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-

( )

..

, 2002
..

517.

.
, ( 2-
).
. ., 2002. 28 .

-
, ,
-
.


c - , 2002

1. . . . . . 4
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. . 10
4. n- . . . . . . . 16
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3
4 .. ,

1.
: Rn n- -
x = (x1 , . . . ,xn ); Qk k; Sk (E)
Sk (E) ()
E Rn ; E
E.
1.1. Qk E 6= , Qk 6 E. Qk E 6= .
. x Qk E, y Qk \E.
Qk x,y
, E,
E.
,
, -
z.
z E, E.
z E.
1.2. E = E\ int E, E Sk (E).

1.3. Qk = 0, Sk (E) = 0
E.
( )
. -
E , E = 0.
E.
I. , E = 0 E. -
1.1 , ,
Sk (E) Sk (E) Sk (E).

Sk (E) 6 Sk (E) + Sk (E),
2 2. 5

..
Sk (E) Sk (E) 6 Sk (E) 0 (k ),
, , .
II. , E E = 0.
1.2
E E\ int E Sk (E)\ int Sk (E)
[Sk (E)\Sk (E)] [Sk (E)\ int Sk (E)]
Sk4 (E) Sk (E),

Sk4 (E) = U Qk .
Qk Sk (E), Qk 6Sk (E)

1.3
E 6 Sk4 (E) + Sk (E) = Sk4 (E) =
= Sk (E) Sk (E) 0 (k ),
E = 0, .

2.


(
x = x(u,v),
F : (1)
y = y(u,v),
G
R2uv G R2xy :
F
R2uv G  G R2xy
. .
:
1 . F G G ,
2 . F G,
6 .. ,

(x,y)
3 . J(u,v) := (u,v) 6= 0 G.

2.4. )
Q := {(u,v) : u0 6 u 6 u0 + h, v0 6 v 6 v0 + h} G,
:= max max |x0u |, |x0v |, |yu0 , |yv0 | .

Q
F Q -
2, .. (u1 ,v1 ), (u2 ,v2 ) Q
|F (u2 ,v2 ) F (u1 ,v1 )| 6 2 |(u2 ,v2 ) (u1 ,v1 )| =
p
= 2 (u2 u1 )2 + (v2 v1 )2 . (2)
. (xi ,yi ) = F (ui ,vi ), i = 1,2.

|x2 x1 | = |x [u1 + t(u2 u1 ), v1 + t(v2 v1 )]|1t=0 | =
= x0u (u,v)(u2 u1 ) + x0v (u,v)(v2 v1 ) 6

p
6 2 (u2 u1 )2 + (v2 v1 )2 .

p
|y2 y1 | 6 2 (u2 u1 )2 + (v2 v1 )2 .
(2).
2.5. E E G,
Q := {(u,v) : u0 6 u 6 u0 + h, v0 6 v 6 v0 + h} G.
:
1 . F (E) = F (E),
2 . F (Q) ,
3 . E = 0, F (E) = 0,
4 . E , F (E) .
)
3.3
2. 7

. -
(u,v) G (x,y) =
= F (u,v) ,
,
. ,
(u,v) (x,y) -
, , -
E F (E). 1
F (Q). F (Q)
-
, x(u,v), y(u,v). ,
F (Q) = F (Q) .
F (Q) = 0. F (Q)
2 .
3 4 -
3.3
3 . , F (E) = 0. -
, Sk = Sk (E) G k, k0 ,
-
E R2 \G.

max |x0u |, x0v |, |yu0 |, |yv0 | .



:= max
Sk
0

(2) Sk -
4 , -
. k > k0

F (E) 6 F (Sk ) 6 162 Sk .

k , -
, F (E) = 0.
8 .. ,

4 F (E) F (E), -
, 1 ,3
.
2.1 (
). (u0 ,v0 ) G, h0 > 0,

G Qh := {(u,v) : uh 6 u 6 uh + h, vh 6 v 6 vh + h} 3 (u0 ,v0 )


h, 0 < h 6 h0 .

F (Qh )
lim = |J(u0 ,v0 )|. (3)
h0 Qh

3.1 . -
-

2.6. 2.1 h 0
F (Qh ) 6 |J(u0 ,v0 )|Qh + o(h2 ). (4)

. , (u0 ,v0 ) -
Qh . F -
,



x = x0 +a11 (u u0 ) + a12 (v v0 )+
p
+1 (u u0 , v v0 ) (u u0 )2 + (v v0 )2 ,


F :


y = y0 +a21 (u u0 ) + a22 (v v0 )+
p
+2 (u u0 , v v0 ) (u u0 )2 + (v v0 )2 ,

a11 = x0u (u0 ,v0 ), a12 = x0v (u0 ,v0 ), a21 = yu0 (u0 ,v0 ), a22 =
= yv0 (u0 ,v0 ), i (u u0 ,v v0 ) 0 (u,v) (u0 ,v0 ).
2. 9

F
(
x = x(u,v) = x0 + a11 (u u0 ) + a12 (v v0 ),
F :
y = y(u,v) = y0 + a21 (u u0 ) + a22 (v v0 ).
,

F (Qh ) a a
11 12

= = |J(u0 ,v0 )|.
Qh a21 a22

F (Qh ) -
F (Qh ).
(h) := sup max {|1 |,|2 |} , (h) 0 h 0.
|uu0 |6h
|vv0 |6h

(u,v) Qh

|x(u,v) x(u,v)| 6 (h) 2h, |y(u,v) y(u,v)| 6 (h) 2h.
, , , :
 
F (Qh ) U3(h)h F (Qh ) . (5)

3(h

 
F (Qh ) 6 U3(h)h F (Qh ) 6
= y
)h

6 F (Qh ) + o(h2 )
= |J(u0 ,v0 )|h2 + o(h2 ), (4)
(. . 1).
. (4) 3(h
)h
-
J(u0 ,v0 ) =
= 0,
(4) F (Qh )
F (Qh ).
x
. 1.
10 .. ,

3.

3.2.
(
x = x(u,v)
F :
y = y(u,v)
G R2uv
G R2xy :
F
R2u,v G R2x,y ,
G .
.
. .
:
1 . F G G ,
2 . F G,
(x,y)
3 . J(u,v) = (u,v) 6= 0 G,
4 . F,J G,
5 . f G

G .

ZZ ZZ
(x,y)
f (x,y) dx dy = f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]
du dv . (1)
(u,v)
G G

. (1)

.
, f > 0 G .
. ,
M > sup |f |, f (x) = f1 (x) f2 (x),
G

f1 (x) = f (x) + M > 0, f2 (x) = M > 0,


3. 11

(1) f1 f2 ,
f = f1 f2 .

1- . ,
ZZ ZZ
f (x,y) dx dy 6 f [x(u,v),y(u,v)]|J(u,v)| du dv, (2)

Q = {(u,v) : u1 6 u 6 u1 + h, v1 6 v 6 v1 + h} G, Q =
= F (Q). , , -
(2) , .. 0 > 0
Z Z ZZ
f (x,y) dx dy > (1 + 0 ) f [x(u,v),y(u,v)] |J(u,v)| du dv .
F (Q) G
(3)
G 4 . -
Q(1) , ( k = 1)
Z Z ZZ
f (x,y) dx dy > (1 + 0 ) [x(u,v), y(u,v)]|J(u,v)| du dv .
F (Q(k) ) Q(k)
(4)
Q(1) :
4 , (4)
k = 1, (3). Q(1) 4 -
Q(2) ,
( k = 2 ) (4). -
, Q(k) 1
(4). (-
Q(k) ) (u0 ,v0 ) Q(k)
k. (4)

f (xk ,y k )F (Q(k) ) >


> (1 + 0 )f [x(uk ,v k ), y(uk ,v k )]|J(uk ,v k )|Q(k) .
12 .. ,

F (Q(k) ) 2.3, k
[f (x0 ,y0 ) + o(1)] [|J(u0 ,v0 )| + o(1)] >
> (1 + 0 ) [f (x0 ,y0 ) + o(1)] [|J(u0 ,v0 )| + o(1)] ,
f > 0, |J| > 0. (2) -
.

2- . Sk = Sk (G)
G.
-
(2) ,
Z Z ZZ
f (x,y) dx dy 6 f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]|J(u,v)| du dv . (5)
F (Sk ) Sk

3- .
ZZ ZZ
f (x,y) dx dy 6 f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]|J(u,v)| du dv . (6)
G G
(5)
(6) k . -
, (5)
(6). -
M (6) (5) -

M (G \F (Sk )) = M [G F (Sk )] ,
,
F (Sk ) G k . (7)
, m
Sm (G ) F (Sk (G)) G , k > k(m), (8)
3. 13

,
Sm (G ) G (m )
G .
(8) ,

F 1 [Sm (G )] Sk (G), k > k(m). (9)
(9) 2.2 -
G.
R2 \G = (m) > 0 (

, -
).
, (9) k ,
10k < .

4- . (1). -
(6) F 1 (
(u,v) (x,y) 1 1
 
(x,y) = (u,v) = J(u,v) F Sk )
g(u,v) := f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]|J(u,v)|.
ZZ Z Z
(x,y)
f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]
du dv 6 f (x,y) dx dy. (10)
(u,v)
Sk F (Sk )

(10) k , -
, , -
(6). (6) (1). .
. 3.1
: 4 ,
f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]|J(u,v)|
G. (1), Sk
F (Sk ) G G , -
k .
14 .. ,

1. 3.1
ZZ ZZ

(x,y)
G = 1 dx dy = (u,v) du dv .
(11)
G G

3.2. (11) Qh .

F (Qh ) = |J(uh ,v h )| Qh , Gh 3 (uh ,v h ) (u0 ,v0 ) h 0.
2.1
3.3. 1 , 2 , 3 -
3.1 , , f G ,
f [x(u,v), y(u,v)]J(u,v) G.
, (1), -
, (1).
.
, (1).
, f > 0,
f -
1
f = f+ f , f+ = 2 (|f | + f ) > 0
1
f = 2 (|f | f ) > 0. ,
(2) (2). -
|J|1 Q
(2) f(u,v) du dv,
RR
G
1
f(u,v) := f [x(u,v), y(u,v)] = f|J| .
|J|

= (Q) = {Di }i1 , = (Q ) = {Di }i1 = {F (Di )}ii=1

(12)
3. 15

Q Q . 2.1, -
F 1 , diamDi 6 KdiamDi
K,
| | 6 K| |. (13)
, , (f,Di ), (f,Di ) f,f
Di ,Di .
Xi X i ZZ
(f,Di )Di = (f,Gi ) |J(u,v)| du dv 6
i=1 i=1 Di
i
X
6 max |J| (f,Di )Di 0
Q
i=1
| | 0, (13) | | 0.

(2). (2).
(12), -
Di = Di . (ui ,vi ) -

max |J| = |J(ui ,vi )|, xi = x(ui ,vi ), yi = y(ui ,vi ).


Di


i
X i
X ZZ
f (xi ,yi )Di = f (xi ,yi ) |J(u,v)| du dv 6
i=1 i=1 Di
i
X
6 f [x(ui ,vi ), y(ui ,vi )]|J(ui ,vi )|Di .
i=1

| | 0 (, , | | 0),
(2).
16 .. ,

3.2
3.1, -
-
.
.
3.7. G,Gi n-
, G1 G2 . . . G,
(G\Gi ) 0 i . f
G Gi .
f G
Z Z
lim f dx = f dx.
i
Gi G

4. n-
F : x = x(t) -

F
Rnt G  G Rnx
. .
G Rnt -
G Rnx :
1 . F G G ;
2 . F G;
(x , . . . ,x )
3 . J(t) = (t1 , . . . ,t n) 6 0 G.
1 n

4.4. 1 , 2 , 3 , t() G,
(h)
G Qh = {t : ti 6 ti 6 thi + h, i = 1,2, . . . ,n} 3 t() , 0 <
< h 6 h0 .
5 5. 17


F (Qh )
lim = |J(t() )|
h0 Qh

4.5. 1 ,2 ,3 ,G,G
, f
G ,f (x(t))J(t) G.
Z Z
f (x) dx = f [x(t)]|J(t)| dt,
G G
.

2. 1 ,2 ,3 ,G,G
, J G.
Z Z
G = dx = |J(t)| dt,
G G


n = 2.

5.


k 6
~a = a1 i + a2 j
~b = b1 i + b2 j
-

 j

 i

+
a b
1 1
~a ~b = (i j)
a2 b2 . 2.
18 .. ,

,
a b
1 1
sgn
a2 b2
-
.

a b
1 1
> 0 [< 0]
a2 b2

~a ~b i,j
[] .
-

(
x = x(u,v)
F :
y = y(u,v)

G (u,v),
,
(x,y)

v y

2
F 2

1 F 1

u x
. 3
5. 19

1 = {(u,v) : u = u1 (t),v = v1 (t)},


2 = {(u,v) : u = u2 (t),v = v2 (t)},
F 1 = {(x,y) : x = x1 (t),y = y1 (t)},
F 2 = {(x,y) : x = x2 (t),y = y2 (t)},

x1 (t) := x(u1 (t),v1 (t)),y1 (t) := y(u1 (t),v1 (t)),


x2 (t) := x(u2 (t),v2 (t)),y2 (t) := y(u2 (t),v2 (t)).
, 1 2 -
t = t0 .
1
2 -
F 1 ,F 2 . -
.

dx1 dx2    
dt dt dx1 dy1 dx2 dy2
(i j) = i+ j i+ j =

dy1 dy2 dt dt dt dt

dt dt
= [(x0u u01 + x0v v10 )i + (yu0 u01 + yv0 v10 )j] [(x0u u02 + x0v v20 )i+
+(yu0 u02 + yv0 v20 )j] = (x0u u01 yv0 v20 + x0v v10 yu0 u02 )(i j)
(x0u u02 yv0 v10 + x0v v20 yu0 u01 )(i j) =
= (x0u yv0 x0v yu0 )(u01 v20 v10 u02 )(i j).
, j i = i j. -
i j ,

dx1 dx2
dt dt (x,y) u0 u0
1 2
= .

dy1 dy2 (u,v) v10 v20

dt dt

1 2 ( ) F 1 F 2 (
). , -
20 .. ,

(x,y)
: (u,v) > 0 [< 0]

[ ].
1
, G.
1 . -
1 1 = F (1 )
F (). 2 , 1 ,
,
1 . ,
:

v y y
1
2 1 2 2

1
u x x
i = F (i ) J >0 J <0
. 4

. -
.
-
-
, ,
, .


.
6 6. 21

6.
G Rn
f,1 , . . . ,m (1 6 m < n).
{j (x) = 0}m
j=1 (1)
. E := {x : x
G,j (x) = 0,1 6 j 6 m}.
1. x E -
[ ] f
(1), > 0,
f (x ) 6 f (x) [f (x ) < f (x)]

x E U (x ).

[ ], [
].

. -
.
(1) , (1).

. G = R2 ,f (x1 ,x2 ) = x21 + x22 ,m = 1,(x1 ,x2 ) =


= x1 + x2 1. f
x1 + x2 1 = 0.

. = 0 f (x1 ,x2 ) = f (x1 ,1 x1 ) = 2x21


1 2 1 1 1
   
2x1 + 1 = 2 x1 2 + 2 . , 2 ; 2
.
, f,1 , . . . ,m -
j
G, rang xi = m G,x

22 .. ,

( , . . . , )
E, (x1 , . . . ,x m) 6 0.
1 m x0
U (x ) (1) (10 ),
{xj = j (xm+1 , . . . ,xn )}m
j=1 , (10 )
j
{j (1 (xm+1 , . . . ,xn ),2 (), . . . ,m (),xm+1 , . . . ,xn ) = 0}m
j=1 . (2)
-
: (3) (30 ),
( n )m
X j
dxi = 0 , (3)
xi
i=1 j=1
( n
)m
X j
dxj = dxi , (30 )
xi
i=m+1 j=1
, x . , -
dxm+1 , . . . ,dxn (3) ,
; (30 ) ,
, . (30 ) -
(3), (30 ) (3)
(2).
_ _
2. dx1 , . . . , dxn
, (3), (3 0 ).

3. x E -
_ n
P f _
f (1), df := x
dxi = 0.
i=1 i

6.6 ( -
). x f (1)
f (1).
6. 23

.
(xm+1 , . . . ,xn ) :=
:= f (1 (xm+1 , . . . ,xn ),2 (), . . . ,m (),xm+1 , . . . ,xn ).

[x f (1)]
[(xm+1 , . . . ,xn )
 () -
n n
P f P f
] = [d = 0] 0 = xi
dx i

0 = xi
dx i 0 =

1 (1 ) 1 (3 )
n

P f _ _
= x
dxi =:df , . ,
1 i

.
6.7 ( ). x
E f (1)
, 1 , . . . , m -
, x
m
X
F (x) := f (x) j j (x).
1
j .
. (m + 1)-
n m
P j
xi
dxi = 0


i=1
n
j=1 . (3 )
P f
dxi = 0


xi

i=1
_
[x f (1)] [df = 0]

[(3) = (df = 0)] [rang(3) = rang(3 ) = m]


24 .. ,

  m  
f f X j j
1 , . . . ,m : ,..., = j ,...,
x1 xn x1 xn
j=1
m
X
grad f = j grad [grad F = 0].
j=1

3 ( -
). x f (1)
F .
.
, f,1 , . . . ,m -

x , x f (1), .. -
E. > 0 -
,
x E U (x ) = (xm+1 , . . . ,xn ) = f (x)|(10 ) =

Xn

= f (x) j j (x) =: F (x) .
0 0 (1 ) (1 )
j=1
d, d2 x , xm+1 , . . . , xn -
.


n
P F
d = xi
dxi

,
i=1 (10 )
n n
2F

F
d2 d2 xi
P P
= dxi dxk + =

i,k=1
xi xk i=1
xi
(10 )

(10 )
n _ _
P 2F
= xi xk
dxi dxk .
i,k
6. 25

_ n
2
X 2F _ _
d F := dxi dxk .
xi xk
i,k=1
() -
, .
6.8 (
). f,1 , . . . ,m -
x
F .
:
1) d2 F > 0[< 0] |dx| > 0 = x -
[] f (1);
_
2) d2 F > 0[< 0] | dx | > 0 = x
[] f (1);
3) d2 F =
;
_
4) d2 F =
x .

.
f,1 , . . . ,m (1 6 m < n)
-
n
j
G R , rang x =
i
= m G. -
f (1) :
1 . :
Xm
F (x) := f (x) j j (x).
1
26 .. ,

2 . , -
E (
), .. n + m
on

n
x
F (x) = 0

i 1

{j (x) = 0}m


1
n + m
x1 ,x2 , . . . ,xn ,1 ,2 , . . . ,m .

m
,  {j (x) = 0}1
m

j
F (x) = 0 .
1
3 . x ,
f,1 , . . . ,m
, d2 F , ,
_
d2 F . 6.3 -
.

4 . f -
.
.
f (x,y,z) = xyz, x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, x + y + z = 0.
. 1 (x,y,z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 1, 2 (x,y,z) =
= x + y + z. G , ,
 
1
G = (x,y,z) : |j (x,y,z)| < , j = 1,2 .
2

F (x,y,z) = xyz 1 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 1) 2 (x + y + z)


6. 27

,
,

Fx0 yz 21 x 2 = 0


Fy0 xz 21 y 2 = 0



0
Fz xy 21 z 2 = 0 . (4)

2 2 2
x +y +z 1 = 0




x+y+z =0

,
yz + xz + xy 32 = 0. (5)
2(yz + xz + xy) = (x + y + z)2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 0 1,
1
(5) 2 = 6 .
(4)
(y x)(z + 21 ) = 0. :
(z y)(x + 21 ) = 0,(x z)(y + 21 ) = 0.
( -
(4),
(y x)(z y)(x z) = 0.
y x = 0.
.

, :

6 6 6
x=y= ,z = ; 1 = .
6 3 12
.
d2 F = 21 (dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 ) + 2z dx dy + 2y dx dz+

6
+2x dy dz = 6 [dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 4 dx dy + 2 dx dz + 2 dy dz]
28 .. ,

, .. -
(. dx =
= 1,dy = dz = 0 dx = dy = 1,dz = 0).
_
d2 F , d2 F dx,dy,dz -
(3): )
x dx + y dy + z dz = 0
. (6)
dx + dy + dz = 0
x = y ,
_ _ _ _ _
(6) (dx , dy , dz) (dx , dx ,0).
 2
_
2 6
d F = 6 4 dx [-
] -
.  
6 6 6
6.3 , 6
, 6 , 3


 ,
6 6 6
6 , 6 , 3 .

f
6
18 .