Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 207

Conference Slide Species etiology Morph Dx notes notes/DDX

Cerebrum, brainstem: infects many cells including
Meningoencpehalitis, necrotizing, lymphoid, resides in a
cysts have a thin outer wall containing
1.1 1 Elephant seal Toxoplasma gondii histiocytic, multifocal mild with parasitophorus vacuole which
numerous bradyzoites
lymphoplasmacytic perivascular protects it from the host
cuffing and few protozoal cysts response

Colon: Granulomas, multifocal

1.2 2 Macaque Oesophagostomum
with few strongyloid nematodes

Cuticle Hypodermis Musculature Digestive tract Reproductive tract

Mouth, buccal cavity,

Ranges in immediately internal to Only females are present in
Under the hypodermis esophagus, intestine, and
thickness the cuticle Rhabditoid infections

extensions of the
lining cells- multinulceate, or
Alae-winglike hypodermis into the coelomyarian/polymyarian: extend Females have two tracts, Males have
uninucleate, pigmented from
extensions pseudocoelom are called into body cavity/ numerous/ tall one
digested blood or bile
lateral chords

Some produce eggs others larvae
flattened against the hypodermis

Blastemal cells do not exhibit

Triphasic- equal amounts of all 3
1.3 3 Horse Nephroblastoma characteristics of
cell lineages
mesenchymal or epithelial
Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing,
A suis can also cause rhoboid
histiocytic and neutrophilic with
1.4 4 Pig Actinobacillus suis cutaneous infarctions similar
vasculitis, necrotic leukocytes (oat
to Erysipelas
cells), fibrin and coccobacilli
Skin: Hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, kyperkeratosis and
Athymic nude mice and SCID
2.1 5 Mouse Corynebacterium bovis orthokeratotic, with epidermal coryneform bacteria in the stratum
hyperplasia and mild dermatitis corneum

Sprague Dawley Rats > 12

months old; Liver, LN, Spleen,
2.2 6 Mouse Histiocytic Sarcoma Liver: Histiocytic Sarcoma
Retroperitoneum, SQ; Rats
have nodular lesions, Mice
have diffuse infiltrations
Liver, hepatocytes: Microvesicular
Lung: Pleuropneumonia,
Corynebacterium Similar to C diptheriae and
2.3 7 Macaque fibrinonecrotic, diffuse, severe,
ulcerans pseudotuberculosis
with abundant coccobacilli

Thyroid gland: thyroiditis,

African Green lymphoplasmacytic, chronic, with
2.4 8 Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Monkey follicular hyperplasia and colloid
Lung: Pneumonia,
Canine Distemper and bronchointerstitial, necrotizing,
3.1 9 Dog Canine Adenovirus type multifocal to coalescing, with
2 syncytia and intranuclear and
intracytoplasmic inclusions
Heart: atypical endothelial
(angioendotheliomatosis), proliferating cells are positive
Feline Systemic Reactive
3.2 10 Cat multifocal with few fibrin thrombi, for SMA and VWF (endothelial
rare myocyte degeneration and cells and pericytes)
necrosis and minimal
lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis
Kidney, posterior: Nephritis,
Renibacterium necrotizing, granulomatous,
3.3 11 Rainbow trout
salmoninarium severe, with myriad intrahistiocytic
fibro-adipose tissue and skeletal Cd31 and VWF, and lymphatic
Feline Ventral Abdominal
3.4 12 Cat muscle: feline ventral abdominal Vessel endothelial receptor-1
angiosarcoma are positive
Testicle, splenic capsule- Right testicle: hypoplasia,
4.1 13 Horse Seminoma
seminoma diffuse
also found in spleen, adrenal
4.2 14 cat Myelolipoma Liver: Myelolipoma, multiple and spinal cord of dogs, and
adrenal glands of cattle
Liver: Cholangiohepatitis,
proliferative, lymphohistiocytic,
4.3 15 Rabbit Eimeria steidae
chronic, multifocal, with
intraepithelial coccidia
Pituitary gland, pars distalis:
4.4 16 Rat Pituitary adenoma Most are prolactin secreting
Necrotic and hemorrhagic
changes are centered on
Highly Pathogenic Avian Cerebrum: Neuronal necrosis,
5.1 17 swan CNS, pancreas, lungs, liver,
Influenza (H5N1) multifocal with glial nodules
adrenals, heart, and lymphoid
splenitis, necrotizing, random,
5.2 18 Cat Francisella tularensis multifocal, moderate with lymphoid
Haired skin: dermatitis,
proliferative, and necrotizing,
Sheeppox, goatpox, and lumpyskin
5.3 19 Goat Capripoxvirus subacute with intraepidermal vasculitis?
vesicles, balooning degeneration,
and ICIB
Lung: Pneumonia,
bronchointerstitial, proliferative
with intraepithelial
intracytoplasmic ICIB
Acute lesions begin in airways Gross: Well demarcated,
Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing, and progress to multifocal to caseonecrotic nodules up to a few
5.4 20 Bison Mycoplasma bovis fibrinosuppurative, diffuse, with coalescing caseonecrotic centimeters in diameter disperseed
interlobular edema and fibrosis debris often containing throughout the cranioventral lung
mineral lobes

Hyaline membranes are homogenous

Lung: Pneumonia,
granular or fibrillar eosinophilic
Acute Respiratory Intrabronchial administration material composed of necrotic
6.1 21 Dog fibrinosuppurative, with
Distress syndrome of Staph aureus epithelial cell debris mixed with fibrin
bronchiolar and alveolar hyaline
and plasma- Surfactant apolipoprotein
membranes and bacteria
A, VWF, and Cytokeratin AE1/AE3
ddx: Oxygen toxicity, smoke,
phosgene, mercury vapor,
kerosene, paraquat, high
altitude, bleomycin, busulfan,
E cadherin is lost in lobular
Ductular Carcinoma In Mammary gland: ductular
6.2 22 Macaque (MALE) tumors (LCIS), so is
situ carcinoma
diagnostic for DCIS
Species Mammary Changes Cause
Rat Fibroadenoam (SD) Prolactin
Rabbit Mammary Dysplasia Pituitary tumor secreting prolactin
Mammary hyperplasia
Mouse Pars distalis prolactin
Mouse Mammary tumor Mammary tumor viruses (MMTV)
Cat Fibroepithelial hyperplasia Progesterone administration
Canine Gynecomastia Sertoli cell tumor
Skeletal muscle, hind limb:
Rhabdomyosarcoma, embroyonal Why diagnose embryonal if its Desmin, Myosin, Titin, Myogenin, and
6.3 23 Mouse (Adult) Rhabdomyosarcoma
with focal osteosarcomatous an adult mouse? mYoD> Actin, Myoglobin, Vimentin

Myogenin and myoD are

BMP is not expressed in
expressed in the nucleus of
Staphylococcus aureus, S
Digits, foreleg: Cellulitis, hominis, S xylosus,
pyogranulomatous, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
6.4 24 Mouse Botryomycosis
necrotizing, with osteolysis, Proteus sp, Escherichia coli,
Splendore-Hoeppli Nocardia asteroides, Strep

Horse lesions-Spinal cord-

Eye: Pectenitis,
hemorrhage, malacia of
lymphoplasmacytic, diffuse with Horse Histo- Non-suppurative
7.1 25 Hawk West Nile Virus thoracic and lumbar spinal
mild choroiditis and retinal encephalomyelitis, gliosis
cord/ Birds- Lesions in heart
degeneration and detachment
and liver

ddx: enrofloxacin, taurine

Eye, retina: Degeneration and loss
deficiency, inherited retinal
Enrofloxacin induced of photoreceptor, outer nuclear
7.2 26 Cat atrophy, hypertensive
retinal degeneration layer, and outer plexiform layers,
retinopathy, combination of
severe, diffuse
begins centrally (feline central cats may also have dilative
Taurine deficiency
retinal degeneration) cardiomyopathy

Rod-cone dysplasia (AD), and

rod-cone degeneration (AR)-
Inherited retinal atrophy Abyssinian and persian
animal model of retinitis

retinal detachment, subretinal

hemorrhage/effusion, retinal
Also have renal disease or
Hypertensive retinopathy and choroidal vessel medial
hypertrophy, and/or
degenerative changes

Cornea is avascular and

covered by non-keratinized, Corneal wounds are healed by first
non-pigmented stratified sliding epithelium followed by mitosis
Eye: Panophthalmitis,
squamous epithelium, with after 24 hrs. Cells recruited from the
fibrinosuppurative, diffuse, severe,
Traumatic endothelial tight junctions, and corneoscleral junction retain
7.3 27 Dog with corneal rupture, iridal
panophthalmitis Na/K atpase. Bowmans phenotypic characterisitics of
prolapse, phacoclasia, and
membrane is the BM below conjunctiva such as pigmentation and
intralesional bacteria
the surface epithelium, and is rete ridges- Conjunctival or cutaneous
not distinct in animals like it is metaplasia
in humans
Stromal damage-->
Neovascularization, Fibroblast
proliferation --> possible
fibrosis--> visual impairment

Filarids--> small, most in the group

produce microfilaria; Coelomyarian
Eye, episcleral connective tissue: Some slides contained
musculature which atrophies in
7.4 28 Dog Onchocerca sp Adult filarid nematodes with mild minimal granulomatous
Onchocerca and becomes
fibrosis inflammation
hypodermis; very small intestine (Key
dx feature tells from Thelazia)
Rete mirabilis: Arteritis and Proliferation of CD8+ T cells,
ddx ulcerative mucosal
Malignant Catarrhal periarteritis, necrotizing, Vasculitis, Resp and GI ulceration-
8.1 29 Ox diseases: Rinderpest, BVD,
Fever lymphocytic, multifocal, marked Infects Large Granular Lymphocytes
FMD, Bluetongue, BPS, IBR
with fibrinoid necrosis with T suppressor and NK cell activity
Kidney mottling, infarction,
nephritis, Urinary bladder
mucosal ulcerations, lymph
node and hemal node
enlargement, splenic lymphoid
Kidney, liver and spleen:
Histiocytosis, intravascular,
8.2 30 Cat Cytuxzoon felis
diffuse, moderate with
intrahistiocytic schizonts
Location Parasite Host


Leukocytozoon Birds

Cytauxzoon felis
Babesia cati Cats
Babesia felis
Anaplasma marginale
Anaplasma centrale
Babesia bovis Cattle
Babesia bigemina
Theileria mutans
Theileria annulata
Theileria cervi Deer Elk
Babesia canis
Babesia gibsoni
Babesia equi
babesia caballi
Babesia ovis
Babesia motasi

Trypanosoma johnbakeri Birds

Mycoplasma hemofelis
Epicellular (on membrane surface Mycoplasma hemocanis
of erythrocytes) (Hemobartonella)
Mycoplasma hemosuis
(Eperythrozoon suis)
Eperythrozoon weyoni Cattle
Eperythrozoon sp Llamas
Dipetalonema reconditum Dogs
Dirofilaria immitis Dogs/cats
Setaria Horses
Trypanosoma theileri Cattle
Trypanosoma congolese
Extracellular parasites Trypansoma vivax dogs
Trypanosoma cruzi
Trypanosoma brucei
Trypansoma evansi

Hemolytic toxin, survives in

Liver: hepatitis, necro-suppurative,
macrophages, strong cell Abortion: ruminants, late gestation,
8.3 31 Chinchilla Listeria monocytogenes multifocal, moderate, with
mediated immune response is hematogenous
numerous bacilli
necessary for clearance
Septicemic: Calves, foals, fetuses,
Liver, hepatocytes: Vacuolar Chinchillas are highly
miliary microabscesses in liver and
change, lipid-type susceptible
maybe other organs
Encephalitis: ruminants, food-->
invades mucosa--> trigeminal nerve--
> retrograde axonal transportation-->
brainstem --> microabscesses
Triatomids suck blood and
Heart: Myocarditis,
defecat--> Trypomastigotes Pseudocyts rupture out of muscle and
lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal,
are rubbed into the skin and release trypomastigotes into blood-->
8.4 32 Dog Trypanosoma cruzi moderate, with rare sarcoplasmic
enter blood--> go to heart and picked up by triatomids --> in bug
pseudocysts containing numerous
become amastigotes--> intestine change into epimastigotes
multiply by binary fission
Skin: Epidermitis, exudative and
proliferative, multifocal with
9.1 33 Pig Staphylococcus hyicus
ulceration and superficial
dermatitis and intracorneal cocci

Toxin A- Stimulates cytokine Toxin B- modulates cell signaling

Small Intestine: villous necrosis,
9.2 34 Harbor seal Clostridium difficile production and attracts pathways, and induces cytokine
diffuse, with myriad bacilli
leukocytes production and causes apoptosis
Skin: Panniculitis and dermatitis,
Microsporum canis pyogranulomatous, nodular,
9.3 35 Cat
(Pseudomycetoma) focally extensive with fungal

Skin: dermatitis and panniculitis, Capsule impairs phagocytosis,

Cryptococcus Some strains produce melanin and
9.4 36 Dog pyogranulomatous with numerous activates complement, and
neoformans phenoloxidase (antioxidants)
yeasts suppresses T cells

Ranid Herpesvirus-1 Kidney: Adenocarcinoma,

10.1 37 Leopard frog Lucke Tumor Herpesvirus
adenocarcinoma tubulopapillary

may metastasize, but primarily

Tasmanian Devil Facial Haired skin: Malignant
10.2 38 Tasmanian devil interfere with feeding, and
Tumor neuroendocrine neoplasm
devils lose condition

Lysate extracted from

Carapace: Sjell disease, Granular amoebocytes (hemocytes)--
Shell disease (Mycotic- amebocytes is sued to test
10.3 39 Horsehoe crab necrotizing acute and chronic with degranulation and formation of a
fusarium) pharmaceuticals for bacterial
fungal hyphae and bacteria hemolymph clot

Invertebrates lack an adaptive Hemolymph contains soluble

Gills: Branchitis, necrotizing, acute immune system- response antimicrobial proteins including C-
and chronic, multifocal with fungal includes hemolymph reactive protein, alpha-2
hyphae coagulation, toll like receptor microglobulins, lectins and
mediated antimicrobial peptide hemocyanins
production, melanin
Animal model formation,
of human TB-
Mammary gland: Mastitis,
Mycobacterium central zones of necrosis
10.4 40 Guinea pig pyogranulomatous, focally
tuberculosis where the highest
concentrations of bacteria are
Kidney: Renal adenocarcinoma
with interstitial nephritis, fibrosis
11.1 41 Cat Renal adenocarcinoma
and pyelitis, glomerulonephritis
with tubular proteinosis

Haired skin: Granulomas,

11.2 42 Macaque Calcinosis circumscripta
calcareous, multifocal to

Colon: Colitis, fibrinonecrotic, Sheep- Epsilon toxin binds to Goats-Type D- Peracute deathm
Clostridium perfringens multifocal to coalescing with endothelial cells leading to acute diarrhea, chronic- Distal small
11.3 43 Goat
Type D hemorrhagic and superfiical cocci FSE, and bind to distal tubules intestine and cecum, colon, with
and bacilli leading to pulpy kidney fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis

Lung, arteries- Endoarteritis,

11.4 44 Dog angiostrongylus vasorum
chronic with thrombi and
intravascular adult nematodes
Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous,
multifocal to coalescing with
hemorrhage and nematode larvae

Tongue: Glossitis,
pyogranulomatous, multifocal to
12.1 45 Ox Actinobacillus lignierisii coalescing, severe with Splendore
Hoepli material, fibrosis, myocyte
degeneration, necrosis and loss
Spinal cord: Poliomyelitis and
ganglioneuritis, non-suppuratove,
Some strains associated with female
multifocal marked with neuronal Ventral horn of spinal cord,
Porcine Teschovirus reproductive disorders, enteric
12.2 46 Pig degeneration and necrosis, brain stem, ganglion cells of
(PTV) disease, pneumonia, pericarditis, and
neuronophagia, gliosis, spinal ganglion
astrocytosis, satellitosis and
Porcine Hemagglutinating
Pseudoreabies (suid encephalitis (coronavirus)- Classical Swine Fever (pestivirus)-
Herpesvirus1)- non-suppurative Neurological disease (4-7 day- vascular lesions- hemorrhage,
encephalitis of gray matter, old pigs/ vomiting and wasting infarction, necrosis and DIC- gray and
neuronal necrosis, and (4-14 days)- Non-suppurative white matter of medulla, pons, and
ganglioneuritis, INIB, cerberal encephalomyelitis in medulla, thalamus, endothelial swelling and
cortex mostly with other tissues- brain stem, and trigeminal, proliferation, perivascular lymphocytic
adrenal gland,s liver, tonsils, paravertebral and autonomic cuffing, hemorrhage, thrombosis and
spleen, lung ganglia and gastric myenteric gliosis, and neuronal degeneration
Nipah virus (Paramyxovirus)-
Encephalitis and pneumonia-
necrotizing vasculitis and
Porcine rubulavirus
fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles,
venules, and capillaries, with
(Paramyxovirus)- Poli-
endothelial syncytia, ICIB,
Encephalomyelitis, reproductive
bronchointerstitial pneumonia,
failure and corneal edema,
necrotizing bronchiolitis,
anterior uveitis, epididymitis,
lymphocytic neutrophilic
orchitis, and interstitial pneumonia
meningitis, and non-
suppurative encephalitis and
Cecum: Typhlitis, necrotizing and
pyogranulomatous, diffuse,
severe, with vasculitis, fibrin,
12.3 47 Cat Candida albicans
hemorrhage, edema, and
intralesional hyphae and
pseudohyphae and rare INIB
Lymph node: Lymphoid depletion,
diffuse, severe with draining
Feline Parvovirus
hemorrhage, edema and
eosinophilic INIB
Skeletal muscle: Myocyte
degeneration and necrosis,
12.4 48 Ox Clostridium chauvoei multifocal, moderate with
hemorrhage, emphysema and few
intralesional bacteria
reported with co-twin and its
Complete mole= paternal side- XX
Placenta: Cotyledonary own placenta- the absence of
Hydatiform Mole? diploid/ Partial mole = Triploid
hyperplasia with irregular villus any detectable fetal structures
13.1 49 Ox (cotyledonary (fertilization of a haploid ovum either
hypertrophy and trophoblastic suhc as skin distinguishes
hyperplasia) by two sperm or one sperm which
hyperplasia (placental hamartoma) them from the more common
amorphous globosus (fetal
diagnosis of hydatiform mole is
Humans- Hydatidorm mole is
questionable: Differentials are
a cystic swelling of chorionic
amorphous globosus, adventitial
villi accompanied by
placentation, and a co twin that
trophoblsatic proliferation
has died
Causes of sperm granulomas-
Epididymis: Epididymitis,
congenital duct anomalies,
13.2 50 sheep Actinobacillus seminis granulomatous, focally extensive
adenomyosis, trauma,
with sperm granuloma
Epididmymis: Epithelial
hyperplasia, multifocal, moderate
Late gestational (>50 days)
Testicle: Orchitis, abortions, placental necrosis
lymphohistiocytic, chronic, diffuse, of chorionic villi, with B canis and B suis lack surface
13.3 51 Dog Brucella canis severe with marked seminiferous intratrophoblastic bacteria: antigens that test for M melitensis and
tubular atrophy and loss and fetal lesions include B abortus
interstitial cell hyperplasia pneumonia, endocarditis, and
Epididmyis: Epididymitis,
lymphohistiocytic, chronic with
epithelial hyperplasia

Teratoma, monodermal Ovary: Teratoma, monodermal ddx: ganglioneuroma and

13.4 52 Dog
variant variant CNS component of teratoma

EPEC/EAEC- adhesins and

Small intestine: enteritis with
fimbriae-intimin receptor
marked villus atrophy, fusion,
translocates to host cell Brachyspira canis is commensal/
blunting, and crypt necrosis, and
14.1 53 Dog Escerichia coli causing cytoskeletal Brachyspira pilosicoli have been
loss and attaching bacilli,
rearrangements--> Pedestal- isolated from dogs with diarrhea
apicomplexans and intracryptal
like structure and loss of
helical bacteria

Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, Kits get interstitial pneumonia with

membranoproliferative and rare INIB/ Adults get splenomegaly,
Aleutian Mink Disease Homozygous for the Aleutian
14.2 54 Mink necrotizing, diffuse, moderate, lymphadneopathy,
(Parvovirus) gene are more susceptible
with multifocal necrotizing hypergammaglobulinemia, and acute
arteriolitis, subacute interstitial interstitial nephritis leading to kidney
Skeletal muscle: Degeneration
14.3 55 Donkey Nutritional myopathy
and necrosis, multifocal moderate

Proliferating larval cestodes

(spargana)- Pseudophylidian
Skeletal muscle: Rhabdomyositis,
cestodes- Lack GI tract,
and panniculitis,
Sparganum proliferum calcareous corpuscles, within
14.4 56 Dog pyogranulomatous and
(larval cestode) cysts lined by a eosinophilic
eosinophilic, focally extensive,
amorphous capsule, bodies
with encysted larval cestodes
have muscle and excretory

Non-hyperextensible skin in contracts to EDS which is

Skin: Epidermal and dermal
hyperextensible/ Both histologically similar, but FASFS- the epidermis
Feline Acquired Skin atrophy, diffuse, marked with
15.1 57 Cat is thin with dermal atrophy and thin collagen bundles/ In EDA the
fragility Syndrome follicular atrophy and loss, dermal
epidermis is unaffected and dermis is normal thickness, but dermal
celfting and subacute dermatitis
collagen is abnormally arranged with red cores by Trichrome stain
Sun exposed, involve hair follicles,
single raised nodules with umbilicated
centers/ dense keratin, suprabasilar
ddx: acantholytic SCC
celfts, acantholytic cells are Corps
15.2 58 Dog Warty Dyskeratoma Hairred skin: Warty Dyskeratoma (extensive apoptosis is
ronds (large orund cells with
distinguishing feature)
perinuclear halos), or Corps grains
(small ovoid, intense eosinophilic with
pyknotic flattened nuclei)
Merkel cells are located in the
stratum basale Neural crest origin- NSE,
Haired skin: Merckel cell
15.3 59 Cat Merckel cell carcinoma (mechanoreceptors) with Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin,
dense core granules and CK20
numerous desmosomes

Bandicoot papillomatosis Skin: Follicular and epidermal

15.4 60 Bandicoot carcinomatosis virus hyperplasia and dysplasia with
Type 1 hypergranulosis

Small Intestine: Enteritis,

16.1 61 White-faced Ibis Giardia sp heterophilic, diffuse, with surface Malabsorption of nutrients
associated trophozoites

Aphasmids- stichosomes
(basophilic structures around
esophagus). Stichocytes are
Proventriculus: Proventriculitis, esophageal gland cells.
examples - Trichuris, Eustrongyloides,
16.2 62 Blue Heron Eustrongyloides granulomatous, multifocal, Aphasmids have a bacillary
Diocyophyma, and Capillaria
moderate with nematodes band of nuclei in the
hypodermis- Adult females
have one genital tract, with
eggs having bipolar plugs

Fulvous Whistling Liver: Granulomas, multifocal, with

16.3 63 Mycobacterium avium
Duck acid fast bacilli

Liver: Amyloidosis, diffuse, severe

with moderate hepatocellular
atrophy, loss and degeneration
and necrosis with multifocal
granulomatous hepatitis
Lung: Interstitial fibrosis,
multifocal, severe with fibroblast Associated with the development of bronchoalveolar carcinoma,
Feline Idiopathic
16.4 64 Cat and smooth muscle proliferation alveolar squamous metaplasia, sub-pleural and caudo-dorsal
Pulmonary Fibrosis
type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, distribution, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia
and alveolar histiocytosis

Gastrointestinal Stromal Cecum: Gastrointestinal stromal

17.1 65 Horse origin- interstitial cells of Cajal- CD 117, Vim, NSE, mild SMA+
Tumor tumor, myxoid

Lung: Fibrosis, interstitial, nodular,

multifocal, severe, with
Equine Multinodular
neutrophilic and histiocytic
17.2 66 Horse Pulmonary Fibrosis-
alveolitis, Type II pneumocyte
Equine Herpesvirus-5
hyperplasia, and rare
intrahistiocytic Eos INIB

Placenta, allantochorion:
C cellulans- Gram Pos,
Placentitis, necrotizing, subacute, fetal lesions- pyogranulomatous
Cellulosimicrobium branching, motile, oxidase
17.3 67 Horse diffuse, moderate, with squamous pneumonia/ not seen in nocardiosis/
cellulans negative, catalase positive,
metaplasia, fibrin, edema, and DDx Crossiella equi placentitis
non-acid fast bacilli
large colonies of coccobacilli

Nasal turbinates: Rhinitis,

necroulcerative, subacute with
Porcine cytomegalovirus- glandular epithelial eosinophilic Note corynebacterium was
17.4 68 Pig
inclusion body rhinitis INIB, osteolysis and isolated from the turbinate
osteonecrosis, fibrosis and
granulation tissue

ddx: DHV Type I (Enterovirus;

DHV Type II is considered to be an
Picornaviridae) has been
astrovirus and is difficult to propagate
reported in mallard ducklings;
under laboratory conditions; DHV
experimental DHV Type I
Type III is a member of the
Duck Plague Duck viral Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute, infections have been
Picornaviridae, is antigenically distinct
18.1 69 Muscovy duck Enteritis Virus- Anatid random, moderate, with Eosin produced in goslings, turkey
from Type I virus, and can be
Herpes virus- 1 INIB poults, young pheasants,
propagated in duck (but not chick)
quail, and guinea fowl. The
embryos. A distinct serologic variant
viruses that cause hepatitis in
of DHV Type I, named DHV Type Ia,
ducklings should not be
has also been described.
confused with duck hepatitis B
virus, a hepadnavirus infection
looks like there are inclusions in DVH- The liver is enlarged and covered with hemorrhagic foci up to 1
the endothelial cells as well- Avian cm in diameter. The spleen may be enlarged and mottled. Kidneys
Diseases 36:164-168 may be swollen, and renal blood vessels congested.

Proventriculus: Proventriculitis,
proliferative and heterophilic,
18.2 70 Northern Bobwhite Dispharynx nasuta
diffuse, marked with glandular
ectasia and adult spirurids

Small intestine: enteritis, Passeriformes only- Loss of appetite, weight loss, diarrhea, loss of
lymphoblastic, transmural, with balance. Atoxoplasma resembles toxoplasma but is not toxoplasma.
crypt loss, intraleukocytic Atoxoplasma and Isospora occysts contain two sporocysts each
18.3 71 House Sparrow Atoxoplasma
apicomplexan merozoites, and having four sporozoites. Typical coccidian lifecycle, but Atoxoplasma
intraepithelial gamonts, and sporozoites and merozoites can infect mononucleated cells and enter
schizonts ciruclation and induce a lympoproliferative response.

Liver: Hepatitis, portal,

lymphoblastic, diffuse, marked
with intracytoplasmic
apicomplexan merozoites

Suppurative colitis, edema,

Colon: Colitis, erosive, multifocal, Growers and finishers, Large
Brachyspira hyperemia, with spirochetes in colonic
moderate, with necrosis, luminal intestine only, mucin, fibrin,
18.4 72 Pig hyodysenteriae (Swine glands, hyperplasia of goblet cells,
mucin accumulation and blood, pseudomembrane,
Dysentery) superficial erosions, fibrin,
argyrophilic spiral bacteria erosions

Ptaquilosied- ddx: Anaplasmosis, mannheimia

Bone marrow: hypoplasia, norsesquiterpene glucoside- (laryngeal form), septicemic
19.1 73 Ox Bracken Fern (acute)
trilineage, diffuse causes bone marrow pasteurellaosis, Leptospirosis, sweet
suppression, cumulative clover, bacillary hemoglobinuria
Pathogenesis: Tick
transmission--> Parasitized
Cytological preparation, peripheral erythrocytes--> Hemolysis (IV,
blood smear: Moderate EV) --> Anemia,
19.2 74 Dog Babesia sp polychromasia, and anisocytosis hemoglobinemia,
(regenerative anemia), with bilirubinemia, icterus -->
intraerythrocytic organisms anaerobic metabolism -->
Acidosis --> hypoxic cell
damage --> shock --> death

Brain, cerebrum: necrosis and

Nutritional neuronal loss, cortical, laminar, Sulfates, Bracken fern, Sulfur associated PEM in ruminants-
19.3 75 Ox Polioencephalomalacia multifocal, moderate with edema Thiaminase containing fish, microbial reduction of ingested sulfur-
(PEM) and histiocytic and lymphocytic altered rumen metabolism hydrogen sulfide

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial,

fibrinonecrotizing, acute, multifocal
to coalescing, marked with edema,
19.4 76 Dog Uremic Pneumonitis
hemorrhage, hyaline membranes,
and alveolar septal

Tumor cells resemble fibrillary

atrocytes but GFAP staining is
variable- Type 1 is diffuse ddx: Gliosis, diffuse astrocytoma,
20.1 77 Dog Gliomatosis cerebri Brainstem: Gliomatosis cerebri
infiltration of the brain with no lymphoma, PNET, microgliomatosis
mass lesion, Type II is a mass

Oligodendroglioma, Cerebrum: Oligodendroglioma, Anaplastic = cellulariy, necrosis, high MI, proloiferation of glomeruloid
20.2 78 Dog
anaplastic anaplastic blood vessels

Kidney: Nephritis and phlebitis,

granulomatous, necrotizing,
Feline infectious
20.3 79 cat chronic, multifocal, severe, with
peritonitis virus (FIP)
multifocal tubular degeneration,
necrosis, and regeneration

Cervical spinal cord, meninges: Meningiomas are derived from ddx: Chordoma, myxoid
Meningioma, chordoid
20.4 80 Dog Meningiona, chordoid (myxoid) the meningothelial cells of the chondrosarcoma, metastatic
variant arachnoid membrane carcinoma
this was incidental lesion-
Chondrocyte coagulation
necrosis in both a focus of
osteochondrosis latens
(confined to epiphyseal
Bone: Focal chondronecrosis and cartilage) and
retention (delayed endochondral osteochondrosis manifesta-
ossification) of growth cartilage- hypothesized secondary to OC Manifesta (delayed endochondral
21.1 81 Horse Osteochondrosis Articular epiphyseal complex ischemia. Possibly secondary ossification seen grossly and on
dysplasia, chronic with to vascular necrosis in radiographs) are known to resolve
osteonecrosis, and infraction and cartilage canals. Cartilage
marrow fibrosis cores in the deep margin of
the retained cartilage indicate
that cartilage mineralization
and vascular invasion is taking
place (doesnt happen in OC
Type II- Inherited defect in the Vitamin
Bone: Failure of endochrondral Type I- inherited deficiency of D receptor or a site distal to it.
Vitamin D resistant ossification- Physeal dysplasia renal 1-hydroxylase enzyme-- Reported in cats- No response to high
21.2 82 Dog
rickets Type II with disordered chondrocyte > responds to large doses of dose Vit D or calcium
colomns and marrow fibrosis Vit D supplementation, cats became normal
after physeal closure
In cats OP has been linked to Vit D
toxicosis and FeLV/ Cattle with
inherited OP--> Brachygnathia
inferior, impacted molars, protruding
Normal or increased numbers
Bone: Osteosclerosis, diffuse, tongue, shorter long bones, brittle
of osteoclasts, OC do not
21.3 83 Ox Osteopetrosis severe with retention of cartilage bones, short vertebrae, frontal and
have a ruffled border
cores parietal bones are thick, cerebral
suggesting a functional defect
hemispheres are rectangular with
flattened dorsal surfaces, and the
cerebellum is partially herniated
andoptic nerves are hypoplastic
Canine panosteitis- Idiopathic
Bone: Intramedullary bone
21.4 84 Horse Enostosis periosteal and endosteal bone
formation (enostosis)
Brain, cerebrum:
Meningoencephalitis, eosinophilic
22.1 85 Pig Salt Toxicity
acute, multifocal moderate with
neuronal necrosis
Brain, thalamus:
Inclusion bodies (Joest-Degen
Meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic,
Borna disease virus bodies) are intranuclear and ddx: WNV, JE, St Louis Enceph,
22.2 86 Horse multifocal, moderate- Few
(BDV) rarely in the cytoplasm, found WEE, EEE, VEE
inclusions in the hippocampus
more in the hippocampus
Brain, cerebrum: Intravascular
Canine IVL is also known as
22.3 87 Dog intravascular lymphoma lymphoma with fibrin thrombi and T cells or Non-B NonT cells
Malignant angioendotheliomatosis
multifocal infarcts

suprasellar germ cell

Brain, diecephalon: Suprasellar ddx- Pituitary adenoma and cranipharyngioma/ Arise in the pineal
22.4 88 Dog tumor (extragonadal
germ cell tumor gland or sella tursica- Alpha feto protein +, HCG + PlALP +
germ cell tumor)

1) Pleomorphic nests of germ

cells; 2) Large polygonal cells
with abundant cytoplasm and
lipid vacuoles in nests
3 diverse neoplastic cell (hepatoid cells) ; 3) Epithelial
populations cells reminiscent of intestinal
epithelium or respiratory
epithelium, with squamous
differentiation and

Ileocecocolic junction: Serositis

African Green
23.1 89 Klebsiella pneumonia and peritonitis, granulomatous
with fibrosis

lymph node: Lymphadenitis,


Skin: epidermal hyperplasia with

Capillaria xenopodis/ multifocal degeneration and
African Clawed
23.2 90 Pseudocapillaroides necrosis, orthokeratotic
xenopi hyperkeratosis and intraepidermal
aphasmid nematodes
Scaled skin: Fibroblast
Iridoviridae- 1) Iridovirus; 2)
hypertrophy, nodular with
chloriridovirus; 3) Ranavirus; hexagonal particles arranged in
23.3 91 Bluegill fish Lymphocystivirus karyomegaly, basophilic
4) Lymphocystivirus; 5) paracrystalline arrays
cytoplasmic inclusions and
Goldfish iridovirus
lmyphoplasmacytic dermatitis

Chysosporium anamorph Scaleed skin: Epidermitis,

Looks like dermatophyte,
23.4 92 Tentacled snake of Nannizziopsis vriesii necrotizing and ulcerative,
Cladosporium or Candida
(CANV) multifocal with intralesional fungi
Heart, left ventricle: Myocardial Catecholamines and receptor
agonists--> Brain heart Cardiac glycosides inhibits sodium-
degeneration and necrosis,
Clenbuterol cardiac syndrome, potassium ATPase pump causing
24.1 93 Horse multifocal with histiocytic and
toxicity Pheochromocytoma and disruption of membrane potential
lymphocytic myocarditis and
sympathomimetic drug leading to muscle necrosis

Gossypol (cottonseed) or tremetol

(Eupatorium or white snakeroot Hairy vetch (cattle not horses)
(alcohols), Cantharidin

Intraosseous, proliferative, ddx: Fibrous osteodystrophy,

Mandibular ossifying Gingiva, tooth, and alveolar
24.2 94 Dog expansile, lytic, and invasive osteoma, fibrous dysplasia,
fibroma cortical bone: Ossifying fibroma
in membranous bone osteosarcoma,
Cerebrum, Neuronal
degeneration, necrosis, and loss,
extensive with gliosis, cerebral
Neuronal ceroid Subunit C of mitochondrial
24.3 95 Dog atrophy, meningeal fibrosis,
lipofuscinosis ATP
subdural hemorrhage, and
eosinophilic neuronal cytoplasmic
DC- CD18, CD1, Cd11c(Neg
Prostate gland: histiocytic E cadherin differentiates histiocytoma
24.4 96 Dog Histocytic sarcoma in Macrophages) ICAM-1
sarcoma from sarcoma
MHCII variable CD45
Kidney: tubular degeneration,
necrosis, and regeneration, diffuse
25.1 97 dog with hemoglobin and granular IMHA
casts and rare glomerular fibrin
Adenocarcinoma; Uterus: Adenocarcinoma and
25.2 98 Rabbit
Leiomyosarcoma Leiomyosarcoma
Conference Slide Species etiology Morph Dx notes notes/DDX
skeletal muscle: Myocyte Pseudotumor is a group of
degeneration and necrosis, loss, entities: myositis ossificans,
1 1 Horse Muscle Pseudotumor hypertrophy and regeneration with musculoaponeurotic
myofiber disarray, fibrosis and fibromatosis (desmoid tumor),
chronic active myositis and fibrotic myopathy

West Highland White Terriers:

ddx: chronic bronchiolitis, neoplasia,
Lung: fibrosis, interstitial, diffuse, Generalized thickening of the
and infectious diseases. Idopathic
marked, with type II pneumocyte interstitium by eosinophilic
Idiopathic Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis also occurs in
2 Dog hyperplasia and intraalveolar extracellular matrix with
lung disease middle age to older cats. Equine
macrophages and multinucleated variable inflammatory cells
multinodular pulmonary fibrosis is due
giant cells and type II hyperplasia: Type
to EHV-5
1 and III collagen

Ileum: Ileitis, proliferative, diffuse,

marked, with villar atrophy and
3 Pig Lawsonia intracellularis
fusion, lymphoid necrosis, crypt
herniation and crypt abscesses
Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing and
PDNS associated with PCV-2 and
lymphohistiocytic, diffuse, severe,
4 Pig Porcine circovirus-2 PMWS PRRS with pasteurella multocida and
with karyomegaly and botryoid
cytoplasmic inclusions
Gallbladder: Cholecystitis,
neutrophilic, diffuse, mild with
pericholecystic edema
DAD-diffuse alveolar damage-
diffuse injury to type I
pneumocytes, type II
pneumocytes proliferation and
Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, interstitial fibrosis: Thermal
necrotizing, histiocytic, injury, toxic gases,
2 5 Horse Rhodococcus equi lymphoplasmacytic and septicemia, ingested toxins
neutrophilic with fibrin and hyalin (paraquat, kerosene,
membranes Brassica, perilla mint),
endotoxemia, acute
hypersensitivity reactions,
ventilator iduced injury and
chronic left heart failure
virulence factors prevent
Lung: Pneumonia, lysosomal fusion and or result
pyogranulomatous, focally in premature lysosomal
extensive, severe, with degranulation, survival of
intrahistiocytic bacilli bacteria and death of the
Ganglioneuromas- primitive
Spleen, liver, and mediastinal Neuroblastoma (CNS, PNS)- neuroepithelial cells with further
mass: Neuroblastoma with derived from neuroectodermal differentiation toward neurons (if they
6 dog Ganglioneuroblastoma
multifocal poorly differentiated neural crest cells have both neuroblasts and well
ganglion cells differentiating into neuroblasts differentiated neurons its
Ganglioneuroblastoma- arise from cranial and spinal ganglia or
sympathetic ganglia of the ANS. Consist of ganlion cells, Schwann
cells, and nerve fibers in variable levels of differentiation
Eastern Equine
Brain: Meningoencephalitis,
Encephalitis EEE, VEE are lethal in 90% of
7 Horse necrotizing, neutrophilic, WEE- 40% mortality
(Togaviridae, cases
lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic
Uterine vasculitis in small arterioles of
the endometrium--> premature
Lung: Pneumonia,
placental separation. Plaecntal
bronchointerstitial, necrotizing, EHV-1- Abortion, foal
lesions include chorionic villous
acute, multifocal, moderate with mortality, respiratory and
8 Horse Equine Herpes Virus-1 necrosis and fibrinois vascular
fibrin, edema, syncytia, and neurologic disease: Abortion
necrosis of chorionic blood vessels
eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion after 5 months gestation.
with fibrin thrombi. Virus has been
detected in chorionic endothelial
adrenal gland, cortex: necrosis, Fetal infection- pulmonary EHV-3- Equine coital exanthema;
multifocal with rare eosinophilic edema, multifocal hepatic EHV-4- Rhinopneumonitis (but can
intranuclear inclusions necrosis. cause abortion less frequently)
Modified epithelial cell
between epithelial cells and
basement membrane. They
contain long cytoplasmic
Neiplastic cells are positive for
processes that contract upon
Submandibular salivary gland: cytokeratin, actin, calponin, and
3 9 Mouse Myoepithelioma sympathetic or
Myoepithelioma myosin; Associated finding- Myeloid
parasympathetic stimulation.
Most commonly from
submaxillary or parotid
salivary glands, mammary
glands, and sweat glands
GIN- pre-invasive neoplastic INS-GAS mouse- gastrin priduced by
Stomach, glandular: Epithelial lesions not grossly visible; islet Beta cells --> stimulation of
Gastric intraepithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia, diffuse, sunonym with atypical gastric acid secretion/ increased
10 Mouse
neoplasia marked with lymphoplasmacytic hyperplasia, atypia, parietal and enterochromaffin cell
and neutrophilic gastritis microadenoma, carcinoma in numbers --> progressive decrease in
situ, and dysplasia gastrin and number of cells
Co infection with H. pylori
leads to atrophy, intestinal
metaplasia, and dysplasia-->
PNET: derived from germinal
neuroepithelial cells, and Palisading and rosettes, carrot
11 Mouse Medulloblastoma Cerebellum: Medulloblastoma
presumably from matrix cells shaped nuclei, frequent mitoses
of the external granular layer
Kidney: Renal dysplasia, with fetal
glomeruli, fetal mesenchyme,
Associated with feline
immature tubules, tubular ectasia
Renal dysplasia; bile panleukopenia, canine
12 Macaque and cysts, and interstitial and
duct hyperplasia herpesvirus, and BVDV,
capsular fibrosis with minimal
hypovitaminosis A
lymphoplasmacytic interstitial
nephritis and mineralization
ddx canine myocarditis:
Heart: myocarditis, Distemper, Neospora,
lymphohistiocytic, chronic, Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma,
4 13 Dog canine parvovirus multifocal, moderate, with Rickettsia rickettsii, Ehrlichia
necrosis and loss and basophilic canis, Bartonella elizabethae,
intranuclear inclusions Prototheca, Borrelia
Mott cells- gamma globulin;
Footpad: Pododermatitis, Plasmacytic stomatitis,
14 Cat plasmacytic, chronic, diffuse, glomerulonephritis, and
marked, with fibrosis amyloidosis are occasionally
seen with this condition
ddx: eosinophilic and
Haired skin: Dermatitis and Pythium and Lagenidium are aquatic
granulomatous dermatitis:
panniculitis, pyogranulomatous dimorphic water molds (protists).
15 Horse Pythium insidiosum Pythiosis, Habronema, Mast
and eosinophilic with ulceraation, Infective stage is biflagellate
cell tumor, Eosinophilic
vasculitis, and hyphae zoospore--> form germ tubes
collagenolytic granulomas
features: peripheral
lymphocytic aggregates, large
Feline Vaccine histiocytic cells with
Haired skin and subcutis:
16 Cat associated intracytoplasmacytic blue-gray
fibrosarcoma material and areas of
cavitation; Higher degree of
artery: Arteritis, chronic-active,
multifocal to coalescing with
5 17 Horse Strongylus vulgaris diffuse transmural fibrosis, mural
fibrin thrombus, and intrluminal
larval strongyles
3 forms: Cutaneous- L. tropica
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis,
membranoproliferative, global,
Mucocutaneous- L.
18 Dog Leishmania infantum diffuse, with lymphoplasmacytic
brazillensis- Central America;
interstitial nephritis, protein casts,
Visceral- L donovani (Europe,
and intrahistiocytic amastigotes
Africa, and Asia)
adrenal gland: Adrenalitis,
histiocytic, neutrophilic, and
plasmacytic, multifocal with
intrahistiocytic amastigotes
Ingestion, percutaenous,
inhalation--> germination --> Lethal toxin results in TNF and IL-1
spleen: Congestion, acute,
encapsulated toxin-producing release and terminal shock; Edema
19 Ox Bacillus anthracis diffuse, severe, lymphocytolysis,
vegetative form (Poly-D- factor results in altered intracellular
and myriad bacilli
glutamate capsule inhibits water and ion concentrations.
Small Ruminant Lentiviruses
(Retroviridae)- CAE, OPP
(maediviscna): Gag- group
Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial,
specific nucleocapsid and
chronic, diffuse, with interstitial CAE- Adults- progresive arthritis/ Kids-
Caprine Arthritis matrix glycoprotein/
20 Goat fibrosis, lymphoid hyperplasia, Neurologic disease/ Pneumonia can
Encephalitis Virus antigenic), Pol- Reverse
and type II pneumocyte occur with either form
transcriptase, Env- surface
glycoprotein, receptro binding
and entry- neutralizing
P boydii: 5-8 um septate
Nasal mucosa: Rhinitis,
hypahe with 6-30 um terminal
Pseudiallescheria eosinophilic and granulomatous,
6 21 OX conidia with a discrete outer
boydii diffuse, severe, with numerous
wall, narrow or broad based
fungal conidia and few hyphae
Lung: Bronchitis and bronchiolitis, Reinfection may lead to a metastrongyle features: body cavity,
multifocal to coalescing with hypersensitivity reaction intestine lined by few MN cells,
22 Ox Dictyocaulus viviparous multifocal bronchiolitis obliterans, resembling acute bovine microvilli, accessory hypodermal
adult and larval nematodes and pulmonary edema/ Acute chrods, coelomyarian musculature,
ova respiratory distress syndrome uteri with embryonated eggs
Small intestine: Enteritis,
Heterobilharzia granulomatous, submucosa,
23 Dog
americana circumferential, transumural with
myriad schistosome eggs
Alpha toxin- Lecithinase Beta Toxin- trypsin labile, pore
Small intestine: Villi: Necrosis, (phospholipase) that damages forming toxin causing necrosis,
Clostridium perfringens
24 Ox diffuse, with fibrin thrombi and cell membranes- erythrocytes, decrease dmobility of intestinal villi,
Type C
myriad mixed bacilli platelets, leukocytes, and enhanced bacterial attachment to
endothelial cells villi
Beta2 toxin- unrelated to Beta Epsilon Toxin: Prototoxin
Iota toxin: Increases capillary
toxin- enteric disease in swine and activated by trypsin and
permeability (prototoxin)
typhlocolitis in horses causes necrosis
Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous
and eosinophilic, random and
7 25 Mouse Schistosoma mansoni
portal with trematode eggs and
intravascular trematodes
Artery, pancreas, lymph nodes:
Arteritis and periarteritis, PAN- fibrinoid degeneration
rats- med size arteries in mesenetery
proliferative and necrotizingwith and thickening with
26 Rat Polyarteritis nodosa and pancreas and testes (SD
mineralization and thrombosis; mononuclear cells and few
spontaneous hypertensive rat strains)
exocrine atrophy, draining neutrophils, and thrombosis
Hemangiosarcoma, Heart, ventricle: Loss of P53--> No P21(G1 phase,
27 Mouse CD31, CD34, VEGFR-2
lymphoma Hemangiosarcoma CyclinD/ CDk4)
mediastinum, thymus, LN, lung:
CD3, and TdT
Stage Cyclin-CDK complex Inhibitors
G1 Cyclin D/ cdk 4 P16INK4a & P21
G1--> S Cyclin E/ cdk 2 P27
S--> G2 --> M Cyclin A/ cdk 2
M Cyclin B/ cdk 1
Kidney: Nephritis, Microsporidia- single cell, spore
can cause vasculitis with
tubulointerstitial, necrotizing, forming, intracellular, coiled polar
Encephalitozoon parasitism of the endothelium;
28 Rabbit chronic active, multifocal, filament, replication within a
cuniculi Granulomatous nephritis and
moderate, with myriad cytoplasmic vacuole, no
microsporidia mitochondria, no peroxisomes,
common in C57BL6; diffuse
interstitial macrophages,
MNGC, eosinophils,
Lung: Adenocarcinoma, with lymphocytes, with cuffing;
Eosinophilic crystalline
intraalveolar histiocytosis, Very little crystals with
8 29 Mouse multifocal, moderate with localized macrophages
abundant intracytoplasmic infiltrates around a tumor;
eosinophilic crystals multifocal infiltrates around
bronchioles with large
rectangular crystals in airways
and minimal macrophages
Large T and Small T antigen
Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, (in all Polyomaviruses;
lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal to Papovaviridae); Cynomolgus
coalescing, moderate with Polyoma virus is related to
30 Macaque Polyoma virus ddx: cytomegalovirus, adenovirus
multifocal tubular epithelial SV40 and causes renal
karyomegaly and rare intranuclear dysfunction and nephritis in
inclusion bodies immunosuppressed
Cynomolgus monkeys
lung: Pneumonia, interstitial,
histiocytic, neutrophilic, chronic Impression smear, lung: Numerous epithelial cells, macrophages,
diffuse, moderate, with Type II and vacuolated cytoplasms, few neutrophils, and myriad 3-5 um
31 Macaque Pneumocystis carinii
pneumocyte hyperplasia, round cysts containing punctate organisms (trophic bodies) on a blue
multinucleate giant cells, and granular proteinaceous background
myriad intraalveolar fungi

Life cycle: Ingested sporozoites excyst in SI and invade epithelial

Small Intestine: Coccidial cells--> trophozoites form--> Asexual replication follows (shizogeny)
macrogametes, microgamonts, forming Schizonts containinf merozoites--> Schizonts rupture
32 Rabbit Eimeria magna
and oocysts, intraepithelial and releasing merozoites--> merozoites infect other epithelial cells, and
intraluminal replicate eventually forming sexual stages (male /microgamete;
female/ macrogamete) which unite to form oocysts
Lung: Bronchopneumonia,
Eucoleus is oviparous;
pyogranulomatous and Oslerus (filaroides) osleri (nodules at
Crenosoma vulpis is
Eucoleus (Capillaria) eosinophilic, multifocal, severe, carina) , Dirofilaria, and
9 33 Fox ovoviviparous and tends to
aerophilus with bronchiolar epithelial Angiostrongylus vasorum (both
inhabit the deeper bronchial
hyperplasia, aphasmids, and arterial parasites)
Myxoma/ Avian Avian Leukosis Sarcoma
Myxoma is composed of embryonal
34 chicken Leukosis Sarcoma Feathered skin: Myxoma Virus, subgroup A- replication
connective tissues
(Alpharetroviridae) deficient retroviruses
Alpharetrovirus Avial leukosis viruses, avian carcinoma viruses, avian sarcoma
Betaretrovirus Mouse mammary tumor virus;
Gammaretrovirus Feline leukemia virus, Feline
Deltaretrovirus Bovine leukemia virus, human
Epsilonretrovirus Walleye dermal sarcoma
Lentivirus HIV, SIV, Maedi/visna, CAE,
Spumavirus Bovine, Feline, Simian, and human foamy viruses

Virulence factors: Fimbriae,

non-fimbrial outer membrane
Larynx: Laryngitis, proteins, hydroxamate
necrosuppurative, subacute, siderophores and binding dermonecrotic toxin- intracellular
Bordetella focally extensive, severe, with proteins that mobilize iron, bacterial toxin released upon bacterial
35 Squirrel Monkey
bronchiseptica multifocal muscle degeneration, Adenylate cyclase toxin/ lysis that inhibits the Na/K atpase
necrosis, hemorrhage, and hemolysin-> increase in cAMP pump and causes vasocconstriction.
ulceration inhibits respiratory burst and
prevents phagocytosis activity
on neutrophils

LPS- Pyrogenic and

mitogenic, causes
Type III secretion products- Tracheal cytotoxin- stimulates nitric
macrophage chemotaxis and
Inactivate transcription factor oxide production and inteferes with
activation, and induction of
NFkB mucociliary function
tumor necrosis factor

Odontomas are tumors in which there is a combination of both

odontogenic epithelial components and dental matrix structures such
as dentin and enamel. The inductive theory of odontogenesis states
Bone, Maxilla: Compound
36 Rat Odontoma that the ameloblastic epithelium promotes the surrounding
mesenchymal cells to become odontoblasts. These osontoblasts
produce dentin, which is necessary for the ameloblasts to form
Complex Odontoma- Well Compound odontoma- Cords
Odontoameloblastoma- Contain
differentiated dentin, enamel, of odontogenic epithelium with
areas of ameloblastic epithelium that
odontogenic epithelium and intermittent complete
are separate from other areas of
cementum (horse/rodent)- they do odontogenesis forming tooth-
complex or compound odontomas
NOT form tooth-like structures like structures (denticles)

Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma-
Neoplasms composed of only
Both dental epithelial tissues and Dentinoma- Odontoblasts
epithelium without hard tissue are
mesenchymal tissues (pulp), producing a calcified dentin
Ameloblastomas. Odontomas are
that are associated with enamel tissue with no enamel
categorized below
and dentin

Papillary serous
Ovary: Papillary serous
10 37 Macaque cystadenocarcinoma;
granulosa cell tumor

Ovary: granulosa cell tumor

Ovarian tumors
Sex-cord/stromal (gonadostromal
Granulosa cell tumor
Interstitial cell tumors
(luteoma, lipid cell tumor,
steroid cell tumor)
Germ cell tumors Dysgerminoma
Embryonal carcinoma
Papillary adenoma/
Epithelial tumors
Papillary adenocarcinoma
Rete adenoma
Mesenchymal tumors Hemangioma

Class I and II MHC antigens

are not expressed until the TVT expresses TGFB1 and IL-6 both
Transmissible venereal Kidney: Transmisible Venereal
38 Dog tumor regresses (Express of which suppress expression of MHC
tumor tumor, metastatic
Class II), and are infiltrated by molecules
T lymphocytes
IHC supports histiocytic
lineage, may be hormone Histo: round to oval cells arranged in
dependent, benign in males, ribbons or palisades, large nulcei,
metastatic in females, 58 central, single nucleolus, faintly
chromosomes (compared to basophilic cytoplasm and vacuolated.
normal 76)
Endometriosis- Endometrial
glands or stroma explanted to
abnormal locations within
andn outside the uterus; Histo- Adenomyosis- endometrial stroma
Ovary and uterus: endometriosis
39 Macaque Endometriosis Endometrial glands, and or glands within the myometrium
with decidualized stromal cells
endometrial stroma, pigment of the uterine wall
containing histiocytes,
fibrosis, ceroid, lipofuscin, and
Placenta: Placentitis, necrotizing, PCR and IHC positive for
40 Goat BVDV
multifocal, moderate BVDV
Cytopathic BVD < 100 D Fetal resorption or expulsion
Teratogenic- microencephaly,
cerebellar hypoplasia,
hydranencephaly, hydrocephalus,
100-150 D microophthalmia, thymic aplasia,
hypotrichosis, alopecia,
brachygnathism, growth retardation,
pulmonary hypoplasia
Non-cytopathic strain < 100-125 D PI calves
Normal immune response and
> 150 days
clearing of virus
Osteochondral metaplasia
can occur within any synovial
lined structure. Ectopic
Joint capsule: Osteochondral ossification requires a
11 41 Dog Osteochondromatosis metaplasia vascular supply and the
(osteochondromatosis), diffuse presence of detached osseus
bodies (joint mice) implies
previous attachment to the
synovial surface
Epiphysiolysis in pigs is a
manifestation of osteochondrosis-
Feline physeal dysplasia is
The growth plate has focal failure of
characterized by the
endochondral ossification which
observation of irregular
extends into the metaphysis. The
Dysplasia; physeal Femoral Head: Dysplasia and clusters of chondrocytes that
42 Cat chondrocytes retain normal
fracture fracture of physis are separated by abundant
alignment. This differs from the feline
matrix on both the epiphyseal
disease in that in cats the entire
and metaphyseal side of the
physis is affected and the
chondrocytes are irregular clusters
that have lost their alignment
Histo: Flattening of osteoblasts and
failure to lay down osteoid. A lattice of
vascularized calcified cartilage is
formed in the metaphysis and is
not replaced by bone. This
Bone, tibia, femur: scorbutic lattice is susceptible to
Osteochondrodysplasia, scorbutic Non-crosslinked collagen microfractures. Vit C is required for
Vitamin C deficiency with lack of normal primary fibrils, leading to blood vessel the differentiation of osteoblasts from
43 Guinea pig
(Scurvey) spongiosa, osteopenia, fragility and poor wound progenitors. There is retention of
microfractures and subperiosteal healing cartilage cores and lack of
hemorrhage, guinea pig ossification. MArrow is replaced by
collagen poor mesenchyme,
chondrocyte columns become
shortened, and the physis
becomes thin and uneven. The
periosetum becomes thickened.
Sub-periosteal radiating Woven bone- Immature, haphazard
Bone, radius, ulna: Hyperostosis, tabecular bone, covered by a fibers/ Lamellar bone- mature, parallel
44 Pig Hyperostosis (sub)periosteal, circumferential, thickened periosteum/ fibers/ Laminar- outer lamellar cortical
severe, landrace pig Osteoblasts are large and bone lacking haversian systems in
may by syncytia large animals
Skeletal muscle: Myositis, H americanum infects skeletal and
Vectors include Amblyomma
pyogranulomatous, multifocal, cardiac muscle, and can cause
Hepatozoon maculatum. Rhipicephalus
12 45 Dog moderate with fibrosis and severe periosteal bone proliferation of
americanum sanguineus is refractory to
intracellular protozoal cysts and proximal limbs (similar to hypertrophic
zoites osteopathy)
Low grade malignancy,
usually metastasize by
exfoliation and implasntation.
Histologic presentations:
Epithelioid (papillary IHC- Vim, Cyt, S-100, HMB-45,
structures lined by cuboidal Negative for carcinoembryonic
basophilic mesothelial cells), antigen CD15: EM shows long
Fibroadipose tissue, mesentery:
46 Dog Mesothelioma Sarcomatous (Spindle cells slender branching and undulate
and large anisocytotic cells microvilli on apical surfaces while
with abundant eosinophilic serous carcinomas have fewer
cytoplasm and distince cell variably lengthened straight microvilli
margins), and
Biphasic(features of both
epithelioid and sarcomatous)
Kidney, glomeruli, tubules and
47 Flamingo Visceral gout vessels: Amyloidosis, multifocal
Kidney: Nephritis,
tubulointerstitial, granulomatous,
Gout--> inflammation-->
and heterophilic, multifocal,
moderate, with protein casts and
urate tophi
Nasal Turbinates, maxillary bone,
Feline Infectious and hard palate with rhinitis,
48 Cat
Peritonitis (FIP) erosions, fibrin thrombi and bone
Secondary to adrenal-
Cysts and squamous Prostate gland: Prostatic cysts, associated endocrinopathy,
13 49 Ferret
metaplasia multiple, ferret elevated LH--> increased
estrogen and progesterone
Prostate gland: Squamous
proliferation of basal cells with
metaplasia, multifocal, with
prostatitis, and keratinizing cysts
latent in trigeminal ganglion,
Trachea: tracheitis, necrotizing, reexpressed under stressed.
Infectious subacute, diffuse, moderate, with Endemic forms have low ddx: Avian pox (diphtheritis), NDV, AI,
50 chicken Laryngotracheitis (ILT; epithelial syncytia, intranuclear morbidity and mortality, Infectious bronchitis, Fowl Adenovirus
GHV-1) inclusion bodies, and intraluminal epizootic forms have high and Aspergillosis
serocellular coagulum morbidity and moderate
Liver: Nodular regeneration, Phomopsin- mitotic arrest in
diffuse, with megalocytosis, biliary metaphase, inability to
51 Lamb Lupinosis ddx: pyrrolizidine alkaloids, aflatoxins
reduplication, and bridging portal regenerate, progressive
fibrosis fibrosis
Liver: Hepatitis, lymphocytic,
subacute, multifocal
Ovine Pulmonary Lung: Carcinoma with interstitial "pulmonary adenomatosis" type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia in
52 Sheep Adenocarcinoma pneumonia and lymphofollicular caused by Jaagsiekte sheep alveoli and clara cell hyperplasia in
(Jaagsiekte)- retrovirus hyperplasia retrovirus (JSRV) bronchioles
Liver: Venous dilatation, portal
and central, diffuse, with
Hepatic venous lymphangiectasia, mild arteriolar
Lobular dissecting hepatitis-
dilatation; biliary and biliary reduplication,
14 53 Dog form of cirrhosis- with
reduplication; dissecting fibrosis, sinusoidal
secondary portal hypertension
sinusoidal capilarization ectasia and capillarization, lobule
atrophy, centrilobular necrosis,
and lipogranulomas
Spinal cord, cervical and thoracic
segments: Myelitis,
Primary cell target is neurons--
54 Bobcat West Nile Virus lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal,
> apoptosis
mild with moderate axonal
X-linked recessive defect in
dystrophin gene--> membrane
Skeletal muscle: Myocyte
associated cytoskeletal
hypertrophy, degeneration,
X-linked Muscular protein in heart and skeletal hypertrophy is seen in cats, mice and
55 Dog necrosis, regeneration, and
Dystrophy muscle. Increased the Rat terrier
mineralization, diffuse, severe,
susceptibility to degeneration
with fibrosis
ane necrosis, regeneration
and fibrosis.
Extraintestinal pathogenic E
Lung: Pneumonia,
coli- pyometra, mastitis, otitis,
necrohemorrhagic, neutrophilic Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor-
56 Dog Necrotoxigenic E coli prostatitis, bacteremia, skin
and histiocytic, with fibrin, edema, Necrotoxic E coli.
disease, cholecystitis and
and bacilli
drugs also imnplicated in EM cause
;the pathogenesis of erythema
multiforme remains unknown. It
appears to represent the end result of
Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, a hypersensitivity reaction to a
amoxicillin, and ampicillin number of infectious and other
most commonly implicated. agents: viral, bacterial, protozoal,
Haired skin: Epidermal necrosis,
Nonsteroidal anti- fungal, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Toxic Epidermal diffuse with subepidermal clefting,
15 57 Dog inflammatory medications are (Eaton agent) infection; foods or
Necrosis dermatitis, dermal edema, and
also implicated, and drugs; immunizations; and a variety of
anticonvulsants, especially other systemic diseases and physical
Tegretol and phenobarbital, agents. Whereas drug reactions and
are also reported. malignancies are important causes of
erythema multiforme in older persons,
infectious diseases are the most
common precipitants in children and
young adults.
Condition Location Characteristics
Lymphohistiocytic, perivascular, and
interface dermatitis with lymphocytic
< 10 body surface, at least 1
Em minor satellitosis (multilevel single cell
mucosal surface
death surrounded by lymphocytes or
10-50% body affected, > 1
High degree of epidermal
EM major mucosal surface, < 10%
inflammation, vesiculobullous lesions
epithelial detachment
50% body affected, 10-30% Severe epithelial necrosis with
Steven-Johnson Syndrome
epithelial detachment mucosal involvement
Full thickness epidermal cell death
Generalized > 30% epithelial
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis with minimal inflammation except
when ulcerated
Haired skin and panniculus:
resembles Langerhans cell
Feline Progressive Atypical histiocytic proliferation,
histiocytosis and is divided Resembles histiocytic sarcoma; IHC
58 Cat Dendritic Cell diffuse, severe with low numbers
into epitheliotropic and non- Cd18, Cd1, MHCII
Histiocytosis of lymphocytes, plasma cells and
mast cells.
Nodules extend from
superficial dermis to the ddx: Melanomas (have more spindle
This one looks more Starts with single nodule and
subcutis. , top heavy cells, Cd45-, Cd18-, MITF-M+,
like Histiocytic progresses to multiple nodules
configuration, large round to S100+), Xanthomas, Merckel cell
Sarcoma or and then to lymph node
polygonal histiocytic cells, and tumors (packeting, Cyt, NSE, Syn,
fibrosarcoma involvement
multinucleated cells may be ChrA). Mast cell tumors (tryptase+),
Haired skin: Dermatitis and
Tissue cysts- 110um diameter Tachyzoites are 4-7um x 1.5-2 um
furunculosis, pyogranulomatous,
with 1-4 um cyst wall- Brain and may be located within
multifocal, moderate, with
59 Dog Neospora caninum Spinal Cord, rarely muscle, macrophages keratinocytes,
neutrophilic folliculitis and
with numerous 2 x 8 um neutrophils, endothelial cells and
intraepithelial intrahistiocytic and
bradyzooites fibroblasts
free protozoa
epitheliotropic Haired skin: Lymphoma,
60 Dog
lymphoma epitheliotrophic
Bone, skeletal muscle, fibrous
connective tissue, mandible:
Actinomyces bovis/ Pyogranulomas, multifocal to Actinomycetes- Non-acid fast,
16 61 Ox
Lumpy Jaw coalescing with Splendore- GM +,
Hoeppli and gram positive
filamentous bacteria
developing sporoblasts are
Kidney, tubules: Degeneration encased by a bilaminated cell
and necrosis, multifocal, membrane composed of an
62 Horse Klossiella equi coccidian parasite
moderate, with cellular casts, and overlying thin granular layer
protozoa and an underlying dense inner
Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial
lymphoplasmacytic with
intratubular crystals
neuroectodermal cells,
neoplasia linked to INK4 and
Haired skin and subcutis: Waf-21 genes --> reduced Chondroid or osteoid metaplasia. Vim
63 Pig Melanoma Melanoma, Duroc-Hampshire P53 and Rb function. Altered +, Cyt --, S-100 +, Alpha-1 antitrypsin -
crossbred expression of Cd44 and -.
cadherin, and upregulation of
angiogenic and other growth
Mucocutaneous junction: Chielitis, EM: 250 um 150 um particles,
proloiferative and necrotizing, oval to dumbell shaped core
64 Goat Parapoxvirus (Orf) focally extensive, severe with surrounded by a membrane,
intracytoplasmic eosinophilic lateral bodies, and a surface
inclusion bodies membrane
Liver: Hepatitis, granulomatous,
17 65 River Otter Microfilaria eosinophilic with hepatocellular probably D immitis or D lutae
degeneration and microfilaria
EM: piriform to spherical
Esophagus: Esophagitis,
shapes, 4 anterior flagella,
necrotizing, histiocytic,
66 Mourning Dove Trichomonas gallinae undulating membrane,
heterophilic, transmural,
axostyle, pelta surrounding
multifocal, severe, with protozoa
the periflagellar canal
Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute,
Yersinia random, multifocal to coalescing,
67 Beaver
pseudotuberculosis severe, with large colonies of
Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous,
Mycobacterium The largest granuloma has
68 Giant Marine Toad multifocal, moderate with acid-fast with chromoblastomycosis
gordonae pigmented fungi/ yeast
Other lesions- suppurative
endocarditis, epicarditis, Hemoparasitism- Apicomplexa,
Magnificent Bird of Liver: Hemorrhage and necrosis,
18 69 Haemoproteus sp myocarditis, and occasional plasmodidae: Leukocytozoon,
Paradise multifocal with megaloschizonts
endarteritis, coelomitis, and Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium
Haemoproteus- Schizogeny
Liver: Hepatitis, portal, (merogeny) within visceral
Gametocytes develop in circulating
lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal endothelial cells- form very
moderate lare pale basophilic cysttic
structures (400um)
Leukocytozoon gametocytes also
anemia due to erythrocytic
Liver: Hemosiderosis found in leukocytes, Megaloschizonts
are frequently present in tissues

After several cycles of invading

The sporozoites invade erythrocytes, some of the merozoites
In the erythrocyte, they
cells of the The shizonts produce thousands transform into microgametocytes and
develop into trophozoites-->
Plasmodium reticuloendothelial of merozoites, which are released macrogametocytes. These gametes
Then into Schizont --> reinfect
system --> Schizonts and infect erythrocytes. are ingested by a mosquito where
(liver, kidney, lungs) they further develop and fuse forming
oocysts that develop into sporozoites.

Trophozoites in the Reticuloendothelial hyperplasia,

peripheral blood and Gametocytes occupy less lymphocytic infiltration, and often high
Malarial pigment in the erythrocyte
Histo gametocytes or than 50% of the host cell numbers of macrophages containing
from digestion of hemoglobin
schizonts in blood cells cytoplasm malarial pigment in the lung, liver,
other than erythrocytes. kidney and spleen

schizogony in liver or entry into

second generation develops
nsect bites bird > circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes
Schizonts develop in liver > in liver and phagocytic cells
sporozoites in salivary > development into microgamonts or
Leucocytozoon release of thousands of throughout body > become
gland of insect enter macrogametes > insect feeds on bird
merozoites (1 um) megaloschizonts (100-200
bloodstream > sexual maturation, fertilization, and
sporogony take place in insect

Intracellular round-to-
elongate gametocyte,
that causes the host Megaloschizonts and schizonts in Usually minimal host
cell (usually immature various organs, including liver, response; sometimes
Histo erythrocytes) to enlarge brain, heart, spleen, kidney, associated with
and appear to have two gizzard, and occasionally feather lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates
nuclei (marginalized pulp and multifocal necrosis
host nucleus and
parasite nucleus)
Schizogeny (merogeny)
within visceral
endothelial cells- form Gametocytes develop in
very lare pale circulating erythrocytes
basophilic cysttic
structures (400um)

within erythrocytes, the

gametocyte contains
yellow to brown Other lesions- suppurative
refractile spicules. The endocarditis, epicarditis,
Histo gametocyte occupies myocarditis, and occasional
over 50% of the of the endarteritis, coelomitis, and
red cell cytoplasm, that airsacculitis
partially encircles the

and undergo asexual division

Atoxoplasma enters the blood (MEROGENY- FORMING
The resulting merozoites form
sporocysts stream via the vasculature of the MEROZOITES, Schizonts
microgametes and macrogametes.
of Isospora and Atoxopl small are not appreciable) in
Atoxoplasma Gametogony, the sexual stage of the
asma invade intestinal intestine. Atoxoplasma sporocysts circulating and tissue
coccidian life cycle, occurs in
epithelial cells. subsequently invade mononuclear lymphocytes, monocytes, and
intestinal epithelial cells
leukocytes macrophages, as well as in
intestinal epithelial cells

Cytologic and histologic specimens

reveal granulomatous to
Characteristic lymphohistiocytic inflammation of the
sporozoite in the heart, spleen, intestine, and
At necropsy, infected birds
mononuclear leukocyte liver.5,11 Macrophages may contain
have hepatomegaly and
cytoplasm. It is pale- Identification of atoxoplasma atoxoplasma merozoites. This form of
splenomegaly. Small, white
staining, round-to-oval oocysts is notoriously difficult the organism is round to oval, 3-5 m
Histo foci are visible grossly on the
intracytoplasmic because of structural similarity to m diameter, cytoplasmic inclusion
liver and heart.5,9 The
inclusion that those of Isospora sp. that causes indentation of the host
intestines may be distended
compresses the host cell nucleus, giving infected cells a
and have translucent walls.7
cell nucleus into a characteristic appearance. Monocytes
crescent shape. and lymphocytes containing
merozoites may be seen within blood
vessels on histologic sections.
Brain, telencephalon: Brain, spinal cord and retina are
Viral encephalopathy and
Encephalitis, histiocytic, primary targets, causing vacuolation
retinopathy (VER), also known
70 Atlantic Cod Nodavirus multifocal, moderate, with and neuronal degeneration0 also
as viral nervous necrosis
necrosis, neuronal vacuolation, seen in gills and heart- necrosis and
(VNN)- beta-nodavirus
and spongioform change lymphocytes and mononuclear cells
Intestinal Small intestine, mesentery:
71 Alpaca
adenocarcinoma Carcinoma, anaplastic
Small intestine: Enteritis,
necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe
withfibrin, hemorrhage, edema,
and vasculitis, and fibrin thrombi

Cloacal papillomatosis; Internal Papillomatosis of Herpesvirus inclusions identified as

bile duct carcinoma Liver: Bile duct carcinoma, scarlet Parrots (IPP) - progressive Psittacid herpesvirus-2. DDX:
72 Scarlet McCaw
(Alphaherpesvirus macaw development of tumors in the Papillomavirus, chronic inflammation,
associated) oral and cloacal mucosa. vitamin A deficiency
ddx: Mycoplasma felis,
Heart, epicardium: epicarditis,
streptococcal polyarthritis with
19 73 Horse Actinobacillus spp fibrinous, chronic active, diffuse,
pericarditis, and mare
severe, with granulation tissue
reproductive loss syndrome
Kidney, corticomedullary junction
and medulla: Nephritis,
tubulointerstitial, acute, multifocal,
74 Cat Melamine toxicosis
mild with tubular necrosis and
degeneration and numerous
intratubular crystals
GCT- lower trachea and thought to be neuroectodermal origin,
bronchi, peri- and PAS positive cytoplasmic granules,
75 Horse Granular cell tumor Lung: Granular cell tumor endobronchial tumors. Slow diastase resistant (secondary
growing benign neoplasms, lysosomes, or phagosomes (myelin
resulting in airway obstruction figures)

eyes beak nares, vent, feet, (Dry

form)/ Fibrinous to caseous mucosal
Cutaneous form (dry pox),
Skin: Epithelium: Intracytoplasmic lesions on tongue, pharynx, and
76 rosy finch Avian Poxvirus Diphtheroid form (Wet pox),
inclusions with mature virions larynx (wet): DDX for wet form Vit A
and septicemic form
deficiency, ILT, Trichomonas gallinae,
Capillaria, and Candida albicans

Primary or Secondary
Disease- due to cholelithiasis,
Liver: cholangiohepatitis, chronic- duodenal inflammation, Suppurative cholangiohepatitis- most
active, diffuse, severe, with bile intestinal obstruction, common with cholelithiasis
20 77 Horse Cholangiohepatitis
duct hyperplasia with bridging neoplasia, parasitism, and (ascending infections)- E coli,
fibrosis and cholestasis certain toxins, such as Salmonella, Aeomonas, Citrobacter
pyrrolizidine, alkaloid and
alsike clover
Adrenal gland:
78 Tamarin Pheochromocytoma most often non-funtional
Urinary bladder: Cystitis,
necrohemorrhagic, transmural, Human- C diphtheriae/ Bovine- sheep- ulcerative posthitis- C renale,
79 Macaque Corynebacterium
diffuse, severe, with fibrin, edema, C renale and cystiditis Rhodococcus equi, C hofmanni
and large colonies of bacilli
Glabrous skin: Dermatitis, Typical - pustules- face,
vesiculopustular, focally hands, feet, mucous other orthopoxvirus- variola
Monkeypox virus
80 Macaque extensive, marked, with membranes, pharynx, larynx, (smallpox), vaccinia (smalpox
acanthosis, and balooning trachea, lung, spleen, lymph vaccine), cowpox
degeneration nodes
Haired skin: Dermatitis,
necroulcerative, neutrophilic and
ddx: Herpes simplex type 1 and 2
eosinophilic, focally extensive with
balooning degeneration
Tongue: Glossitis,
necroulcerative, neutrohilic and
eosinophilic, multifocal, marked,
with balooning degeneration and
intralesional cocci
Lung, artery: Pulmonary
arteriopathy characterized by
Pulmonary Mean pulmonary arterial secondary - increased left atrial
subintimal and medial
21 81 Dog hypertensive pressure > 25 mmHg (rest), pressure or increased pulmonary
hypertrophy, intimal fibrosis, and
arteriopathy and >30 mmHg (Active) vascular resistance
cellular thickening, plexiform
lesions, and arteritis

Plexiform lesion= transmural

destruction that is repaired by
granulation tissue / n plexogenic
Pulmonary arteriopathy- constrictive
angiopathy, the parent muscular
and complex, obstructive, and
artery shows medial and intimal Dilation lesion: This plexiform
proliferative vascular lesions in pre-
Hearworm, Chronic thickening. The plexiform lesion lesion (center) is surrounded
and intra-acinar pulmonary arteries-->
respiratory disease, develops at a branch point (arrow) by a number of dilated, empty
right sided heart failure/ Histologic
thromboembolism, probably as a result of shear vascular channels (arrows) of
lesions- concentric intimal cellular
vascular remodeling stress. Damage results in the post-plexiform dilation
proliferation and fibrosis, non-specific
transmural destruction that is lesion.
medial hypertrophy, muscularization,
repaired by granulation tissue
fibrinoid degeneration and arteritis
(=plexiform lesion). An elastic
tissue stain would show loss of
one or both of the elastic layers.

Meninges, spinal nerve root:

Choroid plexus
82 Dog Metastatic choroid plexus Ependymoma Choroid Plexus Papilloma
Cytokeratin Usually Negative Positive
vimentin Positive Positive
GFAP Positive Usually Negative, but rarely positive
Esophagus: Myositis,
Idiopathic/presumed Immune Secondary- Neospora, Toxoplasma,
lymphoplamacytic, histiocytic,
mediate- Polymyositis, Hepatozoon, clostridium chauvoei,
subacute to chronic, diffuse,
83 Dog Polymyositis Masticatory Myositis, ehrlichia canis, paraneoplastic
moderate with muscle
Extraocular myositis, diseases (thymoma), Drug induced
degeneration, necrosis, and
dermatomyositis myopathies, SLE
calcitonin +/ Cell tumors in
C-cell parafollicular Fibrovascular tissue, ventral neck:
84 Dog Bulls part of Multiple MEN- Neural crest origiin
carcinoma C-cell (parafollicular) carcinoma
Endocrine Neoplasia
Brain, cerebrum and cerebellum:
Also can have hemorrhagic
22 85 Dog Prototheca sp colitis in dogs, and mastitis in
granulomatous, multifocal,
moderate with algae
Brain, cerebrum: Vasculitis and
meningoencepahlitis, necrotizing,
subacute, multifocal, marked, with
86 Deer Aspergillus flavus
hemorrhage, edema, fibrin,
thrombi with cortical coagulative
necrosis and hyphae
Swollen neurons, cytoplasmic
GM2- defect in the alpha- vacuoles consisting of lysosomes
Brain, cerebrum, neurons and
subunit, Beta-subunit, or the distended with accumulated
87 Kitten GM2 gangliosidosis glia: Cytoplasmic vacuoles,
GM2 activator of gangliosides, Oli Red O and Sudan
diffuse, moderate
hexosaminidase Black may be positive, EM shows
onion skin whorls
Brainstem: Encephalitis, Primary Amoebic Encephalitis
necrotizing, subacute, multifocal, (PAM) is the name for human
88 Ox Naegleria fowleri
moderate with hemorrhage and infection with Naegleria
amoebic trophozoites fowlerii

Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute,

Clostridium piliforme random, severe, with fibrin,
23 89 Sugar Glider
(Tyzzer's Disease) hemorrhage, and hepatocellular
intracytoplasmic bacilli

Type III secretory Apparatus:

Enteroinvasive E coli,
Colon: Colitis, fibrinonecrotic, yersinia enterocolitica or
Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia
90 Macaque Shigella flexneri type IV subacute, diffuse, severe with pseudotuberculosis (Spleen, or
enterocolitica, Chlamydia,
edema and pseudomembrane enteritis)
Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas,
Ralstonia, Erwinia

Liver: Hepatocyte degeneration

Multifocal necrotizing
and necrosis, single cell, random,
91 Taita falcon Falcon Adenovirus hepatitis, and splenitis, with
moderate with basophliic
intranuclear inclusions
intranuclear inclusion bodies
Liver: Hepatitis, portal,
ddx: Herpesvirus hepatitis,
lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal,
and Adenovirus hepatitis
Non-contagious/ Central 200-
400 um / or 20-40 um
adiaspore, with thick capsule
Lung: Pneumonia, with pyogranulomatous ddx: Coccidioides immitis,
Chrysosporium parvum
92 Ground Squirrel pyogranulomatous, multifocal, inflammation. The center of Rhinosporidium seeberi (mucicarmine
moderate, with fungal conidia the adiospore contains positive)
amphophilic to
basophilicglobules, no
budding or endosporulation

Differential diagnosis includes other fungi

of similar size and morphology, such as Infection
Coccidioides immitis and Rhinosporidium occurs when the conidia (spores) The adiaspores
are inhaled.1 The are round, up to 250 m in
seeberi. Morphologically, C. parvum (20-
name, adiaspore, refers to a spore diameter with a 20-30 m
70m) has a thick capsule while C.
that grows in size without thick refractile non-staining
immitis (12m) and R. seeberi (35m)
replicating in tissues. The cell wall (Fig. 4-2). The which appear grossly as
have relatively thin capsules.4 The
inhaled conidia simply enlarge in center contains amophophilic gray white nodules in the lungs. The
presence of endospores occurs with
the lung tissue and are globular material. The cell lung is the only
C.immitis and R. seeberi, but not C.
eventually removed by the wall stains dark purple with organ known to be infected.
parvum.4 C. parvum infection does not
immune system; thus, the disease the Periodic Acid-Schiff
produce hyphae, unlike C. immitis.4
is not contagious. 1,4 The most (PAS) stain (fig. 4-3) and
Histochemically, the capsules of all three
susceptible animals black with Grocotts
stain with PAS and GMS.4 The capsule
are those that live in close contact Methenamine Silver (GMS)
of R. seeberi also stains with mucicarmine,
with soil
unlike the other two.4

Liver: Hepatocellular necrosis,

Massive sto
acute, submassive to massive,
24 93 Dog submassive hepatic
diffuse, with hemorrhage and
canalicular cholestasis
Kidney: degeneration and
Myoglobinuric necrosis, tubular, acute,
94 Dog
nephrosis multifocal, moderate with orange-
red brown casts
acute tubular necrosis-->
kidney: Anisotropic green brown vasoconstriction, lipid
crystals, intratubular peroxidation, acidification of

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (Men

Hyperplastic proliferation of 2B in humans)- medullary thyroid
ganglion cells, nerve fibers, carcinomas (C-cell/parafollicular),
Ganglioneuromatosis Cecum: Ganglioneuromatosis with
95 Dog and supporting cells/ Not pheochromocytoma, multiple mucosal
with intussusception intussusception
associated with MEN as in neuromas, gastrointestinal
humans ganglioneuromatosis, corneal
thickening and skeletal abnormalities
Pathogenesis: coagulation of
Esophagus: Esophagitis, fibrin following minor
proliferative, fibrinous, neutrohilic mechanical injury. The fibrin is
Ligneous conjunctivitis
and lymphoplasmacytic, not removed in individuals conjunctival and mucous memebrane
96 Dog (plasminogen
multifocal, marked with ulceration, with plasminogen deficiecny, lesions;
acantholysis, granulation tissue and granulation tissue is not
and subepithelial fibrin remodeled, and wound
healing is arrested
gills: 2 sets of 4 holobranchs
on eithe side of the pharynx.
Gill: Branchitis, lymphocytic and Cells on primary and secondary
Holobrach = 2 hemibranchs
granulocytic, multifocal with lamella are melanocytes,
that project from the posterior
25 97 Discus fish Dactylogyrus sp blunting, fusion, and loss of lymphocytes, macrophages,
edge of the branchial arch.
lamellae, mild epithelial endothelial cells, mucous cells, and
Hemibranchs contain
hyperplaisa and adult trematodes chloride cells
numerous primary lamellae
and secondary lamella
Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous
Granulomatous and
98 Rat and eosinophilic, multifocal, Model for asthma
eosinophilic pneumonia
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis,
membranoproliferative, glpobal,
diffuse, severe, with multifocal
Glomerulonephritis from
tubular degeneration and Plasmodium- intracellular protozoan
99 Owl Monkey Plasmodium sp malaria, intersittial nephritis as
necrosis, suppurative tubulitis, parasites
underlying disease
tubular ectasia, and proteinosis,
and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial
Haired skin and oral mucosa:
Dermatitis and stomatitis,
necroulcerative, neutrophilic, and
Simian varicella virus
lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal, Closely resembles Varicella Mild to severe lesions with
100 Macaque (SVV)-
marked with vesiculopustules, Zoster (chicken pox) pneumonia, hepatitis, and death
epithelial dyscohesion,
syncytia, and intranuclear
inclusion bodies
Conference Slide Species etiology Morph Dx notes notes/DDX
Eye: Uveitis, pyogranulomatous,
1 1 Cat multifocal, with retinitis, retinal
detachment, and yeasts
Murine coronavirus Liver: Necrosis, multifocal to
2 Mouse
(mouse hepatitis virus) coalescing, with syncytia
Ileum: Ileitis, diffuse with myriad
3 Pig Eimeria sp
Histo: Syncytial masses of
trophoblast-like cells with
abundant vacuolated,
Endometrium: Fibrosis, eosinophilic cytoplasm often
hemorrhage, and subacute surroundeing vessels/ A
4 Dog Placental site involution
inflammation with trophoblast-like plaque protrudes into the
cells lumen composed of
eosinophilic necrotic debris,
fibrin and regenerating
Granulomatous Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous,
pneumonia/ multifocal with hemorrhage and
2 5 Goat
Corynebacterium lymphoplasmacytic
pseudotuberculosis peribronchiolar inflammation

Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration

European Brown Hare related to Rabbit Hemorrhagic
6 Hare and necrosis, periportal, diffuse
Syndrome (calicivirus) Disease Virus
with hemorrhage
rumen: Rumenitis, proliferative,
and necrotizing, multifocal,
7 Goat moderate with epithelial balooning
(Contagious ecthyma)
degeneration and intracytoplasmic
H5N1 Avian Influenza
Liver: Necrosis, random,
8 Cat virus (Type A
Small intestine: enteritis,
Mycobacterium avium
3 9 Sheep granulomatous, chronic, multifocal
with lymphangitis and edema

Lymph node: Lymphadenitis,

granulomatous, chronic, multifocal
Fibrinous exudate distends
urinary space, tubules
distended by sero-
hemorrhagic fluid and
proteinaceous casts. Sparse
Kidney: glomerulonephritis,
focal lymphocytes in the
necrotizing with hemorrhage and
interstitium. Infrequent
Porcine dermatitis and proteinaceous casts, glomerular
10 Pig arcuate and interlobular
nephropathy syndrome fibrin thrombi and neutrophilic
arterioles have fibrinoid
tubulitis, tubular degeneration,
degeneration of the media
necrosis, and regeneration
accompanied by endothelial
cell necrosis, thrombosis and
leukocyte infiltration of the
vessel wall and perivascular
Spleen: Vasculitis, necrotizing,
diffuse with lymphoid depletion Type III hypersensitivity or
and moderate granulomatous Cytotoxic T cell response
colon: colitis, necrotizing, diffuse,
11 Whitetail deer colitis (Clostridium
with hemorrhage
perfringesn type A)
Mammary gland: Mastitis,
12 Ox Prototheca zopfii granulomatous and eosinophilic,
chronic, diffuse with myriad algae
Skeletal muscle: degeneration
and necrosis, multifocal to
Capture myopathy; coalescing, severe with histiocytic
4 13 Mule deer
sarcocystis inflammation, satellite cell
proliferation and interstitial
Aspergillus funigatus; Lung: Granulomaa, multifocal and
14 Elk
Hyperostosis coalescing with myriad hyphae
Hypertrophic osteopathy in Dog:
periostium is markedly
Endocarditis, Dirofilaria,
thickened by parallel and
Rhabdomyosarcoma of urinary
Bone: Hyperostosis, periosteal, perpendicularly oriented
bladder, Esophageal granulomas and
diffuse trabeculae of immature bone
spirocerca lupi, Hepatozoon
with abundant osteoblastic
americanum, intrathoracic neoplasia
or inflammation

Haired skin: Atypical

mesenchymal proliferation,
dermal, focally extensive with
Leporipoxvirus (hare
15 hare epithelial balooning degeneration,
epithelial and mesenchymal
eosinophilic cytoplasmic
inclusions (hare fibroma)
Escherichia coli O type Lung: Bronchopneumonia,
16 Dog
6 necrotizing with myriad bacteria
Antimitotic effect, continued
Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration
Senecio: Acute: Necrosis; nucleoprotein synthesis leads to large
and necrosis, multifocal, random
Pyrrolizidine alkaloid Chronic- Fibrosis and nucleus and cytoplasm/ Liver damage
5 17 Sheep with megalocytosis and nodular
toxicosis megalocytosis/ Chronic may lead to hepatogenous
regeneration and chronic portal
copper intoxication photosensitization (impaired excretion
hepatitis with biliary hyperplasia
of phylloerythrin)
Bone marrow and Lung: Bone marrow and
18 Rabbit fibrocartilaginous fibrocartilaginous emboli, F344 rats
emboli numerous
LGL; histiocytic Liver, spleen: Large granular
19 rat
sarcoma lymphocytic leukemia
Liver, veins: Histiocytic sarcoma
Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration
and necrosis, multifocal, random
with biliary hyperplasia

Spinal cord and meninges:

Vasculitis, necrotizing, multifocal
Juvenile Polyarteritis
20 Dog marked with neutrophilic and
histiocytic meningitis and severe
meningeal hemorrhage
Liver: Hepatocellular
6 21 Bison hepatic lipidosis microvesicular change, lipid-type,
diffuse, severe
22 Dog chondrosarcoma Lung: Chondrosarcoma
Lung, vessels: Intrahistiocytic
23 Cat Cytauxzoon felis schizonts, myriad with diffuse
hemorrhage and edema
Spleen, vessels and red-pulp:
Intrahistiocytic schizonts
spleen, white pulp: Lymphoid
Large muscular artery:
24 Dog Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis, chronic, Hypothyroidism
multifocal with thrrombosis
Ulceration and dense mats of
invasive spirochetes:
Glabrous skin: epidermal
Parakeratotic hyperkeratosis,
hyperplasia, papillated, diffuse,
epidermal acanthotic Compare: Interdigital necrobacillosis
Papillomatous digital marked with orthokeratotic and
hyperplaisa, ulceration of tips (footrot)- deep fissures, caseous
7 25 Ox dermatitis (foot warts, parakeratotic hyperkeratosis,
of dermal papillae, necrosis of dermis with exudative
hairy heel warts) superficial necrosis, chronic active
colonization of the stratum cellulitis
dermatitis and intracorneal
corneum and invasion of the
stratum spinosum and dermal
papillaw by spirchetes
Echinococcus Lung: hydatid cyst with mild
26 Goat
granulosus interstitial fibrosis
Footpad: Epidermal hyperplasia
with orthokeratotic and
Canine Morbillivirus parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, rare
27 Dog
(canine distemper virus) syncytia and numerous epithelial
eosinophilic intracytoplasmic
Pituitary gland, pars distalis:
28 Horse Pituitary Adenoma
Histo- chitinized cuticle, jointed
appendages, striated musculature,
Lung: Bronchiolitis,
body cavity, digestive tract, and
granulomatous and eosinophilic, Gross- 1-7 mm diameter
reproductive structures, golden brown
Pneumonyssus multifocal with bronchiolectasis yellow or gray cystic foci (mite
8 29 Macaque refractile mite pigment,
simicola and abundant anisotropic yellow- houses) throughout the
granulomatous bronchiolitis, alveolar
brown mite pigment and adult parenchyma
emphysema, bronchiolar smooth
muscle hyperplasia, and interstitial
Nasal Passage Lung
Metastrongylus sp- bronchi,
Oestrus ovis Sheep swine
Linguatula serrata Protostrongylus rufescens-
dogs sheep, goats
(pentastome) bronchioles
caninum doga Muellerius capillaris- alveoli sheep, goats
Anatrichosoma sp
Nonhuman primates Filaroides osleri- trachea, bronchi dogs
Filaroides milksi/hirthi- bronchi,
deletrix horses dogs
bronchioles, alveoli
laryngeus cat, cattle Capillaria aeophila- trachea birds
Cephenemyia sp
Wild Cervids Syngamus trachea birds
Rhinophagia sp Angiostrongylus vasorum
Old World Monkeys dogs, foxes
(Arthropod) (pulmonary arteries)
Angiostrongylus cantonensis
(pulmonary arteries and rats
Dictyocaulus filaria (bronchi,
sheep, goats
Dictyocaulus viviparous cattle
Dictyocaulus arnfeldi horses, donkeys
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus
(bronchioles, alveolar ducts)
Otostrongylus circumlitis (bronchi,
Parafilaroides decorus (bronchi,
Skeletal muscle: Myositis,
pyogranulomatous, diffuse,
marked with myocyte ddx: Neospora, Toxoplasma,
30 Dog Toxoplasma
degeneration, necrosis, Sarcocystis canis
regeneration, and numerous
protozoal cysts
Brain, cerebrum: ventriculitis, and
periventriculitis, granulomatous,
31 Cat Feline Coronavirus FIP
diffuse, moderate with lymphocytic
Bovine Coronavirus
(winter dysentery)
Canine coronavirus Enteritis
Peritonitis, pneumonia,
Feline Coronavirus FIP
panophthalmitis, granulomatous
Feline enteric
Diarrhea in kittens
Mouse hepatitis virus Hepatic necrosis, enteritis,
(MHV) encephalomyelitis, syncytia
Porcine transmissible
gastroenteritis (TGE)
Vomiting wasting, and
encephalomyelitis virus
Rat coronavirus Rhinitis, tracheitis, pneumonitis
Rat sialodacryoadenitis Sialodacryoadenitis, porphyrin,
virus squamous metaplasia or ducts
Avian infectious
Tracheobronchitis, nephritis
Bluecomb (turkeys) Enteritis, myocarditis
Rabbit coronavirus Enteritis, myocarditis
Severe acute respiratory
SARS virus
Epizootic catarrhal profuse green mucoid diarrhea in
enteritis adults
Ferret FIP like dz coronavirus

Small Intestine, lamina propria:

Amyloidosis, diffuse, marked, with
32 Macaque Amyloidosis
moderate villar blunting and fusion
and lmyphangiectasia
Sandfly- promastigote/ amastigotes
multiply intracellularly in host
Head, multiple cross sections: cutaneous, mucocutaneous macrophages: Promastigotes
dermatitis and panniculitis, and visceral. Amastigotes are released into the host dermis are
leishmania histiocytic and neutrophilic, identified within macrophages phagocytosed by macrophages-->
9 33 Mouse
amazonensis chronic, diffuse, severe with mild but can occasionally be found acidity induces transformation into
rhinitis and myriad intrahistiocytic within other leukocytes, amastigotes. Amastigotes have a
protozoal amastigotes endothelial cells or fibroblasts proton transporting ATPase-->
parasite multiplication cause rupture
of macrophages
M. capricolum ssp
capripneumoniae--> thorax, M. mycoides ssp mycoides LC type
Lung: Bronchopneumonia, chronic-
Mycoplasma mycoides only pleuropneumonia causes pleuropneumonia and
34 Goat active, multifocal, moderate with
mycoides LC type (intersittial edema and septicemia, mastitis, keratitis,
marked fibrinous pleuritis
pulmonary sequestra are not arthritis, or genital lesions
prominent features)

Mycoplasma species
Mycoplasma bovis Mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia cattle
contagious Bovine
M. mycoides mycoides SC type Cattle
Pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis,
M. mycoides mycoides LC type goats, sheep
Mycoplasma capricolum ssp contagious caprine
capripnuemoniae pleuropneumonia
Mastitis (contagious
Mycoplasma agalactiae agalactia), arthritis, Goats sheep
Mycoplasma capricolum ssp Septicemia, mastitis,
Goats, sheep
capricolum polyarthritis, pneumonia
Mycoplasma mycoides ssp capri pleuropneumonia, arthritis, goats
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Enzootic pneumonia of swine pigs
Pneumonia, arthritis,
Mycoplasma hyorhinis pigs
Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Polyarthritis pigs

Spleen: Splenitis, necrotizing,

acute, multifocal to coalescing, F. tularensis ssp tularensis -
35 cat Francisella tularensis F tularensis ssp holarctica - type B
severe, lymphoid depletion and Type A
fibrin thrombi
Guinea Pigs: discoidal,
labyrinthine, hemochorial
placenta. A separate
subplacenta (specialized
Nonspecific endometritis is common
Metritis with retained Uterus: Metritis, subacute, diffuse, segment of the chorioallantoic
in the postpartum uterus- abnormal
placenta; Proteus mild with hemorrhage, congestion, placenta- source of
36 Guinea pig deliveries, abortion, retained
mirabilis, Citrobacter edema, colonies of bacilli, and trophoblast invasion into
placenta, dystocia, twinning, and
freundii, and E coli retained placenta endometrium) and yolk sac
traumatic injurites
placenta (selective absorption
and transfer of meternal
immunoglobulins for fetal
Destroys bone as expands
and is always surrounded by a
ri mof bone; 2 cell types-
mononuclear stromal cells
Vertebra, coccygeal: Giant cell with histiocytic or fibrous
10 37 Cat Giant cell tumor of bone ddx: Giant cell type osteosarcoma
tumor of bone appearance; Multinucleate
cells resemble osteoclasts;
Giant cells are scattered
uniformly and nuclei resemble
mononuclear cells
Long bone: Osteopenia, diffuse, Type 1 collagen- bone
38 Dog marked with failure to develop fractures, joint laxity, defective
secondary spongiosa dentin, scleral thining

Cell type: Osteoblastic (anaplastic

osteoblasts and plump to spindle
Matrix: Simple (osteoid and
shaped osteogenic precursor cells
bone); Compound (Osteoid,
Chondroblastic Bone, skull: Osteosarcoma, with angular borders, eccentric
39 Dog bone and cartilage);
osteosarcoma chondroblastic hyperchromatic nuclei;
Pleomorphic (anaplastic with
Chondroblastic (neoplastic bone and
small islands of osteoid)
cartilage); fibroblastic (spindle cell
population resembles fibrosarcoma)
Histo: Lobules- 1) basophilic matrical
cells, located at the periphery, 2)
Malignant Bone, vertebral body: Malignant Epithelial to mesenchymal Necrotic keratinized ghost cells
40 Dog
pilomatricoma pilomatricoma, metastatic transitions (TGF-B) centrally. In the malignant tumor
basal cells are invasive into adjacent
Factors in bone metastasis: Blood
Skeletal metastasis: Most flow- vertebral columns, ribs, proximal
common sites are axial long bones. Bones store growth
skeleton and proximal ong regulatory factors (TGF-b), BMP,
bones PDGF, Monocyte chemoatrrractant
protein 1, stromal cell derived factor-1
T cell origin/ CD 3, usually
CD8 + with beta-1 and 2
integrins/// Tropism for the
epidermal mucosal epithelium
and adnexa. Intra-epithelial
Presentation: pruritic erythema and
neoplastic lymphocytes are
Epitheliotropic Eye, limbus: Epitheliotropic scaling, mucocutaneous ulceration,
11 41 dog either diffusely distributed
lymphoma lymhphoma with keratitis solitary or multiple plaques, infiltrative
within the epithelium or form
or ulcerative mucosal disease
discrete aggregates (Pautriers
microabscesses). Infiltration
of apocrine glands, nuclei can
have cerebriform morphology
(mycosis cell)

White granular proliferative

lesion extending inwardly
Eye: Keratitis, eosinophilic and
along corneal surface from Superficial corneal stroma infiltrated
lymphoplasmacytic with edema
42 Cat Eosinophilic keratitis the medial or lateral limbus. by eosinophils, plasma cells, mast
and superficial eosinophilic
Can extend to conjunctiva and cells, macrophages
third eyelid. Unilateral or
damage to endothelial cells
Hypertension leads to multifocal
Eye, retina and uvea: vascular leading to arteriolar dilatation,
retinal necrosis which involves the
fibrinoid change, multifocal with discontinuity of the endothelial
outer retinal layers including the RPE.
Hypertensive fibrin, hemorrhage, and edema, layer, increased permeability
43 Cat GFAP shows increased numbers of
retinopathy mild lymphoplasmacytic uveitis, and insudation of plasma
Muellers cells in the ganglion layer
retinal atrophy, and preiridial proteins into the vascular wall,
and inner and outer limiting
fibrovascular membrane medial hypertrophy with
adventitial fibrosis

Intravascular cellular accumulations

of bland spindle cells that partially or
Multisystemic in cats involving
completely occlude arterioles, they
Heart: Reactive the heart and brain and is
Reactive are arranged in tight or loose whorls
44 Cat angioendotheliomatosis with fibrin fatal. (bening in humans).
angioendotheliomatosis and nests. Affected vessels are
thrombi vWF and Vimentin +/ whereas
thickened by proliferative adeventitial
Cyt CD18, Cd79, and CD 3--
fibroblasts and are surrounded by
moderate mucinous accumulations.
Elementary Body (EB)-
infectious form- small electron Reticulate Body (RB)- larger
Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing,
dense nucleoid at the intracellular metabolically active form.
12 45 African Grey Chlamydophila psittaci random, moderate with
periphery of the EB separated Lacy and reticular nucleus, hour glass
intrahepatocellular bacteria
from electron dense profiles, binary fission
Intermediate body (IB) -
Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly,
largest, upt to 1 um. Central
fibrinous air sacculitis, pericarditis,
electron dense core with
peritonitis/ Micro- hepatic necrosis,
radially arranged individual
portal hepatitis, intracellular bacteria,
nucleoid fibers surrounding
splenic necrosis, splenic histiocytosis,
the core. Cytoplasmic
intrahistiocytic bacteria, splenic
granules tightly packed at the
reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia,
periphery of the IB separated
fibrinous air sacculitis with heterophils
from the core by a translucent
and macrophages
Psittacosis (ornithosis) Humans and birds
Sporadic Bovine Encephalitis Cattle
Polyarthritis Cattle, sheep, horses
Enzootic bovine abortion cattle
Enzootic ovine abortion Sheep
Abortion Horses, swine
Cattle, sheep, goats, horses,
dogs, rabbits
Sheep, cats, guniea pigs,
Cattle, pigs, muskrats,
snowshoe hares
Lung: Bronchointerstitial
pneumonia, proliferative, affects boids and pythons- boas may
heterophilic and be inapparent carriers, but may lead
Boid inclusion body Inclusions appear as electron
46 Boa constrictor lymhpoplasmacytic with edema to CNS disease. The snake mite-
disease dense structures
fibrin, hemorrhage and epithelial Ophionyssus natricis is suspected as
eosinophilic intracytoplasmic a vector
inclusion bodies
Ophidian Paramyxovirus- ddx-
Suppurative and necrotizing
pneumonia, not so many
inclusions, syncytial cells,
inclusions are pleomorphic
Herpes simplex Type 1- oral
Cerebrum: Meningoencephalitis, and conjunctival infections
neutrophilic, lymphoplasmacytic and encephalomyelitis in
47 Chinchilla Herpes simplex type 1 and histiocytic with neuronal adults/ Herpes simplex type 2-
necrosis, gliosis, and eosinophilic genital and neonatal
intranuclear inclusion bodies infections/ Humans are a
natural reservoir
Spores (refractile) with polar
Skeletal muscle: Myositis, Mechanical damage from
capsules (giemsa or
48 Crucian carp Myxobolus lentisuturalis necrotizing, multifocal, with myriad pseudocysts or tissue necrosis and
wright)are pathognomonic for
myxosporidian spores inflammation from trophozoite feeding
Grossly- ddx: Microsporidian
(all intracellular- thick walled
Other dz of Myxozoan- Proliferative
spores containing
kidney disease, Proliferative gill
sporoplasm, posterior
disease, whirling disease/ black tail
vacuole, xenoma),
(Myxobolus cerebralis), also have a
Ichthyophthirius multifilis,
polar capsule
lymphocystis, dermal
Head, cross section: Myositis,
Gross- firm nodules with
cellulitis, pharyngitis,
draining fistulous tracts that
Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis, meningitis,
13 49 Rat exude purulent discharge with
(Botryomycosis) pyogranulomatous and ndcrotizing
small white granules. Deep
with splendore-Hoeppli and large
dermis and subcutis.
bacterial colonies
4 histomorphologic types- 1)
Acinar/tubular/ 2) Papillary-
lined by multiple layers of
anaplastic columnar cells/ 3)
50 Macaque Adenocarcinoma Jejunum: Adenocarcinoma
Mucinous- acinar or irregular
crypts, filled with mucin/ 4)
Signet ring- isolated nests of
cells containing mucin
Heart: Epicarditis, proliferative,
with multifocal myocardial fibrosis
51 Guinaea pig Metastatic calcification
and mineralization with
mineralization of the great vessels
Laryngeal and botryoid
Skeletal muscle: rhabdomyosarcoma of the Embryonal - dogs most common/
52 Rat Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma urinary bladder are distinct Alveolar is least common
clinical entity.
Ionphores inhibit sodium and
potassium ion transport
across mitochondrial and
Heart: Myocardium: degeneration other cell membranes- leading ddx: Vit E /Se, Exertional
14 53 Horse Monensin toxicosis
and necrosis with mineralization to mitochondrial failure, rhabdomyolysis, Cassia spp
depletion of ATP, failure of
calcium transport and
persistent contraction
Toxic glomerular vasculopathy-
Kidney: Glomerular aneurysms
mesangiolysis (direct injury to
and fibrin thrombi with moderate
mesangial cells and matrix),
54 Dog Snake envenomation acute tubular degeneration and
capillary ballooning, or
necrosis and cellular and granular
glomerular microaneurysm
Vetch toxicosis occurs in
Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, Toxic principle: Prussic acid- Possible
cattle and horses- dermatitis,
granulomatous and eosinophilic type IV hypersensitivity, or lectin
55 Ox Vetch toxicosis conjunctivitis, diarrhea,
with tubular degeneration, activation initiating T lymphocyte
multisystemic granulomatous
necrosis and regeneration activation
and eosinophilic disease
adrenal gland: Adrenalitis,
granulomatous and eosinopgilic
Haired skin: dermatitis,
lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic,
and eosinophilic with acanthosis,
orthrokeratotic hyperkeratosis,
spongiosis and superficial dermal

Affects- protein synthesis, oxidative

Liver: Hepatocellular vacuolar
damage, disruption of DNA,
degeneration and necrosis with Bishydrofurans- B1, B2, G1,
56 Dog aflatoxicosis carcinogenesis, Necrosis from
biliary hyperplasia and pigment G2
inhibition of protein and RNA
laden macrophages
Anisocytosis, karyomegaly,
binucleation, and
multinucleation, bile duct or
oval cell proliferation,
cytosegresome formation,
nodular regeneration- B1
interferes with mitosis
Brain, cerebrum: encephalitis,
Encephalitic herpesviruses: OHV-2,
lymphoplasmacytic and BHV-5- encepbalitis/
15 57 Ox Bovine herpesvirus 5 AlHV-1, EHV-1, PHV-1/ Neironal and
necrotizing with glial and neuronal occasionally BHV-1
glial necrosis, endothelial necrosis
intranuclear inclusions
BHV-1 Abortion
Pseudolumpy skin dz/ herpes
BHV-4 mammary pustular dermatitis

Brain, cerebrum:
Meningoencephalitis, necrotizing,
58 cat Phaeohyphomycosis
pyogranulomatous with fibrinoid
vasculitis and dematiaceous fungi
Histo: Epithelial- grlandular,
normal tubules, glomeruloid
structures lacking capillaries/
Thoracolumbar spinal spinal cord and dura mater: Mesenchymal component-
59 Dog cord tumor of young thoracolumbar spinal cord tumor lobules or streams, fibrous,
dogs/ Nephroblastoma of young dogs mucoid, adipose, muscle,
cartilage, bone/ Blastemal
cells- clumnps or dispersed
Brain, cerebellum: Neuronal and
Mucopolysaccharidosis axonal degeneration with
60 Dog IIIA (Sanfilippo spongiosis, spheroids, and sulphatase deficiency
sundrome) neuronal cytoplasmic eosinophilic
granular material
16 61 Rat Cholangiocarcinoma liver: cholangiocarcinoma
Lung: Pleuropneumonia,
62 Pig Haemophilus parasuis fibrinohemorrhagic and
Heart: Pulmonary artery:
Endocarditis, valvulitis, and Strep suis type II- also causes
63 Pig Streptococcus suis arteritis, fibrinosuppurative and meningitis, polyserositis,
granulomatous with mineralization arthritis, and pneumonia
and gram positive cocci
Kidney: vasculitis and
Malignant catarrhal lymphohistiocyticwith intimal and
64 Goat
fever (OHV-2, CpHV-2) medial fibrinoid necrosis,
hemorrhage, and a few fibrin
17 65 Rat chordoma Tail: chordoma
spinal cord: vasculitis,
leukocytoclastic, multifocal with
66 Ox meningoencephalitis
thrombosis, axonal degeneration
(Histophilus somni)
and gram pos bacteria
Actually its liver with an extrahepatic
Ectopic from bile ducts
67 Ferret Cysts, multiple Adrenal gland : cysts,multiple cyst surrounded by granulomatous
(ectopic hepatic tissues)
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis,
membranoproliferative, global,
Membranoproliferative diffuse, tubular degeneration,
68 Macaque
glomerulonephritis regeneration, protein casts,
lymphoplasmacytic interstitial
Immune complex glomerulonephritis
Horses EIA
Strep sp
Cattle BVD
Sheep hypocomplementemia in
Finnish Landrace lambs
Pigs CSF
Dogs Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Chronic hepatitis
Chronic bacterial dz
Endometritis (pyometra)
IM poly arthritis
Hereditary C3 deficiency
Cats Feline leukemia virus infection
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Progressive polyarthritis
Progressive membranous
Mink Aleutian dz

Pleomorphic Haired skin and subcutis: well differentiated,

18 69 Dog
liposarcoma Liposarcoma, pleomorphic pleomorphic and myxoid
Kerion- dermatophyte fungal hyphae/
Haired skin: dermatitis, folliculitis,
Sterile eosinophilic pustulosis has
Eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis, eosinophilic with folliculocentric, eosinophils,
70 Dog subcorneal pustules and less evere
and furunculitis mucin and mild epidermal ulcerative
eosinophilic folliculitis and
solitary nodules centered on
Haired skin and subcutis:
ischemically altered Autoimmune, trauma,
Panniculits, granulomatous and
71 dog Palisading granuloma degenerate or devitalized immunoreactive disease;
pallisading, marked,
collagen fibers, with marked Macrophages CD 11b, CD45, Cd18
numbers of plasma cells
Hereditary equine subfollicular artifactual split
Haired skin: Collagen dysplasia,
72 Horse regional dermal that occurs during
asthenia procurement and processing
Tuberculin/ MHC II/ APC--> interacts
with memory cells (Th1)--> blast
Mycobacterium Lung: Granulomas, multifocal to Type IV hypersensitivity: 8-12 transformation and proliferation -->
19 73 Macaque
tuberculosis coalescing hours, peaks at 24-72 hours Th1 cytokines (IL-12, IFN-y, IL-2, TNF-
a) which attract mononuclear cells (T
cells and macrophages), and edema

spleen: Splenitis, granulomatous,

multifocal to coalescing
Spleen: Lymphoid depletion,
Pancreas: NSL
Liver: hepatitis, necrotizing,
multifocal with fibrin and
74 Macaque adenovirus hemorrhage, edema, and Necrotizing hepatitis is rare
eosinophilic to basophilic
intranuclear inclusion bodies
Liver: hepatitis, portal,
lymphocytic, multifocal
Gall bladder, lamina propria:
Edema, diffuse, marked
Inclusion body hepatitis
Hydropericardium syndrome
Fowl, goose, duck, pigeon, Turkey
Respiratory disease
Aviadenovirus (group Necrotizing pancreatitis
1 avian adenovirus) gizzard erosions
Quail Bronchitis (Avian adenovitus
type 1)

Marble Spleen Disease Pheasants- splenic necrosis,

(Adenovirus Type 2) respiratory edema, congestion
Hemorrhagic enteritis (adenovirus Young turkeys, bloody
Siadenovirus type 2) droppings
Avian adenovirus splenomegaly
Frog adenovirus

Laying hens; viral replication

Egg drop syndrome (Avian
in pouch shell gland
Subgroup 3 avian adenovirus
epithelium, INIB
Ovine, bovine, Duck Possum
Atadenovirus Adenoviral Hemorrhagic Disease vasculitis with endocardial
inCalifornia mule deer and black- INIB, pulmonary edema,
tailed deer hemorrhagic enteropathy
Bearded dragon, snake,
Reptilian adenoviruses
Respiratory disease, enteritis,
Human adenovirus
Subclinical, respiratory and
Simian adenovirus (27 viruses) enteric disease secondary to
canine adenovirus 1 Infectious canine hepatitis
Necrotizing bronchiolitis and
canine adenovirus 2
alveolar epithelialization
CID foals; bronchiolitis,
Equine Adenovirus
atelectasis, and pancreatitis
Resp dz, pyrexia, KCS, colic,
Bovine adenovirus
Mastadenovirus enteric dz in calves
Respiratory tract disease,
Ovine adenovirus
conjunctivitis, enteritis
Pneumonia, enteritis,
Porcine adenovirus
encephalitis, diarrhea
Oncogenic in newborns, CNS
Murine adenovirus
Guinea pig Adenovirus Pneumonitis
Adenovirus hamsters rats
Brown bear, coyotes, foxes,
Wildlife wolves, skunks, racoons, CAV-
epsilon toxin: inactive prototoxin in
the gut, with activation by trypsin.
Epsilon toxin binds endothelial cell
surface receptors resulting in opening
Clostridium perfringens perivascular proteinaceous
of tight junctions, disturbed transport
type D (focal Brain, white matter: Necrosis and edema (microangiopathy),
75 Sheep processes, and increased vascular
symmetrical loss, multifocal with edema acidophilic accumulations of
permeability resulting in vasogenic
encephalomalacia) protein
edema, swelling of astrocytic foot
processes, hypoxia, ischemia, and
necrosis. Some can be mediated by
the adenyl cyclases/ cAMP system
Superantigens (Gram pos): Class II
Tail, transverse section: MHC mol and V beta domains of TCR-
Dermatitis, and cellulitis, LPS-LPSbp--> TLR 4/ -> activation// Exogenous
neutrophilic and necrotizing with CD14/MD2--> MyD88--> TNF- superantigens- enterotoxins, TSST1,
76 Marmoset Gram-negative sepsis
fibrin, edema, hemorrhage, RAF-6 --> Ik-B--> AP TF--> IL- exfoliating toxin/ Endogenous
thrombosis and myriad intra- 1,6,8,12,NO, PAF superantigens-Specific T cell
epidermal colonies of bacilli memebrane molecule produced
during viral infections
Mucocutaneous junction, lip:
Hyperkeratosis, parakeratotic, Skin- hyperkeratosis, deep fissuring
Superficial necrolytic
diffuse, marked, acanthosis, of footpads/ Liver- severe vacuolar
dermatitis also associated with DM,
20 77 Dog edema of the stratum spinosum, degeneration with diffuse
(hepatocutaneous glucagon secreting tumor
basal cell dermatitis, focal ulcer parenchymal collapse, condensation
with pyogranulomatous of reticulin and nodular regeneration
inflammation and surface bacteria
red white and blue-
hyperkeratosis (red)
ddx: Parakeratotic disease (zinc def,
(parakeratotic), necrosis of
thallium tox, lethal acrodermatitis of
stratum spongiosum,
Bull terriers, Sarcoptes scabei,
intracellular edema (white),
generic dog food dermatosis).
and basal layer hyperplasia

well demarctaed,
intraventricular, expands the
third ventricle, mesencephalic
aqueduct, and 4th ventricle,
well vascularized, sheets,
Brain- hippocampus: clusters, fascicles, indistinct
78 Dog Ependymoma perivascular clearing
Ependymoma cell borders, fibrillar
eosinophilic cytoplasm,
Pseudorosettes are common,
foci of necrosis with peripheral
palisades of neoplastic cells,
perivascular lymphocytes

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial,

histiocytic and plamacytic with
79 Cockatoo Sarcocystis sp
edema, necrosis and
intraendothelial sarcocysts
Vimentin and GFAP- vascular
Brain: astrocytoma, high grade proliferation,
80 Moose High grade astrocytoma
(glioblastoma multiforme) pseudopalisading, serpentine
Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous,
Cryptococcus multifocal to coalescing with
21 81 Dog
neoformans edema and myriad intralesional
islet cell carcinoma associated with superficial
82 Dog Pancreas: Islet cell carcinoma other products- insulin, gastrin
(glucagonoma) necrolytic dermatitis
Lung: Pneumonia,
bronchointerstitial, necrotizing,
83 Cat feline herpesvirus 1 severe, fibrin, edema, syncytia,
and epithelial intranuclear
inclusion bodies
Esophagus: Esophagitis, necro-
ulcerative, multifocal, fibrin,
most common with calicivirus
edema, intraepithelial inclusion
Bone marrow: Acute myelofibrosis is caused by
Acute megakaryoblastic megakaryoblastic leukemia with cytokine production by
84 dog
leukemia myelofibrosis and lymph node megakaryocytes, PDGF, TGF-
metastasis beta (alpha granules)
other germ cell neoplasm:
dysgerminoma (resemble
seminomas) , choriocarcinoma
immature teratoma
(trophoblastic differentiation-
(teratocarcinoma) has less-
trophoblastic giant cells,
differentiated embryonal
tissues with some
cytotrophoblasts, blood-filled spaces),
differentiated structures;
Teratoma (germ cell embryonal carcinoma (may contain
22 85 Macaque Ovary: Teratoma Looks like Dermoid Cyst
neoplasm) MNGC), yolk sac carcinoma
(Epithelial lined cyst
(mesoblast and yolk sac endoderm-
containing keratinizing
nests and ribbons of neoplastic
stratified squamous
epithelium in PAS positive material-
epithelium, and dermal
glomerulus like structure composed
of central blood vessel enveloped by
germ cells within a space lined by
germ cells)
Brucella (vasculitis)/
Chlamydophila abortus
Chorioallantois: Placentitis with
(vasculitis, cotyledonary
86 Goat coxiella burnetti multifocal necrosis and myriad
inflammation, coccoid org)/
intratrophoblastic organisms
Toxoplasma (Primarily
Placenta: placentitis, necrotizing,
87 Ox Ureaplasma diversum subacute with vasculitis,
thrombosis and mineralization

results from an insufficient

number of caruncles
(congenital disorders of
Chorioallantois: Adeventitial endometrial organization, , or
placentation, multifocal, with by loss of caruncles due to
88 Ox Adventitial placentation looks like granulation tissue
edema and minimal inflammation- primitive villus
lymphoplasmacytic placentitis attahcments between the
chorion and endometrium
attempt to compensate for
inadequate placentation

Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration hemosiderosis- systemic

hemochromatosis is deposition of iron
and necrosis, periportal to overload of iron resulting in
but is combined with a morphological
23 89 rhinoceros Hemochromatosis midzonal, with moderate biliary excessive deposition of
or functional disturbance of the organ,
duct proliferation, fibrosis, and hemosiderin in different
tissue, or cell
hemosiderosis organs or tissues.
Pancreas: Pancreatitis,
Arabian/ Jack russel terriers/
necrotizing, multifocal to X linked SCID- (basset/corgi)- gamma
BALB/c mice: B,T cell
90 Horse SCID; adenovirus coalescing, marked, with chain of IL-2 receptor- T cells
deficiency- DNA PKc- cant
intraepithelial basophilic unresponsive to IL-2 stimuli
rearrange receptor genes
intranuclear inclusion bodies
Spleen: Lymphoid hypoplasia,
severe, diffuse
Echinococcus multilocularis-
Echinococcus multilocular hydatid cyst
91 Field vole Liver: Hydatid cyst
multilocularis (Echinococcus granulosus is
unilocular hydatid cyst)
Hemophagocytic Spleen: Hemophagocytic
92 Dog CD11d/CD18
histiocytic sarcoma histiocytic sarcoma
4 layers: 1) outermost
compressed dermal collagen;
2) homogenous intermediate
Haired skin: dermatitis,
zone; 3) Host cell with
24 93 Donkey Besnoitia ap granulomatous and eosinophilic,
peripheralized nuclei; and 4)
multifocal with protozoal cysts
innermost parasitophorus
vacuole filled with crescentic
Kidney: Nephritis, tubulo-
94 Tortoise Gout interstitial, interstitial fibrosis,
tubular loss, numerous urate tophi
Intestine: enteritis, necrotizing with
intramural cestodes and
95 Water snake entamoeba invadens fibrin, edema, and numerous
amoebic trophozoites
Spinal cord, white matter: Axonal
degeneration and loss, diffuse
96 Goat with digestion chambers, gitter
cells, and lymphocytic
Endosporulating: Chlorella,
Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous,
Prototheca, Coccidioides,
multifocal , moderate with diffuse
25 97 Alpaca Coccidioides immitis Rhinosporidium,
edema and numerous fungal
Haired skin and subcutis:
98 Dog Plasmacytoma CD45 +, AL amyloid
Plasmacytoma with amyloid
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis,
membranoproliferative, global,
diffuse, marked, with tubular Glomerular deposits are PAS
99 Dog Borrelia burgdorferi degeneration, necrosis, positive/ Tichrome and congo
regeneration, proteinosis, and red --
chronic lymphoplasmacytic
interstitial nephritis
Caused by Cationic Amphophilic
Drugs: 1) Direct interaction with
Kidney, glomerulus and proximal
cellular phospholipids (binding and
convoluted tubules: Lamellar also seen in Kupffer cells,
resists degradation)/ 2) Inhibition of
100 Rat Phospholipidosis bodies, intracytoplasmic and biliary epithelium, endothelial
the enzymes (phospholipases) that
extracellular, consistent with renal cells, lungs,
degrade phospholipids/ 3)
Upregulating the synthesis of
phospholipids in the cell
Conference Slide Species etiology Morph Dx notes notes/DDX
YACS: Yersinia, Actinomyces,
Eye: Endophthalmitis, suppurative
Actinobacillus, Arcanobacter,
1 1 Mule Deer Yersinia pestis with coccobacilli and stromal
Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staph
and strep
Prepuce: Posthitis,
2 Horse Halicephalobus sp granulomatous, nodular with
rhabditid adults, larvae and eggs

Pleomorphic epithelial cells

Adenocarcinoma of Humerus: Air sac obliterating normal bone. Forming
3 Barn Owl
air sac adenocarcinoma papillary projections, tubuels and
solid sheets. Mucin producing

Burkholderia Seminal vesicle: Vesiculitis, Glanders is caused by Burkholderia

4 Macaque Melioidosis
pseudomallei suppurative, diffuse mallei
Malignant catarrhal fever,
Meninges, cerebrum: Vasculitis OHV-2, AHV-1: ddx vasculitis: BVD, Orbivirus,
2 5 Ox Gamma Herpesvirus and perivasculitis, lymphoproliferation vasculitis, Adenovirus hemorrhagic disease,
lmyphohistiocytic, necrotizing erosive ulcerative lesions salmonella dublin, Histophilus somni
corneal edema, uveitis

Broad based budding 10-20 um 1-2

Blastomyces Lung: Pneumonia,
6 Ferret um thick double contoured refractile
dermatitidis pyogranulomatous with yeast

Canine laryngeal
rhabdomyoma and
Laryngeal skeletal muscle: rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare
7 Dog Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma distinct entity, most are
histologically benign bu may
cause respiratory obstruction
possibel hepatic
8 Cat Spongioform change Brain- spongioform change
Liver: Vacuolar degeneration and
portal venous hypoplasia and
arteriolar duplication
Lung: Bronchitis and bronchiolitis
Orthopoxvirus: Ectromelia,
with epithelial balooning susceptible strains: C3H, A, DBA,
3 9 Mouse Ectromelia vaccina, variola, monkeypox,
degeneration and eosinophilic SWR, BALB/c
intracytoplasmic inlcusions

Liver: Cholangiohepatitis with

Helicobacter susceptible strains: C3H, A,
10 Mouse biliary hyperplasia and piecemeal
hepaticus SCID
hepatocellular necrosis
Skeletal muscle: Degeneration Fibrates are lipid lowering
11 Rat Fibrate myopathy and necrosis with histiocytic agents, Selective Type 1 fiber Statins selectively target Type II fibers
myositis damage
Lung: Alveolar proteinosis and Mutations in surfactant
Pulmonary alveolar Secondary PAP results from
12 Mouse peribronchiolar and perivascular proteins B or C or the Beta
proteinosis impairment of macrophages
lymphoid aggregates chain of the GM-CSF receptor

Mycobacterium Subcutis: Panniculitis,

4 13 Ara (McCaw)
tuberculosis granulomatous, diffuse

Tumors of odontogenic Ameloblastoma, Amyloid producing

Maxilla: Ameloblastic fibro-
14 Dog Odontogenic tumor epithelium without odontogenic tumor, Canine
mesenchyme acanthomatous ameloblastoma
Ameloblatic fibroma/fibro-odontoma,
Tumors of odontogenic Feline inductive odontogenic tumor,
epithelium with mesenchyme Complex odontoma, compound
Tumors predominantly of
cementoma, cementifying fibroma
odontogenic mesenchyme
Lung: Pneumonia,
Dictyocaulus filaria commonly
lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic,
affetcs goat kids and lambs Muellerius capillaris (nodular
and eosinophilis, with bronchiolar
15 Bighorn Sheep Protostrongylus sp and causes partial obstruction lungworm) alsoaffetcs sheep and
smooth muscle hypertrophy and
of small bronchi and type II goats forming subpleural nodules
myriad metastrongyle eggs larvae
pneumocyte hyperplasia
and adults
Salivary gland: coagulative
Necrotizing necrosis (infarct) with ductular
16 Dog commonly affects terriers
sialometaplasia hyperplasia and squamous

ddx Diarrhe in NHP: E coli

Shigellosis- flexneri,
dysenteriae, boydii,
Campylobacter jejuni and coli,
Small intestine: Villous atrophy Salmonella enteriditis and
Attaching and and fusion, with enterocyte tymphimurium, Yersinia
5 17 Macaque
Effacing E coli degeneration and adherent chort enterocolitica, and
bacilli pseudotuberculosis,
Cryptosporidium parvum,
Proteus vulgaris, Pinworms
(oxyuris and enterobius),
Balantidium coli, IBD,
Entamoeba histolytica
18 Horse Malignant neoplasm Lung: Possible mesothelioma

Tansy mustard
Brain: Laminar cortical necrosis Sulfur accumulating plants-->
19 Ox (Descurainia pinnata)
with gliosis Thiamine deficiency
Chorioallantois: Placentitis,
20 Dog Brucella canis necrotizing with intratrophoblastic
Lymph node and tonsil: Lymphoid
depletion with sinus histiocytosis
6 21 Pig Porcine circovirus-2
and draining neutrophilia, with
intrahistiocytic botryoid inclusions

Kidney: Nephritis, suppurative,

22 Horse Actinobacillus eqquli
embolic with coccobacilli
Secondary EFE- develps in
Primary EFE- No other heart conjunction with congenital cardiac
23 Horse Heart: Endocardial fibroelastosis lesions/ inherited resulting in abnormalities, myocarditis, glycogen
sudden death storage disease and carnitine
Random foci of hepatocellular
Liver: Hepatitis, histiocytic and
24 OX Salmonella dublin necrosis containing macrophages
lymphocytic, necrotizing
and neutrophils
mononuclear expansion of the
interstitial space with few neutrophils,
Lung: Edema and hemorrhage alveolar spaces contain fibrin,
with intraalveolar fibrin neutrhpils and erythrocytes,
interlobular septa are widened by
edema and fibrin
Liver: Hepatocellular
degeneration, necrosis, and loss
with parenchymal collapse, bile
stasis, nodular regeneration,
7 25 Dog Cirrhosis
moderate dissecting fibrosis,
biliary hyperplasia, and
lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis
Heart; Skeletal muscle: Myofiber
26 Brown Pelican Hypovitaminosis E degeneration and necrosis with
fibrosis and fatty infiltration

27 Mouse Leukemia Liver: Myeloid leukemia BXH-2 Mouse good review of leukemias
Liver: Necrosis, centrilobular and
28 Dog Heatstroke
Lip: Cheilitis, ulcerative with
epithelial syncytia, and Most likely Herpes simplex
8 29 Macaque Alphaherpesvirus
amphophilic to eosinophilic virus
intranuclear inclusions
Lung: Bronchiolitis,
lymphoplasmacytic with
PCD: 50% have situs inversus
Primary Ciliary bronchiolectasis and bronchiolar
30 Dog or communicating
Dyskinesis epithelial hyperplasia, vascular
smooth muscle hypertrophy, and
interstitial fibrosis
Mammary glands:
31 Rat Adenocarcinoma
Kidney: Tubular necrosis with
32 Macaque Tenofovir toxicosis regeneration; Glomerular capillary Antiretroviral drug

Haired skin and subcutis:

Erysipelothrix Other lesions_ endocarditis,
9 33 Pig Vasculitis with fibrin thrombi and ddx: PDNS (PRRS and PCV-2)
rhusiopathiae polyarthritis, and skin necrosis
superficial dermal necrosis

Abomasum: Mucus neck cell

Lack of parietal cells a Haemonchus contortus- sheep and
hyperplasia, eosinophilic
34 Ox Ostertagia ostertagi problem of tissue ID- Maybe goats, Ostertagia in cattles,
abomasitis, and trichostrongylid
from pyloric region Trichostrongylus axei in horses
Medullary thyroid Thyroid gland: Medullary thyroid
35 Monkey
carcinoma carcinoma
Fever anorexia, depression dyspnea
Brain, cerebrum: congestion and Sheep, goats and cattle: and ataxia, Pulmonary Edema,
36 Sheep ehrlichia ruminantium edema, with intraendothelial Transmitted by Amblyomma Hydropericardium, Hydrothorax,
rickettsia ticks. Cerebral edema, lymph node edema,
Vit D toxicity or inherited
10 37 Paca Osteosclerosis Long bone: Osteosclerosis diffuse
failure of ostoclast activity
Bone, thoracic vertebrae:
38 Horse Osteoslcerosis Osteosclerosis with failure of
modeling of primary trabeculae
Mandible: Carcinoma, with
Carcinoma; Fracture vascular invasion and chondro-
39 Dog
callus osseus and fibrous proliferation
(fracture callus)
Radius and tibia of young
large breed dogs- Osteoblast
and osteoclast necrosis,
hemorrhage and neutrophilic
Hypertrophic Long Bone: Osteomyelitis,
inflammation where primary
osteodystrophy necrosuppurative, acute diffues,
40 Dog trabeculae leave naken later lesions have fibrous tissue
(Metaphyseal with microfractures and acute
mineralized cartilage. Below
Osteodystrophy) fibrinois vascular necrosis
this the trabeculae are
fractured with marked
osteoclast resorption and
suppurative inflammation
Possible causes include: vaccine high or imbalanced calcium
induced or bacterial or viral agents and phosphorus levels
In cats they are made of solid They always originate from
sheets of bland polygonal cells epithelial tissues lining the
11 41 Cat Iridociliary adenoma PAS stain highlights the delicate BM
with regular delicate vascular posterior chamber, iris and
supply ciliary body.
Small intestine: Vasculitis,
Streptococcus equi
42 Horse necrotizing with thrombi, infarcts,
and cocci
Neoplastic cells are positive for
Spindle cell IN this case there is alsoa thin
GFAP and negative form s-100
43 Dog neoplasm of blue- choroid with little pigment,
(Peripheral nerve sheath tumor
eyed dogs loss of ganglion cells
not melanoma)

There is replacement of much

Chronic intestinal of the tunica media by
pseudoobstruction Small intestine: Leiomyositis, connective tissue containing
44 Dog
(Lymphoplasmacytic lymphohistiocytic lymphocytes, macrophages,
leiomyositis) and occasional plasma cells
and neutrophils.
Small intestine: Enteritis,
necrotizing, acute, diffuse with
Peste des petits crypt abscesses, villosu blunting
12 45 Lamb
ruminants and fusion, syncytia and
intracytoplasmic intranuclear
eosinophilic inclusion bodies
Heart: Epicarditis,
46 Goat pyogranulomatosu and fibrinous,
chronic, severe
47 Monkey Francisella tularensis Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous,
Rumen: Rumenitis,
Predisposing factors-
Zygomycetes; necrosuppurative, erosive,
48 Ox Antibiotics, grain overload,
Candida transmural, with vasculitis, thrombi
IBR, BVD-mucosal disease
and fungal hyphae
ddx: fusobacterium
necrophorum in cattle;
Liver: Necrosis, coagulative with
Histomonas meleagridis in
13 49 Duck Borrelia anserina fibrin thrombi with splenic
turkeys; Entamoeba invadens
in reptiles, and Entamoeba
histolytica in primates
Adrenal gland: Adrenal cortical
Carcinoma with Metastatic adrenal cortical
50 Ferret carcinoma, with myxoid
myxoid differentiation carcinoma
Skeletal muscle and esophagus:
51 Ferret Myositis, neutrophilic with
Idioapthic Myositis
scattered myonecrosis
Neuroendocrine cells and
cardiac Heart, right atrium: Cardiac Chromaffin positive =
52 Dog sutentacular cells. Sympthetic
paraganglioma paraganglioma catecholamines, sympathetic
or parasympathetic
Salinomycin- Potassium ionophore-
interferes with potassium transport
across mitochondrial memebranes,
resulting in low intracellular energy
ionophore toxicosis- Cation
production. The Na/Ca exchange may
transporters that embed in
also be disrupted allowing fatal
plasma membranes and
Heart: Myocardial degeneration accumulation of intracellular calcium.
facilitate the movement of
14 53 Horse Salinomycin toxicosis and necrosis, subacute with Calcium pumps pump cytosolic
sodium and potassium ions
histiocytic inflammation calcium into sarcoplasmic reticulum/
from extracellular fluids.
failure results in increased cytosolic
Hydrogen ions move out of
calcium and causes myofibril
the cells,
hyperconttraction, ATP depletion and
failed oxidative phpsphorylation
resulting in mitochondrial swelling,
disruption and cell death

Lung: Mineralization, interstitial,

multifocal, with emphysema,
54 Dog Hypervitaminosis D
intraalveolar edema, and
Kidney: Tubular degeneration and Mechanical damage and local
55 Ox necrosis with intratubular toxic effects, from crystallizing
amphophilic granular material in renal vessels

Ramaria flavo- Esophagus: Esophagus, ddx: Selenium and thallium

56 Ox brunnescens necrotizing, ulcerative with toxicosis as wellas BVD-
toxicosis intramucosal thrombi mucosal disease, FMD

Lung: carcinoma, multicentric with

Jaagsiekte (Ovine bronchointerstitial pneumonia,
15 57 Sheep Pulmonary suppurative, and histiocytic with retrovirus
Adenomatosis) peribronchiolar lymphocyte
Lymph node: Lymphadenitis, Nocardia- gram pos, aerobis,
58 OX Nocardia sp granulomatous, multifocal with filamentous, partially acid fast,
mineral and filamentous bacilli facultative intracellular
Pancreas: ductal ectasia with
intraluminal adult trematodes,
59 Ox Eurytrema sp periductal fibrosis, acinar atrophy,
and granulomatous pancreatitis,
centered on trematode eggs

Bone, distal right tibia:

Osteomyelitis, granulomatous and
60 Dog Basidiomycetes look like aspergillus
necrotizing with myriad fungal
Mechanisms: Direct cellular
Bone: Necrosis with periosteal damage by ice crystals-->
16 61 Trumpeter Frostbite
and endosteal hyperostosis cellular dehydration and
cellular lysis
Constant vasoconstriction-->
local hypoxia, acidosis and
Synovium: Synovitis, and cellulitis,
increased viscosity -->
heterophilic and histiocytic
thrombosis and ischemic
Local thrombosis and
endothelial damage trigger
Skin: epidermal hyperplasia,
release of prostaglandins
hyperkeratosis with focal ulcer
(PGF2alpha and TXA2)-->
and superficial fungi
MORE vasoconstriction and
Liver: Pentastome nymphs and
62 Snake Pentastomiasis
multifocal granulomas

Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing with

63 Owl Herpesvirus strigis eosinophilic hepatocellular
intranuclear inclusions
Chorangiomas- benign
Atypical Placenta: Atypical mesenchymal
placental tumors, from fetal
64 Bongo mesenchymal proliferation with striated muscle
blood vessels or primitive
proliferation differentiation
chorionic mesenchyme
This mass contained
undifferentiated mesenchymal
cells, endothelial cells,
Chorioallantois: Fibrosis with
pericytes, smooth muscle
mineralization and villar necrosis
cells, skeletal muscle cells,
leading to diagnosis of
placental stem cell tumor
Skin: Epidermal and follicular
hyperplasia, balooning ddx Dry Pox: Proliferative,
Trichophyton megninii and
17 65 Chicken Avian Poxvirus degeneration and necrosis with hyperkeratotic and ulcerative
Knemidocoptes gallinae
eosinophilic intracytoplasmic cutaneous lesions
ddx:Wet Pox: Caseous Vit A deficiency, GHV-1, Trichomonas
inflammation in pharynx/ gallinae, Capillaria annulata, Candida
esophagus/ crop albicans, Aspergillosis
Haired skin and subcutis:
Panniculitis and dermatitis,
66 Cat Pseudomycetoma pyogranulomatous, nodular with
fungal hyphae and intrafollicular
arthrospores and hyphae
Benign PNST: Neurofibroma
Peripheral nerve Skin: Hemangiopericytoma, (Schwanna cells and Malignant PNST: Neurofibrosarcoma,
67 Dog
sheath tumor myxoid type perineurial cells), Malignant Schwannoma
Virulence factors: alpha toxin
Skin and Subcutis: Vasculitis, (creates a pore in cell Exotoxins- Superantigens (stimulate T
Staphylococcus necrotizing with dermal and membranes), Beta toxin (Type cells non specifically- TSST,
68 Dog
aureus; mucinosis epidermal necrosis, hemorrhage, C Sphingomyelinase), Enterotoxin), Exfoliatin toxins (ETA,
and dermal-epidermal separation Leukocidin (pores in cell ETB)
Skin: Mucinosis, severe
Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial
18 69 Cat Chlamydophila sp Chlamydophila felis
histiocytic with edema
Liver, Spleen: Deg and necrosis
with splenic lymphocytolysis and
Porcine coronavirus
Small intestine: Villous blunting
70 Pig (Transmissible
and fusion

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial,

lymphoplasmacytic diffuse, with
71 Monkey edema, alveolar histiocytosis,
hemosiderosis, and intrahistiocytic
other lesiosn: non-suppurative
Heart: Myocarditis, necrotizing, pancreatic necrosis,
72 Chicken H5N1 Avian Influenza
histiocytic dermatitis, splenic lymphoid
depletion in spleen and
Trachea: Tracheitis, necrotizing,
heterophilic, and granulomatous,
Mycobacterium transmurally with ulceration
19 73 Duck
avium; Aspergillus sp osteolysis, and squamous
metaplasia with fungi, and
bacterial cocci, bacilli
Primary intraocular
neuroectodermal tumors- 1)
Mature Neuroepithelium-
Eye: Primitve neuroectodermal
Cilialry epithelium derived-
Primitive tumor with features of
74 Horse (adenoima, Carcinoma of X),
neuroectoderm tumor medulloepithelioma and
and 2) Primitive medullary
(medulloepitheliomas, and
3 types of Lafora bodies: 1) branching
Polyglucosan bodies are fibrillar structures without a limiting
similar to Corpora amylacea, membrane, 2) Osmiophilic granules in
Lafora body disease Cerebellum, Purkinje cells-
75 Cat stain positively with PAS, the central core surrounded by fibrillar
(polyglucosan bodies) Polyglucosan bodies
Alcian blue, and methenamine material, RER is affected, 3) Dense
silver peripherla ring of PAS positive
Retrobulbar Pleomorphic large vesicular abundant cytoplasm, indistinct cell
76 Dog Retrobulbar tissue: Meningioma,
meningioma borders, occasional small nests of compact swirling cells
Brain,cerebrum: Asymmetric cerebral white matter, and brainstem. Lesions include
Leukoencephalitis, necrotizing, necrosis and cavitation with astrocytosis, gemistocytes, fibrillary
20 77 Dog Encephalitis of
nonsuppurative with gemistocytic astrocytes, perivascular cuffing, macrophages, microgliosis,
Yorkshire Terriers
astrogliosis neovascularization, gitter cells, sclerosis, swollen axons, astroglial
Acute Water Brain, cerebrum: Necrosis,
78 Pig deprivation syndrome cortical, laminar, subacute with
(salt toxicity) eosinophilic meningoencephalitis
Brain, cerebrum: Vasculitis,
79 Ox Zygomycetes necrotizing, thromboembolic with
fungal hyphae

Porcine enteric picornaviruses-

Spinal cord: Poliomyelitis and
Polioencephalomyelitis, CNS, Porcine enteric picornavirus-
80 Pig Teschen disease radiculoneuritis, non-suppurative
ventral spinal cord, Enterovirus- no neurologic disease
with meningitis
chromatolysis, gliosis and
perivascular cuffing
Encephalomyocarditis virus,
cardiovirus genus- congestion, Porcine adenovirus-
meningitis, perivascular Meningoencephalitis with
mononuclear cells, neural perivascular infiltrates, and
degeneration, non-suppurative microglial formation
encephalitis and myocarditis in
sein efetuses
Lung: Pneumonia, granulomatous
and eosinopgilic with larvated
eggs and intra-arterial adult
metastrongyle nematodes,
21 81 Rat Angiostrongylus sp
proliferative histiocytic and
eosinophilic endarteritis,
bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia,
and mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis
Brainstem, cerebellum:
Escherichia coli/
82 Dolphin Leptomeningitis, histiocytic and
Strep zoo
neutrophilis with short bacilli
Abomasum: Abomasitis,
Clostridium necrotizing, fibrinosuppurative and
83 OX
perfringens A hemorrhagic, transmural with
adherent short bacilli

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath

Malignant peripheral
84 Dog tumor with adenocarcinomatous
nerve sheath tumor
divergent differentiation
The abnormal gonad contained both male and female characteristics.
On one edge of the gonad was a thick cord of fibromuscular tissue
containing several tubular structures lined by cuboidal to low
columnar epithelium with stereocilia. This structure appeared
consistent with an epididymis. The majority of the gonad consisted of
sheets of small aggregates of large polygonal cells containing
22 85 Dog Ovotestis Gonad: Ovotestis, unilateral eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm (consistent with interstitial cells)
interrupted by occasional tubular structures that do not resemble
normal ovarian follicles or seminiferous tubules. These tubules were
lined by polygonal to spindle cells containing vacuolated basophilic
cytoplasm and exhibited a mild degree of anisokaryosis (atypical sex
chord stroma cells). In several tubules these cells appeared
consistent with Sertoli cells

Uterus, endometrium:
sings of late pregnancy /early
Pseudocyesis; Cystic Hyperplasia, labyrinthine, the bitch has a long diestrus period
lactation in the absence of a
86 Dog endometrial segmental, marked, with and functional CL regardless of
conceptus is a
hyperplasia mucometra, periluminal necrosis pregnancy
and mineralization
Cytotrophoblasts are small,
undifferentiated stem cells,
Syncytiotrophoblasts are Intermediate trophoblasts are
Placental site Uterus: Ovary: Placental site
87 Macaque terminally differentiated morphologically intermediate but no
trophoblastic tumor trophoblastic tumor
multinucleated cells producing multinucleated cells.
placental hormones and gas
PSTT: neoplasm of intermediate Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor-
Choriocarcinoma- biphasic population
trophoblast cells- occurs at monomorphic intermediate
of cytotrophoblsats and
endometrial implantation site trophoblast cells resembling
suring pregnancy chorionic laeve

Juvenile granulosa cell tumor: Yolk sac tumors: Malignant germ cell tumors in ovary and testicle,
Solid with multifocal follcles and and recapitulate different developmental stages in the normal yolk
variable thecomatous sac. Patterns range from nests and chords and papillary structures,
differentiation with abundant to a reticular or microcystic pattern. Cytoplasm is clear with lipid or
eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm glycogen
Allantochorion: Placentitis,
necrohemorrhagic with
88 Horse Aspergillus sp
pseudomembrane, squamous
metaplasia and fungal hyphae
Lepromatous leprosy
(malignant disease) results
Skin and subcutis: dermatitis and
from a lack of T cell immunity- Antigen antibody complexes (from IL-
Mycobacterium panniculitis, pyogranulomatous
23 89 Macaque Lacking effective CD4+ TH1 4) may result in vasculitis,
leprae with granulomatous neuritis, focal
cells, but many CD8+ glomerulonephritis.
Suppressor TH2 cells which
secrete IL-10, IL-4, and IL-5
Tuberculoid leprosy (benign
disease) is characterized by
granuloma formation with few
mycobacteria- Numerous
CD4+ TH1 T cells secrete IL-2
and IFN-gamma
Haired skin and subcutis: Sparagnosis- plerocercoid larvae (sparagna) of Spirometra spp-
Granulomas, eosinophilic with Outer tegument surrounding a solid but loose mesenchyme stroma
90 Baboon Spirometra sp
nercosis hemorrhage and larval with calcareous corpuscles, excretory ducts, skeletal muscle
cestodes bundles, and no digestive tract

lung: Lymphoma with marked

Simian T
91 Baboon alveolar edema, histiocytosis and
Lyphotrophic Virus -1

Endocardial Heart: Endocardium:

92 SD Rat
Schwannoma Schwannoma
Gill: Branchitis, histiocytic and
Proliferative gill
24 93 Catfish proliferative, with lamellar fusion Myxosporidian parasites
blunting and loss and protozoa
Hepatopancreas, tubular epithelial
cells: Amphophilic intranuclear
94 Crayfish Baculovirus Baculoviruses are large rod shaped viruses with circular ds genome
inclusions with Karyomegaly, and
multifocal granulomas

Adenovirus liver: hepatocellular degeneration,

95 Reptile
(atadenovirus) nercosis, with basophilic INIB

Chytridiomycosis Skin: Epidermal hyperplasia and

96 Frog (Batrachochytrium hyperkeratosis with minimal
dendrobatitidis) dermatitis and intracorneal fungi

Heart: myocarditis, necrotizing

25 97 Mac Trypanosoma cruzi with rare intrasarcoplasmic
Thyroid gland: Hyperplasia,
98 Beluga whale adenomatous with follicular cysts
and micropapillary proliferations
Bursa of Fabricius, follicles:
Lymphoid depletion with
99 Pigeon Pigeon circivirus
histiocytosis and intrahistiocytic
botryoid inclusions
TEM: Conjunctiva: there are
multiple epithelial cells that lie
on a basement membrane
and are covered by lalellar
Conjunctiva: epithelial cell keratin. The cytoplasm of the particles are round 200-250 nm
100 Mouse Ectromelia virus EM degeneration with most cells contains round contain an elliptical or peanut-shaped
intracytoplasmic pox virions electron dense amorphous electron dense core (pox virus)
inclusions that occasionally
displaces the nucleus, all cells
contain numerous small round
electron dense particles
Conference Slide Species etiology Morph Dx Gross Histo
Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia,
Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, lymphoid infiltration, alveolar
Caprine arthritis- proliferative, lymphocytic with Gross: Poorly collapsed lungs proteinosis// Other lentiviruses- Maedi-
1 1 Goat encephalitis virus alveolar proteinosis and with several white nodules up visna in sheep (OPP), Equine
(lentivirus) secondary acute to 2 cm infectious anemia, SIV, FIV, BIV,
bronchopneumonia HIV// Morbillivirus- Peste des petits
B. mandrillaris- trophozoite is
15-60 um and has a rouns
Kidney:Nephritis, interstitial, Lesions in the brain- fibrinoid necrosis
nucleus with dense nucleolus,
necrotizing, pyogranulomatous, of blood vessels with neutrophils and
2 Dog Balamuthia more than one nucleolus can
with amebic trophozoites and macrophages, malacia with
be observed. The Cyst form
cysts astrogliosis
ia 15-60 um with a bilayer and
granules below the cell wall

Acanthamoeba sp- inhalation, Entamoeba histolytica-

causes lung and neurologic aboebic dysentery in humans
Naegleria fowleri- Primary Amebic
disease (GAE)- granulomatous and primates. Cause flask
Meningoencephalitis (PAM). Found in
Hartmannella sp- amoebic encephalitis. shaped intestinal ulcers.
fresh water, soil, and sewage.
Non-pathogenic Trophozoites are 10-30 um in Hematogenous and lymphatic
Inhaled. Trophozoites are 6-12 um
free living diameter, contain an eccentric dissemination may occur.
with central nucleus and single large
amoeba. nucleus, a single nucleolus, and Trophozoites are 6-50 um in
nucleolus. Cysts are not generally
eosinophilic cytoplasm, with diameter often surrounded by
found in neural tissue
glycogen vacuoles and only one a clear halo and have an
nucleolus eccentric nucleus

Visceral gout, Liver: Mineral deposition (gout Gout- caused by dehydration,

3 Boa Inclusion body tophi), with mild granulomatous IBD- Type C retrovirus nephrotoxic drugs,m excess dietary
disease inflammation protein and calcium, Vit A deficiency

Humans- Nucleic acids are

Liver: Hepatocyte inclusion
Uric acid is secreted by the hydrolyzed to purines and
bodies, eosinophilic
renal tubular epithelium pyrimidines. Purine metabolism
creates uric acid via xanthine oxidase
Liver: Hepatocellular
ne>Uric Guanine>xanthine>uric acid>allantoic
degeneration, with single cell
acid>Allantoin>Allantoic acid>urea
The tumor is composed of Germ cell neoplasm that
Yolk sac nests, clusters, or ribbons of differentiated into yolk sac extra-
4 Mouse Ovary: Yolk Sac Carcinoma
carcinoma discrete cells embedded in an embryonic structures. The yolk matrix
eosinophilic matrix is PAS positive
Lesions are associated with
Humans with diabetes- common
persistent diabetes mellitus,
opportunistic fungal infections are
Cryptococcus Brain: Meningitis, granulomatous, with exacerbation of
2 5 Lemur sino-orbital aspergillosis,
neoformans with numerous yeast atherosclerosis with vascular
rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and
thrombosis and opportunistic
cryptococcal meningitis
fungal infection
Brain: Infarcts, multifocal, acute
and chronic
Ddx: Feline calicivirus-
Lung: Bronchopneumonia,
oculonasal discharge, rhinitis, Toxoplasmosis- triggered by
necrotizing, acute, diffuse, severe,
Feline conjunctivitis, ulcerative immunosuppression, necrotizing
6 cat with syncytia and epithelial
Herpesvirus-1 stomatitis, interstitial interstitial pneumonia, with Type II
eosinophilic intranuclear
pneumonia, necrotizing pneumocyte proliferation
Toxins- Paraquat (herbicide), fatal
Aspiration pneumonia-from interstitial pnuemonia- gross lesions
vomiting, regurgitation, include interstitial emphysema,
dysphagia, post-anesthesia, bullosu emphysema, and
Brain: Laminar cortical necrosis Kidney lead levels were toxic
Acid fast intranuclear inclusions were
7 Ox Lead Toxicosis with gliosis and hypertrophic 85 ppm (Ref 5-700 ppm toxic
found in the renal tubular epithelium
endothelial cells range)
Toxicity- Binding and inactivation of
Lead in 3 forms- metallic and enzymatic sulfhydryl groups (heme
salt (car batteries, lead synthesis), competition with calcium
weights, paint, shot, plumbing ions (bone lead lines, neuromuscular
waste, computer equipment, junction tremors and paresis),
pesticide), and organic (in old alteration of Vit D metabolism.
gasoline) Altered heme synthesis may result on
increased serotonin production.

Microsporidian lesions grossly

resemble myxozoan (multnucleated
forms that have enveloping primary
cells which contain enveloped
With telangiectasia with
secondary cells, their spores have
parasitic xenomas. The
two polar capsules), ich (White spot
parasite invades through
Gill: Branchitis, necrotizing and disease caused by Ichthyphthirius
enterocytes and merogeny
proliferative, with mucus cell multifilis, trophonts are large with
8 Salmon Loma salmonae occurs , then sporogeny
metaplasia and numerous uniform layer of external cilia and
occurs and xenomas form:
protozoal cysts horse-shoe shaped macronucleus),
Spores are 7 um or less, egg
lymphocystis (Piscine iridovirus which
shaped, with a posterior
infects dermal fibroblasts and inhibits
mitosis, producing tremendous
cellular hypertrophy) and dermal
metacercariae (Cellular hypertrophy),
bacterial granulomas, and neoplasia.
Ultrastructurally the crystals look like
Charcot-leyden crystals;
Lung: Pneumonia, acidophilic Macrophages contain Biochemically theyt are composed of
3 9 Mouse Macrophage
macrophage eosinophilic crystals Ym-1 protein (Chitinase), also known
as T-lymphocyte derived eosinophilic
chemotactic factor
Granular eosinophilic
extracellular material with
Bronchopneumonia, suppurative
Pneumocystis minimal associated
with intra-alveolar fungal
murina inflammation. There are two
forms, Trophozoites and cysts
containing sporozoites
There is focally extensive loss of
Colon: Serosal fibrosis with smooth muscle that normally
Gastric ulcers often
Chloral Hydrate leiomyocyte degeneration and comprises the external longitudianl
10 Rat accompany intraperitoneal
peritonitis necrosis and mild neutrophil layer of the tunica muscularis. There
injections of chloralhydrate
infiltration is replacement by fibrous tissue.
Inflammation is minimal
Liver: Choledochitis, proliferative,
SIV infected primates- Infection also causes epithelial
chronic active, diffuse, with mucus
cryptosporidium occurs in the hyperplasia in a variety of species,
Cryptosporidium cell metaplasia, apical protozoa,
11 Macaque small intestine, biliary and and villus blunting in others. This may
sp and multifocal mild
pancreatic tracts, conjunctiva be due in part to induction of
cholangiohepatitis with bile duct
and lung apoptosis
distal ileum, small raised
islands progressing to
confluent nodular surface with
Small intestine: Enteritis,
Lawsonia hemorrhage and necrosis.
12 Rabbit proliferative, histiocytic and
intracellularis Thickened epithelium results
from expansion and
elongation of the crypts and
absence of goblet cells
Small intestine: intraepithelial
eimeria spp
Aspergillus- 3-5 um wide
Heart: Epicarditis and myocarditis,
hyphae with regular septate Primary pathogenic fungi:
necrotizing and granulomatous
4 13 Dog Aspergillus sp parallel walls and Blastomyces, Histoplasmosis,
with vasculitis and pigmented and
dichotomous acute angle Cryptococus, Coccidiomycosis
non-pigmented fungi
most cases of disseminated
Pigmented hyphae, 2-6 um Aspergillosis occur in German
wide, closely septate hypahe Shepherds. Opportunistic fungi:
Cladosporium with non-parallel walls, non- Aspergillus, Zygomycetes(Mucorales:
bantianum dichotomous branching, and Rhizopus, Absidia, Mucor/
occasional thick walled Entomophthorales: Basidiobolus,
vesicular swellings Conidiobolus), Pythiosis,
p53 is ini nucleus, prevents
proliferation of cells with DNA
damage- causing repair or
apoptosis. When DNA
damage occurs p53 levels
rapidly increase and cause
transcription of p21 (CDK
inhibitor). This prevents p53 deficient mice develop T
phosphorylation of Rb lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma,
preventing entrance into the S fibrosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma,
14 Mouse Lymphoma Thymus: Lymphoma
phase of the cell cycle. If teratoma, anaplastic sarcoma,
DNA damage is repaired p53 osteosarcoma, lung adenocarcinoma,
activates mdm2 whose hair matrix tumor, leiomyosarcoma
product binds to and down-
regulates p53. If DNA repair is
unsuccessful p53 initiates
apoptosis through Bax and
IGF-BP3. IGF-BP3 binds
ILGFreceptor and bax
antagonizes bcl-2
Determiners of malignancy:
Selef sufficiency in growth
signals, insensitivity to
inhibitory signals (TGFB and
inhibitors of Cdkinases),
evasion of apoptosis
(inactivation of p53), defects
Heart: Hemangiosarcoma in DNA repair, limitless
reproductive potential
(maintenance of telomere
length), sustained
angiogenesis (VEGF), escape
from immunity and rejection,
and the ability to invade and
Anemia- non-regenerative = anemia
Omentum: Omentitis,
of chronic disease (TNF, IL-1, IFN-
Pyogranulomatou pyogranulomatous, sclerosing, Gossypium (cotton) and boma
gamma)--> decreased response to
15 Dog s omentitis marked, focally extensive, with (place of concealment-
erythropoietin and decreased release
(Gossypiboma) fibrillar foreign material (surgical swahili)= Gossypiboma
of EPO, and impaired availability og
iron into erythron
Fever: IL-1 and TNF increase
Acute phase proteins- IL-6 -->
cyclooxygenase--> increased Leukocytosis- IL-1/ TNF -->
C reactive protein and
PGE2--> produce accelerated release from bone
fibrinogen/ IL-1/TNF--> Serum
neurotransmitters that increase marrow post-mitotic pool
amyloid A
set-point temps
NDV- rubulavirus
(Paramyxoviridae). 5
Pathotypes- Viscerotropic
velogenic--> Acute and lethal
with hemorrhage in GI tract. gross lesions of VVND =
Neurotropic velogenic--> subcutaneous and periocular edema,
Neurologic and respiratory. hemorrhagic and catarrhal tracheitis,
Newcastle Conjunctiva: Conjunctivitis, acute,
Mesogenic--> acute airsacculitis, necrohemorrhagic
16 Chicken Disease Virus focal, moderate, with necrotizing
respiratory sometimes lethal enteritis, yolk peritonitis/ Histo=
(Rubulavirus) vasculitis
in young chicks. Lentogenic -- necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis,
> Mild or inapparent lymphoid depletion, necrosuppurative
respiratory infection. encephalomyelitis.
Asymptomatic-enteric form
manifests chiefly as gut
infections with lentogenic
Paramyxovirus (Bovine PI-3,
Sendai virus (PI-1), Human PI-
1, 3), Rubulavirus (Avian
Paramyxoviridae- Simian virus-5, Mumps, Pneumovirus (BRSV, Pneumonia
hemagglutinin/Neuraminidase Human PI-2), Morbillivirus virus of mice, Turkey rhinotracheitis
(HN) and fusion protein (F) (Canine Distemper virus, virus, Human RSV)
Rinderpest, Peste des petits
ruminants, Dolphin
morbillivirus, Phocine
distemper, Measles)
LGL are either cytotoxic T cell (CD8+
The spleen red pulp is CD3+), or NK cells (CD3-). Cytotoxic
expanded by large neoplastic granule proteins such as TIA-1,
round cells with scant granzyme, and perforin are used as
Large granular Spleen: Sinusoidal large granular
amounts of eosinophilic markers. In humans LGL is thought to
5 17 Dog lymphocyte lymphocyte leukemia with lympoid
cytoplasm and round to arise from apoptosis dysregulation
leukemia atrophy of white pulp
indented nuclei. Cells were due to abnormalities in the Fas/FasL
positive for CD3 and negative pathway. It is often associated with
for CD79a and lysozyme autoimmune disorders, Epstein BArr,
T-cell lymphotropic virus

Large bacterial colonies:

Liver: Abscesses, multifocal and
YAAACCSS: Actinomyces,
coalescing with myriad bacilli, and
Actinobacillus, The spiculated material is most
Arcanobacterium random portal hepatitis,
18 Goat Arcanobacterium, Clostridium, consistent with Splendore-Hoeppli
pyogenes neutrophilic and plasmacytic eith
Corynebacterium, material, but could be amyloid.
abundant eosinophilic spiculated
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis,
necrotizing, hemorrhagic and
neutrophilic, global, diffuse with
neutrophilic and plasmacytic
tubulointerstitial nephritis,
numerous fibrin thrombi, and
multifocal eosinophilic spiculated
Type C retrovirus particles found, but
Hepatic sinusoids were
not a definitive cause. This is a
expanded by a fairly
Lung,Liver: Leukemia, transmissible (transplantable)
19 Guinea pig Cavian leukemia monomorphic population of
lymphoblastic neoplasm in ibred strains and hybrids.
round lymphoid cells, with
Guinea pig herpesvirus may also
tingible body macrophages.
contribute to the disease.
Calculi- Ammonium bi-urates,
Liver: Portal arteriolar hyperplasia urates- Erythrocytic
Congenital and venule hypoplasia, moderate microcystosis is common.
Portosystemic with lymphangiectasia, Fasting and post-prandial bile
20 Dog
shunt (Portal hepatocellular atrophy and fatty acids, increased ALT
hypoplasia) change, periportal and bridging (increased injury) ALP is
fibrosis and bile stasis inducible, indicator of
Transmitted by Amblyomma
maculatum, dog ingests the
Heart: Myocarditis and epicarditis, tick, sporozoites released
Histo: typical "onion skin cysts" within
Hepatozoon pyogranulomatous, multifocal, from the tick oocysts
6 21 Dog the muscle, meronts, and
americanum with numerous protozoal cysts penetrate the intestine and go
pyogranulomatous myositis
and merozoites ti muscle via circulation where
they undergo asexual
Small Intestine: Enteritis,
Sporozoites are Sarcocystis,
subacute with villous blunting and
dogs are the definitive host
fusion and few sporozoites

Type II (antibody-mediated)
hypersensitivity- cell surface Type IV (cell mediated)
antigens (HLA in transplants)- hypersensitivity- 2 mechanisms:
Humoral rejection- in 2 forms- CD8+ cytotoxicity, and CD4 TH1
Hyperacute (preformed delayed hypersensitivty. Direct
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis,
antibodies to donor HLA), and pathway- CD8+ TCR recognize HLA
mesangioproliferative, global,
Acute (not previously on MHC 1(donor self ag) on Donor
Renal allograft diffuse, with lymphoplasmacytic
22 Macaque sensitized)- Hyperacute APC's or CD4+ cells recognize
rejection interstitial nephritis and arteritis
occurs immediately with antigens on Donor APC MHC II and
with intimal fibromuscular
circulating antibodies reacting acitvate macrophages. The Indirect
to graft endothelium--> pathway- Recipient APC's take on
Thrombosis and vasculitis. donor Ag, and Expresson MHCII -->
Antibodies activate CD4+--> Cell mediated and humoral
compliment and, ADCC (CD8- immunity (type II).
NK cells-Type IV))
Heart: Myocarditis,
lymphohistiocytic, multifocal, with
Canine Parvovirus-
23 Dog myocyte degeneration and
necrosis and basophilic
intranuclear inclusions
Rhinitis, conjunctivitis, otitis
media, exudate in tympanic
Streptococcus Lung: Bronchopneumonia, bullae, fibrinopurulent DDX: Corynebacyerium, Salmonella,
24 Rat
pneumonia necrotizing, suppurative pleuritis, peritonitis, Pseudomonas, Pasteurella
pericarditis, meningitis,
localized bronchopneumonia
Midbrain: Meningoencephalitis,
suppurative with bacterial
late term abortions, stillbirths
and respiratory disease in
Reproductive and Lung: Pneumonia,
younf pigs- related viruses virus replicates in alveolar
7 25 Pig Respiratory bronchointerstitial, with type II
include Equine Arteritis Virus, macrophages and glial cells
Syndrome pneumocyte hyperplasia
and Simian Hemorrhagic
Bacteria: Mycoplasma
hyopneumoniae (porcine
enzootic pneumonia),
pleuropneumoniaw (porcine
Porcine pneumonia: viral- Swine
pleuropneumonia), Parsites: Metastrongylus apri, Ascaris
Inlfuenza, PCV-2, Porcine
Haemophilus parasuis suum.
Respiratory Coronavirus
(Glassers dz), Pasteurella
multocids, Strep suis type II,
Mycobacterium avium, bovis,
and tuberculosis, Salmonella
cholersuis and typhisuis.
Tumorogenesis: Initiation-permanent
DDX: metastatic uterine
DNA mutations -non-lethal
adenocarcinoma. VX2
(irreversible) induced by
carcinoma was established
environmental carcinogens or viruses
from a carcinoma induced in a
(targets include growth promotors,
Stomach: Carcinoma with rabbit by the Shope
26 Rabbit VX2 Carcinoma tumor suppressor genes, and
intravascular emboli Papillomavirus- anaplastic
apoptosis genes, DNA repair genes.
carcinoma compoised of
And Promotion- enhance the
poorly differentiated
proliferation of initiated cells, and may
keratinocytes that do not
predispose to further mutation- do not
affect DNA directly and are reversible
Eight determinants of
malignancy- self-sufficiency of
growth signals, insensitivity to
growth -inhibitory signals,
evasion of apoptosis, defects
in DNA repair, limitless
replicative potential, sustained
angiogenesis, invasion and
metastasis, and evadeing the
immune system.

lesions include hepatic

necrosis with suppuration,
Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, necrotizing enteritis in the
27 Horse random with intrahepatocytic distal ileum and cecum
bacilli (excepot in Rabbit where the
cecum and colon are targets,
and necrotizing myocarditis)
Lesions are most frequent in the
pancreaticoduodenal artery and
medium sized arteries of the
In Rats- Sprague Dawley and mesentery, pancreas and testis.
Pancreas: Arteritis, histiocytic and Spontaneous Hypertensive Histologically there is thickening of
28 Monkey lymphocytic, necrotizing with Rat Strains, and in rats with the tunica media and infiltration by
fibromuscular proliferation late stage chronic monocytes (CD68+)and neutrophils.
nephropathy. With Movats pentachrome the
quantity of intimal proliferation and
disruption of elastic laminae are
Subendocardial myocardium
exhibits degeneration and
necrosis with fibrosis. Bases
of papillary muscles and innre Cause- idiopathic or associated with
Dilative Heart, myocardium: Degeneration, third of the myocardium of the hyperadrenocorticism. HCM and
8 29 Ferret
Cardiomyopathy necrosis with replacement fibrosis left ventricle are most severe. valvular diseases are common in
Mild diffuse infiltration of older ferrets.
macrophages, lymphocytes,
and plasma cells as well as
Piroplasms may be found in
erythrocytes in later stages or
persistently infected cats.
Brain, cerebrum, lung: Apicomplexan in the family
30 Cat Cytauxzoon felis Anemia, iceterus, fevers, hemorrhage
Intramonocytic schizonts Theileriidae. The natural
reservoir is the Bobcat. Ticks
are ingested or the cat is
innoculated by the tick
Neuroendocrine pattern with
basal nuclei and vacuolated
cytoplasm, mitotic index is
Neoplastic cells release insulin
low. IHC Chromogranin A,
inappropriately leading to
Insulin. EM-Numerous
31 Macaque Islet cell tumor Pancreas: Islet cell tumor (beta) hypoglycemia and neuroglycopenic
polymorphic granules
siezures, weakness, dullness, and
containing dense rectangular
abnormal behavior
crystalline core separated
from the limiting membrane by
a distinct halo (beta cells)
delts- somatostatin,
Alpha- glucagon enterochromaffin cells- serotonin
vasoactive intestinal peptide
Mastadenovirus- CAV-1(ICH), CAV-2
(ICTB), EqAV-1,2 (Mild except in CID
Lung: Pneumonia, foals), BovAV-1,2,3,9,10 (Enzootic
bronchointerstitial, proliferative, EM- virions in paracrystalline pneumonia), OvAV-1,2 (Mild resp,
subacute, diffuse, with epithelial arrays; syncytia and enteric), GoatAV-1,2 (mild resp ent),
32 Sheep Ovine adenovirus
and pneumocyte cytomegaly, Langahans cells are not PorAV-1,5 (Enteritis and
syncytia and basophilic typical. encephalitis), Guinea pigAV-1
intranuclear inclusions (Pneumonitis), MouseAV-1,2
(Enteritis and encephalitis), SimianAV-
1-25, HumanAV -1-51
Aviadenovirus- FowlAV-1 Siadenovirus- FrogAV-1, Atadenovirus- OvAV-7 (mild resp,
(Inclusion body hepatitis in TurkeyAV-3 (hemorrhagic ent), BovAV-4-8 (Enzootic pna), Black
chickens), Fowl AV-4 enteritis), PheasantAV-1 tail deer AV-1 (Pulm edema,
(Hydropericardium syndrome (Marble spleen dz in hemorrhage, vasculitis), DuckAV-1
chickens), GooseAV-1-3 pheasants) (Egg Drop Syndrome chickens)
Flavivirus- encephalitis in
humans, birds, horse, other Gross lesions- Birds- meningeal
West Nile Virus Colon: Colitis, histiocytic and mammals and reptiles. Dogs, hemorrhagem myocardial pale foci,
9 33 Alligator
(Flavivirus) heterophilic Rabbits, guinea pigs, splenomegaly, intestinal mucosal
hedgehogs and sheep do not hemorrhage, white foci in kidneys.
develop encephalitis
Histo- Birds- hemorrhage in
cerebellar foli with degeneration and
Horses- Neurotropism necrosis of the cerebellar molecular
(brainstem). layer and purkinje cells.
Polioencephalomyelitis Lymphoplasmacytic
meningoencephalitis, necrotizing
myocarditis, and enterocolitis
Avian Brain: Encephalitis
encephalomyelitis lymphoplasmacytic, multifocal with EM- Virions in crystalline DDX: END (peripheral chromatolysis),
34 Chicken virus gliosis neuronal degeneration, arraye of 22-25 nm in purkinje WEE, Rickets, Encephalomalacia and
(Picornaviridae- necrosis and pancreatic lymphoid cells riboflavin deficiency
hepatovirus) infiltrates
Picornavirus: Aphthovirus (FMD),
Enterovirus (SVDV), Porcine
enterovirus-1 {Polioencephalomyelitis-
AEV- Central chromatolysis
teschen}, Avian enteroviruses {Avian
and dense lymphocytic
encephalomyelitis, hepatitis},
infiltrates in the muscle of the
Coxsackievirus {Meningitis,
proventriculus, ventriculus,
myocarditis, poliomyelitis}, Rhinovirus
myocardium and pancreas
(Bovine and human), Hepatovirus
(Simian hepatitis A, and Human
Hepatitis A)
Encephalomyocarditis virus
(elephants swine), Theilers
murine encephalomyelitis
AL: Plasma cells, Ig light
Kidney: Amyloidosis, glomerular, chains (complete or AA: from Serum Amyloid A, acute
35 Dog Amyloidosis diffuse, global, and interstitial with fragments). Seen with multiple phase protein from liver, chronic
tubular proteinosis myeloma or other immunocyte inflammatory conditions,
Nephritis, interstitial,
AB: Beta amyloid- Alzheimers, IAAP- Islet associated amyloid
lymphoplasmacytic/ Pelvic vein
cerebral plaques peptide- Pancreas- Type II diabetes
thrombosis with mineralization
Prion diseases:
Lung: Bronchopneumonia,
histiocytic with many adult and
larval metastrongyles, bronchiolar Pulmonary inflammation Smooth muscle hyperplasia is
36 Opossum mucus cell hyperplasia, associated with free larvae, prominent (reminiscent of cats with
s hayesi
atelectasis, bronchiolar and not adults. aleurostrongylus abstrusus)
alveolar smooth muscle
Normal fetal bone Circumferential lamellar,
10 37 Ox (plexiform cortical Normal appositional growth simple primary osteonal, Laminar- circumferential lamellae
bone) plexiform, and saltatory
Plexiform- multiple widely
spaces lamina of periosteal
woven bone. The spaces in
between fill in with compact
Primary Osteonal- anastomosing In calves the compaction of the
lamellar bone- In the Horse,
vascular haversian canals plexiform bone are oriented parallel
compaction can form osteons
surrounded by concentric lamellae with the convex surface of the bone
(saltatory formation) with the
forming Haversian systems without the formation of osteons
orientation of the osteon and
its vessels being
perpendicular to the long axis
of the bone
Salmonellosis in birds: 2-3
weeks old/ Pullorum disease=
Bone: Osteomyelitis, S pullorum, and Fowl
granulomatous and heterophilic, Typhoid= S. gallinarum:
multifocal, marked with medullary Lesions are splenomegaly, Serotypes classified based on
38 Heron bone sequestrum, trabecular hepatomegaly, and caseous somatic (O), capsular (Vi), and
resorption, periosteal new bone material in yolk sacs, arthritis, flagellar (H) antigens
formation, and colones of pericarditis, hydropericardium.
coccobacilli The most common
Salmonella from waterfowl is

button ulcers/ Dublin-fibrinous typhimurium- fibrinonecrotic
Tendons: Tenosynovitis, chronic
cholecystitis in Ox and Sheep/ enterocolitis in pigs, horse, ruminants/
active, proliferative
Enteritidis- enterocolitis in septicemia in foals and calves, lambs
sheep and primates, rodents
Calcium deficient- disorganization
Long bone- failure of
Rickets: Birds- Calcium, and thickening of physis with small
endochondral ossification and
phosphorus, Vit D deficiency/ zone of hypertrophy. Bone marrow
39 Heron Rickets retained cartilaginous cores with
as well as excess calcium and often has fibrous tissue and
increased osteoid seams/ fracture
phosphorus osteoclasts are abundant. Parathyroid
w/ callus
gland hyperplasia
Phosphorus deficiency- Large
zone of hypertrophy with
defective mineralization of Vitamin D rickets- lengthening and
hypertrophic cartilage and disorganization of the proliferating
wide unmineralized osteoid zone and variable lenghtening and
seams extending into the dysplasia of the mineralizing zone.
primary spongiosa. The primary spongiosa is short thick
Osteoclasts are reduced, cartilgae columns. Parathyroid gland
ands osteoblasts are hyperplasia.
increased. Often parathyroid
gland atrophy.
Domestic animal rickets- Vit D
Thickening of physis, disorganization,
or Phosphorus deficiency,
failure of mineralization of the
chronic renal disease, or
cartilage and osteoid.
Pathogenesis: Rheumatoid factors
(IgG, IgM), are produced in response
to unknown stimulus. Immune
complexes form with unknown
Paw, bones and joints:
antigens, ingested by neutrophils that
Polyarthritis, Polyarthritis and osteomyelitis with Collagen Induced Arthritis and
release lysosomal enzymes which
osteomyelitis cartilage erosion, subchondral Adjuvant Induced Arthritis=
40 Mouse destroy articular cartilage and reduce
(Rheumatoid pannus, cortical resorption, Models mimicking
proteoglycan production. Loss of
arthritis) periosteal fibroplasia, reactive Rheumatois Arthritis
proteoglycans increases mechanical
bone formation
trauma to cartilage, dying
chondrocytes activate MMP's
(gelatinases, collagenases) result in
digestion of the cartilage.

Non-erosive- SLE, Type III

hypersensitivy from pyometra, otitis
externa. Also have synovitis and
Erosive arthritis- Rhematoid, glomerulonephritis. There is minimal
bacterial villous hypertrohpy and pannus
formation, no atricular cartilage
destruction even though there are
neutrophils in the synovial fluid.
Tritrichomonas foetus- 3
Cecum: Typhlitis, necrotizing,
anterior flagella, 1 posterior Cats- large bowel diarrhea and
histiocytic, neutrophhilic, and
Tritrichomonas flagellum, an undulating ulceration of the colon. Same
11 41 Cat lymphoplasmacytic, transmural,
fetus membrane, and single organism that causes reproductive
with granulation tissue and myriad
nucleus, stout axostyle, and failure in cattle
stout costa.
Bovine- genital trichomoniasis-
-> balanoposthitis, purulent.
Vaginitis, endometritis,
cervicitis, abortion, pyometra,
placentitis-white to yellow
flocculent exudate, placental
thickening, and hemorrhagic
Variant of polypoid cystitis in
which eosinophils are the
predominant component. --
hyperplastic, ulcerated Synonyms: fibroma, fibrous polyp,
Polypoid transitional epithelium, a eosinophilic cystitis, polypoid
Urinary bladder: Polypoid cystitis,
42 Dog eosinophilic nodule of fibrous connective eosinophilic cystitis, cystitis with
cystitis tissue confined to the fibroplasia, and mesenchymal tumor
propria/submucosa, with inflammation.
vascularity, eosinophils,
granulopoiesis, cystitis
glandularis and Brunns nest
Dietary copper- Absorbed from the
Primary copper toxicosis- proximal SI via carrier mediated
Liver: Cirrhosis- Multifocal
inherited metabolic disorder. transport. Bound to metallothioneins
necrosis, nodular regeneration,
Secondary copper toxicosis in intestinal epithelium. To portal
fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia,
results from an underlying circulation bound to albumin and
43 Ferret Copper toxicosis canalicular cholestasis, lipidosis,
pathologic process that leads other proteins -->liver and some to
EMH, and eosinophilic refractile
to an abnormally high intake, kidney. In liver copper is used or
hepatocellular cytoplasmic
increased absorption, or excreted. ATP7B is needed for
reduced excretion of copper incorporation into ceruloplasmin and
biliary excretion.
Copper storage disease-
Secondary Copper toxicosis- copper
Wilsons dz in humans (liver,
retention secondary to cirrhosis in
cornea, brain- deficiency in
humans, chronic active hapatitis in
ATP7B, a copper transporting
Doberman pinschers- copper
ATPase), Long Evans
accumulates in portal areas. Skye
Cinnamon rats (LEC) and
terrier hepatitis- intracanalicular
Toxic Milk Mice (animal
cholestasis with copper accumulation,
models of Wilsons dz),
hepatocellular degeneration and
Bedlington Terriers (MURR1
cirrhosis (centrilobular accumulation)
gene), Unknown in WHWT
Eccrine carcinoma (atrichial)-
apocrine glands- epitrichial or
independent of the hair
paratrichial- Differentiation of eccrine
follicle. Ducts open directly
carcinoma from apocrine acrcinoma-
onto the epithelium in
Eccrine- secretory coil- single layer,
merocrine type or other type
44 Dog Adenocarcinoma Foot Pad- Adenocarcinoma and ductular segment- 2 layers of
of secretion. Found in
nonsecretory cells.
glabrous skin (footpads) ,
Carcinoembryonic antigen is present
frog, carpus of pigs,
in both the ductular and secretory
nasolabial region of
portions in eccrine carcinoma.
Paraquat- herbicide- Alveolar
capillary endothelium is
spared, toxic to type 1 and 2
pneumocytes. Toxin is
Lung: Interstitial pneumonia,
actively taken in by cells, and
hemorrhagic with type II
12 45 Dog Paraquat toxicity causes cyclic oxidation-
pneumocyte hyperplasia and
reduction generating large
interstitial fibrosis
amounts of free radicals
including superoxide,
hydrogen peroxide, and
hydroxyl radicals.
Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial
lymphoplasmacytic with
glomerular sclerosis
Cattle hepatotoxins- Blue-
Liver: Hepatocellular degeneration green algae, Cestrum spp Chronic hepatotoxins- aflatoxins,
Cestrum sp
46 Ox and necrosis, centrilobular and (atractylosides) (C diurnum pyrrolizidine alkaloids, sporidesmin,
midzonal causes calcinosis), cocklebur, lantana, nitrosamines,
poison peach, sawfly larvae
Oxalates- Alizarin Red S (+ red at 7.0
kidney: Tubular degeneration, Oxalates- Fungi, ethylene
Oxalosis/ but neg at 4.2), Insoluble with 2M
necrosis, and regeneration with glycol metabolites, Halogeton,
47 Dog melamine acetic acid// CaPo4, CaCo3 both +
interstitial fibrosis and Sarcobatus, Rheum, Oxalis,
cyanuric acid with Alizarin red at 4.2 and 7.0 and
mineralization with crystals Rumex::
soluble with acetic acid
(ethylene glycol-->
glycoaldehyde--> glycoxylate -- Melamine/cyanurate- Oil Red O + at
:> oxalate, glycine, and 72 hrs, Alizarin Red Negative at 4.2,
formate). As water is Von Kossa Negative, IR spectroscopy
reabsorbed from renal tubules different.
calcium oxalate precipitates
Bracken fern 1) Acute high dose Bracken
2) Chronic low dose toxicity:
associated fern: Bone marrow aplasia,
48 Ox Rumen: Squamous cell carcinoma Intermittent hematuria-enzootic
squamous cell thrombocytopenia,
hematuria and is related to neoplasi
carcinoma neutropenia
3) Squamous cell carcinoma
Other Bracken fern diseases- Bright
of the upper GI tract- base of
blindness in horses and pigs,
the tongue, esophagus, cardia
Thiamine deficiency
and rumen
BPV-1: UB tumors, BPV-4:
Upper GI tumors, benign and
malignant with Quercetin
Cell mechanisms of
Ultrastructure of acute doxorubicin
anthracyclines- vasoactive,
toxicity- numerous vacuoles,
Heart: Myocardial vacuolar cytotoxic effects of local free
mitochondria (onion ring shaped
13 49 Rabbit Adriomycin toxicity degeneration, necrosis, and loss radicals, inhibition of nucleic
cristae), swollen sarcoplasmic
with multifocal fibrosis acid synthesis and protein
reticulum, myofibrillar loss, separation
synthesis, disturbed calcium
of intercalated discs.
metabolism in cardiomyocytes
Plants- Cardiac glycosides, Lantana
camara, Gossypol, Cassia
Ionophores- Monensin,
Bone Marrow: Hypocellularity occidentalis, Hairy vetch,
Calcinogenic plants, Vitamin E
selenium deficiency, cantharadin
Testes: Degeneration and atrophy
Tropism for endothelium, Recovering dogs will develop an
Infectious canine Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing,
mesothelium, hepatocytes, immune complex uveitis (Type III)
50 dog hepatitis (Canine centrilobular with intranuclear
macrophages; Gall bladder resulting in unilateral or bilateral
Adenovirus -1) inclusion bodies
edema corneal adema
Trypanosoma theileri-
Phylum Sarcomastigophora--
> class Zoomastigophorrea- 30-35um protozoa with tapering ends,
Peripheral blood smear:
Trypanosoma -> order Kinetoplastida -- undulating membrane with a
51 Ox Trypomastigotes and relative
theileri > family flagellum, central nucleus and large
Trypanomastidae --> marginal kinetoplast
genus trypanosoma-->
subgenus megatrypanum
Experimental infection with BLV,
Bovine leukemia
expansion of CD5+ and IgM + B
Urinary bladder: Transitional cell
Transitional cell
52 Dog carcinoma, papillary and
Clinical manifestation of
Bone, metaphysis: Osteomyelitis
Visceral leishmaniasis--> amastigotes are 2-4um round to oval
and periostitis, plasmacytic and
chronic, cachexia, cutaneous with clear cytoplasm and a kinetoplast
histiocytic with reactive bone
14 53 Dog Leishmania spp lesions, hepatomegaly, perpendicular to the nucleus. The
formation, periosteal fibroplasia
splenomegaly, kinetoplast is a specialized
and myriad intrahistiocytic
lymphadenopathy, joint mitochondia.

Leishmania infantum-
Foxhounds in US: Th1-->
IFNy --> activates
DDX: Histoplasma capsulatum,
Macrophages and kills
Sporothrix schenckii,
parasites. Th2 --> IL-4, IL-10
Trypanosoma cruzi (in
and IL-13 which inhibit the
muscle/parallel kinetoplast),
activation of macrophages
Toxoplasma gondii
and stimulate immunoglobin
production which may result in
immune complex deposition
Also causes ulcerative
enteritis. There are virulent
and avirulent strains. Virulent
Rhodococcus equi Lung: Bronchopneumonia, strains have VAP (virulence
(gram Pos pyogranulomatous, multifocal, associated plasmid). Lymphadenitis in swine, sheep, cattle,
54 Foal
facultative severe, with myriad intrahistiocytic Pyogranulomatous llamas, and cats
intracellular) coccobacilli pneumonia often appears with
abscessation, lymphadenitis,
and less commonly
DM1 (type 1- loss of Chloride
channel from membrane
surface due to improper
Skeletal muscle: Myocyte
splicing, leading to Cardiac conduction abnormalities,
degeneration and necrosis,
hyperexcitabliity), and DM2 cataracts, diabetes, testicular failure,
Muscular multifocal, moderate, with
55 Dog (proximal myotonic and hypogammaglobulinemia; Goat
dystrophy regeneration, variation in fiber
myopathy), central nuclei, myotonia- chloride channel reduced
size, satellite cell proliferation, and
angular atrophic fibers, conductance and hyperexcitabliity
endomysial fibrosis
hypertrophic fibers, necrotic
fibers, fibrosis, and deposition
of adipose tissue.
CIC-1 (chloride channel- fainting goat,
miniature schnauzer);; X-linked
Muscular dystrophies-(X-linked, Myotonia- sustained
Duchenne MD (Dystrophin defect-
autosomal MD, and myotonic involuntary contraction of a
dystrophin connects the contractile
dystrophy) group of muscles
proteins to the ECM);; Felines have
duchenne with muscular hypertrophy
Acute BVD Diarrhea: NCP in
immunocompetent 6 months
Rumen: Rumenitis, erosive, CP Transplacental infections-
Bovine Viral to 2 years; Before 100-125
multifocal, subacute, with singel Between 50-100 days (death
56 Ox Diarrhea Virus days (immunotolerance and
cell necrosis, and hydropic abortion), Between 100-150
(Pestivirus) PI); After 150-200 days
degeneration of epithelial cells (congenital defects)
(Immunocompetent, have
antibodies, unthrifty)
DDX: Rinderpest (Morbillivirus)-
inclusion bodies, syncytia; Malignant
Persistent infections: NCP in utero
catarrhal fever (Herpesviridae-alpha)
(before 125 days) -->
conjunctivitis with corneal edema,
immunotolerance--> CP infection/ Chronic MD--> alopecia and
lymphoblastic necrotizing vasculitis;
mutation in NCP --> erosions of hyperkeratosis (neck), chronic
IBR BHV-1, alpha-epithelial necrosis
oral and nasal mucosa. erosive lesions in mouth and
Esophagus, rumen, abomasum, skin, hooves, and horns.
(Picornaviridae-aphthovirus), VS
omasum, cecum, colon,
(Rhabdoviridae, Vesiculovirus),
interdigital cleft
Bluetongue (Reoviridae-Orbivirus);
Bovine Papular stomatitis
(Parapoxvirus); Necrobacillosis-

Neospora- Tachyzoites, tissue cysts,

and oocysts. Tachyzoites are 6 x 2
Brainstem and cerebrum: um, cysts are oval upt o 107 um
Meningoencephalitis, IHC negative for Toxoplasma. (CNS), Tissue cysts have thick 4um
Neospora lymphoplasmacytic and N caninum does not develop wall and enclose 8 x 2 um
15 57 Dog
caninum eosinophilic, multifocal, moderate within a parasitophorus Bradyzoites, Dogs shed unsporulated
with protozoal cysts and vacuole (Toxoplasma does), oocysts, and once outside sporulate.
tachyzoites Ingested sporocysts spread to many
tissues and encyst as bradyzoites in
tissue cysts
Haired skin: dermatitis,
proliferative, lymphoplasmacytic
and neutrophilic with comparative: Bovine parapoxvirus
Contagious Sheep and goats, transmitted
hyperkeratosis, intracorneal (Bovine papular stomatitis- mouth and
58 Goat ecthyma (Ovine through fomites, zoonotic,
pustules, epidermal intracellular esophagus, and pseudocowpox- teats
parapoxvirus) oral, teat and eyelids, and feet
edema, and epidermal and milkers nodules).
intracytoplasmic eosinophilic
inclusion bodies
canine fucosidosis is a
lysosomal storage disease
affecting English Springer
Males may be infertile, onset of 6
Spaniels. Mutation
months, and is progressice,
(frameshift) of canine
Ganglion: Vacuolar change, individuals dont survive beyond 4
fucosidase gene. The enzyme
59 Dog Fucosidosis neuronal, with multifocal years. Vacuoles are large single and
is present normally in plasma,
lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis displace the Nissle substance. Some
leukocytes, and other tissues,
are empty and contain fine floccular
resulting in defective
degradation o fwater soluble
glycoproteins, containing
Lysosomal enzymes (acid
hydrolases) are synthesized in
the endoplasmic reticulum
and then uniquely processed
Lysosomal storage diseases results
in the golgi apparatus -->
in accumulation of partially degraded
modification (address label-
insoluble metabolites.
terminal mannose-6-
phosphate) --> bind to inner
golgi membrane --> segregate
to lysosomes
Storage Diseases Disease Enzyme Deficiency Accumulating Metabolites
Glycogenosis Type 2- Pompe Disease alpha-1,4 glucosidase Glycogen
GM1 ganglioside B- GM1 ganglioside, Galactose-
Sphingolipidoses GM1 gangliosidosis
galactosidase containing oligosaccharides
GM2 gangliosidosis
Tay-Sachs disease, GM2 ganglioside
Sandhoff disease GM2 ganglioside, globoside
Ganglioside activator
Variant AB BM2 ganglioside
Sulfatidoses Metachromatic leukodystrophy Arylsulfatase A Sulfatide
Krabbe disease (Globoid cell
Galactosylceramidase Galactocerebroside
Gaucher disease Glucocerebrosidase Glucocerebroside
Miemann-pick disease Sphingomyelinase Sphingomyelin
MPH I H (Hurler) alpha-L-iduronidase Dermatan sulfate, heparin sulfate
ridoses (MPS)
MPH II (Hunter) L-iduronosulfate sulfatase
Deficiency of
phosphorylating enzymes
I-cell disease (ML II) essential for the formation Mucopolysaccharide, glycolipid
of mannose-6-phosphate
recognistion marker
Other diseases
Fucose-containing sphingolipids
of complex Fucosidosis Alpha-fucosidase
and glycoprotein fragments
Mannosidosis alpha-mannosidase
Other Lysosomal
Wolman disease Acid lipase Cholesterol esters, triglycerides
Storage Disease

Neuronal Ceroid-lipofuscinosis Unknown unknown

ddx: Xanthomatous
meningioma- mesoderm and
neural crest contribute to the
formation of the meninges.
Most are meningothelial or
psammomatous and many
AFIP interpreted the lesion in the
Cholesterol Brain, cerebrum, and meninges: have cholesterol depostis.
60 Cat submitted sections as cholesterol
granuloma Cholesterol granuloma The xanthomatous change is
often the result of lipid
accumulation in meningeal
cells, rather than by infiltration
by macrophages (lipid laden).
Meningioma cells positive with
S100, PAS, and cytokeratin

ddx: 1) Adenocarcinoma-
cotton top tamarin-colitis -->
adenocarcinoma, 2)
Retroperitoneal fibromatosis-
young animals, aggressive
Speculations on pathogenesis: 1)
proliferation of highly vascular
Regurgitation theory- retrograde
fibrous connective tissue,
menstruation or reflux of endometrial
ileocecal junction, associated
tissue through fallopian tubes, with
with Gammaherpesvirus
subsequent implantation and
(RFHV) and Oncovirus Simian
proliferation of viable endometrial
16 61 Macaque Endometriosis Colon; mesentery: Endometriosis Type D retrovirus (SRV-2)
fragments in abdomen; 2) Metaplastic
which induces both
theory- Endometrial tissue arises
retroperitoneal fibromatosis
directly from coelomic epithelium; 3)
and SAIDS- histologically
Vascular or lymphatic dissemination
there are proliferating
theory- explains presence of lesions
fibroblasts arranged in ill
in the lungs and lymph nodes
defined bundles with
occasionally interweaving
patterns within a disorganized
matrix of collagen and
reticulum fibers.
strictures causing
Most commonly in the pelvic
weight loss, Microscopic lesions- variably sized
cavity, grossly lesions are
resulting from Endometriosis- normal foci of normal uterine glands
soft, red to brown or white
chronic endometrial glands and stroma surrounded by typical endometrial
tissue adherent to the serosa
hemorrhage and occur in abnormal locations stroma, scattered bands of fibrous
of the pelvic organs.
menstruation of outside the uterine cavity. tissue. Require 2 of 3 to be present:
Common sites include
the ectopic (choristoma) 1) endometrial glands, 2) endometrial
ovaries, uterine tubes, urinary
endometrium, with stroma, 3) hemosiderin pigment
bladder, the bowels.
Dermis- 0.5 to 1 mm diameter
protozoal cysts within greatly
distended and flattened
fibroblasts (Vim +, SMA -),
cysts have 25um thick hyaline
internal capsule and are
engorged by hundreds of
Haired skin: Dermatitis, chronic Moderate perivascular interstitial
fusiform bradyzoites, 8-9 um
Besnoitia sp active and eosinophilic with lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma
62 Donkey long and 1-2 um wide. There
(besnoitia benneti) moderate intradermal protozoal cells and eosinophils.- Speculated
are variable numbers of
cysts transmitted by biting insects
macrophages around the
intact cysts and larger
numbers of macrophages
mixed with lymphocytes and
lesser numbers of plasma
cells surrounded by ruptures
Sarcocystidae- Toxoplasma,
Sarcocystis, Neospora,
Hammondia, Cystisospora,
Frenkelia, Atoxoplasma,
Pathogenesis: M cell invasion/
attachment to mucosal epithelial cells-
-> phagocytosis --> hemolysin -->
release of organism into cytoplasm --
Shigella- gram negative, non-
> migrate along actin filaments//
motile, aerobic, facultative
Shigella sp- Shiga toxin release during host cell
Colon: colitis, necrotizing, anaerobic bacilli in
African Green flexneri, lysis--> stops host cell protein
63 subacute with fibrinohemorrhagic Enterobacteriaciae. Non-
Monkey dysenteriae, synthesis (inactivate the 60S
pseudomembrane enteric Shigella infections-
boydii, sonnei ribosomal subunit- similar to Ricin
gingivitis, air sacculitis, and
toxin). Toxins can also induce
apoptosis, LPS mediated release of
IL-1, TNF a, leading to vascular
damage leasing to renal failure
(Hemolytic uremic syndrome)
Ochroconis Kidney and liver: Fubgal hyphae are 2-4 um,
gallopava- Pyogranulomatous nephritis and septate, non-parallel, acute
64 Dog
phaeohyphomyco hepatitis with necrosis, and and dichotomous branching,
sis vasculitis and dematiaceous fungi and yeastlike swellings

Rhipicephalus sanguineous-->
E canis --> monocytes,
lymphocytes, and neutrophils--
> endothelial invasion -->
Kidney: Glomerulonephritis, vasculitis--> chronic infection --
membranous, global with > pancytopenia, plasma cells German Shepherd--> severe
65 Ehrlichia canis
multifcoal plasmacytic interstitial within bone marrow/ Other hemorrhagic disorder
nephritis conditions: Perivascular
plasma cells, non-suppurative
interstitial pneumonia,

Pericardial effusion with

widespread petechia and
Elephant Liver: Hepatocellular ecchymoses,
Endotheliotropic degeneratrion and necrosis, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates ddx: Encephaloomyocarditis virus,
17 66 Elephant herpesvirus centrilobular, diffuse, with throughout the heart and orbivirus, salmonellosis, vitamin E
(Elephant endothelial cell eosinophilic tongue. Amphophilic to deficiency, other bacterial septicemia
Herpesvirus- 1,3) intrnuclear inclusion bodies basophilic intranuclear
inclusions in endothelial
Endotheliotropic viruses--> Equine Viral Ateritis Virus, Equine
Hendra Virus, Equine Orbivirus (AHS), Cervid orbivirus (EHD),
Ovine Orbivirus (Bluetongue), Hamster parvovirus, Rat parvovirus
(Kilham rat virus), Canine adenovirus type 1 (infectious canine
hepatitis), Porcine adenovirus, bovine adenovirus, and
adenovirus of deer
Sarcoma Skeletal muscle, heart, kidney: Vimentin, Desmin, Actin,
67 Bison (Rhabdomyosarco Sarcoma (rhabdomyosarcoma) in Myoglobin, PTAH, = Striated
ma) a bison muscle
Eggs ingested --> L2 intestine-
Pancreas: Pancreatitis,
-> hepatic portal system -->
neutrophilic and eosinophilic with
L3 molt --> Lung and molt to
vasculitis, fibrinous peritonitis, Coelomyarian, uninucleate intestinal
L4 --> swallowed and develop
68 Pig Ascaris suum necrotizing steatitis, focal mural epithelium, thick shelled eggs in
into adults. Milk spots from
duodenitis, pancreativ duct coelom
migration of L3 through liver.
ectasia. Ulceration, intrluminal
Stongylus equinus (horse) -->
adult ascarid.
Group Body cavity GI tract Striated muscle Special features
Calcareous corpuscles, scolex,
Cestode -- -- --
Suckers, tegument, blind ceca, yolk
Trematode -- + --
gland, hermaphroditic
Hypodermis, lemniscus, two muscle
Acanthocephalan + -- --
layers, proboscis
Nematode + + -- cuticle, musculature
Chitinized exoskeleton, jointed
Arthropod + + +
appendages, tracheal tubes
Chitinized exoskeleton, digestive
Pentastomes + + +
glands, sclerotized openings
Hypodermal bands (with associated nuclei), Single Genital tract; esophageal glands that form a
Nematodes Aphasmids
stichosome; No lateral chords
Holomyarian musculature,
Tichuris bipolar plugged eggs
hypodermal bacillary bands,
Eustrongyloides operculated eggs
Dioctophyma operculated eggs
Phasmids At least 2 reproductive tracts; Lateral chords
rhabditoid esophagus with Platymyarian muscles; uninucleate
Rhabditoids and Oxyurids
corpus isthmus and bulb intestinal cells
paired genital tract, uninucleate
Strongyloides eggs, most embryonated; Females
only in disease
In lung of host, Intestines have
black/yellow pigment, lateral chords
are vacuolated, females contain
developing larvae in uteri
Halicephalobus Single reproductive tract
Thin cuticle, lateral alae in most;
thick shelled oblong eggs
Strongyles cuticle, occasionally ridged, intestine composed of a few
Platymyarian, chitinized buccal
cavty, thick smooth cuticle, eggs
True Stongyles
thin shelled with orula (syngamus
have thick shells)
Platymyarian, Thin cuticle,
Trichostrongyles Longitudinal ridges in cuticle, eggs
are thin shelled and contain a morula
Coelomyarian, smooth external
cuticle, accessory hypodermal
chords, L1 in tissue of host; thick
shelled eggs
all adult females produce
Coelomyarian, Eosinophilic fluid in
thick shelled (except draschia
Spirurids pseudocoelom; cuticle with spines,
and thelazia), embyonated
plaques or ridges
Coelomyarian; cuticular ridges,
small and produce distinctive
lateral internal ridges; lateral chords
larvae called microfilariae or
Filarids are small replaced by hypodermal
thick shelled embryonated
tissue (blocky lateral chords), very
eggs in utero
small intestine
Lateral alae, Coelomyarian,
Larval lateral chords may fill
the pseudocoelom, eggs with
uninucleate zygote
Thick Body wall
Muscles like doughnuts,
Acanthocephala with channel pseudocoelom, no GI tract eggas have 3 layered shells
proboscis with hooks

3 clinical manifestations: often a

Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing,
continuum from bubonic
69 Deer Yersinia pestis suppurative with vasculitis and vasculitis not explained
(lymphadenomegaly), pneumonic
large bacterial colonies
(from inhalation), septicemic
Kidney: Nephritis, necrotizing, Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial,
suppurative, with vasculitis and lymphoplasmacytic with
large bacterial colonies mineralization
Superfiical necrolytic
dermatitis (hepatocutaneous Paraneoplastic syndrome, occurrring
Skin, footpad: Superficial
Superficial syndrome): Skinlesions- basal with glucgon secreting tumors, or
dermatitis with basal epidermial
18 70 Dog necrolytic hyperplasia, epidermal pallor, more commonly hepatopathy. Dogs
hyperplasia, epidermal pallor, and
dermatitis and parakeratotic are hyperglycemic and
parakeratotic hyperkeratosis
hyperkeratosis, and severe hypoaminoacidemic
liver disease
Liver: Severe lobular collapse with
nodular regeneration, vacuolar
hepatopathy, mild portal fibrosis,
and bile duct proliferation, and
marked canalicular bile stasis
Haired skin: Hyperplasia,
Mulloscipoxvirus (equivalent
Equine molluscum epidermal, focal, marked with
or related to human
71 Horse contagiosum large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic
Molluscum Contagiosum
(Molluscipoxvirus) inclusion bodies (molluscum
Intracellular 1-2 um
Neospora reacts with T gondii
organinsms in fibroblasts,
antibodies (weakly), but they differ
Haired skin and subcutis: follicular and epidermal
ultrastructurally. A toxoplasma like
Toxoplasma Dermatitis and vasculitis, keratinocytes, sebocytes,
72 Dog organism forms schizont-like
gondii necrotizing, with intra- and apocrine ductular epithelium,
organisms with a residual body, and
extracellular tachyzoites endothelium, macrophages,
rhoptries are several and electron
adipocytes, myocytes and
erector pili muscles
Haired skin: Dermatitis,
hyperplastic, with epidermal and Inclusions found in several
follicular keratinocyte ballooning cell types, epithelial and
73 Sheep Sheep pox virus
degeneration with eosinophilic mesenchymal, and
intracytoplasmic inclusions and macrophages
sheeppox cells
Genus Virus Major hosts Geographic Distribution
Orthopoxvirus Variola virus (smallpox) Humans Eradicated globally
Numerous: Humans, cattle,
Vaccinia virus worldwide
buffalo, swine, rabbits

Numerous: Cattle, humans,

rats, cats, gerbils, large
Cowpox Europe, asia
felids, elephants,
rhinoceros, okapi
Camelpox virus Camels Asia, Africa
Ectromelia (Mousepox) Mice, voles Europe, asia
Numerous: Squirrels,
Monkeypox monkey, anteaters, great Western and central america
apes, humans
Horses- Neurotropism
Uasin Gushi Disease Virus (brainstem). Eastern Africa
Tatera poxvirus Gerbils Western Africa
Raccoon poxvirus Raccoons North America
Vole poxvirus Voles California
Seal poxvirus Grey seals North Sea
Capripoxvirus Sheeppox virus Sheep, goats Africa, Asia
Goatpox virus Goats, sheep Africa, asia
Lumpy skin disease virus Cattle, Cape Buffalo Africa
Suipoxvirus Swinepox virus Swine Worldwide
Rabbits (Orytolagus, and
Leporipoxvirus Myxoma virus Americas, Europe, Australia
Rabbit (shope) fibroma virus Rabbits (Oryctolagus and
Americas, Europe, Australia
(Fibromatosis) Sylvilagus)
Gray Squirrels, and
Squirrel Fibroma Eastern US
Hare fibroma European hares Europe
Humans, horses,
Molluscipoxvirus Molluscum contagiosum virus Worldwide
Chimpanzees, kangaroos
Yatapoxvirus Yabapox virus Monkeys, humans West Africa
Tanapox virus Monkey, Humans West Africa
Avipoxvirus Fowlpoxvirus Chickens, turkerys, others Worldwide
Ovine Parapoxvirus (contagious sheep, goats, humans
Parapoxvirus worldwide
ecthyma) (ORF)
Pseudocowpox Cattle, humans worldwide
Bovine Papular stomatitis
Cattle, humans worldwide
(Bovine parapoxvirus)
Auzdyk virus Camels Africa, Asia
Seal parapoxvirus seals, humans
Cervidpoxvirus Deerpox Ungulates NA
Lung: Pneumonia, Also, bronchitis and
bronchointerstitial, acute, peribronchitis, viral antigen is
multifocal, moderate, necrotizing found in respiratory virus lacks neuraminidase, attach via
19 74 Calf (Paramyxoviridae,
bronchitis and bronchiolitis, with epithelium, and type 1 and 2 membrane glycoprotein G
syncytia, and intracytoplasmic pneumocytes and sometimes
eosinophilic inclusion bodies macrophages
Heart: Myocarditis and epicarditis,
Haemophilus suppurative, perivascular and
ddx: Salmomnella, E coli,
somnus random with vasculitis, thrombi, vasculitis is a hallmark, but
75 Ox Erysipelothrix, Clostridium
(Histophilus myocardial degeneration and pathogenesis in poorly understood
somni) necrosis, and colonies of
life cycle: unsporulated
oocysts are shed in feces and
sporulate in the environment.
Ingestion of sporulated
oocysts leads to sporozoite
Colon: Colitis, lymphoplasmacytic
excystation, and invasion of
and eosinophilic, diffuse,
epithelial cells, forming
Eimeria zuernii moderate with crypt loss,
76 Ox trophozoites, and undergo
and ellipsoidalis regenerative hyperplasia and
asexual multiplication
ectasia and myriad intracellular
(schizogony, merogony).
Merozoites are released and
infect other epithelial cells
forming gamonts (micro and
macrogamonts with gametes
Animal Coccidia Organ affected
1st gen schizont- Jejunum
Cattle E. bovis 2nd Gen schizont- Cecum and
E ahsata Small Intestine
Sheep E. bauensis Small Intestine
E ovinoidalis Ileum/Large intestine
E. christenseni Small Intestine
Goats E. arloingi Small Intestine
E. ninakohlyakimovae Large intestine
Equine E. leukarti Small Intestine
Swine I. suis Small Intestine
Canine I. canis ileum, colon occasionally
Feline I. felis small intestine, colon occasionally
Mice E. falciformis Colon
E. steidae Bile ducts
Rabbit E. intestinalis ileum and cecum
E. flavescens ileum and cecum
E. acervulina Duodenum
E necatrix Mid intestine
E maxima Mid intestine
E tenella Ceca
E adenoeides ceca
Turkey E meleagrimitis mid intestine
E gallopavonis colon,rectum
E truncata kidney
Geese & ducks
E anseris Mid-intestine
gram Pos rod intracellular 3 distinct syndromes: Systemic
Listeria Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing, acute,
77 Calf bacterium. This calf also had (septicemic), Encephalitis, and
monocytogenes random, severe with myriad bacilli
BVDV infection. abortion
Neither folial dysplasia nor
Brain, cerebellum: Purkinje and
neuronal heterotopia occurs in
granular cell degeneration and dogs, cattle, sheep, Yorskshire pigs,
cerebellar cortical
loss (cerebellar cortical Arabian horses, Gotland ponies.
Cerebellar cortical abiotrophies. Purkinje cells
20 78 Horse abiotrophy), with wallerian Kerry blue terriers are unique in that
abiotrophy are affected first, followed by
degeneration in the folia of the the caudate nucleus and substantia
redeuction in granular cell
white matter and mild gliosis of nigra are also affected.
layer. Proliferation of astroglia
cerebellar nuclei
with gliosis of molecular layer
1. leptomeninges, spinal:
fibroplasia with vascular
79 Dog proliferation, dural
hyalinization, and multifocal
arachnoid cell proliferation
2. Dura, spinal: Osseous synonym: ossifying
metaplasia, focal pachymeningitis
3. Spinal cord, ventral funiculi:
Axonal degeneration and loss,
mild, with dilated myelin sheaths,
axonophagia, and rare spheroids
Not only degeneration but
copper deficiency: Congenital
ectopia with moderate
(swayback) Gross- small liquefactive
numbers of Purkinje cells in
Cerebellar cortical Brain, cerebellum: Purkinje and necrosis or gelatinous areas.
the molecular layer. This
abiotrophy granule cell degeneration and Microscopically- white matter
80 Goat indicates this disease began
(Copper loss, with Purkinje cell ectopia and destruction and central chromatolysis
in-utero when the Purkinje
deficiency) molecular gliosis in the red and vestibular nuclei.
cells were still migrating from
Demyelination of the motor tracts of
the germial layer adjacent to
the spinal cord.
the 4th ventricle
Acquired (enzootic ataxia): lesions
limited to large neurons of the brain
Brainstem, medulla, spinal cord, Secondary copper deficiency- and spinal cord, but may have well
and ventral column: Neuronal Molybdenum, sulfur, and iron defined lesions in the cerebellum,
degeneration (central can interfere with copper including patchy cerebellar
chromatolysis) with gliosis utilization hypoplasia, necrosis and Purkinje cell
loss and depletion of the granular cell
Spina bifida is a form of
rachischisis/cleft vertebral canal.
Dysraphism is a failure of a fusion of
a raphe- general a neural tube fusion
disorder (spinal cord). Most cases of
Myeloschisis, spina bifida spina bifida have a closed neural
occulta, spina bifida cystica tube. Neural tube closure occurs as a
with meningocele, and spina bidirectional process occurring
Spinal cord: Myelodysplasia with
bifida with multifocally in both the spinal cord
duplication of spinal roots, chronic
myelomeningocoele apply to and brain. The caudal spinal cord
81 Calf Spina bifida suppurative meningitis,
the vertebral defect. Amyelia, develops by secondary neurulation
granulation tissue, and numerous
diatematomyelia, via a growth of neural cells caudally,
hydromeyelia, and not from a tube. The lumbosacral
dysraphism apply to the spinal spinal bifida occulta in this case is
cord defect. probably the result of a defect in this
secondary neurulation process. the
pathogenesis is though to involve 1)
abnormal proliferation of neural tissue
2) focal ischemic injury, 3) idiopathic
maldevelopment of the tail bud.
Eye: endophthalmitis,
Candida- Yeast (blastospores,
pyogranulomatous, with retinal candidiasis is mainly a
blastoconidia), pseudohyphae, and
21 82 Dog Candida albicans detachment, lens rupture, disease of keratinized
hyphae in tissue. Branching septate
intracorneal abscess, numerous epithelium in young animals..
3-5 um hyphae
yeast and pseudohyphae

Cortex is irregularly contoured

with zones of dilated tubules.
KidneyL Dysplasia with severe Increased susceptibility to
Histologic features- fibrosis,
interstitial fibrosis, persistent pyelonephritis- caused by canine
immature glomeruli, large
netanephric ducts and primitive herpes virus, feline panleukopenia
columnar-lined (mesonephric
mesenchyme, fetal glomeruli, virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus,
83 Dog Renal dysplasia ducts), immature ducts lined
cystic glomerular spaces, tubular porcine hypovitaminosis A. Golden
by flattened hyperchromatic
ectasia, degeneration and loss, retrievers, Lhasa apsos, Shih Tzus,
cells, and poorly differentiated
and chronic lymphoplasmacytic Boxers, Finnish harriers, dutch
(immature) mesenchyme. May
pyelonephritis kookier, and Cocker spaniels.
have renal secondary

Kidney: Tubular necrosis with

intraluminal crystals
Prototheca reproduce by asexual
endosporulation and have a
characteristic microscopic
appearance. Histologically there are
intra- and extracellular organisms that
Heart: Myocarditis, granulomatous Cows- Prototheca zopfii may be either small single
and necrotizing, multifocal, mastitis, Cats-Prototheca endospores with granular cytoplasm
84 Dog Prototheca moderate, with numerous wickerhamii cutaneous form, or large sporangia that are round to
extracellular and intrahistiocytic Dog- hemorrhagic oval, 8-20 um in diameter, have clear
algae enterocolitis 2-4 ym thick wall and contain multiple
(2-20) wedge shaped endospores
arranged radially. The shells
eventually rupture leaving empty
theca (mother shells) in sections.
PAS and GMA positive
Endosporulation- Chlorella,
Rhinosporidium, Coccidioides/
Prototheca are achlorophyllosu algae
and can be differentiated from
chlorella ultrastructurally.
Carcinoids are
neuroendocrine tumors
arising from dispersed
neuroendocrine cells in the GI
tract, liver, pancreas Gastroenteropancreatic-
urogenital and neuroendocrine tumor -->
tracheobronhcial systems. Neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma,
85 Dog Carcinoid Gall bladder: Carcinoid
May synthesize and secrete gastrointestinal carcinoids (carcinoid),
polypeptides and biologically and pancreatic neuroendocrine
active amines including tumors
Serotonin (5-HT) (flushing,
hypotension, diarrhea,
wheezing), somatostatin,
gastrin, histamine
Diagnosis: argyrophilic, NSE
+, Chromogranin A +,
Synaptophysin +, (hepatic and
biliary carcinoids Cytokeratin --
), EM intracytoplasmic
secretory granules which are
round, composed of an
electron dense core, and
surrounded by an electron
dense membrane
Campylobacter fetus fetus is
Placentitis, necrotizing,
most common. DDX:
Campylobacter suppurative with multifocal Flexnira rappini causes similar lesions
22 86 Sheep Toxoplasma (Cotyledons
jejuni vasculitis, thrombi, and but is sporadic
only), Chlamydophila, Brucella
Liver: Hepatitis, necrotizing,
target lesions
neutrophilic, random
Placental lesions
Organism Fetal lesions
Gross Histo
Often vasculitis, severe
Campylobacter C= friable, yellow IC= edema,
inflammation, Gram Liver: Target lesions
jejuni exudate
Negative bacteria
Chorionic epithelial
Toxoplasma C= pinpoint white foci of hypertrophy and Focal necrotic lesions in brain,
gondii necrosis IC= edema hyperplasia with rare liver, kidney, lung
intracellular zoites
Neospora Zoites rarely seen within Multifocal encephalitis with gliosis
C= necrosis IC= normal
caninum trophoblasts and necrosis
Necrotizing placentitis with
C=necrosis IC= brown exudate neutrophilic vasculitis and necrotic foci in lungs, liver, muscle
organisms in trophoblasts

IC necrotizing placentitis
C= less affected IC= thick with gram negative Inconsistent; lymphocytic
Coxiella burnetti
yellow with exudate rickettsial organisms within infiltrates in lungs, kidneys, liver
chorionic epithelium
Vasculitis; gram negative
Brucella ovis C= necrosis IC=Brown exudate bacilli intra and nonspecific
Severe, diffuse
Listeria C= necrosuppurative IC= Hepatomegaly with numerous 1mm
placentitis with gram
monocytogenes necrosuppurative yellow necrotic foci
positive bacteria within
chorionic epithelial cells

Typically regress via IgG-

mediated immune response,
however metastasis does
IHC- Lysozyme, Vimentin, ACM1
occasionally occur;
Vulva: transmissible venereal (mononuclear phagocyte stem cells),
87 Dog TVT Karyotype= 58-59
tumor Alpha-1 antitrypsin (marker for bening
chromosomes with 13-17
and malignant histiocytes)
metacentric (compared to
normal canine 78 with 2
previous synonyms-
myoblastoma/ PAS positive
Dogs- Granular cell tumors in tongue/
Granular cell Seminal vesicle: Granular cell granules/ IHC + vimentin, S-
88 Mouse Horse= lungs/ Mice and rats= repro
tumor tumor 100, NSE/ EM = packed
tract, brain, meninges
lysosomes, and phagosomes
(myelin bodies)
Staging of seminiferous Rat Stage 1-VII characterized by a
tubules: Spermatogonia single layer of pachytene
Testis, seminiferous epithelium: (proliferating diploid germ spermatocytes and 2 populations of
Ethylene glycol
Degeneration, necrosis, and loss, cells), Spermatocytes (meiotic spermatids (both round and
89 Rat monomethyl ether
segmental with multinucleated -tetraploid- germ cells), and elongate). At stage VIII, step 19
germ cells round to elongate spermatids spermatids are released into the
(differentiating haploid germ lumen and the round (step 8)
cells) spermatids begin to elongate
At stage IX through XIII
tubules have two layers of
Stage XIV tubules have luminal
spermatocytes (the luminal
spermatocytes undergoing meiotic
layer being large pachytene
division to secondary (diploid)
spermatocytes, and the
spermatocytes, and then (haploid)
basilar layer smaller
round spermatids, and basilar
preleptotene, leptotene, and
spermatocytes progressing to the
zygotene spermatocytes), and
pachytene stage.
a single layer of elongating

Lung: Pneumonia, interstitial, Histo: Lymphocytic interstitial

lymphohistiocytic, chronic, diffuse, pneumonia, with perivascular
Ovine progressive
severe with perivascular and and peribronchial cuffs often Other lentiviruses, SIV, FIV, BIV and
23 90 Sheep pneumonia
peribronchiolar lymphoid with germinal centers, smooth Equine Infectious Anemia
hyperplasia and smooth muscle muscle hyperplasia, interstitial
hyperplasia fibrosis, and microatelectasis,

central area of necrosis with

Lung: Bronchopneumonia,
many small aggregates of Retroviridae, lentivirus- OPP is
suppurative, multifocal, moderate,
gram-positive cocci around related to Maedi-visna, and CAE
with focally extensive abscess
the periphery
CAE- leukoencephalomyelitis (young
OPP other lesions- goats), Chronic proliferative arthritis
lymphofollicular mastitis, and synovitis (Adults), less commonly
Type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia is chronic proliferative arthritis, mastitis and interstitial pneumonia
not a feature non-suppurative (adults). CAE has alveolar
meningoencephalitis, and acidophilic, proteinaceous, to
vasculitis lipoproteinaceous material and type II
pneumocyte hyperplasia
Neurotoxic and hepatotoxic. Brain
Moldy corn poisoning, lesions in the frontal and pariteal
Leukoencephalom Brain, cerebrum: Necrosis, white
91 Horse Fumonisin B1 (fusarium lobes, Blood vessels may be
alacia matter (leukoencephalomalacia)
monoliforme) degenerate, necrotic with thrombi.
Liver may have centrilobular necrosis
Pathogenesis- vascular
damage- Fumonisin inhibits
ceramide synthase-->
decreased sphingolipid
accumulation, disruption of
cellular membranes, lipid
peroxidation, inhibits
macromolecule synthesis and
DNA syntheis
Spleen: Splenitis, necrotizing with
marked lymphoid depletion and common after SIV infections
92 Macaque myriad cytomegalic cells and (Type D retrovirus),
eosinophilic intranuclear immunocompromise
Kidney: Nephritis, necrotizing,
Leptospira lots of lymphocytes with few
interstitial , lymphocytic,
93 Goeldi's Marmoset interrogans plasma cells and
multifocal, moderate with
serotype Ballum macrophages
neutrophilic tubulitis
Lung: Pneumonia,
bronchointerstitial, Respiratory system- similar to mammals- Left lung is vestigial except
granulomatous, heterophilic, in Boas- The right lung has a posterior avascular portion known as
24 94 Rattlesnake diffuse, severe, with multifocal the air sac which regulates pressure inside the body cavity. The
necrosis, epithelial hyperplasia anterior portion of the lung contains faveoli separated by thin septa
and rare eosinophilic lined by type I and II pneumocytes
intracytoplasmic inclusions
Microscopic findings- cellular debris
Gross lesions: lung
Kidney: Nephritis, interstitial, and exudate in airways, type II
hemorrhage, necrotic debris,
lymphocytic, histiocytic with pneumocyte hyperplasia, thickening
pancreatic hyperplasia,
tubular degeneration and necrosis of faveolar septa, epithelial cells with
hepatic granulomas,
intracytoplasmic inclusions
Esophagus: Epithelial necrosis
with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic
ddx: mycosis, Actinomyces
Staphylococcus Heart: Myocarditis,
and Nocardia (gram pos
95 Porpoise aureus pyogranulomatous with fibrosis,
filamentous. Acid fast
(Botryomycosis) and Splendore-Hoeppli material
Heart, epicarditis:
lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic

Features: Triphasic:
Myxomatous mesenchyme;
interspersed primitive tubules. rarely contain non-epithelial tissue-
96 Betta fish Nephroblastoma Kidney: Nephroblastoma
Or glomerular-like buds; nests muscle, cartilage, bone and fat
of cells resembling
metanephric blastema
ddx: adenocarcinoma of the swin Swim bladder of siamese fish
bladder is ventral to kidney
Spirurids: small thick shelled
embryonated egg, cuticular
Oral mucosa: Intraepithelial adult ornamentations around the
97 Goeldi's Monkey Gongylonema sp spirurids with minimal lymphocytic buccal cavity, coelomyarian
inflammation musculature, uninucleate
intestine cells, lateral chords
may be quite large
other intraepithelial parasites:
Pterygodermatites Intraluminal and submucosal characteristic lateral alae
Capillaria sp, Anatrichosoma sp,
sp nematodes anteriroly
Trichosomoides sp
ddx: exertional
rhabdomyolysis, EPSSM,
nutritional myopathy, ischemic
Equine recurrent myopathy, Cassia occidentalis PSSM ruled out by negative Pas
Skeletal muscle: Degeneration
25 98 Horse exertional (coffe weed), ionophore stain; ERER dx by increased CK, AST
and necrosis
rhabdomyolysis (monensin, lasalocid), and in severe cases myoglobinuria
clostridial myositis (malignant
edema), protozoal myopathy,
Strep associated myopathy
Cecum: Typhlitis, nodular and Prominent spindle cell
granulomatous, multifocal, nodules- eithe granulomas or Carriers of histomonas meleagridis-
99 Pheasant Heterakis spp moderate with marked fibrous hyperplasia- not necrotic foci in cecum and liver; 15-20
mesenchymal infiltration and adult producing collagen, not um oval bodies
and larval nematodes smooth muscle- histiocytic?
Dilation of all renal tubules,
Polycystic kidney Kidneys, glomeruli, and tubules: obscuring of cortico-medullary
100 Deer liver has marked biliary hyperplasia
disease cystic change, diffuse junction. Reduced numbers
of glomeruli,

EM: Ciliated epithelial cells;

ICIB= amorphous aggregates
of moderately electron dense
other findings- vacuolar
granular material, and less
Ciliated respiratory epithelium: degeneration= mild dilatation o fSER
frequently by amorphous
Canine Distemper Degeneration and necrosis with and perinucelar cisterna, los of apical
101 Skunk aggregates of tubular-like
virus (Morbillivirus) intracytoplasmic and intranuclear microvilli, low numbers of secondary
structures. Nuclei- dispersal
viral inclusions lysosomes and cellular debris in the
of chromatin, One cell had
luminal surface
INIB= parallel, stacked arrays
of electron dense, tubular to
filamentous material

1. Brief decription Number and arrangement, plasma

of the normal membrane, surface decorations,
102 EM description features which cellular junctions, cytosol,
allow one to endoplasmic reticulum,
identify the cells lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei
2. Describe
degeneration, necrosis
cellular alterations
3. Describe
Inclusions, dense deposits,
anything removed
bacteria, viruses, other organisms
or added
Organelle Normal Features

cytoplasmic blebs, types

Plasma Cilia, villi, loss of surface
and locations of
membrane specialization,
intercellular junctions

presence of myelin figures;

Cytosol Rarefaction (swelling):

Relative amounts of SER to

Swelling, dilatation;
SER/RER RER; increased amounts of
detachment of ribosomes,
Relative number and Low amplitude swelling/
Mitochondria location;calcification; high amplitude swelling;
vacuolation; rupture matrix flocculent densities;
Lysosome Relative number; swelling; rupture
Clumped, dispersed, or
pyknosis, karyorrhexis,
Nucleus marginalized chromatin;
karyolysis, viral inclusions
heterochromatin, euchromatin,
Intranuclear or intracytoplasmic bacteria, parasites, fungi,
inclusions algae

Organelle Reversible changes Irreversible changes

Blebbing, blunting, distortion;
Plasma Disruption of cellular
loosening of intercellular
membrane membranes
Swelling, rarefaction, small Marked dilation; large
amorphous densities amorphous densities
Dilation, detachment of
Pyknosis, karyorrhexis,
Nucleus Chromosome clumping
Cell swelling, lysosomal
Cell swelling, creation of myelin swelling, disruption of
figures lysosomes, increased
myelin figures
Conference Slide Species etiology Morph Dx Gross Histo
1 1 Dog Heritable amelanotic globe
spindle cell iridal tumor of blue
vimentin +, GFAP +, S-100 -
eyed dogs
Glaucoma, secondary
Cobblestone mucos in bladder,
Bladder: Cystitis, necrotizing,
distended ureters, oeriurethral tissue D Renale: Terminal anus and mouth surrounded
fibrinosuppurative, with
2 Harbor seal Dioctophyma renale had abscesses and granulomas; by 2 circles of 6 papilla; eggs have thick
fibrinoid necrosis and mixed
Large nematode found in mamillated shell
retroperitoneal space
Fibromuscular tissue:
Cellulitis, pyogranulomatous
with mamillated nematode
pseudoreosettes, fine fibrous trabeculae; IHC-
insulin+; Ischemic nerve cells; elongated
Pancreatic islet cell
3 Dog Neoplastic, metabolic granular mass in left lobe of pancreas microglial cells (rod cells) ; necrosis confined to
carcinoma, neuronal necrosis
superficial laminae; death by release of
excitotoxins (aspartate) not glutamate
Arthropod-percutaneous innoculation, mucous
ddx- clostridium piliforme, Salmonella,
membrane penetration, ingestion, or inhalation;
4 Varying hare Francisella tularensis liver necrosis Yersinia, Toxoplasma, Listeria,
Macrophages disseminate the organism; can
cause vasculitis
Liver: centrilobular necrotizing this presentation is uncommon; adult rabbits are
hepatitis with regeneration; Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, 100% fatally infected; submassive necrosis of
ZIKA-hybrid and Bridging portal fibrosis disease caused by cytokines (IL-1, the liver leading to loss of coagulation factors;
2 5 RHDV
Rabbit with lymphoplasmacytic and TNF) from macrophages cause DIC, virus replicates in hepatocytes; fatty
histiocytic cholangiohepatitis (calicivirus) degeneration is from severe hypoxia coinciding
and biliary hyperplasia (TNF) with DIC
eosinophilic intranuclear and
Ulcerative esophagitis,
intracytoplasmic inclusions (these are
6 Wood duck DHV (AHV-1) lymphoid necrosis, epithelial
found only in AHV-1, Mareks (GHV-2),
and cytomegalovirus
causes hypercalcemia by
Pyogranulomatous dermatitis macrophagic production of PTHrp,
broad irregular branching sparsley septate
7 dog Oomycosis (lagenidiosis) with ulceration and fungal also macrophages can convert 25 D3
hyphae; Similar to Zygomycetes
hyphae to 1,25 D3 (via alpha-1-hydroxylases)
ddx- Pythium insidiosum
Systemic histiocytosis- non-neoplastic
perivascular cuffs; cutaneous histiocytosis and
disseminated histiocytic sarcoma, cutaneous histiocytoma are reactive proliferative
Malignant histiocytosis, with
8 dog Neoplastic lysozyme positive, MH is inherited in diseases; Malignant fibrous histiocytoma has
Bernese Mtn dogs, features of fibroblasts and histiocytes; localized
histiocytic sarcoma is the local dermal form of
Cholangiohepatitis with
intraluminal crystals, Photosensitization secondary to liver Kleingrass (Panicum), Agave, Tribulus,
3 9 sheep Metabolic periportal fibrosis; necrotizing injury, or mycotoxin induced liver Narthecium, Nolena, Brachiara, Avena sativa,
hepatitis, multifocal random, injury Drechslera companulate
Type 2- Defect in Porphyrin
Type 1- Ingestion of plants metabolism- congenital porphyria =
with photodynamic uroporphyrinogen III cosynthetase
Type 3- Hepatic injury that interferes with the
substances (St Johns Wort- deficiency discolored teeth and
excretion of bile, and increased phylloerythrin
hypericum), Buckwheat bones, aneima--; congenital
(chlorophyll breakdown)--> solar dermatitis
(fagopyrum), and Bishops protoporphyria = ferrochelatase
weed (Ammi majus) deficiency (limousin cattle
Brain- meningoencephalitis, ddx-otitis media in calves=
pyogranulomatous with haemophilus somnus, pasteurella
10 bovine Mycoplasma bovis
hemorrhage and whote matter multocida, streptococcus,
necrosis actinomyces, railletia auris (ear mite)
Lymphoid atrophy, spleen looks enlarged with
reticuloendothelial mesenchymal cell proliferation and secondary infections: Isospora, toxoplasmosis,
11 dog Canine distemper virus
intranuclear inclusions multifocal lymphoid necrosis with bordatellosis, canine adenovirus 2
(eosinophilic) nuclear inclusions
in utero infection 1-4 mo with NCP
mucosal colitis, neutrophilic,
BVDV = PI or abortion, postnatal
12 calf BVD with crypt abscesses, and with No vasculitis in this case DDX- coronavirus
infection with NCP BVDV = transient 2-
crypt necrosis
3 week infection.
ddx- juvenile pustular psoriasiform
dermatitis (perivascular eos and
neuts, pustules, parakeratosis),
eosinophilic dermatitis with
exudative epidermitis (bacteria,
4 13 pig Sarcoptes scabei epidermal hyperplasia and
corneal pustules, para and
orthokeratotic), and zinc responsive
dermatitis (severe parakeratotic
other adenoviruses- CAV-2
(necrotizing bronchiolitis secondary to
immunosuppression), EAV-1(arabian
foals with SCID- necrotizing
vaccination with CAV-2 vax protects against
CAV-1 (infectious canine Hepatic necrosis with bronchiolitis), Avian AV-1 (inclusion
14 dog both CAV-1 and 2, but dogs may still get mild
hepatitis) intranuclear inclusions body hepatitis in birds,
tracheobronchitis from CAV-2 infection
hydropericardium syndrome,
hepatocellular necrosis), and 2
(Marble spleen disease in pheasants
and hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys)
medulloblastomas are primitive
expansile, unencapsulated, neuroectodermal tumor of cerebellar origin-
sheets of monomorphic without cerebellum ddx is Prim
ddx- PEM, trauma, Haemophilus
15 bovine Medullablastoma densely packed round to NeuroEctodermal Tumor- ; pseudoreosettes
somni, rabies, Listeria, lead poisoning
polygonal cells, form around BV, Homerwright rosettes, Flexner-
pseudorosettes around BV Wintersteiner rosettes; S-100 positive, NSE
neg, GFAP neg
bronchointerstitial pneumonia,
Influenza A- equine -1 (H7N7) or
16 foal Equine Influenza A2 necerotizing, with hyaline
Influenza A/ equine 2 (H3N8)
disorganized fibroblastic proliferation
infiltrating the fat and superficial TM-
Atypical mesenchymal proliferative and sclerotic forms-
Cynomolgus Late stage animals often develop SAIDs, and
5 17 SRV-2 type D proliferation (retroperitoneal edematous and myxomatous areas
monkey presence of herpesvirus (gammaherpes RFHV)
fibromatosis) are seen as well- perivascular
lymphocytes, plasma cells and
C57bl/6B2m -
Polyoma virus Malignant spindle cell
18 microglobulin dont occur except in nude mice
(Papovavirus) neoplasm, mixed carcinoma
virus found in macrohages,
Rhesus Meningoencephalitis,
19 SIV endothelium, white matter and
monkey granulomatous
WAS -/- Proliferative colitis and
20 Helicobacter hepaticus also cause hepatitis
mouse proctitis
Proximal renal tubular
6 21 wild pigeon Lead toxicosis epithelium, acid fast crop dilation of unknown pathogenesis
intranuclear inclusion bodies
hepatic necrosis, periacinar to cyanobacteria (cyclic peptides) -target
toxin inactivates enzymes that regulate
22 bovine Microcystin toxicosis massive with vacuolar liver; Alkaloids target nervous system
cytoskeletal elements
degeneration and lipopolysaccharides
Renal tubule epithelial
23 cisplatin toxicity necrosis and cast formation
Dawley rats
with tubular ectasia
toxic effects are result of metabolite
C57BL6 Centrilobular hepatocellular NAPQI (from Cyt P450), depleted cats are particular sensitive due to lack of
24 Acetominophen toxicity
mouse necrosis glutathione reserves leading to glucuronyl transferase, they cant conjugate it
oxidative damage
kidney- acute tubular
7 25 dog grape or raisin toxicty nephrosis with regeneration;
mineralization of st
functional pheochromocytomas are
pheochromocytoma, left cuboidal to polyhedral cells with fine connective
rare, leading to norepinephrine
26 dog neoplastic, endocrine adrenal gland, hemorrhagic tissue septae, IHC chromogranin and
release --> CHF, pulmonary edema,
colitis synaptophysin +
ventricular fibrillation, hypertension
pyogranulomatous and
necrotizing myositis with
metrocytes within immature
tissue cysts in dogs are unusual as
27 dog Sarcocystis/ neosporosis cysts and internal septae
they are the definitive hosts
separating mature organisms
into compartments within
hepatic necrosis periportal
28 dog carprofen toxicity and centrilobular with lympho- labradors are more sensitive;
histiocytic periportal hepatitis
Polyserositis- meningitis,
affects pisg 4-8 weeks old. Gram coinfection with PCV-2 and Pasteurella
fibrinoipurulent with
8 29 Pig Haemophilus parasuis negative rod, microaeophilic, requires mucltocida; DDX- Mycoplasma hyorhinus, Strep
encephalitis, perivascular
heme and NAD suis II, Salmonellosis,
Liver- granulomatous
Gram positive and acid fast. Require Actinomycetales- Actinomyces, Nocardia,
CB-17-SCID- hepatitis, with intrahistiocytic
30 mycobacterium sp. activation of macrphages by IFN-y by Rhodococcus, Corynebacterium,
Beige mouse bacilli, and nodular
CD4 T cells Dermatophilus, Streptomyces
31 mycobacterium sp.
Beige mouse
Lung: necrotizing Orthopoxvirus genus, causes
bronchointerstitial pneumonia fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia
32 Prairie dog Monkey pox
with syncytia, and eosinophilic with necrotizing vasculitis in
ICIB macaques
Brain: Vasculitis and
Equine arboviral encephalitis, Mosquito vector, humans and horses are dead
Togaviridae, ss RNA env:: Gray endo hosts, since viremia is not sufficient for
necrosuppurative, with
matter lesions, cerebral cortex, transmission to new mosquitoes:: WNV-ventral
33 Horse EEE thrombosis:: Necrotizing
thalamus and hypothalamus, and lateral horns of spinal cord; JEV-
encephalitis with gliosis,
neuronophagia, mostly neutrophilic neutrophilic encephalitis, EHV-1 causes
vasculitis, and hemorrhage,
with EEE vasculitis
and thrombosis
Metatarsus- focal retention of Trauma caused infarction which Normal- proximal metaphysis is thin where
Osteochondrosis and
9 34 Horse-foal physeal cartilage with prevented formation of primary remodeling, and chondrification of blood vessels
metaphyseal infarction spongiosa is normal where they enter the physeal cartilage
born with kyphosis and roman nose DDX- locoweed (astragalus or Oxytropus),
Spinder Lamb Syndrome: vertebrae and long bones:
35 Sheep (Twin was normal)-believed to be aparbendazole, Veratrum californicum (cyclopia
Autosomal redcessive Chondrodysplasia
defect in the gene FGFR3 at 14D), wild parsnip (bent leg)
inherited autosomal recessive: DDX- lysosomal
Disproportionately short limbs, short
storage diseases, English springer sp with GM1
Dog- Chondrodysplasia of Chondrodysplasia/Chondroos trunks, disorganized endochondral
36 gangliosidosis (beta-galactosidase);
elkhound Norwegian Elkhounds seus dysplasia ossification, and zone of chondrocyte
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS1) in Plott hounds
proliferation, with inclusions
Femoral head: Physeal Similar lesions- slipped physis,
fracture, with fibrosis, woven Legg_Calves_Perthes, canine Feline metaphyseal osteopathy- delay in physis
37 Cat delayed closure of physis
bone formation and synoval metaphyseal osteopathy (HOD), closure in neutered male cats
hyperplasia trauma
Kidney: Interstitial nephritis,
ddx: AHV-1, CpHV-2, bluetongur, Typical MCF lesions include
lymphocytic with vasculitis
10 38 Reindeer OvHV-2: MCF EHD in deer (orbivirus), BVD lymphoproliferation, mucosal disease, and
and perivasculitis, and tubular
(pestivirus), Rinderpest (Morbillivirus) vasculitis
Hypertrophic Heart: Myofiber degeneration
39 Owl Monkey also had underlying hypertension
cardiomyopathy and loss, with fibrosis
Mouse- Spleen: Necrosis, multifocal,
40 Mouse Hepatitis Virus Immunosuppressed mice
C57Bl/6 with syncytial cells
Liver: Hepatocellular unencapsulated, infiltrative, lipid
41 Chimpanzee Hepatocellular carcinom
carcinoma vacuoles, negative CEA staining
Jejunum: Atrophic enteritis, < 10 days. Neonates have tall villi (7:1
11 42 Pig Coronavirus TGE
villous blunting and fusion or 9:1),
Kidney: Amyloidosis, Familial reactive amyloidosis in shar
43 Dog- shar pei Amyloidosis
interstitial and glomerular pei
Fish- 3 no intermediate host is required,
Microsporidium- Glugea Body- Xenomas Microsporidia- obligate intracellular parasites,
44 spined ruptured spores from xenomas can
anomala (xenoparasitic complex) extrusion apparatus, (encephalitozoon cuniculi)
stickleback infect new hosts
Brain: meningeal arteries
research suggests that it is the result
contain atheromatous plaques
of a chronic inflammatory process
45 Owl Monkey Atherosclerosis which are focal. The intima
initiated by endothelial injury due to
has a fibrous cap and a
hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stress
central necrotic lipid rich core
in other species causes of
proliferative gastritis = Ostertagia
Ostertagii in cattle, Ostertagia
Gastric mucosal hyperplasia circumcinta in sheep, Nochtia nochti
12 46 Corn Snake Cryptosporidium
with plasmacytic gastritis in non-human primates,
trichostrongylus axei in horses,
hyostongylus rubidus in pigs, and
Ollulanus tricuspis in cats
ddx- Polyoma virus, adenovirus,
Massive hepatic necrosis with
Amazon Pacheco's Disease, Chlamydophila, Salmonella, gross PD- hepatomegaly, splenomegaly,
47 syncytial cells, eosin INIB and
Parrot Psittacid Herpesvirus Clostridium piliforme, circovirus, necrosis, hemorrhage
trematodes, aflatoxin,
GHV-1 = ILT, GHV-2 =
Adenovirus and Polyomavirus- INIB
Mareks, AnatidHV-1 = duck
plague (DVE)
Granulomatous inflammation,
Arthritis, tenosynovitis, myositis, Gout tophi are small clumps of radiating crystals
48 Frilled Lizard Articular gout amorphous material, bone
reactive bone and tophi surrounded by macrophages
Uric acid is the product of
Purine metabolism by
xanthine axidase
3-8 mcm with mucopolysaccharide
capsule, , narrow based budding,
Lung: Pneumonia, necrotizing pseudohyphae, branched septate
49 Cloud Rat Cryptococcus neofprmans
and granulomatous hypahe- capsule inhibits plasma cells,
macrophage phagocytosis and
leukocyte migration.
fatal in immunospuuressed animals- CMV is betaherpesvirus {Others include Porcine
Simian cytomegalovirus Colon: Multifocal proliferative
Rhesus inflammatory pseudotumors results Herpes - 2 (inclusion body rhinitis), Caviid
13 50 and Balantidium coli and suppurative colitis with
Macaque from influx of neutrophils and Herpes- 1 (guinea pig cytomegalovirus)}.
(trophozoites) INIB ICIB
proliferation of mucosa Balantidium coli also seen, Bacteria also seen.
Oil red O positive lipid droplets: ddx-
infiltrative lipomas, anaplastic
carcinomas, baloon cell melanomas,
Lingual frenulum:
51 Dog- poodle Liposarcoma Cytokeratin Negative, PAS negative-
Pleomorphic liposarcoma
Resemble Malignant fibrous
histiocytoma except with little
collagenous stroma
Lung: Fibrinopurulent
bronchopneumonia/ Necrosis of epithelium/syncytia/INIB,
BRSV is Paramyxovirus- ICIB and Syncytia-//
52 Bull calf BRSV bronchinterstitial pneumonia neutrophils and fibrin
INIB also found in this case (Adenovirus)
with bronchiolitis syncytial (Paramyxovirus?)
cells, ICIB
Spleen: Lymphocytolysis and Macrophage phagocytosis of spores--
Cynomolgus vasulitis and Brain: Meningitis > LN-> germination->bacilli toxins->
53 Bacillus Antracis
monkey with myriad gram positive Lethal Toxin (LT-Inhibits MAPK) and
bacilli Edema Toxin (ET)
Lung: Interstitial pneumonia,
Thrombosis in arteries with adult
necro-suppurative with
parasites- PDGF--> endothelium id
14 56 Dog Dirofilaria immitis thrombosis and microfilaria
damaged PDGF released causing
and intravascular adult
proliferation of smooth muscle
Dirofilaria immitis
Nutritional myopathy, white Heart: Myocardial necrosis,
57 Bull calf muscle disease, vit E and with fibrinoid vasculitis, and
Se deficiency edema
Necrotizing and ulcerative
pyogranulomatous, fibrinoid uncommon syndrome of localized
58 Kitten FIP
vascular necrosis; transmural enterocolitis
lymphadenitis and serositis,
ddx: extrinsic allergic alveolitis --> dust from
moldy hay with micropolyspora and
thermoactinomyces; Fog fever--> Tryptophan
Lung: Interstitial pneumonia, ipomeanol toxin (edema factor),
converted to 3-methylindole in rumen--> lung -->
with edema and emphysema, generation of free radicals within Type
Moldy sweet potato toxicity- clara cells convert to 3-methyleneindolenine via
mononuclear, with 1 pneumocytes and bronchiolar
59 Bovine Fusarium solani and P450--> damages cell membranes of
hypertrophy and hyperplasia epithelia, and causes edema by
oxysporum bronchiolar cells and type 1 pneumocytes and
of respiratory epithelium and toxicity to endothelium and formation
increased alveolar permeability; reinfection
occasional syncytia of hyaline membranes
syndrome-hypersensitivity to lungworm; Perilla
mint toxicity, stinkwood, rape, kale, turnip tops;
nitrogen dioxide from silage etc
Spread by sandflies (phlebotimus and
lutzomyia), Stomoxys and
Rhipicephalus may be vectors- clinical signs include lymphadenitis, fever,
Leishmania is phagocytosed by cutaneous ulcers- secondary demidicosis, and
Spleen: Splenitis, histiocytic
Dog- macrophages and transforms into an may develop concurrent cutaneous and visceral
15 60 Leishmania donovani and lymphoplasmacytic with
Foxhound amastigote in the phagolysosome, syndromes. Later immune mediated
intrahistiocytic protozoa
pumps protons out and evades glomerulonephritis causes renal failure. Ddx =
compliment by binding c3b and Trypanosoma cruzi, Histoplasma, Toxoplasma
resisting c5-c9, and scavenge free
Necrotizing laryngotracheitis,
Gallid Herpesvirus-1
proliferative, histiocytic, Two forms of Pox- dry (nodular Bollinger bodies- eosinophilic intracytoplasmic
61 chickens lymphocytic with cutaneous lesions) and diphtheritic inclusions; ddx- wet pox= Trichomonas,
Laryngotracheitis) / Avian
intracytoplasmic and (fibrinonecrotic mucocutaneous) candidiasis, Vit A Deficiency
intranuclear inclusions

Malignant melanoma can This had areas that looked like epulis,
have desmoplastic, and was Melan A negative; Junctional
Malignant melanoma with gray horses, sinclair mini pigs (cutaneous),
62 Dog-Spaniel neurotropic, or activity, melanin and positive melan A
chondroid metaplasia duroc, and spontaneously regress in pigs
osteochondrogenic stain differentiate from osteosarcoma
differentiation and chondrosarcoma
Lancefield groups A and G are mostly
responsible for necrotizing fasciitis in humans.;
Bottlenose Skeletal muscle: Myositis, Alpha hemolyitc and non-hemolyitic are less
Beta-hemolytic strains are most
Dolphin Streptococcus agalactiae - necrotizing, virulent. Alpha-hemolysis = partial lysis and
63 pathologic- S. agalactiae is alpha
(Tursiops Necrotizing fasciitis fibrinosuppurative, reduction of hemoglobin giving it a greenish
hemolytic (Lancefield group B)
truncatus) hemorrhagic with myriad cocci tinge around the edges. Beta-hemolysis is
complete lysis and a halo of clearing extending
beyond the colony
Renal Dysplasia with severe
Congenital renal dysplasia fibrosis, fetal glomeruli, and Renal failure --> decreased excretion of
Dog - Brie 14 weeks old, presented for PU/PD
16 64 and Fibrous tubular adenomatous phosphate --> hyperphosphatemia -->
sheepdog vomiting and siezures
Osteodystrophy hyperplasia; Mandible: Hypocalcemia --> hyperparathyroidism
Fibrous osteodystrophy
Mandible, tongue, skeletal
muscle, tooth: Osteomyelitis,
Most commonly Staph aureus- lesions follow
Staphylococcus spp- glossitis, myositis, Mouse with disrupted oxidase
B6 129 S6- skin trauma, begin as microabscesses,
65 coagulase positive periodontitis, cytochrome b gene--> cant generate
Cybb mouse progresses to pyogranulomas with splendore
(Botryomycosis) pyogranulomatous, with superoxide
hoeppli material
splendore hoeppli material
and bacterial colonies
Lung: Pneumonia,
pyogranulomatous and
eosinophilic with adult Capillaria- live in bronchi and trachea,
other resp tract parasites: Crenosoma vulpis,
Fennec nematodes and numerous hypodermal lateral chords (bacillary
globei (racoons), mephiditis (Skunks), striatum
66 (Vulpes Capillaria aerophila bipolar plugged embryonated bands), and a row of esophageal
(hedgehogs), filaroides osleri, Aleurostrongylus
zerda) eggs; Bronchitis and glands called stichocytes forming a
bronchiolitis, catarrhal, stichosome
lymphoplasmacytic and
histiocytic with fibrosis
PAS positive diastase resistant
granules; NSE, S-100, Vimentin +,
Sprague- Malignant uterine granular cell Rats- granular cell tumors in meninges and
67 Granular cell tumor GFAP Neg;;EM- densely packed
Dawley rats tumor uterus// Dogs= tongue/ Horses= lung
lysosomes and phagosomes (myelin
Polygonal cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles
distal axial skeleton, arise from
Fischer 344 Vertebral body and lung: (Physaliferous cells), 3 components- central
17 68 Chordoma residual notochord;;; Keratin and
rat Chordoma trabecular bone, cartilgae zone, physaliferous
Vimentin +, NSEand S-100 +/-
cells at the periphery within a mucinous matrix
Fischer 344
69 same
Gram Positive facultative intracellular circling disease- organism enters oral mucosa
Necrotizing hepatitis, bacillus- 3 syndromes-- septicemia, and travels trigeminal nerve, lands in pons and
70 Holstein OX Listeria monocytogenes
suppurative encephalitis, and abortion (also medulla with microabscesses and lymphocytic
conjunctivitis and mastitis) meningitis
Necrotizing nephritis, Abortion syndrom- late term, via
71 Holstein OX Listeria monocytogenes
suppurative hematogenous spread
Mucinous adenocarcinoma diagnosis requires greater than 50% mucinous
undulating ribbons and nests between
with metastasis to lymph material; Gastric adenocarcinoma may be
72 Ferret Mucinous adenocarcinoma proliferating fibrous tissue, epithelial
node; Intestine- lymphocytic induced by Helicobacter mustelae (model for
cells form acini with mucin
enteritis human H pylori)
iodine def--> incre TSH; Iodine excess -->
Thyroid gland: Diffuse causes abortion or weakness,
73 Lmousin calf Iodine deficiency interference with thyroxinogenesis --> low T3,T4
hyperplasia (goiter) symmetrical thyroid enlargement,
levels --> Incr TSH
Spleen, Liver, BM, mammary IL-12 (mPh) --> TH1 -->IL-2, TNF-a,IFN-y
Mycobacterium avium Intra and extracellular acid fast gram
18 74 Wallaby gland: Granulomatous (T,NK) --> upregulates mPh --> PDGF, TGF-b --
complex negative bacilli
inflammation with granulomas > stimulate fibroblasts and collagen synthesis
Taenia crassiceps- canids and felids
Subcutis and Skeletal muscle:
as definitive host, rodents most
Red Ruffled Granulomatous and Features include hooks, calcareus corpuscles,
75 Cysticerciasis common intermediate hosts, and
Lemur eosinophilic cellulitis and single bladder, one scolex,
become infected by ingesting
oncospheres from feces
Heart- Pancarditis,
necrotizing, often perivascular distribution, most
Flaviviridae- can be transmitted by several
76 Fish Crow WNV lymphoplasmacytic and severely heart, spleen, and skeletal
insect species and mechanical vectors
histiocytic, with muscle'
Pulmonary artery: Arteritis/
Splendidofilaria caperata endarteritis, chronic with adult adult embedded in tunica media
filarial nematodes
Brain: Meningoencephalitis,
Parma (white-
necrotizing and 15-60um protozoal cysts PAS and also flund myocarditis, hepatitis, bacterial
77 fronted) Toxoplasma gondii
granulomatous/ GMS positive esophagitis
Occlusive (reactive) vascular
In humans it is benign and associated with
endothelial proliferation in
19 78 cat Endotheliomatosis Factor VII relAg+ erythematoyus macules and plaques. It is
several organs; intravasulat
multisystemic in cats and fatal
Kidney: Fat emboli with
Feline hyperlipemia/
hemorrhage and fasting hyperlipemia, xanthomas,
primary Recessive lipoprotein lipase deficiency: must be
79 Siamese cat granulomatoyus inflammation- peripheral neuropathy, deficiency of
hyperlioproteinemia/ fed a low fat diet
Autosomal recessive in lipoprotein lipase
siamese cats
4 poxviruses: Myxoma, Shope fibroma, Hare
fibroma (all leporipox), and Rabbitpox virus
EM showed inclusions- fibrillary (orthopox). Arthropod vectors for all but Hare
regular aggregates of moderately fibroma (unknown). Inclusions are common to
Shope Fibroma virus: Subcutis: Atypical
electron dense material arranged in all but Rabbit pox; Myxoma virus is serious: NA
Domestic Leporipoxvirus, Poxviridae mesenchymal proliferation
80 long strands or bundles, or of finely rabbits (Sylvilagus) are natural hosts (resistant)
Rabbit (benign self limiting, non with eosinophilic
granular aggregates;;Immature virions- but can transmit to European cottontails
neoplastic to all rabbits) intracytoplasmic inclusions
spherical 250 nm with electron dense (Oryctolagus) with severe disease and high
content and an outer envelope mortality- Hare fibroma is a diseas of european
hares (lepus genus, and Oryctolagus are
invasive densely cellular
neoplasm of spindle cells in
Secondary to trauma or phacoclastic
Feline ocular sarcoma bundles and whorls, in some 1) Long standing lens rupture (embedded lens
81 Cat uveitis without trauma; Epithelial cell
(post traumatic sarcoma) cases osseus or chondrous material) (2) Circumferential distribution
differentiation, the lens is
Candida are dimorphic with yeast
phase normally inhabiting GI tract,
URT, genitals. They reproduce by
Brain: encephalitis,
20 82 dog Candida spp budding and proliferate as
granulomatous, with hyphae
blastoconidia (budding yeat like cells),
or as pseudohyphae, and branhced
septate hyphae
Spinal cord: Infarct, with
fibrovartilaginous emboli fibrocartilaginous emboli, and most found in large breed dogs (Type
83 bovine
(FCEM) necrosis of gray and white 2 disc disesae)
Lambs on well fed heavy milking ewea are most
Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia
Thalamus: Necrosis, susceptible. Epsilon toxin acts on vasular
Clostridium perfringens caused by exotoxin of C perfringens D
84 Lamb multifocal with spongiosis and endothelium --> edema in basal ganglia,
type D (epsilon toxin)/ also called chronic
edema thalamus, internal capsule, substantia nigra,
subcortical white matter, and cerebellum
Alpha toxin, gas gangrene,
Intravascular hemolysis
Type A Clostridium toxins
(yellow lamb disease), colitix
X maybe, food borne illness
Alpha, beta, epsilon,
Enterotxemia in lambs,
Type B calves, and foals (lamb Alpha toxin membranes, hemolysis and necrosis
dysentery- acute hemorrhagic
enteritis <2 weeks old).
Alpha and beta- adult
pathgogen of sheep (struck-
hemorrhagic enteritis- first few
Type C Beta
weeks) , goats and cattle as
well as lambs folas and calves
necrosis and increased vasular permeability
and piglets (<8 days).
Alpha and iota- Intestinal
Type E disease in calves, lambsm Epsilon
and rabbits
85 Raccoon Lymphoma cerebrum: lymphoma, T cell also cutaneous involvement
Skin: follicular atrophy,
Pancreatic exocrine adenocarcinoma,
diffuse, with epidermal complete follicular atrophy on the ventrum and
and biliary duct carcinoma can cause
21 86 Cat Paraneoplastic alopecia hyperplasia with mild smooth glistening gross appearance are
paraneoplastic alopecia for unkown
lymphocytic perivascular diagnostic for this condition.
Skin/ MC junction: Dermatitis, ddx: Pemphigus erythematosis
Immune mediated and cheilitis, superficial (crossover from pemphigus to lupus),
87 dog
dermatitis lymphoplasmacytic with Pemphigus foliaceus (Both have
intracorneal pustules subcorneal pustules and acantholysis)
DLE: lichenoid interface dermatitis, hydropic
Furunculosis and
ddx; Mucocutaneous pyoderma and degeneration of basal cells, thickened
discoid Lupus intraepithelial pustules
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus basement membrane, acantholysis,
containing bacteria
mononuclear inflammation
Skin: Vesicular dermatitis,
multifocal, severe with Aside from orthopox viruses, these
balooning degeneration, can cause disease in humans:
88 Tamarin Cowpox virus (orthopox) cats can be infected and transmit virus
epithelial syncytia and Parapoxviruses: Orf, pseudocowpox,
eosinophilic ICIB (Guarnieri bovine papular stomatitis
Haired skin: Dermatitis and
folliculitis (or perifollicular and
Trychophyton verrucosum- Trichophytin- causes epidermal hyperplasia and
perivascular), lymphocytic and
89 Bovine Dermatophytosis keratinolytic branched septate hyphae follicular hyperplasia (hyperplasia and
eosinophilic, chronic, focal
and penetrate hair cuticle hyperkeratosis)
with hyperkeratosis and
intracorneal pustules

comparative pathology: horses- guttural pouch

Nasopharynx: Rhinitis, Aspergillus hyphae are 3-6 um wide
Sprague mycosis and abortion, Birds- air sacculitis, and
22 90 Aspergillus fumigatus necrotizing and suppurative with septae with parallel walls and
Dawley Rat tracheitis, Cattle- abortion, mycotic dermatitis in
with intralesional fungi dichotomous branching
fetuses, rumenitis; Canine- rhinitis
Lungs: Bronchitis,
bronchiolitis, and Metastongyle- intestine is composed of few
peribronchitis, multinucleate cells with microvillous border with
Metastrongylus sp hypertrophy of bronchiolar smooth
91 Feral pig lymphoplasmacytic and coelomyarian musculature. Lateral chords and
(lungworms) muscle
eosinophilic and pneumonia female reproductive tracts with eggs containing
with intra-airway adult developing larvae
Oomycete- grossly white to grey
Skin: Ulcer, locally extensive
92 Fish grayling Saprolegnia proliferative cotton-like growth on skin colorless aseptate hyphae
with superficial zoosporangia
or gills
Chromatophoromas are contractile
pigment cell tumors arising from
Other pigments masses: Melanophores (black
dermal chromatophores, most are
Scaled skin and skeletal or brown), iridophores with colorless pigment
Iridophoroma benign. Iridophoromasa re
muscle: Iridophoroma (purines), erythrophores (red), xanthophores
characterized by olive-green granular
pigment which is bi-refringent in
polarized light
Mammary gland:
necrosuppurative with probably secondary to bacterial BHV-4 is gammaherpesvirus (Mastitis, abortion,
93 bovine BHV-4
eosinophilic INIB in ductal mastitis metritis, vaginitis, enteritis, pneumonia)
epithelium and bacteria with
squamous metaplasia
Alphaherpes virus- BHV-1 (IBR, infectious
pustular vulvovaginitis, balanoposthitis), BHV-2
(Mammilitis), BHV-5 (encephalitis)
Uterus: SIPS, or ulceration, Persistent bloddy discharge post-
SIPS (Subinvolution of necrosis and hemorrhage with partum- 7-12 weeks--Looks
23 94 dog
Placental sites) invasion by placental histologically similar to normal
trophoblast cells involution but takes longer.
Spores are ingested and inject sporoplasm into
Placenta: Multifocal necrosis
Free and intraepithelial protozoa-- host cell--> Asexual merogony --> differentiation
with mild placentitis,
95 Horse fetus Encephalitozoon spp Oval 1-2 um, obligate intracellular into sporoblasts (sporogony)--> develop into
lymphocytic with gram positive
parasite spores in a parasiophorus vacuole --> rupture
birefringent (like toxoplasma)
and release into ECM
Uterus: Decidual reaction Other proliferative mouse uterus lesions:
uterus was enlarged with multiple
(deciduoma) with myometrial Histiocytic sarcomas, Schwannomas; Note: 2
96 CD1 Mouse Decidual reactions nodular foci- deciduoma in the
infiltration and endometritis, lumens, one filled with neutrophils, the wall is
suppurative filled with spindle cell.
Peripheral zone of ovarian tissue and SRY gene is essential for testicular
a central zone of testicular tissue. differentiation, and MIS for Muellerian duct
97 Dog Hermaphrodite Goands: Bilateral ovotestis
Germinal cells only in the ovarian degeneration (however in humans 80% of
parts intersex are XX)
Female born as a co-twin to a
male and is XX/XY chimera
Common gross findings are vestigial
(?), anastomoses between
seminal vesicles, stunted ovaries, Central atrophic seminiferous tubuels, intersittial
placental circulations allow
Freemartin hypoplastic vagina, enlarged clitoris, cells, and epididymis, surrounded by developing
androgens to influence female
and lack of communication between follicles
development, thereby
the vagina and uterus
supressing female genital
Heart: Pyogranulomatous and
most often a result of penetrating trauma and
Pseudallescheria and necrotizing myocarditis, with Pseudallescheria boydii and its
respiration in immunocompromised patients.
24 98 Dog Scedosporium fingal hyphae and asexual form Scedosporium
Includes cutaneous and systemic lesions. It is
apiospermum chlamydospores or intercalary apiospermum (Microascasceae)
virtually indistinguishable from Aspergillus
swellings (chlamydoconia)
colon: Necrosuppurative
DDX- BVD (pestivirus), FMD (Picornavirus), IBR
colitis with ICIB and
(Alpha herpes), MCF (Gamma herpes),
occasional syncytia, Morbillivirus of Paramyxoviridae-
99 bovine Rinderpest Vesicular Stomatitis (Rhabdovirus), Peste des
diphtheritic membrane, necrotic stomatitis and gastroenteritis
petits ruminants (Paramyxovirus), Bluetongue
lymphoid necrosis, crypt
(reovirus; small ruminants)
Life cycle: Adults live in vascular system after
migrating thorugh parenchymal organs--> eggs
Pancreas: Pancreatitis,
Heterobilharzia- spherical to oval ova in mesenteric vessels --> penetrate intestinal
granulomatous, with nodular
100 dog Heterobilharzia americana with miracidia in pancreas and mucosa --> pass out in feces --> Miracidia
regeneration, interstitial
intestine. released into water --> penetrate into snails -->
fibrosis, and trematode eggs
form sporocysts --> develop into cercariae -->
leave snail and penetrate the skin of mammals
Male and female are permanently coupled, eggs
produce the most severe lesions,
Comparative: Schistosoma bovis and
microgranulomas in the liver, spleen, brain, and
japonicum are the most pathogenic in
others. Adults can cause eosinophilic
cattle and sheep
endophlebitis with intimal proliferation and
affects middle aged cairn terriers and
may be unilateral or bilateral.
Eye: Uveal melanosis, diffuse,
Melanocytes and
with peripheral synechiae,
101 Dog Melanocytic glaucoma melanomacrophages proliferate in the
retinal atrophy and
filtration angle, episcleral tissue, and
detachment and KCS
subconjunctival tissues, ocular
fundus, and meninges.
Typically it consists of a mix of gastric
Esophagus: Esophagitis,
cardia-type mucosa and intestinal Cornifying epithgelium transforms to a mucoid
proliferative with gastric
Rhesus goblet cells. It is a sequel to chronic secretiing and glandular epithelium, but no
25 102 Barret's Metaplasia intestinal metaplasia,
Macaque gastric reflux and it is associated with parietal cells. also seen are squamous
glandular abscesses and
the risk of development of esophageal metaplasia of submucosal ducts
Ultrastructure: Amyloid deposits are
Kidney: Membranous
irregular non-branching fibrils,
Spontaneous circulating glomerulonephritis with
103 nu/nu Mouse Collagen= well organized fibrils with
ANA glomerulonephritis fibrosis and protein casts and
cross-banding; Immune complexes=
tubular ectasia
electron dense granules
ICIB were hard to recognize, virus
accumulates in cytoplasm of
Liver: Hepatocellular DDX: hepatosis dietetica, aflatoxicosis,
PCV-2 with cyclosporine macrophages, mononuclear cells, and
104 Pig degeneration and necrosis cocklebur intoxication, gossypol intoxication,
(induced PMWS) histiocytes (in immunosuppressed
with cholestasis pyrrolizidine alkaloid, PCV-2,
animals viral antigen can be found in
nucleus as well)

Lungs: Pneumonia, Ricin derived from Castor oil plant

African Green
105 Ricin Toxicity fibrinohemorrhagic, interstitial, (Ricinus communis), results in
necrotizing, with vasculitis inhibition of protein synthesis
Conference Slide Species etiology Disease Notes
2002-2003 2002-2003
Granulomatous/ pyogranulomatous hepatitis foals 1-3 months old, acquired by inhalation
The pulmonary form is more
with intracellular and extracellular gram positive or ingestion and spreads through
common than the intestinal form,
rods- virulence factors- Vap A generates macrophages. Most commonly results in
1 1 Horse Rhodococcus Equi and hepatic abscessations are
humoral response and there is blockage of bronchopneumonia with lymphadenitis, and
uncommon. Hypopyon has been
phagosome-lysosome fusion, also necrotoxins less ffrequently ulcerative colitis,
reported in systemic cases
and recruitment of macrophages osteomyelitis and hypopyon
Obese monkeys that lose weight
fast --> fatal fasting syndrome;
Pancreatic islets of Langerhans include:
Diabetic patients have
Esophagitis, necrotizing and ulcerative with Alpha, Beta, delta, and F cells and
2 Macaque Fatal fasting syndrome hyperglycemia and impaired
superficial yeast and pseudohyphae enterochromaffin cells- (insulin secreted by
chemotaxis, impaired adherence
Beta cells)
and phagocytosis, and impaired
killing of microorganisms
Hepatic lipidosis
Diabetes Islet amyloidosis, pancreas
Thyroid C Cells-Parafollicular cells, Often associated with multiple endocrine
Neuroendocrine pattern tumor in the neck; or Ultimobranchial cells are most neoplasms in Bulls and elevatved
Thyroid C cell
3 Dog rarely lining follicles filled with colloid, and commonly seen in old Bulls, circulating calcitonin levels, In dogs usually
variably positive for calcitonin horses, and lab rats, IHC + non-functioinal (MEN-Pheo, C cell
Calcitonin and Chromogranin A carcinoma, and Pituitary tumors)
Leukotoxin--> lethal to leukocytes
Fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia, oat cells and platelets of ruminants by the
Endotoxin activates macrophages to
4 Calf Mannheimia hemolytica (clusters of degenerate neutrophils with formation of cell membrane pores
release TNF, IL-1B, and IL-8
streaming nuclei) (similar oat cells found in
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia)
3 microscopic variations: 1)
mesenchymal cells originating
Circumscribed concentric neoplasm with from the periodontal ligament 2)
2 neoplastic cell types- Stellate Reticulum
epithleial cells arranged in interdigitating cords abortive tooth structures
5 Mouse Ameloblastic odontoma and Ameloblastic epithelium, and forms
surroundign stellate cells; and a smaller area of originating from ameloblasts and
enamel (toothlike structures)
poorly differentiated tooth components odontoblasts, and 3) well
differentiated squamous cells
bounded by loose stroma
IFA- CAR bacillus, Parvovirus, Rat
ELISA- CAR bacillus, Mycoplasma
Bacterial Lung: Bronchopneumonia with abscess and Coronavirus/////////////////////////////////////////////Cu
6 Rat pulmonis, and Rat Coronavirus
bronchopneumonia bronchiectasis, suppurative, and pleuritis lture: Bordatella bronchiseptica, E coli, and
Staph aureus
M Pulmonis- common Corona virus- Pos sense, single
CAR- Gram negative, motile rod causes ciliary
cause of stranded, RNA virus, causes self
stasis, goblet cell hyperplasia, bronchiectasis,
bronchopneumonia with limiting lmyphoplasmacyutic
bronchiolitis, and mucopurulent
bronchiectasis and inflammation and necrosis of
lymphoid hyperplasia salivary and nasolacrimal glands

PMWS= 1) wasting 2) lymphoid PCV-2 alone is often subclinical, Add

Liver: Necrotizing hepatitis with ito cell
depletion or lymphohistiocytic Parvovirus = fatal disease/////////////////////////
7 Pig PCV-2 / PRRS proliferation, apoptotic bodies, bile stasis and
granulomatous inflammation in any PCV-1 is non pathogenic but may cause
bridging fribrosis
organ 3) PCV-2 in the lesions abortions
Comparative : Chicken anemia virus is
immunosuppressive, PBFD is progressive
results in malformed beaks and feather loss
and immunosuppressioin, Pigeon Circovirus
causes lymphocytosis leading to
immunosuppression, Porcine Parvovirus =
SMEDI (Stillbirth, Mummification, Embryonic
Death, Infertility)
Flavivirus transmitted by Mosquitoes, horse
WNV typically in grey matter of is dead end host (not viremic to spread)-
Meningoencephalomyelitis, lymphocytic and brain and grey and white in spinal Clinical signs similar to EEE and EPM,
8 Horse West Nile Virus
neutrophilic with neuronal necrosis cord- EEE is white matter only in JEV, Borna, Rabies---------EHV-1
spinal cord (histologically) causes ischemic
B cereus can casue skin and joint
Staph aureus is most common,
infections, meningitis, septicemia,
Necrotizing mastitis with gram positive spore- with Mannheimia, Pseudomonas
9 Goat Bacillus cereus pneumonia, endocarditis, and intraocular
forming bacilli with hemorrhage and coliforms and Avocado leaf
infections- Produces toxins like enterotoxin,
hemolysin, PLC, emetic toxin
Dilation of lacteals, hypercellular
villi with lymphocytes plasma cells,
macrophages in muscularis and
Intestinal Intestinal lymphangiectasia with granulomatous Most comon cause of Protein losing
10 Dog serosal layers. Lymphatic vessels
lymphangiectasia lymphangitis enteropathy in dogs
are dilated and surrounded by
macrophages lymphocytes and
plasma cells
Focal areas of fibrosis (healed
Membranous glomerulopathy or Fibrosis with infarcts), interstitial inflammation,
Renal Fibrosis
glomerular sclerosis and interstitial nephritis thickening of Bowmans capsule,
sclerosis of glomerular tufts
cellular infiltrate concentrates
around the blood vessels and
glomeruli-----------DDX for MCF =
All other organs had vasculitis with
BVD (pestivirus), Bluetongue and
Ovine Herpesvirus-2 Kidney: Arteritis, fibrinonecrotic, lymphocytic, meningoencephalitis and periportal
11 Antelope Epizootic Hemorrhage Disease
(MCF) with periglomerular interstitial nephritis hepatitis-----------Gammaherpesvirus
(Orbivirus), and Rinderpest
replicates in T cells
(Morbillivirus), anf FMD
(Aphthovirus), Vesicular Stomatitis
Leporipoxviruses include Rabbit
Haired Skin: Epidermal hyperplasia with
Shope Fibroma virus, Squirrel
12 Squirrel Leporipoxvirus orthokeratosis and balooning degeneration with Transmission via arthropod
fibroma virus, Hare fibroma virus,
ICIB and dermal mesenchymal cell proliferation
and Myxoma virus
Soman is an organophosphate that
inhibits Cholinesterase, resulting in Salivation lacrimation, bronchoconstriction,
rapid accumulation of acetylcholine siezures. Neuronal necrosis is due to
13 Rat Soman toxicity Brain: Neuronal necrosis
and hyperstimulation of both increased glutamate release and hypoxia
central and peripheral cholinergic from prolonged siezures
Heart: Myocardial degeneration and necrosis
with neutrophilic and histiocytic myocarditis
10-80um spherules, double
Inhalation of arthrospores, spherules
Lung: Pyogranulomatous pneumonia with contoured birefringent walls, 2-5
14 Goat Coccidiodes immitis develop and rupture releasing endospores
Coccidioides immitis spherules um endospores. PAS
and spreading infection.
demonstrates internal structures
Multicentric lesion in Rats affecting
the liver, spleen, lung, uterus---
Sprague Kidney: Histiocytic sarcoma, intravasular and Glomerulosclerosis was also seen (chronic
15 Histiocytic sarcoma Older SD rats predisposed to this.
Dawley Rat interstitial progressive glomerulopathy)
Often an increased fibroblastic
Zygomycetes- Non-contagious,
saprophytic, opportunistic
pathogens gain entry by wound--
Brain: Vasculitis, necrotizing with suppurative
16 Whale Zygomycetes vasculitis Hyphae are broad upt to 10 um, ddx: Aspergillus and Pythium
encephalitis and fungal hyphae
infrequently septate, non-parallel
and thin walled, with non-
dichotomous branching
Ubiquitous saprophytic conidiophores: 5-8 um diameter up to 300
Airsac: Pyogranulomatous airsacculitis with opportunistic pathogen. Hyphae um in length, become flask dhaped (20-30
17 Emu Aspergillus fumigatus
hyphae and conidiophores are parellel walled, 3-6 um with um in diameter), single row of Phialides
dichotomous branching which produce radiating chains of conidia

Bilateral seminoma- occasionally malignant

and locally invasive. Clinical presentation negative for c-kit and PLAP (in
18 Pigeon Seminoma
inclideslethargy, anorexia, increased contrast to human seminomas)
respiration, diarrhea, and abdominal distension

benign (mature) or malignant

(immature) based on anaplasia or
the presence of undifferentiated
Mixed germ cell tumor
Ovary: Mixed germ cell tumor (teratoma), elements. Teratocarcinomas are
19 Turtle (teratoma, yolk sac
mature and immature, and 10% yolk sac tumor undifferentiated malignant
neoplasms containing features of
teratomas and embryonal
carcinomas and choriocarcinomas

Hyphae- 7-9 um wide, septate, non-

parallel and brown to green
pigment. From cultures ID base typically cutaneous infections but can occur
pneumonia Granulomatous pneumonia, heterophilic, with
20 Swan don chains of smooth brown or in lung and brain. Melanin is the pigment
(Cladiosporium pigmented hyphae
pigmented ellipsoidal, unbranched and a virulence factor
conidia arising from septate
DDX: 1) Equine cutaneous lymphangitis
(Burkholderia mallei- glanders), and
Skin: Pyogranulomatous dermatitis and
3 clinical manifestations: Burkholderia pseudomallei
lymphangitis with pseudocarcinomatous
21 Horse Sporothrix schenkii Lymphocutaenous, fixed (pseudoglanders) 2) Equine Ulcerative
epidermal hyperplasia and intralesional yeast
cutaneous and disseminated Lymphangitis (Corynebacterium
(Sporothrix schenkii)
pseudotuberculosis), 3) Equine Epizootic
Lymphangitis (histoplasma farciminosi)
Eye: Uveitis, granulomatous with
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada- DDX: Discoid lupus, SLE, Auto-immune Type IV hypersensitivity to
22 Dog intrahistiocytic melanin pigment with slcera
Like_syndrome Pemphigus, and vitiligo melanin in humans
Skin: Dermatitis, superficial and periadnexal,
Arctic breeds and chows most
histiocytic and lymphoplasmacytic with marked
pigmentary incontinence and hyperkeratosis
M avium is an obligate intracellular
parasite, gram positive and acid
Small Intestine: Granulomatous enteritis with
23 Cat Mycobacterium avium fast- Cats are more susceptible to
intrahistiocytic bacilli
M bovis than M tuberculosis or
Liver: Granulomatous hepatitis with
intrahistiocytic bacilli and severe centrilibular
Release from hypobiotic state is
Lymphoplasmacytic colitis/ fibrinonecrotic L3 is infective --> ingested --> lose synchronized by the loss of adults////
colitis with myriad intralesional cyathostome cuticle and enter mucosa of Strongyle Larvae ar characterized by a
24 Horse Cyathostomes
larvae (small strongyles)/ Lymphadenitis, intestine where they are pseudocoelom, platymyarian meromyarian
Peritonitis, histiocytic and neutrophilic surrounded by fibrous capsule musculature, few multinucleate cells and
lacking mature goands
Necrotizing splenitis with intranuclear
25 Macaque Cytomegalovirus Remains latent in WBC's; ddx- CMV, Adenovirus
inlcusions; Spleen, Lymphoid depletion
attachment and damage to
Cecum and colon: Intestinal spirochetosis, enterocytes, limited to large Inflammation is minimal, causes erosive
26 Macaque Brachyspira pilosicoli
apically attached elongated bacteria intestine, spread to lamina propria, and ilcerative typhlocolitis in pigs
phagocytosed to macrophages
Hereditary Nephritis (HN)-
breeds: Samoyeds, english cocker
inherited defect in the basement
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with spaniels, miniature bull terriers; Basement
Hereditary nephropathy membrane (Type IV) collagen
27 Dog fibrosis and mild lymphoplasmacytic interstitial membranes can be compared to those
(Alports syndrome) resulting in progressive
nephritis seen in immune-mediated
glomerulonephritis and renal
Gross Lesions: Edema and petechia,
Hemorrhagic nephritis of geese
ascites, hemorrhagic enteritis and
Goose Hemorrhagic Kidney: Tubulointerstitial nephritis, necrotizing (HNEG): 4-10 weeks old, sudden
28 goose nephritis:: Histo- detachment of the tubular
Polyomavirus with hemorrhage and focal urate accumulation death, dyspnea, diarrhea, CNS
epithelium. Does not produce obvious
Malignant lymphoma, leukemia and
29 Rat Malignant lymphoma
hemangioma of the lymph node
Eye, Retina, photoreceptor layer, outer nuclear Loss of photoreceptor layer (apoptosis),
Mouse, Result of decreased acitivity of
30 Retinal degeneration layer, outer plexiform layer- degeneration and decrease in retinal vasulature----there are
FVB/NJ cGMP-phosphodiesterase
loss 16 known mutations
primarily targets immature B cells, Bursa is
Infectious bursal IBDV serotype 1 (Birnavirus),
31 Chicken Cloacal bursa: Lymphoid depletion, diffuse grossly enlarged due to edema, hyperemia,
disease virus infection of 3-6 week old chickens
and hemorrhage
Y. enterocolitica, and infect M cells and colonize the mucosal
pseudotuberculosis are associated lymphoid tissue, bind to B1
Necrohemorrhagic enteritis and peritonitis with enteroinvasive and cause diarrhea, integrins (adherence to cells and ECM).
32 Macaque Yersinia sp
lymphangitis, fibrin thrombi dehydration, anorexia, and weight Extracellular survival is mediate dby
loss, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis YopH,T and E (disrupts macrophage
and lymphadenitis cytoskeletons)
Other large colony forming
bacteria include: Actinomyces,
DDX: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella,
Arcanobacter, Clostridium,
Entamoeba histolytica
Staphylococcus, and
Streptococcus (YAACSS)
Histo features of DI: irregular arrangement
OI lesions include- osteopenia,
and reduction in numnbers of dentin
Dentin dysplasia Dentinogenesis imperfects (DI) can occur excessive bone fragility, skeletal
tubules, Basophilic lines (mineralization
33 Llama (Dentinogenesis inconjunction with Osteogenesis imperfecta or deformity, joint laxity, translucent
fronts), pre-dentin layer in irregular in
imperfecta) as a separate disease teeth, otosclerosis, and blue-tinged
thickness and stains weakly, the
Odontoblasts are small and disorganized
Multifocal necrotic areas with
Osteomyelitis, granulomatous, Osteolysis, central eosinophilic material
34 Iguana Cellulitis Fibrous metaplasia, osseus and chondroid surrounded by MNGC, ddx: Salmonella (gram negative)
metaplasia perivasculat histiocytes and
Reactive bone
Osteomyelitis / Canine
Grossly, firm diffuse swellings of
Hypertrophic Necrosuppurative Osteomyelitis with trabecular
the distal radial and ulnar
35 Dog Osteodystrophy fractures and extra-periosteal fibro-osseus
metaphyses, and tibia;l
(Metaphyseal proliferation and retained cartilage cores
degenerative chondrocytes were irregular,
Metaphyseal plates were mildly calcified cartilage was poorly formed, most
Chondrodysplasia and dyshematopoiesis (IL-
36 Holstein OX Chondrodysplasia thickened and had many cartilage chondrocytes in the resting zone were
canals lined with flat shaped cells pyknotic. The chondroid matrix was
granular or fibrous not smooth
gross: huge size, abdominal
Histo features: primitive glomeruli,
enlargementreported in humans, dogs,
abortive tubules, loose spindle
cats, horses, sheep, swine, chickens,
37 Rat Nephroblastoma Embryonal nephroma, Wilms Tumor stroma, mixed differentiation to
rabbits, and rats---DDX in rats includes,
striated muscle, collagen,
renal carcinoma and renal mesenchymal
cartilage, bone, and adipose tissue
Study of SV40 induced lymphoma in hamsters
(polyomavirus). Oncogenic DNA virus causes
leukemia, lymphoma, mesothelioma,
involves the serosa mesentery forms many exophytic papillary fronds---
pulmonary carcinoma, osteosarcoma, pituitary
38 Hamster Mesothelioma pancreas and is contiguous with Morphology- epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and
tumors, thyroid tumors and persistent renal
the mesothelium of the peritoneum mixed (biphasic)
infections in monkeys\ Tag (large T antigen)
can inactivate tumor suppressor gene products
like p53 and rb

Transverse section of the

abdomen- epidermis and
Stomach: dysplasia, segmental, p63 knockout Keratinocytes are columnar with
39 Mouse Epithelial dysplasia epidermal appendages are absent,
mouse keratohyaline granules,
the outermost cells in the skin are
spindle shaped (exposed dermis),
Dysplasia with erosion and ulceration; p63
knockout- required for maintanenece of
Epidermal hypoplasia progenitor cells (homologous to p53); limb
truncation is due to failure to maintain apical
ectodermal ridge (stratified epithelium)
lymphocytes, plasma cells,
Cervical spinal cord: Meningitis, Can be found in any dog breed with
macrophages, periarterial with loss
40 Dog Beagle Pain Syndrome pyogranulomatous with fibrinonecrotic arteritis Beagles, Bernese MTn Dogs, and Boxers
of cellular structure in arterioles
and mild lymphoplasmacytic myelitis overepresented
and accumulation of neutrophils

DDX: Pug dog encephalitis (non-suppurative,

necrotizing, cerebral hemishperes), Old dog
encephalitis (lymphoplasmacytic perivascular
cuffing, demyelination, rare inclusions), GME
(lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic perivascular
cuffing, with nests of epithelioid macrophages
in the cuffs, white matter and meninges

Grossly white nodules looked like

neoplasia, but composed of
Histoplasma Lung: Pneumonia, pyogranulomatous, with
41 Horse macrophages neutrophils plasma
capsulatum intrahistiocytic yeast
cells and MNGC. Most
macrophages were filled with yeast

Renal dysplasia with decreased glomeruli,

mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, autosomal recessive claudin
42 Calf Renal Dysplasia
tubular epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia and deficiency (tight junctions)
disorganization and chronic interstitial nephritis

DRIPS clade: Dermocystidium, granulomatous mucous membrane disease,

Rosette agent, Ichthyophonus, forming a polypoid mass; 1) the trophocyte
Psorospemium------DDX: (juvenile sporangia) is 10-100 um, with 2-3
Nasal mucosa: rhinitis, proliferative, with Coccidioides, Prototheca, um hyalinized wall, a central nucleus
43 Dog Rhinosporidium seeberi erosion and ulceration, squamous metaplasia Chlorella( Rhinosporidium (karyosome) and prominent nucleolus. 2)
and numerous sporangia and throphocytes sporangia and endospores stain Intermediate sporangia lack nucleus and
with GMS, PAS, and Gridley, but have thicker wall. 3) Mature sporangia are
only the wall of Coccidioides stain from 100-400 um with wall, no nucleus, and
with PAS contain numerous endospores (2-10um)

other possible lesions: initial

Comparative: H agni in goats (resp and
widespread vasculitis and vascular
mammary infections), H parasuis (fibrinous
necrosis (LPS
Histophilus somni Fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia with polyserositis, polyarthritis), H.
44 Ox endotoxin);;septicemia, thrombotic
(Haemophilus somnus) interlobular edema and numerous coccobacilli paragallinarum in chickens (infectious
meningoencephalitis, pneumonia,
coryza, upper respiratory tract infection,
pleuritis, myocarditis, reproductive
infraorbital sinusitis)
failure, arthritis
Well circumscribed mass of fat, Teratoma: multiple germ lines, Ectoderm
muscle, nervous tissue, (nervous, oral and nasal mucosa,
Left adrenal gland: teratoma, mature (well sebaceous glands, hairshafts, epidermis), Mesoderm (CT, muscle, bone,
45 Ferret Teratoma
differentiated) follicles, and large cysts within the urogenital, cardiovascular), Endoderm
adrenal cortex. Dense fibrous (Gastrointesstinal epithelium, respiratory
connective tisse epithelium, and glands)
Grain overload, ruminal lactic acidosis: -->
overgrowth of Strep bovis, and
Lactobacillus spp --> increased lactic acid --
> low pH below 5 --> volatile Fatty Acids
produced in early stages --> absorbed and
epithelial hyperplasia with vesicles.
46 Calf Lactic acidosis Reticulum: Reticulitis, with multifocal ulceration cause rumen stasis --> dehydration results
from increased rumen osmolality-->
systemic acidosis results and circulatory
collapse occurs--> secondary bacterial and
mycotic infections can result, and rumen
mucosa sloughs
ddx: injection site reaction, atypical
Skin: Dermal and subcutaneous angioinvasive Lymphomatoid granulomatosis=
Malignant lymphoma, histiocytic proliferation, lymphohistiocytic
47 Dog lymphoma (T cell) with lymphohistiocytic angiotropic lymphoma. Subdivided
angioinvasive inflammation, histiocytic sarcoma,
vasculitis and necrosis into angiocentric and angioinvasive
malignant histiocytosis.
EE's can have suppurative inflammation
early, VEE and EEE can have necrotizing
trigeminal ganglion: ganglionitis, non-
vasculitis with thrombosis; EPM there is
suppurative, diffuse, with neuronal ddx: rabies (ss (-) RNA), EEE,
necrosis axonal swelling and hemorrhage
48 Horse Rabies virus degeneration, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and WEE, VEE, WNV, EHV-1,
with eosinophils and macrophages; EIA can
intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions (Negri Sarcocystis neurona, EIA
occasionally have non-suppurative to
granulomatous encephalomyelitis centered
on ventricles and leptomeninges
different variants exist (skunk, Replication initially in myocytes then
Spinal cord: Poliomyelitis, non-suppurative, wit raccoon, and bat) Bat variant spreads to sensory neurons and to the
hemorrhage and vacuolation, neuronal causes most human cases; bites CNS. Then goes to salivary gland
degeneration, and inclusions are undetected or spread through epithelium and replicates then buds into the
aerosols saliva
arsenic ingibits sulfur containing amino
Kidney- Tubular necrosis, segmental and cows ate ash from pile of burned acids and binds to sulfhydryl groups as in
49 Ox Arsenic toxicity medullary, with granular casts (along with feceposts (wood preservative- pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-
multifocal hepatic necrosis) copper-chrome-arsenate) ketoglutarase (no oxidative
cocklebur (Xanthium spp) -
ddx: cestrum parqui, Helichrysum, trema,
Liver: Necrosis, centrilobular to midzonal, carboxyatractyloside- inhibits
50 Ox Xanthium toxicity Microcystis aeruginosa, blue-green algae,
diffuse, with congestion and hemorrhage oxidative phosphorylation and
rift valley fever
binds adenine nucleotides
Vicia (legume; seeds and vegeatative):
Lesions also found in: kidneys,
cyanogenic glycosides, photosensitization:
adrenal glands, lymph nodes,
Heart: Granulomatous and eosinophilic 3 clinical manifestations- a) acute
Vicia villosa tocicity spleen, periportal liver, mammary
51 Ox myocarditis, with myocardial degeneration and neurological, b) swelling and mucosal
(Hairy Vetch) gland, thyroid gland, ovaries,
necrosis (toxic myocarditis) eruptions, cyanosis, cough, followed by
uterus, lungs, leptomeninges,
death, c) systemic granulomatous
perivascular encephalitis
inflammation (SGI) with dermatitis
Sarcocystis sp incidental finding
Blocks DNA/RNA/ and protein synthesis:
toxicity to heart not related to anti-tumor
Adriblastin (anthracyclin antiobiotic
Heart: myocarditis, necrotizing, non- properties: DDX- nutritional deficiency,
52 Dog Adriblastin toxicity and chemotherapeutic): AKA
suppurative with amyloidosis of small arteries metabolic disorder, chemical and plant
toxicity, brain injury/ Puppies- herpes,
parvo, morbillivirus, Vit E se deficiency
birds do not have cutaneous
adnexal glands other than the
uropygial gland; the sections
contain a decalcified humerus with
a well-differentitated mucinous
Humerus: Mucinous carcinoma of air sac air sacs are lined by single layer of
carcinoma seen as large papillae
53 Cockatoo Adenocarcinoma origin/ Adenocarcinoma, cystic and mucinous epithelium supported by mesothelial
containing acini with mucinous
with stromal osseous metaplasia` serosa.
columnar epithelium within air-
sacs lined by squamous epithelium
(with transformation from
squamous to mucinous epithelium
can be seen)

Aboeba is transmitted by ingestion Trophozoites are 10-15 micrometers with

Liver: Necrotizing and granulomatous hepatitis of cysts shed from feces. The single nucleus with single central
54 Lizard Entamoeba invadens with intralesional protozoa/ amoeba trophzoites cysts develop into trophozoites in endosome and a ring pf peripheral
and trematode eggs the intestine and invade the granules; Cysts are 11-20 mcm with 4
mucosa of the GI tract nuclei (member of the E Histolytica group)

Apicomplexan parasite: (conoid,

Liver: Mononuclear cell proliferation, rhoptries, polar rings, micronemes,
multinodular, with intracytoplasmic protozoa subpellicular microtubul