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PNG 410: Applied Reservoir Engineering

Home work assignment #5 Solution

April 21, 2010 Due date: April 28, 2010

NOTE: Please detail the formula, steps, and units for the calculation. Missing formula, steps, and units can lead to lost points.

Problem 1:

The following data are taken from an oil field that had no original gas cap and no water drive:

Initial reservoir pressure = 3500 psia Initial reservoir temperature = 140 deg F Bubble point pressure of the reservoir p b = 2400 psia Oil pore volume of reservoir = 75 MM cu ft Solubility of gas in crude oil below bubble pressure = 0.42 SCF/STB/psi Formation volume factor B oi at 3500 psia = 1.333 bbl/STB Gas deviation factor z at 1500 psia and 140 deg F = 0.95 Oil produced when pressure at 1500 psia N p = 1.0 MM STB Net cumulative produced gas-oil ratio R p at 1500 psia = 2800 SCF/STB

1.1 Calculate the initial STB of oil in reservoir

V

o

= 75 MM cu ft = 75/5.615 MM bbl = 13.36 MM bbl

N =

V

o

13.36 MM bbl

=

B oi

1.333 bbl/STB

=

10.02 MM STB

1.2 Calculate the initial gas-oil ratio and SCF of gas in reservoir (using the definition of gas solubility in crude oil).

Solubility of gas in crude oil = 0.42 SCF/STB/psi, at bubble point pressure of 2400 psia,

gas-oil ratio R

Above bubble point pressure, gas-oil ratio rea mins constant, Therefore, G = 1,008 SCF/STB × 10.02 MM STB = 10.1 MMM SCF

= 2400 psia

× 0.42 SCF/STB/psia = 1,008 SCF/STB

soi

1.3 Calculate the SCF of gas remaining in the reservoir at 1500 psia

N

produced gas = N

gas remaining in the reservoir = 10.1 - 2.8 = 7.3 MMM SCF

p

at 1500 psia = 1 MM STB, R

p

×=R

p

p

at 1500 psia = 2800 SCF/STB,

1 MM STB

×

2800 SCF/STB=2.8 MMM SCF

1.4 Calculate the SCF of free gas in the reservoir at 1500 psia

With gas solubility of 0.42 SCF/STB/psi, and initial R

at 1500 psia, the R

So the gas dissolved in oil is (N-N )

= 1,008 SCF/STB

×

soi

R

=−

soi

0.42

×

p

(2400

R

×=

so

1500)

(10.02

=

630 SCF/STB

1.0) MM STB

so

630 SCF/STB=

5.68 MMM SCF

free gas in the reservoir = 7.3 MMM SCF - 5.68 MMM SCF = 1.62 MMM SCF

1.5 Calculate the gas volume formation factor at 1500 psia at standard condition of 14.7 psia and 60 deg F.

B

g

=

0.02829

zT

r

×=

p

r

0.02829

×

0.95(140

+

460)

1500

=

3

0.01075 ft / SCF

1.6 Calculate the reservoir volume of the free gas at 1500 psia V g = 1.62 MMM SCF * B g = 17.4 MM CF

1.7 Calculate the single phase oil formation volume factor at 1500 psia V o at 1500 psia = total initial reservoir volume – free gas volume = 75 MM CF – 17.4 MM CF = 57.6 MM CF = 10.26 MM bbl Under this condition, the equivalent volume under standard condition in SCF is:

N – N p = 10.02 – 1.00 MM STB = 9.02 MM STB B o = V o / (N-N p ) = 1.137 bbl/STB

1.8 Calculate the total, or two phase, oil volume formation factor at 1500 psia. B t = B o + (R soi -R so )B g = 1.137 bbl/STB + (1008-630) SCF/STB * 0.01075 ft 3 /SCF / (5.615 ft 3 /bbl) = 1.85 bbl/STB

Problem 2:

The R sand is a volumetric oil reservoir whose PVT properties are shown below. Reservoir temperature is 150 deg F. When the reservoir pressure dropped from an initial pressure of 2500 psia to an average pressure of 1600 psia, a total of 26.0 MM STB of oil had been produced. The cumulative gas-oil ratio at 1600 psia was 954 SCF/STB. No Appreciate amount of water was produced, and standard condition were 14.7 psia and 60 deg F.

2 2.1 Calculate the initial oil in place

N

p N

=

B

t

B

ti

RF =

From

B

B

t

(

B

R

ti

)

=

soi

RB

p

soi

=

B

oi

o

+

(

R

g

+

the figure,

1.29 bbl/STB

)

RB

so

g

t

at 1600 psia = B

B

R

B

g

soi

t

0.02829 zT

×

r

0.02829(0.82)(150

+

460)

at 1600 psia =

R

1.215

−=

575

so

=+

5.615

385

=

=

p

190 SC F/STB

r 1600

×

0.001575 bbl/SCF

190 SCF/STB

= 1.514 bbl/STB

=

0.001575 bbl/SCF

N =

(

NB

p

t

+

(

R

p

R

soi

))

B

g

B

t

B

ti

 = 26.0(1.514 + (954 − 575)(0.001575) = 1.514 − 1.29

245.02 MM STB

2.2 Calculate the SCF of free gas remaining in the reservoir at 1600 psia.

Initial volume of oil under initial reservoir condition = N

Initially there is no gas in the reservoir, initial pore volume

at 1600 psia, the V

V

×

B

oi

=

316.08 MM bbl

=

266.11 MM bbl

NNB ) =

(

=−

p

o

316.8

266.1

=

3.219

×

10

10

(245.02

26.00)(1.215)

oil

=

V

oil, initial

50.7

−= V

oil

10

6

/ B

g

50.7 MM bbl

=

SCF

freeGas

G

freeGas

Alternatively, G

245.02

=

freeGas

6

10

×

=− G G

×

G

N R

10

NR

p

p

(

N

N

p

)

×

R

so

p

dissolved

26

soi

5.615

×

575

−× ×

6

6

5. 615× 954 (245.02-26) ××10

5.615× 385

2.3 Calculate the average gas saturation in the reservoir at 1600 psia.

V

pore

N

×

B

oi

==

(1

S

wi

)

316.08 MM bbl

(1-0.18)

S

g

V freeGas

==

V pore

50.7

385.46

= 0.1315

=

385.46 MM bbl

2.4 Calculate the barrels of oil that would have been recovered at 1600 psia if all the

produced gas had been returned to the reservoir.

If all the gas has been returned to the reservoir,

N

R

p

=

p

0, then RF

N RF

 p t − ti N B t + (0 − RB ) soi g 245.02 × 0.368 =

==

=

B

B

 = 1.514 − 1.29 = 0.368 1.514 − 575 × 0.001575

so N

compared to 26.0 MM STB that has been pro duced without injecting the gas back to reservoir.

90.21 MM STB,

2.5 Assuming no free gas flow, calculate the recovery expected by depletion drive

performance down to 2000 psia.

RF =

N

p

N

=

B

t

B

ti

B

t

+

(

R

p

RB )

soi

g

B ti

= 1.29 bbl/STB

B(

t

B

=+

o

R

soi

RB )

so

g

at 2000 psia, B

0.02829

zT

r

==

g 5.615

p

r

0.02829 0.82(150

+

460)

5.615

2000

=

0.00126 bbl/STB

From the PVT figure, B

o

=

1.27 bbl/STB, R

soi

=

575 SCF/STB, R

s o

= 510 SCF/STB

B

t

=

1.27 bbl/STB + (575-510)SCF/STB

×

0.00126 bbl/STB=1.434 bbl/STB

1.434

1.29

so N

R

p ,2000

=

245.02

×

N

pb

R

×+

soi

p,2000

1.434

(

+

N

p

,2000

(

R

575)(0.00126)

avg

(220 0,2000)

p ,2000

NR )

pb

=

N p ,2000

(1)

(2)

Here R

avg

between 2200 and 2000 psia is

575+510

2

= 542.5 SCF/STB

N

pb

N RF

N

BB

t , bp

ti

B

t , bp

N

BB

o , bp

oi

B

o , bp

=

insert back into the Equation (2),

245.02

×

1.30

1.25

1.30

we have R

p,2000

=

9.424

×+ 575

(

N

p ,2000

9.424)(542.5)

N

p ,2000

,

solve together with N

=

p,2000

245.02

×

we have N

=

p,2000

25.05 MM STB, R

1.434

1.29

p

1.434

+

(

R

p ,2000

575)(0.00126)

=

554.73 SCF/STB

=

9.424 MM STB

Problem 3:

The following table provides fluid property data for an initially undersaturated oil reservoir. The initial connate water saturation was 25%. Initial reservoir T and p were 97 deg F and 2110 psia, respectively. The bubble-pint pressure was 1700 psia. Average compressibility factors between the initial and bubble-point pressures were 4.0(10) -6 psia - 1 and 3.1(10) -6 psia -1 for the formation and water, respectively. The critical gas saturation at which gas flow starts to form is estimated to be 10%. Determine the recovery factor at the bubble point pressure. Assume it is a volumetric reservoir.

 Pressure (psia) Oil formation Solution gas-oil ratio (SCF/STB) Gas formation volume factor (ft 3 /SCF) volume factor (bbl/STB) 2110 1.256 540 1700 1.265 540 0.007412 1500 1.241 490 0.008423 1300 1.214 440 0.009826 1100 1.191 387 0.011792 900 1.161 334 0.014711 700 1.147 278 0.019316 500 1.117 220 0.027794 Solution:

We need to use the following equation for recovery factor calculation.

cS

o

+

cS

w wi

+

c

f

⎥ Δ ⎦

c

p

ti

=

B

oi

B

o

B

wi

NB

1 S

Above the bubble point, B

B

B

Δ=

o

p

t

e

=

N B

p

t

= B

o

= 1.256 bbl/STB

=

1.265 bbl/STB,

2110

o

B

oi

1700

=

1.265

ti

t

=

e

410 psia

1.256

o

=

=

B

oi

Δ p

e

1.256

× 410

1.748

10

5

bbl/STB

cS

o

o

+ cS

w

wi

+

c

f

1.748

×

10

56

−−

×

0.75

3.1

10

×

0.25

4.0

10

6

c

e

=

B

ti

cS

1

S

cS

wi

c

=

e

=

N

p

=

1.256

×

0.75

2.385

5

×× 10

410

=

0. 00970

o

o

+

w wi

+

f

Δ

1 S

wi

p

B

t

N

1.265

=

2.385

×

10

5

psia

- 1