model Behavior window . > Material

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

The next step is to define the keypoints

(KP’s) that will help you build the rest of your model:

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Create > Keypoints > In Active CS

The Create Keypoints in Active CS win- dow will now appear. Here the KP’s will be given numbers and their respective (XYZ) coordinates.

be given numbers and their respective (XYZ) coordinates. Enter the KP numbers and coordinates that will

Enter the KP numbers and coordinates that will correctly define the beam. Select Apply after each KP has been defined.

Note: Be sure to change the keypoint number every time you click apply to finish adding a keypoint. If you don’t it will replace the last keypoint you entered with the new coordinates you just entered.

you entered with the new coordinates you just entered. KP # 1: X=0, Y=0, Z=0 KP

KP # 1:

X=0, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 2:

X=2, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 3:

X=4, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 4:

X=6, Y=0, Z=0

KP # 5:

X=10, Y=0, Z=0

Select OK when complete.

In case you make a mistake in creating the keypoints, select:

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Delete > Keypoints

Select the incorrect KP’s and select OK.

> Keypoints Select the incorrect KP’s and select OK . Your screen should look similar to

Your screen should look similar to the exam- ple below.

> Keypoints Select the incorrect KP’s and select OK . Your screen should look similar to

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

At times it will be helpful to turn on the key- point numbers.

> PlotCtrls > Numbering > put a checkmark next to keypoint numbers > OK

Other numbers (for lines, areas, etc turned on in a similar manner.

) can be

At times it will also be helpful to have a list of keypoints (or nodes, lines, elements, loads, etc.). To generate a list of keypoints:

> List > Keypoint

> Coordinates Only

of keypoints: > List > Keypoint > Coordinates Only A list similar to the one to
of keypoints: > List > Keypoint > Coordinates Only A list similar to the one to

A list similar to the one to the right should appear.

of keypoints: > List > Keypoint > Coordinates Only A list similar to the one to

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

The next step is to create lines between the KP’s.

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Create > Lines > Lines

> Straight Lines

The Create Straight Lines window should appear. You will create 4 lines. Create line 1 between the first two keypoints.

For line 1: MB1 KP1 then MB1 KP 2.

first two keypoints. For line 1: MB1 KP1 then MB1 KP 2 . The other lines

The other lines will be created in a similar manner.

For line 2: MB1 KP2 then MB1 KP 3. For line 3: MB1 KP3 then MB1 KP 4. For line 4: MB1 KP4 then MB1 KP 5.

Verify that each line only goes between the specified keypoints. When you are done creating the lines click ok in the Create Straight Lines window.

> OK

If you make a mistake, use the following steps to delete the lines:

> Preprocessing > Modeling

> Delete > Lines Only

You should now have something similar to the image shown below.

> Modeling > Delete > Lines Only You should now have something similar to the image
> Modeling > Delete > Lines Only You should now have something similar to the image

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Shear and Bending Moment

Preprocessing
Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Preprocessing

Preprocessing
Preprocessing

Now that the model has been created, it needs to be meshed. Models must be meshed before they can be solved. Models are meshed with elements.

First, the element size needs to be specified.

> Preprocessing > Meshing

> Size Cntrls > Manual Size

> Lines > All Lines

The Element Sizes on All Selected Lines window should appear. From this window, the number of divisions per element can be defined and also the element edge length.

Enter 0.1 into the Element edge length field.

> OK

Note: you could change the element edge length after com- pleting the tutorial to a different value and rerun the solu- tion to see how it affects the results.

With the mesh parameters complete, the lines representing the beam can now be meshed. Select:

> Preprocessing > Meshing > Mesh

> Lines

From the Mesh Lines window select Pick All.

> Pick all

Selecting Pick all will mesh all of the line segments that have been created.

The meshed line should appear similar to

the one shown below. preprocessing phase.

This completes the

been created. The meshed line should appear similar to the one shown below. preprocessing phase. This
been created. The meshed line should appear similar to the one shown below. preprocessing phase. This
been created. The meshed line should appear similar to the one shown below. preprocessing phase. This
been created. The meshed line should appear similar to the one shown below. preprocessing phase. This

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Shear and Bending Moment

Solution
Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution
Solution

We will now move into the solution phase.

Before applying the loads and constraints to the beam, we will select to start a new analy- sis:

> Solution > Analysis Type

> New Analysis

For Type of Analysis select Static and select OK.

The way this problem is setup, no con- straints need to be added. Other problems which ask you to find shear and bending moment diagrams may require the use of constraints.

The forces and moments will now be added.

It will be easier to select the keypoints (the locations of the forces and moments) if the keypoint numbers are turned on as previ- ously explained. However, the current view probably shows just the elements and not the keypoints. You can see both the elements and the keypoints on the screen by selecting:

> Plot > Multiplots

To see just the keypoints;

> Plot > Keypoints > Keypoints

Use the plot menu to view your model in the way that will make it easier to complete each step in tutorial.

Keypoints Use the plot menu to view your model in the way that will make it
Keypoints Use the plot menu to view your model in the way that will make it

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Shear and Bending Moment

Solution
Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution
Solution

The loads will now be applied to the beam.

> Solutions > Define Loads > Apply

> Structural > Force/Moment

> On Keypoints

The Apply F/M on KPs window should now appear.

Select KP1 (hint it might be hidden behind the symbol for the coordinate system) and select OK.

In the Apply F/M on KPs window that now

appears change the direction to of the force to FY and give it a value of 400.

> Apply

Repeat these same steps to apply the rest of the forces and moments. Moments are applied in the same way except that in the Apply F/M on KPs window MZ is chosen as the direction. Select Apply after each one you create and close the window when you are done creating all of the them.

Location

Direction

Value

KP1

MZ

400

KP2

FY

-400

KP2

MZ

-400

KP3

FY

200

KP4

FY

-200

KP5

FY

400

When you are done, your screen should look similar to the picture below.

200 KP4 FY -200 KP5 FY 400 When you are done, your screen should look similar
200 KP4 FY -200 KP5 FY 400 When you are done, your screen should look similar
200 KP4 FY -200 KP5 FY 400 When you are done, your screen should look similar
200 KP4 FY -200 KP5 FY 400 When you are done, your screen should look similar

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Shear and Bending Moment

Solution
Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution
Solution

The distributed loads will now be applied to the beam.

> Solutions > Define Loads > Apply

> Structural > Pressure > On Beams

The Apply PRES on Beams window should appear.

Select all the elements between keypoints 2 and 3 (there should be 20 in all).

> Apply

The expanded Apply Pressure on Beams window should appear. From this win- dow the direction of the pressure and its magnitude can be specified.

Enter 100 in the Pressure at Node I value field which will apply the pressure over the beam from keypoints 2 to 3. A positive entry in this field is defined as a down- ward pressure.

> OK

The first distributed load now appears on the model.

entry in this field is defined as a down- ward pressure. > OK The first distributed
entry in this field is defined as a down- ward pressure. > OK The first distributed
entry in this field is defined as a down- ward pressure. > OK The first distributed
entry in this field is defined as a down- ward pressure. > OK The first distributed

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Shear and Bending Moment

Solution
Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution
Solution

Add the other two distributed load in a sim- ilar manner. Use the same commands as shown, but with the following changes:

For the second distributed load select all of the elements between KP3 and KP4 (should be 20 of them). Set the value at node I to be -100 (this will make the load act upward).

> OK

For the third distributed load select all of the elements between KP4 and KP5 (should be 40 of them). Set the value at node I to be 100.

> OK

The model is now completed.

between KP4 and KP5 (should be 40 of them). Set the value at node I to

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Shear and Bending Moment

Solution
Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution
Solution

If you wish to view a 3D picture of your model select

> Plot Controls > Style

> Size and Shape

The Size and Shape window opens. Click

the check box next to Display of Element to turn on the 3D image.

> OK

Now when you rotate your model using CTRL + MB3 , the model should appear to be 3D. You should see something similar to the image below.

should appear to be 3D. You should see something similar to the image below. You are
should appear to be 3D. You should see something similar to the image below. You are

You are now ready to solve the model.

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Shear and Bending Moment

Solution
Solution
Solution

Solution

Solution
Solution

The next step in completing this tutorial is to solve the current load step that has been cre- ated. Select:

Solution > Solve > Current LS

The Solve Current Load Step window will appear. To begin the analysis select OK.

Step window will appear. To begin the analysis select OK . If a Verify window appears
Step window will appear. To begin the analysis select OK . If a Verify window appears

If a Verify window appears telling that the load data pro- duced 1 warning, just select Yes to proceed with the solu- tion.

1 warning, just select Yes to proceed with the solu- tion. The analysis should begin and

The analysis should begin and when complete a Note window should appear that states the analysis is done.

Note window should appear that states the analysis is done. Close both the Note window and

Close both the Note window and /STATUS Command window.

If your model is still in the 3-D view use the view icons on the right of the screen to bring the model to a front view again.

model is still in the 3-D view use the view icons on the right of the

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Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing
Post Processing
Post Processing

Post Processing

Post Processing
Post Processing

There are several different ways to view the results of a solution. To find the shear and bending moment diagrams we define what is called an element table and then plot a contour plot.

Defining an element table is nothing more than a way of telling ANSYS which solution items you want to see.

To define an element table, select the follow- ing:

> General Postproc > Element Table

> Define Table

The Element Table Data window now appears. Select Add

> Add

We will define the element table items by using the “By sequence num” option. For the Beam3 element, the sequence numbers for the I moment (at left end of beam) and the J moment (at right end of beam) are 6 and 12. The sequence numbers for the forces in the Y direction are 2 and 8. The sequence numbers can be found for any ele- ment in the help documentation. Simply do a search in help for the element that you are using, and then scroll down in the text to find the table that lists the sequence num- bers.

the element that you are using, and then scroll down in the text to find the
the element that you are using, and then scroll down in the text to find the

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Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing
Post Processing
Post Processing

Post Processing

Post Processing
Post Processing

Give the first item a label name of I moment, select By sequence num- ber, select SMISC, and type in the number 6 as shown to the right.

> Apply

Give the second item a label name of

J moment, select By sequence num-

ber, select SMISC, and type in the number 12

> Apply

ber , select SMISC, and type in the number 12 > Apply Give the third item

Give the third item a label name of

I force, select By sequence number, select SMISC, and type in the number 2 as shown to the right.

> Apply

Give the fourth item a label name of

J force, select By sequence number, select SMISC, and type in the number 8 as shown to the right.

> OK

When you are done you should have four items in the Element Table Data window.

done you should have four items in the Element Table Data window. Close the Element Table

Close the Element Table Data window.

> Close

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Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing
Post Processing
Post Processing

Post Processing

Post Processing
Post Processing

The shear force diagram will now be plot- ted.

> General Postproc > Plot Results

> Contour Plot > Line Elem Res

The Plot Line-Element Results window now appears.

Select IFORCE the table item at node I and JFORCE as the table item at node J.

> OK

The shear force diagram is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the dia- gram, the max and min shear force can eas- ily be seen.

diagram is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the dia- gram, the max and
diagram is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the dia- gram, the max and

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Shear and Bending Moment

Post Processing
Post Processing
Post Processing

Post Processing

Post Processing
Post Processing

The bending moment diagram will now be plotted.

> General Postproc > Plot Results

> Contour Plot > Line Elem Res

The Plot Line-Element Results window now appears.

Select IMOMENT as the table item at node

I and JMOMENT as the table item at node J.

> OK

The bending moment diagram is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the dia- gram, the max and min bending moment can easily be seen.

is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the dia- gram, the max and min
is plotted on the screen and shown below. From the dia- gram, the max and min

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Shear and Bending Moment

Hand Calculations
Hand Calculations
Hand Calculations

Hand Calculations

Hand Calculations
Hand Calculations

Generally, shear and bending moment diagrams can easily be constructed by hand for problems such as the one shown in this tutorial. The purpose of the tutorial was to show how to find shear and bending moment diagrams in ANSYS, so that the process could then be applied to more complex geometry and load conditions. Please note the nota- tion used for the hand calculations (shown at the bottom of the diagrams) as it explains why the shear diagram given by ANSYS and the one shown in the hand calculations are opposites.

diagrams) as it explains why the shear diagram given by ANSYS and the one shown in

26

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

2D truss with inclined support and support settlement

Problem: Analyze the 2D truss as shown below. All the members have cross-sectional area of 5000 mm 2 and are made of steel with Young’s modulus 210000 MPa. The

settlement at support B is 10 mm. The roller at C is on a floor 45° from horizontal direction.

(a)

If the applied force P is 200 kN, determine the member forces and stresses.

(b)

Determine the maximum value of P in which the maximum member force does not exceed 600 kN.

2P

P P D E F P/2 G H L = 3000 mm C A B
P
P
D
E
F
P/2
G
H
L = 3000 mm
C
A
B
45°
δ = 10 mm

L

L

1

Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up Start ANSYS Set Working Directory Specify Initial job name: 2DTruss Set Preferences: Structural Set the unit system to SI by typing in “/units, SI” in the command line. Check the output window for the units in SI system.

Step 2: Element Type and Real Constants Specify element type: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add Pick Link in the left field and 2D Spar 1 in the right field. Click OK. Click Close. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete, and click ADD Enter the cross-sectional area as 5000E-6 m 2 Click OK. Click Close.

Step 3: Material Properties Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic > Isotropic

Enter the Elastic modulus as 210Ee9 (Pa).

Save your work File > Save as Jobname.db

Step 4: Modeling Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter the keypoint number and coordinates of each keypoint. Click Apply after each input. Click OK when finish. Note that: If the keypoint number is not blank, the program will automatically use the smallest available number (that has not yet been specified) Create Lines from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line

2

Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line. Continue the same to construct lines.

Step 5: Meshing Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up. In the third section Size Controls >Lines Click Set. Select Pick All.

Another window pops up. Enter the number of element divisions (NDIV) as 1. Click OK.

In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section), Mesh: Lines. Click Mesh.

Select Pick All Then close the Mesh Tool window. To see node and element numbering, use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes

Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Nodes

Now select point A. Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained. Set Value as 0 Click Apply Select point B. Constrain “UY” and set displacement value to -10e-3 m. Click OK.

Since the roller at point C is 45° from global x axis. We cannot apply the support directly. We need to create a local coordinate system at point C in the orientation of the support. Work Plane > Local Coordinate Systems > Create Local CS > By 3 Nodes Read the instruction at the bottom of ANSYS window. It says Pick or enter 3 nodes: origin,

X axis and XY plane.

Choose the nodes in that order by clicking node 3, 5and 2, respectively (See figure below). Note that node 5 defines the direction of the x-axis and node 2 defines the xy plane. The direction of y-axis is perpendicular to the x-axis toward node 2.

3

2 1 3
2
1
3

After you clicked the 3 nodes, there will be a pop up window asking for Reference number of new CS and its type. The Reference number starts at 11 by default. Choose Cartesian CS. Click OK.

Select List > Other > Local Coord Sys. You can see that the Active CS is now CS no. 11 (which is the local CS we just created). CS number 0 to 6 are global CS. Check the origin and orientation of CS 11.

11 (which is the local CS we just created). CS number 0 to 6 are global

4

Now we have to rotate the orientation of node 3 from global CS to the local CS Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Move/Modify > Rotate Node CS > To Active CS Pick node 3. Click OK Next, constrain “UX” at node 3. Check the orientation of the triangle at node 3 (Plot > Multi- Plots). Apply Loading:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Force/Moment > On Nodes

Now select Node 4 and 6 In the menu that appears, select FY for Direction of force. Enter -200e3 for Force/ moment value. Click Apply. Similarly, you can apply other forces. You can check your applied loads by from the graphic window or List > Load > Forces > On All Nodes

Step 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK

Step 8: Post Processing Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK

Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK

5

Animate the Deformation PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape

List Member Forces & Stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add > Select By Sequence number in the left list box, and SMISC in the right list box. Type “1after the comma in the box at the bottom of the window. Click Apply For member stresses, choose By Sequence num> LS, 1

Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table > Select SMIS1 and LS1 Click OK Now you can see the element forces and the stresses .

OK Now you can see the element forces and the stresses . List the Deflections and

List the Deflections and Reaction Forces Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Nodal Solution Click DOF Solution and in the sub-list select Displacement vector sum Click OK

6

Main Menu > General Postproc > List Results > Reaction Solution Select All Items or All Structural Forces Click OK

(b)

From (a), the maximum member force (consider both from compression and tension) for P equal to 200 kN is 1146.4 kN. Since this is an elastic problem, you can find the maximum P that the member forces do not exceed 600 kN simply by

P

max

=

200

1146.4

×

7

600

=

104.7 kN

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA 3-D Structure with Shell elements

Problem: Analyze a rectangular plate (6 m × 4 m × 20 mm) with 8
Problem: Analyze a rectangular plate (6 m × 4 m × 20 mm) with 8 mm thick stiffeners
subject to 30 kN/m 2 pressure on an area (1 m × 2.5 m) in the middle of the plate as shown in
the figure below. The plates are made of steel (E = 2 × 10 5 MPa, ν = 0.3).
1.5 m
3 m
1.5 m
0.3 m
1 m
2 m
1 m
1.5 m
z y
1.5 m
0.3 m
x
1 m
1 m

STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor Select the element type to be Shell Elastic 4-node (SHELL63)

Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.02 and 0.008)

Create the material model

Create the keypoints at

1

– (0, 0, 0.3)

2 – (1, 0, 0.3)

3

– (2, 0, 0.3)

4 – (0, 1.5, 0.3)

5

– (1, 1.5, 0.3)

6 – (2, 1.5, 0.3)

7

– (0, 3, 0.3)

8 – (1, 3, 0.3)

9

– (2, 3, 0.3)

Copy points 1-6, 8 and 9 a distance of 0.3 in the negative z-direction as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Copy > Keypoints – then select the keypoints to be copied. Click “OK”. Enter the z-offset “DZ” as -0.3

Now 3 extra keypoints shall be used to identify the area upon which the load is applied:

18 – (0, 1.75, 0.3)

19 – (0.5, 1.75, 0.3)

20 – (0.5, 3, 0.3)

Join the point with straight lines

Create areas using the generated lines

Assign the meshing attributes such that the stiffeners will have the smaller thickness. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > Picked Areas – select the areas of the plate and assign the appropriate real constant set, then repeat the command and select the areas of the stiffeners and assign the other real constant set.

Set the element size of the all the areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – Click “Set” in front of areas, “Pick All” and set the element length to 0.05

Mesh all the areas Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool – make sure that both “Quad” and “Free” are selected, then click “Mesh” and select all the areas. Apply the pressure load to the middle area as -30000

Apply symmetry boundary conditions. Set Symmetry B.C. for all the lines on plane X = 0, and for those on plane Y = 3. Now set UZ to zero for all the lower lines of the outer stiffeners.

STEP 5: Solution

STEP 6: Postprocessor Check the deformed shape and Von Mises stress distribution.

Batch File

/FILNAME, 3DShell

/TITLE, 3D Shell Analysis /UNITS, SI

*SET, B, 2 *SET, W, 3 *SET, T, 0.3 *SET, WL, 1.25 *SET, BL, 0.5

! Assigns values to user-named parameter ! SET, par, value

/PREP7

! Enter Preprocessing Module

ET,1,SHELL63

! Specify element type (ET, itype, ename)

R, 1,0.02 R, 2, 0.008

! Specify real constant (R, nset, r1, r2)

Specify material properties MP,EX,1,2 E11

!

! MP, lab, mat, c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus - Pa)

MP,PRXY,1,0.3

! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio

K, 1,

K, 2, B/2,

K, 3,

K, 4,

K, 5, B/2, W/2, T

K, 6,

K, 7,

K, 8, B/2,

K, 9,

B,

0,

B,

0,

0, T

0, T

0, T

0, W/2, T

B, W/2, T

W, T

W, T

W, T

KGEN, 2, 1, 6,1,,,-T KGEN, 2, 8,9,,,,-T

K, 18,

K, 19, BL, W-WL, T

K, 20, BL,

0, W-WL, T

W, T

! Create a line between two keypoints

!Create keypoints (top of the shell) ! K, npt, x, y, z

! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints ! KGEN, itime, np1, np2, ninc, dx, dy, dz

! Keypoints for area under loading

L, 1, 2 L, 9, 8 L, 18, 4

L, 2, 3 L, 8, 20 L, 4, 1

L, 3, 6 L, 20, 7 L, 4, 5

L, 6, 9 L, 7, 18 L, 5, 6

L, 2, 5 L, 12, 15

L, 5,8 L, 15, 17

L, 10, 11 L, 13, 14

L, 11, 12 L, 14, 15

L, 11, 14

L, 14, 16

L, 1, 10

L,

2, 11

L, 3, 12

L, 4, 13

L, 5, 14

L,

6, 15

L,

8, 16

L, 9, 17

L, 18, 19

L, 19, 20

! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL, l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, l6, l7, l8, l9, l10)

AL, 7, 8, 31, 32

AL, 9, 11,14,6,32,31

AL, 11,26,19,27

AL, 14,27,22,29

AL, 11,10,1,13

AL, 1,23,15,24

AL, 13,24,21,27

AL, 5, 14,12,4

AL, 12,27,20,28

AL, 4,28,18,30

AL, 12,13,2,3

AL, 2,24,16,25

AL, 3,25,17,28

AESIZE, ALL, 0.05

! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas

REAL,1

! Select real constant set for mesh attribute

TYPE, 1 MAT, 1 ASEL, S, AREA,,1,2 ASEL, A, AREA, ,5, 11, 3 AMESH, ALL

! Select element type ! Select material type ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set) ! ASEL, type, item, comp, vmin, vmax, vinc ! Mesh areas (AMESH, na1, na2, ninc)

REAL, 2

ASEL, INVE

! type INVE = invert the current set

AMESH, ALL

ASEL, ALL

SFA,1,,PRES,-30000

! SFA, area, lkey, lab, value, value2

! Boundary Conditions

NSEL,S,LOC,X,0

! Select nodes with location X= 0

DSYM,SYMM,X

! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,W

! Select nodes with location Y = 3

DSYM,SYMM,Y

! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0

! Select nodes with location Z = 0

NSEL,R,LOC,Y,W D, ALL, UZ, 0

! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at Y= W and Z = 0) ! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D, node, lab, value)

NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0

! Select nodes with location Z = 0

NSEL,R,LOC,X,B D, ALL, UZ, 0 NSEL, ALL

! Reselect nodes from the current set (only at X = B and Z = 0) ! Defines DOF constraints

SFTRAN

! Transfer the solid model surface loads to the FE model

/SOLU

! Enter the solution processor

SOLVE

! Solve the current load step

SAVE

/POST1

! Enters the database results postprocessor

PLDISP, 2 PLESOL, S, EQV, 2

! Plot deformed shape (PLDISP, kund) ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL, item, comp, kund)

Example: ANSYS and 3D element (solid45) In this example, we revisit problem #3 of homework 5a. This problem will now be solved using a 8-node 3D element (solid45) rather than the beam (beam3) element. Input commands for this problem are show below. Students are encouraged to consult the ANSYS online help on solid45 element for its features and limitations.

/prep7

et,1,45

!solid45: 8-node 3D element

mp,ex,1,66e9

!modulus of elasticity

mp,prxy,1,0.3

!poisson ratio

k,1,0,0,0

!keypoints

k,2,0.025/2,0,0

k,3,0.075/2,0,0

k,4,0.075/2,0.025,0

k,5,0.025/2,0.025,0

k,6,0.025/2,0.1,0

k,7,0,0.1,0

k,8,0,0.025,0

l,1,2,1

!create lines from 2 keypoints.

l,2,3,2

!third number represent the number of divisions along the line.

l,3,4,2

l,4,5,2

l,5,6,8

l,6,7,1

l,7,8,8

l,8,1,2

l,5,8,1

l,2,5,2

a,1,2,5,8

!create areas using 4 keypoints. Keypoints must be in either

a,2,3,4,5

!clockwise or counter clockwise order.

a,5,6,7,8

esize,,30

!define number of division for the depth.

vext,1,3,1,,,3

!esize command must be issued prior to vext command !extruding the areas parallel to global z-axis to create volumes

vmesh,all

!vext,first area,last area,increment,x,y,z !mesh all volumes

nsel,s,loc,x,0,0

!select a new set of nodes from x = 0 to x = 0

dsym,symm,x

!apply symmetry

nsel,s,loc,z,0,0

!select a new set of nodes from z = 0 to z = 0

nsel,r,loc,y,0,0

!select nodes from the previous set from y = 0 to y = 0

d,all,all,0

!constain ux, uy, uz

nsel,s,loc,z,3,3

!select nodes on the other end of the beam

nsel,r,loc,y,0,0

d,all,ux,0

!constrain ux

d,all,uy,0

!constrain uy

nsel,s,loc,z,1.2,1.2

!select node on the top of the beam

nsel,r,loc,x,0,0

nsel,r,loc,y,0.1,0.1

f,all,fy,-5400/2

!apply load

nsel,all

!reselect all nodes

fini

/solu

solve

fini

/post1

lpath,1,7

!create path between node 1 and 7

pdef,sigbot,s,z

!store sz under sigbot for this path

lpath,381,397

!create path between node 381 and 397

pdef,sigtop,s,z

!store sz under sigtop for this path

plpath,sigtop

!plot sigtop

plpath,sigbot

!plot sigbot

fini

!store sz under sigtop for this path plpath,sigtop !plot sigtop plpath,sigbot !plot sigbot fini

ANSYS TUTORIAL Analysis of a Beam with a Distributed Load

In this tutorial, you will model and analyze the beam below in ANSYS. Step-by-step instructions are provided beginning on the following page.

The steps that will be followed are:

Preprocessing:

1. Change Jobname.

2. Define element type.

3. Define real constants.

4. Define material properties.

5. Create keypoints. (5 total)

6. Create lines between keypoints. (4 total)

7. Specify element division length.

8. Mesh the lines

Solution:

9. Apply constraints and loads to the model.

10. Solve.

Postprocessing:

11.

Plot deformed shape.

12.

List reaction forces.

13.

List the deflections.

13.

Exit the ANSYS program.

Notes:

Moment of Inertia, I = 394 in 4 (enter as IZZ in ANSYS); Cross-sectional area, A=14.7 in 2 ; Height = 12.19 in; Modulus of Elasticity, E=30E6 psi (enter as EX in ANSYS); <=0.29 (enter as NUXY in ANSYS).

as EX in ANSYS); < =0.29 (enter as NUXY in ANSYS). Note: The instructions below do

Note: The instructions below do not provide every single mouse click, but, hopefully all steps

needed will be apparent from the instructions.

In this tutorial,

Also, as noted in other tutorials, the commands

can be entered directly at the command line instead of using the menu picks.

however, the commands are not provided. They can be determined, however, by selecting “HELP” on a related dialogue box. If something is not clear, please ask.

Preprocessing:

1. Change jobname:

File -> Change Jobname

Enter “beam2”, and click on “OK”.

(or choose some other Jobname)

2. Define element types:

Preprocessor -> Element Type -> Add/Edit/Delete

Click on “Add

Note that in ANSYS this element is sometimes referred to as “BEAM3”, because it is element type 3 in the ANSYS element library.

highlight “Beam”, then “2D elastic”, click on “OK”, then “Close”.

”,

3. Define the real constants for the BEAM3, which are moment of inertia, cross-sectional area

and height:

Preprocessor -> Real Constants -> Add

Click “OK” for

“Type 1

BEAM3”

After filling in the values, click on “OK”, then “Close”. Note that in this case, the cross- section shape was not provided, so nothing was input for “SHEARZ”. In this case, shear deformation effects will be neglected.

4. Define Material Properties:

Preprocessor -> Material Properties -> -Constant- Isotropic

“OK” for material set number 1, then enter the values for EX and NUXY, then “OK”.

In this tutorial, you will create keypoints, then lines, then mesh the lines. In the meshing process, ANSYS automatically creates nodes and elements.

5. Create 5 keypoints: #1 at the left end, #2 at the first pin joint from the left, #3 at the end of the

distributed load, #4 at the second pin joint, and #5 at the right end.

To create keypoints:

Preprocessor -> -Modeling- Create -> Keypoints -> In Active CS

Enter 1 for keypoint number (ANSYS would automatically number keypoints if you leave this blank). Enter the location as (x,y,z)=(0,0,0). Note that we will enter the locations in inches, with keypoint 1 located at the origin of the global x-y-z Cartesian coordinate system. (Note: For this problem, all keypoints will be in the x-y plane, with z=0). Click on “Apply”. Continue defining keypoints 2-5, using the locations based on

the sketch of the beam. But, after entering the keypoint 5 location, click on “OK” instead

of “Apply”.

As a check to ensure all keypoints were entered correctly, list the keypoints:

Utility Menu ->List -> Keypoints

If any errors were made in defining the keypoints, you can redefine a keypoint by

repeating the procedure of step 5. Of course, you don’t need to redefine all keypoints

simply to move one. Just repeat the keypoint creation command for the incorrectly placed node.

Turn on keypoint numbering:

Utility Menu -> PlotCtrls -> Numbering.

Check “keypoint numbering”, then click “OK”. The keypoint numbers may already be showing, but this will force the display of keypoint numbers on subsequent plots.

6. Create lines between keypoints:

Preprocessor -> Create -> Lines -> Straight Line

A picking menu appears. Pick keypoint 1, then keypoint 2, and a line is created between

the two keypoints. Continue creating lines in this way, one between keypoints 2 and 3, one between keypoints 3 and 4, and one between keypoints 4 and 5. After the last line is created, you can just click on “CANCEL” in the picking box. The lines are already created, so this will close the box.

7. Instead of using the default mesh for each line, specify a number of element divisions per line so that all elements in the model are 4 inches long (this length is arbitrary):

Preprocessor ->-Meshing- Size Ctrls -> -Lines- All Lines

In the box that appears, enter “4” for SIZE, then “OK”.

8. Mesh the lines:

Preprocessor ->-Meshing- Mesh -> Lines -> Pick All

At this point, the nodes and elements are created. To see a node plot, go to the top utility menu, and choose Plot -> Nodes. There will be a dot for each node. Now, go back and replot the lines: Plot -> Lines.

Solution:

9. Apply constraints and loads:

Solution -> -Loads- Apply -> -Structural- Displacement -> On Keypoints

Click on keypoints 2 and 4, then click “OK” in the picking menu that has appeared. Choose UX and UY, and use the default value of zero. If the “ALL DOF” label is highlighted, make sure to unselect the “ALL DOF” label! If the “ALL DOF” label is highlighted, unselect it by clicking on it. After confirming that only “UX” and “UY” are highlighted, click “OK”. These elements have 3 dof per node: 2 translations (UX and UY) and one rotation. We do not want to constrain the rotation.

To apply the force, choose:

Solution -> -Loads- Apply -> -Structural- Force/Moment -> On Keypoints.

Pick keypoint 5, then “OK” in the picking menu, choose “FY” for “Lab”, and enter -8000 for the force value. Click on “OK”.

To apply the distributed load, choose:

Solution -> -Loads- Apply -> -Structural- Pressure -> On Beams

DO NOT CHOOSE “On Lines” – this does not work for beam elements!

A picking menu appears. Click on the line between keypoints 1 and 2, and the line between keypoints 2 and 3, then “OK”. A box appears. Enter “150” for VALI. You don’t need to enter anything else. Click “OK”.

10. Solve the problem:

Solution -> -Solve- Current LS

Click “OK” in the “Solve Current Load Step” Box.

Postprocessing:

General Postproc -> Plot Results -> Deformed Shape

You will probably want to choose “Def + undeformed”, then “OK”.

12. List reaction forces:

General Postproc -> List Results -> Reaction Solution

Use the default “All items”, and click on “OK”.

13. List the x and y direction deflections for each node:

General Postproc -> List Results -> Nodal Solution -> DOF Solution -> ALL DOFs

If desired, one could plot and list the element stress components, but first tables of these stresses must be defined via the ETABLE command. This is overviewed in the first beam tutorial.

14. Exit ANSYS. Toolbar: Quit ->Save Everything -> OK

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA Dynamic Analysis

Problem: Determine the mode shapes and frequencies of a cantilever conical pole as shown in the figure below. The pole is 3 m long, 30 cm diameter at the bottom and 15 cm diameter at the top. The pole is made of wood with Young’s modulus = 13.1 GPa, Poisson’s ratio = 0.29 and density = 470 kg/m³. Also, reanalyze the cone for the case that there is a cylindrical-shape defect (φ 15 cm, 0.5 m height) inside the pole as shown.

Ø 15 cm

3 m
3 m

Ø 30 cm

Ø 15 cm

0.6 m 0.5 m Ø 15 cm Defect (no material) 1.9 m
0.6
m
0.5
m
Ø 15 cm
Defect
(no material)
1.9
m

Ø 30 cm

STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor Select the element type to be “Structural Solid Brick 8-node 45 (Solid 45).

Material Model Modulus of elasticity = 13.1 GPa Poisson’s ratio = 0.29 Density = 470 kg/m³

Modeling For the first model, Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Volume > Cone > By dimensions Enter the dimension of the pole without the cavity. The bottom radius is 0.15 m and the top radius is 0.075 m. Z1 is the z -coordinate of the base and Z2 is that of the top. The starting and ending angles define the sector of the base circle that will be generated to a cone.

For the second model, Create the main cone as explained in the previous step. Then create another cylinder for the defect. Subtract the cylinder from the cone as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans > Subtract > Volumes Select the cone first then click OK. After that, select the cylinder and click OK.

Meshing Assign an element length of 0.05 for all the areas as follows:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool Click “Set” in front of areas and enter 0.05. Click “OK”

Make sure that the “Tet” and “Free” options are selected then click OK and select the volume to automatically mesh it.

Analysis Type Set the analysis type to modal. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > New Analysis Select “Modal” and click “OK”

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Analysis Type > Analysis Options Set the number of modes to extract = 20 and click “OK” In the next dialogue box, don’t change the frequency range. Just click OK to accept the defaults.

Boundary Conditions Fix the base of the cone by set the All DOF of the base area to 0. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Areas

Pick the base area. Select “All DOF.”. Click OK.

STEP 3: Solution

STEP 4: Postprocessor The results for this type of analysis must be read first before it can be displayed. Select the frequency for which the results shall be read and displayed. To select the frequency Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick Select the required frequency and click “Read”, then click “Close”

Plot the deformed shape to observe the mode shape. Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape

Repeat the same analysis and post-processing for the two models and observe the change in the natural frequencies and the mode shapes (use Results Viewer to view animation).

For Model 1

SET

TIME/FREQ

LOAD STEP

SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE

 

1

34.007

1

1

1

2

34.084

1

2

1

3

141.56

1

3

1

4

141.94

1

4

1

5

342.15

1

5

1

6

343.63

1

6

1

7

482.30

1

7

1

8

573.41

1

8

1

9

622.57

1

9

1

10

625.38

1

10

1

11

972.71

1

11

1

12

976.88

1

12

1

13

1003.1

1

13

1

14

1378.4

1

14

1

15

1381.8

1

15

1

16

1385.2

1

16

1

17

1576.1

1

17

1

18

1825.8

1

18

1

19

1832.6

1

19

1

20

2163.3

1

20

1

Mode 1 & 2 (1 st harmonic – mode 1 in y direction, mode 2 in x direction)

harmonic – mode 1 in y direction, mode 2 in x direction) Mode 3& 4 (2

Mode 3& 4 (2 nd harmonic)

mode 2 in x direction) Mode 3& 4 (2 n d harmonic) Mode 5&6 (3 r

Mode 5&6 (3 rd harmonic)

x direction) Mode 3& 4 (2 n d harmonic) Mode 5&6 (3 r d harmonic) Mode

Mode 8 (elongation)

x direction) Mode 3& 4 (2 n d harmonic) Mode 5&6 (3 r d harmonic) Mode

For Model 2

SET

TIME/FREQ

LOAD STEP

SUBSTEP CUMULATIVE

 

1

36.781

1

1

1

2

36.846

1

2

1

3

135.28

1

3

1

4

135.88

1

4

1

5

349.63

1

5

1

6

351.06

1

6

1

7

496.21

1

7

1

8

595.08

1

8

1

9

621.37

1

9

1

10

623.90

1

10

1

11

945.73

1

11

1

12

959.75

1

12

1

13

964.36

1

13

1

14

1176.0

1

14

1

15

1402.8

1

15

1

16

1407.6

1

16

1

17

1518.1

1

17

1

18

1840.5

1

18

1

19

1845.9

1

19

1

20

2157.4

1

20

1

Mode 20

18 1840.5 1 18 1 19 1845.9 1 19 1 20 2157.4 1 20 1 Mode

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA Nonlinear Analysis

Problem: Consider a rectangular plate 6 m × 4 m × 20 mm subject to
Problem: Consider a rectangular plate 6 m × 4 m × 20 mm subject to pressure on an area (1
m × 2.5 m) in the middle of the plate.The plates and stiffeners are made of steel (E = 2 × 10 5
MPa, ν = 0.3). Assume elastic plastic material and yield stress σ y = 207 MPa.
(a) Find limit pressure for the plate if it is simply supported all around the outer edges (no
stiffeners).
(b) Reanalyze for the limit load the plate if there are stiffeners (30 cm width x 8 mm thick)
around the outer edges of the plate and the plate is supported at the corner as shown in the
figure below.
Sym.along y = 3
Sym.along x = 0
z y
3 m
0.3 m
x
2 m

*note: Apply pressure 100000 and see when the structure collapse (or the analysis stops) Notice buckling of the stiffeners in case (b)

STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor Select the element type to be Shell 8-node 93 (SHELL93)

Create 2 real constant sets for the above thicknesses (0.02 and 0.008)

Create the material model

- Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Linear > Elastic> Isotropic Enter EX = 2e11 Pa and PRXY = 0.3

- Main Menu> Preprocessor > Mat Props > Material Models> Inelastic> Rate Independent> Isotropic Hardening Plasticity > Mises Plasticity > Bilinear Enter yield stress = 207 e6 Pa and Tangent modulus = 0 Click “Graph” to check your material model.

Enter yield stress = 207 e6 Pa and Tangent modulus = 0 Click “Graph” to check
Create plate model (as explained in Tutorial 7) Set the element size of the all

Create plate model (as explained in Tutorial 7)

Set the element size of the all the areas to be 0.1 and mesh all the areas. Don’t forget to assign meshing attribute corresponding to the thickness of the plates for case (b).

Apply boundary conditions. Set Symmetry B.C. for all the lines on plane X = 0, and for those on plane Y = 3.

For (a), set UZ = 0 for outer edge of the plate (plane X = 2 and plane Y = 0). For (b), set UZ = 0 for the corner node

Apply pressure 100000 Pa on area 1

STEP 5: Solution Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Solution Controls

For (a), in “Basic” tab, Analysis Options –Small Displacement Analysis

Time Control

– Time at the end of load step = 1

– Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen

– Number of substeps = 20, Min no. of substeps = 10 Write Items to Results File – All solution items Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1 Click OK

items Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1 Click OK For (b), in “Basic” tab,

For (b), in “Basic” tab,

Analysis Options –Large Displacement Analysis

Time Control

– Time at the end of load step = 1

– Automatic time stepping = Program Chosen

– Number of substeps = 20, Max no. of substeps = 30, Min no. of substeps = 10 Write Items to Results File – All solution items Frequency – Write every Nth substep, N= 1 Click OK

Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS

STEP 6: Postprocessor Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick > Pick the substep of interest and check Von Mises stress/ strain distribution.

You can also use Results Viewer to view results and animation of the substeps.

Batch File for (b)

/FILNAME, NonlinearPlate

/TITLE, Nonlinear Analysis for Plate with Stiffeners /UNITS, SI

*SET, B, 2 *SET, W, 3 *SET, T, 0.3 *SET, WL, 1.25 *SET, BL, 0.5 *SET, P, -100000

! Assigns values to user-named parameter ! SET, par, value

/PREP7

! Enter Preprocessing Module

ET,1,SHELL93

! Specify element type (ET, itype, ename)

R, 1,0.02 R, 2, 0.008

! Specify real constant (R, nset, r1, r2)

Specify material properties MP,EX,1,2 E11

!

! MP, lab, mat, c0 (label EX = Young’s modulus)

MP,PRXY,1,0.3

! PRXY = Poisson’s ratio

! Activate a data table for nonlinear material properties (Bikinematic hardening)

TB,BISO,1

TBDATA,,207E6,0

! Data table, Yield stress= 30000 psi, Second slope = 0

K, 1,

0,

0, T

!Create keypoints (top of the shell)

K, 2,

B,

0, T

K, 3,

B,

W, T

K, 4,

0,

W, T

KGEN, 2, 1, 3,1,,,-T

K, 8,

K, 9, BL, W-WL, T

W, T

K,10, BL,

0, W-WL,T

! Create a line between two keypoints

! Generates keypoints from a pattern of keypoints

! Keypoints for area under loading

L, 1, 2 L, 4, 8

L, 2, 3 L, 8, 1

L, 3, 10 L, 8, 9

L, 10, 4 L, 9, 10

L, 5, 6

L, 6, 7

L, 1, 5

L, 2, 6

L, 3, 7

! Generates an area bounded by lines ( AL, l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, l6, l7, l8, l9, l10) AL, 4, 5, 7, 8 AL, 3, 8, 7, 6, 1, 2

AL, 1, 12, 9, 11 AL, 2, 13, 10, 12 AESIZE, ALL, 0.1

! Specifies the element size to be meshed onto areas

REAL, 1 TYPE, 1 MAT, 1 ASEL, S, AREA,,1,2 AMESH, ALL

! Select element type ! Select material type ! Select a subset of area (type S = select a new set) ! Mesh areas (AMESH, na1, na2, ninc)

REAL, 2

ASEL, INVE

! type INVE = invert the current set

AMESH, ALL

ASEL, ALL

SFA,1,,PRES,P

! SFA, area, lkey, lab, value, value2

! Boundary Conditions

NSEL,S,LOC,X,0

! Select nodes with location X= 0

DSYM,SYMM,X

! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,S,LOC,Y,W

! Select nodes with location Y = 3

DSYM,SYMM,Y

! Symmetry along plane with normal in X direction

NSEL,S,LOC,X, B NSEL,R,LOC,Y, 0

! Select nodes with location X = B ! Reselect nodes with location Y = 0 and Z = 0

NSEL,R, LOC, Z, 0 D, ALL, UZ, 0 NSEL, ALL

! Defines DOF constraints at nodes (D, node, lab, value)

SFTRAN

! Transfer the solid model surface loads to the FE model

/SOLU SOLCONTROL,ON AUTOTS,ON NLGEOM, ON NSUBST, 20,30 ,10 OUTRES, ALL, ALL

! Enter the solution processor ! Use optimized nonlinear solution defaults ! Automatic time stepping ! Large Deformation Analysis ! Number of substeps to be used for this load step

SOLVE

! Solve the current load step

SAVE

/POST1

! Enters the database results postprocessor

SET, LAST PLESOL, S, EQV, 2

! Read the last data set ! Displays the solution results (PLESOL, item, comp, kund)

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA Plane Stress Analysis

Problem: A 120mm square plate with a slot hole in the center as shown below is subjected to distributed tensile force of 50 kN/m on each side of the plate. Given Young’s modulus 200 GPa and Poisson’s ratio 0.3, determine the maximum stress in the plate. Also, if the hole in the middle of the plate is replaced by a 40 mm diameter circular hole (with no slot), find the maximum stress in the plate.

50 kN/m

50 kN/m 60 mm 20 mm 40 mm 20 mm 60 mm
50 kN/m
60
mm
20
mm
40
mm
20
mm
60
mm

STEP 1: Start up Preference> Structural /UNITS, SI

STEP 2: Preprocessor : Define Element Type Preprocessor > Element Type > Add

In the pop-up window click Add

In the pop-up window click Options

( /PREP7 ET, 1, PLANE42,,,0)

>

Solid > Quad 4 node 42 (PLANE 42). Click Apply. Keyopt 3 = Plane stress

node 42 (PLANE 42). Click Apply . Keyopt 3 = Plane stress STEP 3: Material Properties

STEP 3: Material Properties Preprocessor > Material Models > Structural > Linear > Elastic> Isotropic EX = 200e9 and PRXY = 0.3. (MP, EX, 1, 200e9 MP, PRXY,1, 0.3)

STEP 4: Modeling Create all keypoints and lines.

(Ex: K, 1, 0.02, 0

K, 2, 0.06, 0

etc.

L, 1, 2 .etc.)

For arc line from node 5 to 6, Preprocessor> Modeling > Create > Arcs >

For arc line from node 5 to 6, Preprocessor> Modeling > Create > Arcs > By End KP’s & Rad. Pick node 5 and 6 then click OK. Then, click the center of the arcline (node 7) and click OK. In the pop up window, enter the radius of the arcline, RAD = 0.02. Click OK (LARC, 5, 6, 7, 0.02)

OK. In the pop up window, enter the radius of the arcline, RAD = 0.02. Click
Create areas by lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitraly > By
Create areas by lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitraly > By

Create areas by lines Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Areas > Arbitraly > By lines Pick all the lines, click OK. (AL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5)

Tutorial 5 5/9
Tutorial 5 5/9

Mesh area Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool > Size controls: Areas > Set Enter 0.002 (AESIZE, 0.002)

Size controls: Areas > Set Enter 0.002 (AESIZE, 0.002) Make sure that in the Mesh section,
Size controls: Areas > Set Enter 0.002 (AESIZE, 0.002) Make sure that in the Mesh section,

Make sure that in the Mesh section, Shape: Quad and Free meshing are picked. Click Mesh. Pick the area then click OK. (AMESH)

Apply pressure on line 2 and symmetry on line 1 and 4. Tutorial 5 7/9

Apply pressure on line 2 and symmetry on line 1 and 4.

Apply pressure on line 2 and symmetry on line 1 and 4. Tutorial 5 7/9
(SFL, 2, PRES, -50000 DL, 1, 1, SYMM DL, 4, 1, SYMM) STEP 5: Solution

(SFL, 2, PRES, -50000 DL, 1, 1, SYMM DL, 4, 1, SYMM)

STEP 5: Solution (/SOLU SOLVE)

STEP 6: Postprocessor

/POST1

Tutorial 5 9/9

ANSYS Structural Analysis/FEA: Tutorial

Simple 3-D truss

Problem: Analyze the tetra-pod and check if the members buckle elastically. The tetrapod has a 5mx5m base and is 5m high. All members are round pipes 76.2 mmφ and 5.72 mm thick. A vertical force of 600 kN is applied at the top. Assume that all joints are hinged. σ y = 250 MPa. Check factor of safety against yielding.

600 kN 5 m 5 m 5 m
600 kN
5 m
5 m
5 m

Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up Start ANSYS -- Start > Programs > ANSYS 9.0 > ANSYS Set Working Directory -- File > Change Directory and enter the required path Specify Initial job name -- File > Change Jobname Set Preferences -- Main Menu > Preferences Select Structural, H-method Type the following command in the input window to set the ANSYS environment SI units. /units, SI Press Enter Step 2: Set element type and constants Specify element type: Main Menu > Preprocessor> Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete > Add Pick Link in the left field and 3D finit stn 180 in the right field. Click OK to select this element Specify Element Real Constants Main Menu > Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/ Edit/ Delete, and click “ADD” Enter the area of the link member.

Area =

 

1

1

π

×

76.2

2

4

4

π

(76.2

−× 2

5.72)

2

 

×

10

6

=

1266.5

×

10

62

m

2 5.72) 2    × 10 − 6 = 1266.5 × 10 − 62

Step 3: Specify Material Properties Main Menu > Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models In the frame labelled Material Models Available of the Define Material Model Behaviour dialogue box, double-click on Structural, Linear, Elastic, and Isotropic. Enter the Elastic modulus as 200e9 (Pa) and Poisson ratio as 0.28. Close the menus.

Save your work File > Save as Tetrapod.db Step 4: Specify Geometry Create Keypoints Main

Save your work File > Save as Tetrapod.db Step 4: Specify Geometry Create Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Keypoints > In Active CS Enter 1 for Keypoint number. Enter 0 for X ,0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply. Enter 2 for Keypoint number Enter 5 for X ,0 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply. Enter 3 for Keypoint number Enter 5 for X , 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply. Enter 4 for Keypoint number. Enter 0 for X , 5 for Y and 0 for Z. Click apply. Enter 5 for Keypoint number. Enter 2.5 for X , 2.5 for Y and 5 for Z. Click Ok.

Create Lines from Keypoints Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Lines > Lines >Straight Line Select the two keypoints to be joined by the line. Continue the same to construct lines. After constructing all the lines, click OK.

lines. After constructing all the lines, click OK. You can change the directions of the coordinates

You can change the directions of the coordinates by clicking the options on the right side of the window.

Step 5: Meshing This step makes the lines created above into finite elements. Note that simply creating the geometry does not make it into a finite element model. You must still make into a finite element mesh. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Attributes > All Lines Choose the corresponding material, real constant set and element type number. (In this problem, we only have one set.) Click OK

Set Mesh Size Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Size Cntrls > Manual Size > Lines > All Lines Enter number of element divisions as 1 Click OK Mesh Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool Select Mesh Lines from the drop-down menu Click Mesh

> Mesh Tool Select Mesh Lines from the drop-down menu Click Mesh Mesh Lines menu will
> Mesh Tool Select Mesh Lines from the drop-down menu Click Mesh Mesh Lines menu will

Mesh Lines menu will pop up Click “Pick All”

To see the elements created by meshing follow the menu path below:

Plot > Elements Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering To see the nodes created by meshing follow the menu path below:

Plot > Nodes Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Node Numbers Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 1,2,3,4 Select “ALL DOF” in the box showing DOF to be constrained. Set Value as 0

in the box showing DOF to be constrained. Set Value as 0 Click Ok Apply Loading:

Click Ok

Apply Loading:

Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Force/Moment > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 5 In the Graphics window, click on Keypoint 5; then in the pick menu, click OK. In the menu that appears, select FZ for Direction of force.

Enter -300000 for Force/ moment value.

Enter -300000 for Force/ moment value. Click OK. The negative sign for the force indicates that

Click OK. The negative sign for the force indicates that it is in the negative z-direction. You'll see a vector indicating the applied force in the Graphics window.

that it is in the negative z-direction. You'll see a vector indicating the applied force in

Step 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window ANSYS performs the solution and a yellow window should pop up saying "Solution is done". Congratulations! You just obtained your first ANSYS solution. Close the yellow window.

Step 8: Post Processing Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK

> Deformed Shape Select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK Animate the Deformation PlotCtrls > Animate >

Animate the Deformation PlotCtrls > Animate > Deformed Shape List Member Forces & Stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Define Element Table > Add >

A new window will pop up. Select By Sequence number in the left list box, and SMISC in the right list box. Hence, “SMISC, ” appears in the text box below the right list box. Type “1” after the comma.

box below the right list box. Type “1” after the comma. Click Apply Do the same

Click Apply Do the same as above

“1” after the comma. Click Apply Do the same as above You can go to help>ANSYS

You can go to help>ANSYS element reference>Element library>LINK180 to see the element output definitions.

To list the member forces and stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > List Element Table > Select SMIS1 and LS1 Click OK Now you can see the element forces and the stresses.

OK Now you can see the element forces and the stresses. Plot Stresses Main Menu >

Plot Stresses Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table > Select LS1 Click OK Plot Forces Main Menu > General Postproc > Element Table > Plot Element Table > Select SMIS1 Click OK

Factor of safety : F.S. =

250

Mpa =1.72

145 Mpa

P =

cr

π

2

EI

min

(

KL

)

2

KL = 0.5 L 0.5

6.12 = 3.06 (L is the length of the bar)

I