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A Joint Committee of the

Water Pollution Control Federation and the

American Society of Civil Engineers


.Anton F. MIorln, Chairmnn Francis V. Frlssorn, VIce Chnlrmnn In Charge of Review Coordination

Orris E. Albertson Henry H. Benjes. Jr. SIdney A. BerkowItz Franldln L. Burton Jnmes E. Gannnin Albert C. Gmy, Jr. WllUnm F. Jopling .Anton A. Knlinske Stnnley E. Kappa DenIs J. Lussier Dennis R. Martenson Ross E. McKInney, Sr.

MIchnel C. Mulbnrger Earl A. MYBrs Donald E. Schwinn

J. Thomns Seeley Joseph H. Sherrard Alfred F. Slechta Milton Spiegel

Frank E. Stratton Morrell Vroomnn, Jr. J. G. Walters

Robert C. Winkelman John D. Wmy

Copyright © 11177 by the Water Pollution Control Fedemtion, Washington, D.C. 20037 nnd the

Amerlcnn Society of Clv!! Engineers, New York, N.Y. 10017

Printed in U.S.A. 1977 By Lancaster Press, Inc, Lancaster, Pa,


The .first edition of Sewage Treatment material was relocated, and in some inPlant Design was published in 1959 with stances major changes, deletions, and addisubsequent reprintings made through Feb- tions were made. While not every member ruary 1977 as the demand . required. Be- of the committee completely concurred sponsibility for the preparation of this with the material ultimately presented, the second edition was shared, as was the first, manual does represent a consensus. To through a Joint Committee sponsored by this extent, the manual is not just a comthe Water Pollution Control Federation and pilation of individual efforts, but truly the American Society of Civil Engineers. reflects the collective effort of the Joint Major draft efforts were completed by Committee.

Mnrch 1976, and major review and editing Without any attempt being made to ap-

efforts by June 1977. prove or disapprove, Joint Committeemem-

The Joint Committee proceeded on the bers constituted the referees in determinbasis that in the revision of the first edition ing . current practice. Furthermore, design major changes were required to delete criteria presented in the manual reflects the technology that no longer was considered thinking of the Joint Committee members. practice, to update still pertinent portions Attention is therefore called to the fact that of the manual, and to cover advances in the practice and design criteria set forth in the wastewater treatment field. Thus, this the manual may not in all cases be commanual reflects not only an upgrading but patible with the requirements of federal an expansion of the material presented in and state regulatory agencies.

1959. In each chapter, an effort was made to

The advances considered in the waste- present applicable process theory and then, wnter treatment field were not only tech- using this theory, to address design connologicnl in nature, but included concepts siderations and applications. Subjects are and policies promulgated by recent en- . nrranged to facilitate use on the basis of a vironmental law, Because of the relatively unit process or systems approach. Prinrecent evolution of environmental law and clples and practices are presented in a its impact on technology, considerations manner that provides a logically sequenced that were of minor importance in the past account of wastewater treatment plant deare now of major significance. These new sign. It is assumed that the reader bas areas are considered to an extent to be some degree of experience, and no attempt

compatible with current interest and use. was made to make the manual n primer.

It was the Joint Committee's expressed New chapter presentations include pre-

objective and overriding concern to main- and post-aeration, pre- and intermediate tain the concept of including processes and ohlorinndon, recarbonation, granular media systems reflecting current practice. To filtration, activated carbon adsorption, amachieve this objective, every chapter was mania removal, dechlorination, stabilization subjected to a rigorous review process by lagoons, land application of wastewater, individuals from different fields of expertise and aerobic sludge digestion. For the and from different areas of the country. most part, all other chapter material upThis broad perspective was of major con- pearing in the 1959 manual has undergone cern during, the initial selection of com-

mittee members, After the initial draft of significant change. Particular attention

a chapter was prepared, generally by a should be given to Chapters 1 and 2, gensingle individual, it was widely circulated eral process design and general physical for review to other chapter authors and to design considerations, for the change in other Joint Committee members who served emphasis placed on state and federal regusolely in a review capacity. On the basis lations, and on the expansion of design of review comments, much original draft criteria.


Principal contributing authors were:

Orris E. Albertson Anton A. Kallnske

Henry H. Benjes, Jr. Stanley E. Kappe

Franklin L. Burton Denis J. Lussier

James E. Germain Dennis R. Martenson

Albert C. Gray, Jr. Ross E. McKinney, Sr.

William F. Jopling Michael C. Mulbarger

Other contributing authors were:

Ronald L. Antonie Joseph J. Jacobs

Robert C'. Axt J. Jensen

Robert K. Burbank Thomas W. Joyce

Thomas L. Davis Robert W. Okey

David Di Gregorio C. Michael Robson

Earl A. Myers

J. Thomas Seeley Alfred F. Slechta Morrell Vrooman, Jr. J. G. Walters

Robert C. Winkelman

Joseph H. Sherrard H. David Stansel John T. Su

J. Zelenieb:

In addition to Joint Committee members and authors, reviewers included:

Takashl Asano

Jobn J. Bailey

A. A. Baker

Jeffery Baker Lawrence Benefield D. N. Bibbo

Jerry Boyle

Paul R Bradley

F. Broling

James Brown

George W. Carpenter Robert Chapman

D. Coben

Gordon L. Culp Lamont W. Curtis Stacy L. Daniels

Roger Davidson Vincent De Palma

E. W. J. Diaper Richnrd I. Dick

Lloyd Ewing

John I. Fetch

Tom H. Forrest Alexander A. Friedman H, 0, Friehold, Jr. [ohn Oalandak William F. Oarber Chesley F. Gnrland Walter E, Garrison

F. M. Gunby

Vincent Grippi

Carmen F. Guarino

Eugene J. Guidi

Eric C. Harnmarstrom Paul H, King

J. Thomas Kirk Lester Klashman Kerry J. Kovacs

Irwin J. Kugelman Sidney S. Lasswell Alonzo Lawrence

R. Ernest Leffel

Kurt Leininger

Y. H. Lin

Wilbur E, Long, Jr. Hans Lundgren Robert S. Madaney Don Marske

Carl J. Mattei Gerry McDonnell Robert P. Miele Charles R. Miller Harold W. Murray C, K. Myers Hussein Naimie Michael D. Nelson James L, Nemke John B. Nesbitt

R. W. Ookershausen Daniel Okun

Robert D. Olt

Robert E. Pailthorp William H. Parker III John D. Parkhurst

. Coordinators for review by the American Society of Civil Engineers, Environmental Engineering Division, Executive Committee

Ralph Parsons

Alfred E. Peloquin' Andrew W. Pieper Clifford W. Randall W. Bryant Rawls, Jr. Sherwood C. Reed Raymond W. Regan James E. Santarone John H. Sapper Warren E. Scanlon

H. G. Schwartz, Jr.

C. A. Scott

Belford Seabrook Elmer Seegmueller Richard M. Shane Lawrence J. Slentz Stan Smith

Vernon T. Stack

James F. Stahl

Bryan A. Stirrat

Balph Stone

Charles H. Sutfin Charles L. Swanson Walter W. Thorpe Richard Unz

John T. Vincent

John Wagner

Ralph Wagner

Walter J. Weber, Jr. 'William A. Whittington Charles WinkIebaus

were Lester M. Klashman and Ralph Stone.

WPCF staff assistance was provided by Eugene De Michele.


Table of Contents

I 7.
9. Title

General Process Design Considerations ..•• , .•. _ • _ • . . . . . . . • . 1 General Physical Design Considerations .••••............... 26 Occupational Health and Physical Safety .. :............... 4B

Construction Materials ••• ,.,............................. 57

Pumps and Pumping Appurtenances ,......... 76

Pre-Aeration and Post-Aeration III

Pre-Chlorination and Intermediate Chlorination •.......•... 116

Coarse and Fine Screening ;............ 120

Grit Removal ...••.................•...••...•......•..... 134

10. Flotation ..•........................•......•............. 151

II, Chemical Treatment .....•....•.•.•...•.............•..... 159

. 12. Flocculation ...............•............................. 201

13. Recarhonation ..........................•.............. " 212

14. Activated Sludge , ..•.. , , •.......... 217

15. Biological Filters .....•................................... 2B3

16. Sedimentation ..••.................. ,..................... 321

17. Granular Media Filtration _ 336

lB. Act?-vated Carbofi Adsorption 355

19. Ammonia Removal _ ..........•.. " 367

20, Disinfection. . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 376

21. Dechlorination ............•..•.......................•• " 405

22. Stabilization Lagoons ,...... . 409

23. Land Application of Wastewater , 425

24. Sludge Pumping ............•..•.•.•. , ,..... 439

25. Sludge Preparation, Drying, and Reduction ..•.............. 451

26. Aerobic Sludge Digestion 502

27. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion 515

Index ••..........•.... , ... , ........•............... , . . . . . • . . • . . . . . .. 537


List of Figures

FIGURE 1·1. Typicnl frequency distribution of some mw wastewater parameters,

FIGURE 1.2. TypIcal hourly variations of oxygen uptake rate and How and loading in an activated sludge plant,

FIGURE 1.:1. Typical alHuent reliabIlity of the activated sludge precess.

FIGURE 1-4. Typical effiuent rel!ablllty of the activated sludge process followed by chlorination and' low overflow mte sedimentation.

FIGURE I.s. Typical alHuent reliabilJty of the activated sfudge process followed by Hltrntion.

FIGURE 2-1. The' 91000· m'/d (24 mgd) Eagan Township, Minnesota, treatment facility includes 2 primary settling basins, 4 aeration basins in the complete mix arrangement of the activated sludge process, 4 Hnnl settllng basins, 2 chlorine contact tanks, and an outfall sewer to the ad/ncent Minnesota River.

FIGURE 2-2. ThIs Memphis, Tennessee, facility will employ contact stnbil!zntion and is designed for a peale How of 950000 m'/d (250 mgd), 'The major facility units consist of (from right to left) pumping station, admlnlstmtion and mnlntenance buildlug, grit tanks, contact stabilization and aerobic digestion tanks, blower building, return sludge building, chlorination building, flnnl tanks nnd sludge thickenIng tanks, and chlorine contact tanks. Temporary sludge lagoons are in the upper left quadrant

FIGURE 2-3. The 95 000 m'/d (25 mgd) PIma County, Arizona, treatment facility (expnnsion wilt increase the capacity to gO 000 m'/d) inccrpomtes concerns for utiUty as well as aesthetics. Architecture, nolse and odor control, landscaping, and community recreation (golf, boating, nnd Jlshlng) all are prominent design ocnslderntinns In this activated sludge facilIty.

FIGURE 2-4. Layout for n medium-sized 68000 mOld (18 mgd) activated sludge facility. From top-left to bottom-right, activated sludge uoits, plant service bu!ldJng, equnIization bnsln, Hltmtion units, visitor parking, administration center, employee pnrklng, and vehicle storage building.

FIGURE 2-5. Functional diagram' for plant administration bulldlng Including laboratory.

FIGURE 2-6. Detailed lnyout of a plant administration building.

FIGURE 2-1. Typical hydraulic pmllle for inBuent pumping and primary treatment Water surface elevations are as shown when flow is III 000 m'/d (42 mgd).

FIGURE J!.8. Typlcaf hydraulic prollle for an activated sludge plant Water surface elevations are as shown wben flow Is 160 000 mild (42 mgd).

FIGURE 2-9. Typlcnl hydrnulle proJile for a trickling HIter plant. Water surface elevations are as shown when How Is B5 000 m"/d (22.4 mgd}.

FIGURE 2-10, Typical example of a dual-feed power system. Note that MCG refers to "motor control center."

FIGURE 5-1. Pump c1assillcations for wastewater treatment works.

FIGURE 5-2. Centrifugal radial pumps are most frequently of the two vane or two port construction.

FIGURE 5.:1. Vortex or torque flow pumps huve a multiplicity of vanes cut into the Impeller.

FIGURE 5-4. Mued flow pumps develop their head partly by centrifugal force and partly by the lift of the vanes on the liquid.

FIGURE 5-5. Axial lIow pumps develop head hy the propelling or liftiDg action of the vanes.

FIGURE 5-0. Air-lift: pump.

FIGURE 5·1. An air-lift ejector. As wnstewater rises In the receiving containers and contacts the electrode, air Is forced Into the container ejeeting the wastewater.

FIGURE 5-8. Screw lift pumps are used primarily for low lift, high capacity, non-clog pumping fnstnllatfons,

FIGURE 5·9. A compurison of the delivery capnclty of two types of positive displacement pumps. Note: hp X 0.145 = kW; gpm X O.OBal = lis; It X 0.305::: m.

FIGURE 5-10. Plunger pumps are employed to ensure positive daUvery at the design lIow rate, FIGURE 5.U. The progressing cavity pump iB the most wIdely npplied rotruy pump.

FIGURE 5.12. Dtaphragm pumps are character!zed by a flexible membrane located between the pumped material and the driving force.

FIGURE 5·13. Typical system head curve showIng static and friction head losses. Note: hp X 0.745 = kW; gpm X 0.0631 = 1/5; It X 0.305 = m,

FIGURE 5-14. Schematic diagram of manometer

. action level controlled liquid rheostat and wound rotor motor driven wastewater pump.

FIGURE 5-15. Schematlo of wound rotor 10- duedon motor with electronic secondary controller.

FIGURE 5·16. Wastewater pumping Instnllatlon ( a) elevation (b) plan.

FIGURE 6-1, Effect of preaemtion on removal of suspended solids In n primary settling tank. Removal based on 2 h detention time in settling basin.

FIGURE 6-2. Air flow required for dlfl'erent periods of prenerntion. Notal au It/gal X 7.461 = III.


FIGURE 1J.3. Vnrious postaeratton devices: (0) dllfused aeration, (b) turbine type aemtion, (c) pump type aemtion, (d) agltntor-nemtor system, (e) cascade aeratnr, and (f) U-tube nerntor,

FIGURE 11-1. Manually raked bar screen. FIGURE B·2. Mechanically ~lenned bar screen. FIGURE B.:I. Commloutor instnllation. FIGURE 8-4. Commlnutor In a strnlght channel


FIGURE B-5. Commlnutor installation mowing an emergency har screen by-pass,

FIGURE B·6. Mechanically cleaned coarse

screening device.

FIGURE B-7. Fixed or static screen.

FIGURE B·8. Section of fine screening device, FIGURE 8·9. (a) Line drawing of a Bne screen-

ing device. (b) Fine screening device.

FIGURE B-I0. AVemge and maxlmum volume of coarse screenings per wastewater volume for 133 collection systems (eu it/mil gal X 0.0075 = l/m').

FIGURE 9·1. Double chnmber grit cDllector; (a) plan, (b) rongltudlnnl section.

FIGURE 9·2. Aerated grit chamber inlet and outlet arrangement.

FIGURE 9.:1. Plan view of n constant level sedlmentntlon tank (detritus tank),

FIGURE 9-4. Elements of (0) proportional and (b) Sutro Weirs (see text for explanation of symbols).

FIGURE 9-5. Rectangular grit removal unit, mechanical semper, lind settling tank.

FIGURE 9·6. Grit assembly with mechanical semper.

FIGURE 9·7. Circular grit removal unit with conveyor.

FIGURE 9-8. Loading facilities for trucks may be necessary If rarge quantities of grit lire antIcipated.

FIGURE 10-1. Sollds londing mte versus effluent solids concentmtfnn, Note: lb/sq ftlday X 4.883 :::: kg/m" d.

FIGURE 10·2. Principnl components of n dissolved ulr Holntion unit include pressuri%lng pump, retention tnnk, pressure reduelng valve, nlr injection equlpment, and Hotallon tank.

FIGURE 10.:1. Dissolved nir flotnllon reparator. FIGURE 10-4. V~rlous degrees of tank pressuri~ation are avallnble, and depend on the nature of the waste being removed.

FIGURE 10-5. Both the (a) circular and (b) rectangular dIssolved alr Hotntion units have skimmer devices to remove the Boating solids.

FIGURE 10·0. Flotation tank with skimming mechanism.

FIGURE 11-1. Zeta potentlnl measurements correlated to typicnl alum eoagulatioa jar test results.

FIGURE 11-2. Temperature rise associnted with making solutions of anhydrous ferric chIm:ida up to 40 percent

FIGURE 11-3. DlssolviIlg tank with mixer and metering pump.

FIGURE 11-4, Polymer prewettlng incorpomting a mixing funnel prior to the dissolving tank.

FIGURE U.s. Typical batch system for Ieeding sodium silicate.

FIGURE 11-6. Typlcnl continuous method for feeding sodium silicate.

FIGURE 11-7. Typicnl phosphorus removal

curve. (Inlluent phosphorus conctmtmtlon of 10 mg/! as P nssumed.)

FIGURE n.a. Compilation of the vllrious lime preclpitallon schemes for the removal of pbos. phorus.

FIGURE 11-9. Single stage Hme treatment system.

FIGURE 11·10. Two stngo lime treatment system.

FIGURE 11-11. InJIuence of point of addition on phosphorus removal with aluminum.

FIGURE 11·12. Typieal phospborus reduction wIth alum.

FIGURE 11-13. Comparison of the e1fectlveness of alum and sodium aluminate on phosphorus removal.

FIGURE 11·14. Typicnl caustic soda feed system.

FIGURE 11-15. Turbine mixer in a bnllIed tank. FIGURE 11·16. Turbine Impellers: (a) straight blade, (b) 45 deg pitched blade, (c) strnlght curved-blade, (d) vaned disk, (a) mdial impeller, and (f) shrouded curved-blade with diffuser ring.

FIGURE 11-17. Propeller mixer.

FIGURE 11-18. Power chnrncteristlcs of a mixIng Impeller, no vortexlng.

FIGURE 11·19. Typical dry chemical feed system.

FIGURE 11·20. Typical wet ehemlcal . feed system.

FIGURE 12-1. Five typicaf Bocculator Inyouhl. FIGURE 12·2. Types of mechanical Jlocculator agitators.

FIGURE l2.:l. Oscillating type flocculator

(walking beam design).

FIGURE m4. Longltudlnnl and cross section of n paddle type rotary flocculator.

FIGURE 12-5. Turbine flocculator mounted vertically.

FIGURE 12-0. Turbine mixer with vertical shaft followed by horizontnl lIocculator.


showing FIGURE 14.22. Surface aerators for channel

from tho aeratlon.

FIGURE 14.113. Submerged turbine aeratnrs, FIGURE 14·24. Deslgn values for a & fJ for re-

actor basin design.

FIGURE 14.25 Complete mix activated sludge (C~LU) system.

FIGURE 14·26. Plug (or series] Row netlvuted sludge.

FIGURE 14·27. Contact stabil!zatl~n activated sludge.

FIGURE 14.28. Step aerntlnn actlvnted sludge. FIGURE 14·29. Oxidation ditch (arranged for nltrilicntioQ.denltrlfication) •

FIGURE 14-30. Design soUds lpading versus SYI. FIGURE 14-31. Activated sludge system used for phosphorus removal.

FIGURE 14.:12. Effect of carbon :nitmte ratlo on nitmte reduction.

FIGURE 14-33. Effect of pH on nitrate reduction.

FIGURE 14.34. Reported nitrate reductions using methanol or wastewater as the carbon source.

FIGURE 14-35. Pure oxygen activated sludge (covered compartmentalized tank type).

FIGURE 14.:10. Two stage carbonaeeous-nltrillcation system.

FIGURE 14-37. Three stalle carlmnncenus-nltrlflcatlcn-denttrlflcatlon system.

FIGURE 14-3B. Two stage denltrlficatlon-nltrlfication system.

FIGURE 14-39. FoLlC stage nitrification-denitrification system.

FIGURE 1449 Datil thllt can be used for activated sludge control.

FIGURE 1441. Centralized activated sludge plant arrangement,

FIGURE Hi-I. Flow diagrams of single and twostnge trickling mlsr plants.

FIGURE '5.2. Comparison of trickltng filter opemting data with NRC formula.

FIGURE 15·3, Comparison of trickling Iilter perIormance for various mtios of reclrculatton. Don applied does nnt include recirculated wastewater.

FIGURE 15-4. Teu States Standard design guideline.

FIGURE 15·5. Effect of "n" value on treatability factor of settled wnstewnter,

FIGURE 15-6. Conveyors move the p lastie media into the trIckling Hlter structure for packing.

FIGURE 15-1. Effect of trentnbtlity factor, K, and residence time, t, on DOO removal emciency.

FIGURE 15-B. Sirty-metre (200-ft) dlam rock media trickllng BIter with four 0.5-m (20-in.) dlam arms handling 8BO 1/s (14 000 gpm).

FIGURE 12-1. Longitudinal section transport nf the conditioned liquid Bash mixer to the flccculntor, FIGURE 13-1. Single-stage lime treatment system with recarbonatlon,

FIGURE 13-2. Two-stage lime treatment system with reeerbonetton.

FIGURE 13-3. Submerged combustion for pHcontrolled recnrbountlon,

FIGURE 14-1. Basle activated sludge process. FIGURE 14·2. Effect of sollds retention time on emuent ammonlum concentration and nitrification elIiciency,

FIGURE 14-3. Effects of reactor basin temperature nnd InRuent DOO, on aerntlen time in fil'5t stage nitrification.

FIGURE 14-4. Effects of (a) pH at constant tempemture and (II) temperature at various pH levels on ammonia removal.

FIGURE 14-5. Minimum solids retention time wWch must be maintained to obtain complete n1tri6cation as a function of temperature, N ole: e Is the irrational number with value of apapproximately 2.71B.

FIGURE 14-6. Symbols used to describe the effects of peaking Bows.

FIGURE 14-1. Reactor basin MLSS washout by peak Bows.

FIGURE 14-B. Reactor basin design capacity verSU.!I pealdng factor.

FIGURE 14-9. Design MLS5 versus SVl and ratum sludge ratio (high rate sludge removal mechanism).

FIGURE 14-10. Recommended maximum MLSS design versus temperature and SVI.

FIGURE 14-11. Design srrr for (0) carbooaceous 1100. removal, and (b) nitrification (single stage). Dotted line shows data from reference 22.

FIGURE 14-12. Design SlIT for modified aeration and high mte nctlvated sludge.

FIGURE 14-13. RelationsWp of IiIIT and F:M.

Note: (FtM), ;:::;: lb non, remeved/lb MLSS' d.

FIGURE 14-14. Net vas production versus IiIIT for three studies,

FIGURE 14-15. Net sludge production VBI'5U5 SRT and temperatnre (with primary treatment).

FIGURE 14-16. Net sludge production versus SRT nnd temperature (without primary trentment).

FIGURE 14-17. Four studies showing oxygen requirements versus F:M mtios.

FIGURE 14.18. Oxygen requirements for carbonaceous BOO. removal versus SRT and temperature,

FIGURE 14-19. Some alr dJlfuslon devices. FIGURE 14.20. Diffuser with swing lift assembly. (Liftiog apparatus not shown.)

FIGURE 14·21. Low speed surface aerators.


acenus DOD removal, (II) blologlcnl seeoudary nnd biological tertiary treatment for carbonaceous DOD and nmmonla reduction, and (c) blologl~lIl seecndnry and biological tertiary for carhonaceOll~ 1l0D, ammonia, and nitrate reducUou. Phosphorus levels may he reduced by ehemlcal addition to solids contact uults located uhead

of the granular-media filters.

an FIGURE 17-2. Typical filter and clear welt urrnngement elevations for (II) inJIuent splitting, constant-rate filtration and (b) variable declining rate filtmtlon.

FIGURE 17.:1. Sln,!lle media filter configurations: (0) non-graded media, discontinuous operation, (b) non-graded media, continuous opemtion, and (c) graded media, discontinuous operation.

FIGURE 17-4. Dual nnd multl-medln filter con. figurations: (a) non-intermixed media, (b) Intermixed media.

FIGURE 17-5. Crnin size distrihution chart. FIGURE 17·0. Minimum Jluldizatinn rate for 10 percent hed expnnsinn at 25·C (77' F).

FIGURE 11-7. Effect of water temperature on 10 percent bed expansion,

FIGURE 17.fl. Head loss development for clear water Bowing through u dual media filter (anthracite with effective slze of 0,9 to 1 mm and unlfonnity coefficient of 1.7: sand with effective size of 0040 to 0.45 mm),

FIGURE 17-9, SoUds stored per area of filter media par head loss developed.

FIGURE IB.l. Typical tertiary treatment !low diagrams using carbon adsorption.

FIGURE 1!!-2. Physlcal-chemlcnl treatment How

FIGURE 16-5'. Fnmil)' of curves developed from dlagrams using carbon adsorption.

batch settling tests usmg various sample con-

centrations, FIGURE IB-3. Typical carbon column army.

FIGURE 16-0. Peripheral-feed circular settling FIGURE IB4. Downllow contaetnr showing

tank. underdrnin.

FIGURE 15·9. Seetiou of a twa-arm rock media . trickUng filter 5howlug the sub-floor, filter block, and drninuge channel.

FIGURE 15-10. Trickling filter assembly using horizontal redwood media,

FIGURE 15'·11. Typical support system for plas· tic medln trickling BIters.

FIGURE 15·12. Two schemes to upgrade existing trickling Hller plnnt.

FIGURE 15-13. Three schemes to upgmde an existing activated sludge plant

FIGURE 15-14. Plastic trickling filter perform- . ance on domestic and industrial wastewater.

FIGURE 15-15'. Typlcn1 effect of hydraulie loading on 1100 removal e1llciency for a carbonaceous rotating biologlcnl reactor pilot unit FIGURE 15-16. ComPnrUon of emuent reliability of typical conventional trickIlng Jllter, activated sludge, and dual treatment systems.

FIGURE 15-17. Typical design nomogram for hydmulic loading of a fixed film biological JlIter.

FIGURE 15-18. Plan and elevation of pumping station used to lift wastewater and recycled 1low to the roughing tower.

FIGURE 10·1, Settling basin (elevation) showing inlet, clnrlllcntion, sludge, and outlet zones.

FIGURE 10·2. Schematic representatfou of settUng zones of a class II suspension.

FIGURE 16-3. Center feed primary settling basin with provisions for chemical addition and mixing.

FIGURE 10-'1. Initial settlmg velocity for activated sludge MLSS for domestic wastewater at IS·C.

FIGURE 16-7. Typical settling tank sections showing dilferent effiuent welt conflgurntlons, (a) Shnrp-crested effiuent weir; (II) bnJllinll lind multiple weirs to counteract density currents; (e) baffllng weir and surface skimmer for remnvnl of Boating material.

FIGURE la-B. Comparative sollds production for primary and secondary plants. Influent 1100, and TIS are each assumed to be 250 mg/L

FIGURE 16-9. Ileetangulnr settling basins wIth traveling hrldge,

FIGURE 16·10. Section of a rectangulnr single IImk secondary type sludge collector.

FIGURE 16·11. Circular center feed settling basin with scrapers for sludge removal.

FIGURE 18·12. Clrenlnr center feed settling basin with suct'nn removal for sludge.

FIGURE 11-1. Gmnular media Rlters followlug (0) biological secondary treatment for carbon-

FIGURE IB-5. Carbon transfer with upflow col-

umn in service,

FIGURE 18.6. Carlmn regeneration transport schematic.

FIGURE IB-7. Process Row diagram with upnow carbon contactors and regeneration.

FIGURE 19·1. NItrogen cycle.

FIGURE 19·2. Typical breakpoint chlorination


FIGURE 19-3. Relation between pH value and percentage of nmmonla in aqueous solutions In the molecular or free volatile form. Tempera. ture, 'C, Is shown for each curve,

FIGURE 1114. Effect of air:liquld on ammonia removal in stripping towers. {Note: cu ft/gal X 7.5 = 1/1; 0.555 (OF -32) = 'e).

FIGURE 19-5. Ammonia stripping lower may be either of the COuntercurrent Dr cross fiow type.

FIGURE 20-1. Relationship between concentration and time far 99 percent destructlan af E. caZi and 3 viruses by hypachIorus acid (HOCl) at 0 to 6'C.

FIGURE 20-2. Viral and bacterial inactivution at a 5 700 m'/dny (1.5 mgd) conventional activated sludge plant conditlnns, The £, bacterial virus was seeded in the secondary clariDer at n titer of approximately 10' plnqU.B formIng units/mL Chlorine dosages were approximately 4.5 and 17 mg/L

FIGURE 20-3. Providing the chlorine has been well mixed, the control residual will lie on the .Dat part of the residual die away curve.

FIGURE .20-4. Chlorine closed loop control system.

nGURE .20-5. Typh~nl insmllatlon of a chlorinator and 68 kg (150 lb) cylinder assembly.

FIGURE .20-11. Typical Installatlnn of a chlorinator and ton container,

FIGURE 20-7. Section of a ton container storage area in which an overhead eonveynr is used.

FIGURE .20-8. Recommended space requirements for a 3 600 kg (8 000 lb) chlorinator installation.

FIGURE 20-9. Some typical chlorine solution diffusers. (tI) For a large diameter pipe, (b) in an open channel or wet well, (c) for installation in n channel, (d) in front of a pipe entrance, (0) for large tunnels.

FIGURE 20-10. 'This chlorine mixing device uses turbulence caused by a hydraulic structure.

FIGURE 20-11. Mechauical mixers can eJFect a complete mix of chlorine solution with wastewater In a matter of seconds. Two open channel type mixing configurations are shown.

FIGURE .20-12. Longitudinal bnllled basin with u large affective length-to-width mtio (greater than 40 to 1) will provide n distribution of contact chamber residence times approaching plug Row.

FIGURE .20-13. Equipment Is nvallnble for onsite electrolytic production of sodium hypochlorite solutions.

FIGURE 20.14, Comparison of viricidal and bactericldnl eJFeets of ozone at pH 6.B and 15"C. Ozone dosoge \VU5 6.7 and B.7 mg/L FIGURE .20-15. Tube type ozone generating device.

FIGURE 21·1. Closed loop dechlorination cantrol system.

FIGURE 21-.2. Pressurized activated carbon contactnr,

FIGURE .22-1. Biological nctivities and clnsslflcations for waste stabllitntion lagoons, The dashed lines represent the materlnls produced in one process nnd mude available in another.

FIGURE 2,2 • .2. Typical lngoon systems. (II) Single cell system with optional recircnladon: (b) twa cell system with parallel or series nperatlnnnl Cflpnbility; (e) three cell system (mny be used for an aerated system); and (d) aerated

system with mechauically cleaned sedimentation tank, aerobie digestion, and polishing.

FIGURE 22-3. Guide for estimating mechanical aerator power requirements for mixing. Curves on left are for complete ozygen dispersion but not solids suspension. Curves on right are for complete solids suspension.

FIGURE 22-4. Lagoon operation depth versus aerator power. Note: ft X 0.305= mr hp X 0.746 = kW.

FIGURE 22-5. Typical layout of an aerated stabilization lagoon for operation with four or five aerators.

FIGURE .22-6. Typical plan of diffuser layont far an aerated In goon. Nate: (t X 0.J05 = m.

FIGURE 23-1, Some ways in which treated wastewater may be reused.

FIGURE .23-2, Wastewater renovntlon-conservntlon cycle.

FIGURE 23-3. Methods of land applicntion include infiltration-percolation, overland flow, and Irrigation.

FIGURE.23-4. Spray irrigation distribution devices include (left, top-to-bottom) portable pip- . Ing and nozzle, traveling gun, tower or center pivot, and (right) buried solid-set system with telescoping riser.

FIGURE 24-1. Sludge is pumped from the sedlmentntion and clarlflcntlon process in this Palo Alto, Califoroia, rocility by elgbt centrlfugDl pumps.

FIGURE 24-.2. This progressing cavity pump at the . Chicago, Illlncls, Metropclltnn Sanitary District has a mechanical varlabla speed drive (right).

FIGURE .24-3. Friction loss of (a) anaerobically dlge.~t~d sludge in 6. 8, and 10 in. dinm pipe, and (b) raw sludge in a 6 in. dinm pipe. Note: in. X 25,4 = mm; It, X 0.304 8 = m,

FIGURE 24-4. Friction loss of groundwood paper stock .Do\ving through a 6 in. (150 mm) east iron pipe. Note: gpm X 0.063 = lIs; It X 0.3048 = m,

FIGUllE .24-5. Effects of viscosity on capacity of a progressing cavity pump as n function of pump speed. Note: gpm X 0.063 = 1/5; cP X 0.001 = N/m~' s,

FIGURE 25-1, Flow chart for sludge treatment.

Arrows indicate possible Row paths,

FIGUllE 25-2. Hydrocyclone Is similar in condruction and operation to a conventional dusl cyclone.

FIGURE 25-3. General arrangement for grit classlfler_

FIGURE 25-4. Gravity thiclcenlng mechanism. FIGURE 21)..5. Feed enters this typlcal discnozzle centrifuge through the top and passes down through a feedwell in the center of the rotor.

FIGURE 25-6. Sludge volume index affects thickening efficiency of the dlse-nozsle centrifuge as shown.


I - 1



FIGURE .25-7. Detail of cutter and grid plnte . fur II sludge grinder.

FIGURE .25-8. Process equipment for chlorine oxidation of WIlIbl sludge.

FIGURE .25-9. Floceulnnt, feed system utiIrzlng manual dispersing eguipment and sepnrate feed tank.

FIGURE 25-10. Impad of solids' bydrolysls on sludge lllternbllity.

FIGURE .25-11. Increase In filtrnte COD resulting from oxidative or non-oxidative heat Induced sludge hydrolysis,

FIGURE 25-12. Range of 5-dny .DItrnte 1100 in the mixed liguor vs, the percent waste nctivnted sludge in the primary/waste activuted sludge (P/WAS) mixture.

FIGURE .25-13. Flow dlagrnm of a low-oxidation hent-conditloning process,

FIGURE 25.14. Flow diagram of a ncn-oxidntlve heat-treatment process.

FIGURE 25-15. This hent treatment system uses steam instead af hot water reclrculatton.

FIGURE 25-16. General types of centrifuges. FIGURE 25-17. Continuous countercurrent solid howl conveyor discharge centrifuge.

FIGURE 25-1B. Types of solld bowl centrifuges. FIGURE 25-19. Effect of bowl angle on conveyability. Note: Centrifugal force (G) == 1.42 X 10-' [rpm)'; slippage force (g) = Sin a G.

FIGURE .25-20. Basket centrifuge sehematie, FIGURE .25-21. Operating zones of n vacuum Blter,

FIGURE 25-22. Vacuum filter cake discharge. (0) Romry drum IIlter cloth discharge; and (b) precoat discharge; (0) coil filter cake discharge; and (d) belt lllter cake discharge.

FIGURE .25-23. Vacuum and dischnrge rate ver-

SUS cake solids.

FIGURE 25-24, Section of a Hlter press. FIGURE .25-25. Gmvity sludge dewatering unit. FIGURE 25-26. Typical gravity pressure de-

watering unit.

FIGURE 25-27. Sludge moisture versus fuel requirements. Nota that ambient temperature was 15.5·C (60'F); volatiles in solids were 75 percent; and, volatile bent value was 23 MJ /kg (10 000 Btullb).

FIGURE 25-28. Closed energy loop sludge handllng system.

FIGURE 25-BU, Typical section of a multiple henrth furnace.

FIGURE 25-30. Multiple hearth furnnce Row nnd equipment diugrurn,

FIGURE 25-31, Typical section of a Buld bed incinerator.

FIGURE 25-32. Fiuid bed cnpaclty (without air preheater) versus feed cake moisture. Note:

curve based on 75 percent volatiles, B 500 Btu/lb vs, 40 percent excess air, 2.5 fps space rate, and 1500'F exit gas temperature.

FIGURE .25-33. Flash dryer system.

FIGURE .25-34. RelatiOll.5hlp of odor level in stack gases to highest process temperature encountered.

FIGURE .25-35. F1uldlzed bed o;rldation system. FIGURE 26-1. Relative solids destruction of several sludges by neroble digestion.

FIGURE 26-2. Effect of detention time and temperature on solids destruction during aerobic digestion. Note: lb/ eu ft X 16 = kg/m'.

FIGURE 26-3. Aerobic digestion schematic, including an external settling basin with sludge thickening capability. Definitions of symbols nre given in the text.

FIGURE 26-4. Total treatment system oxygen


FIGURE 26-5, llnkh-type aerobic digestion unit. FIGURE 26-6. Continuous aerobic digestion unit. FIGURE 26-7. Aerobie digester general applica-

tion characteristics for high speed mechanical surface aerators. Note: cu £t X 28.3 = m'; hp X 0.746 = kW; Ib/h X 0.454 = kg/h.

FIGURE 26-B. AerobIc digester general application chnracterlstics for low speed mechanical surfnce aerators. Note: en ft X 28.3 = m'; hp X 0.746 = kW; lb/h X 0.454 = kg/h.

FIGURE 27·1. Degradation of organic materials. FIGURE 27-2. Conventional (standard) and hlghrate digestion systems.

FIGURE 21·3. Relationships between sludge solids, dlgester loudlngs, and detention time.

FIGURE .27-4. Reduction of volatile matter as related to digester detention time.

FIGURE 27-5. Cbange in microorganism to food ratios for different solids retention times.

FIGURE 27-0. External recirculation flow sheet for digested sludge,

FIGURE 27·7. Schematic of (a) digester Bxed cover and (b) digester nonting cover, showing composites of two types.

FIGURE .21-8. DUfuser layouts and piping. FIGURE 27-9. Gns reelrculnting system shown in a digester tank plan and section.

FICURE 27-10. Graph for computing heat required for additions of sludge to digesters.

FIGURE 27-11. Digester glIS control system. 1.

Pressure reUef and vacuum breaker with flame arrester; 2. Cover position indicator with hi-low alarm; 3. Sediment and drip trap assembly; 4. Flame trap assembly; 5. Drip trap; 6. Check vnlve; 7. Waste gas burner; B. Flame trap] 9. Pressure rellef and llnme trap assembly] 10_ Manometer] and n. Flow meter.

FIGURE 27-12. Dual fuel motors.



Contn1lUlors JUnek & Veatch Consulting Engineers ••••••••••••...••••• 2-1

Consoer, Townsend & Associates Consulting Engineers •••••• 2-2

Bechtel Inc. 2..3

FMC Corp., Environmental Equipment Dlv •.•••••••••••••• 5-6, 5-B, 9-1, 27-B

1TI Marlow Pumps 5-10

Flomntcher Dlv., Jachon-Rond Corp. •••••••••••••••••••• 5-14

Geneml Electric Co. 5-15

Jeffrey Mfg. Div., Dresser Industries, Inc .•••••••••...••••• B-2, 16-10 Smith & Loveless Dlv., Ecodyne Corp. ••••••••••••••••••• B-3

Worthington Pump, Inc. 8-4

InBlco-Degremont, Inc. B-5, 8-9b, 9-7, 10-4, 10-5,

10-6, 16-11, 16-12,27-12 Envirex Ina, A Rexnord Co. •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 8-6, 9-6, !loB, 10-3, 16-6,

16-9 (top), 27-9

C-E Bauer •••• 8-7

Zurn Industries Inc. .. • • • • • . • • • •• 8-B

Water Pollution Control Corp. 8-90

Dorr-Ollver Inc. 9-3, 15-9, 25-14

Walker Process Dlv., Chicago Bridge and Iron Co, •••. ,.... 9-5, 15-B, 16-9 (bottom)

Perrnutlt Co , ,. 10-1, 25-25

Omrk-Mahonlng, a Dlv. of Pennwalt Corp ••.•••••••.•• - _. 13-3

Dow Chemical Co. 15-6, 25-9

B. F. Goodrich Co •••.•••••••.••••.•••••.••.•. _. • •• • . •• 15-11

Crone Co., Cochrane Environmental Systems •••••••••• - • • .• 16-3, 20-15

Fischer and Porter Co. 20-4, 20-6

Capital Controls Co., Inc. . ,................ 20-5

Wollace nod Tieman Div., Pennwolt Corp ••••••.••••••.•.• 20-7, 20-B, 20-9

Ionlcs, Inc. •.•••••• :.................................. 20-13

Aqua-Aerobic Systems, Inc. 22-3, 22-4

Hinde EngineerIng Co. 22-6

Wemco Div., Envlrotoch Corp ••••••••••••••••..•.••••••• 24-1

Robbins nnd Meyers, Inc. 24-i3

Ztmpro, Inc. 25-

Elmco/BSP, Envirotech Corp. . 25-15

List of Tables

TABLE 1-L Secondary Effiuent Criteria fur Publicly Owned Treabnent Facilities

TABLE I.IL Physienl, Chemical, and Biological Wastewater Characteristics Considered for Design

TABLE I-m. Anal)'Sis of Typical Midwest Domestic Wastewater

TABLE l·IV. Selective List of Unit Processes Used for Particular Woste Constituents

TABLE I-V. Various Combinations of Blologlcal and Physical-Chemical Unit Processes

TABLE I-VI. Anticipated Performance of Unit Process Combinations In Tertiary Plants Treating Biologically Pretreated Wastewater

TABLE I-VII. AntIcipated Performance of Unit Process Combinations In Plants Treating Physically Pretreated Wastewater

TABLE l-vm. Some Sludge Hnndllng Alternutlves

TABLE I-IX. Comparison of Design Alternatives by Equivalent Costs

TABLE I-X. Power Source Reliability

TABLE 2-1. Minimum Lighting Requirements for Some Wastewater Treatment Plant Areas TABLE 2-II. Recommended Background Noise Criteria

TABLE 2-m. Typical Head Requirement Hnnges for Different Unit Processes

TABLE 2-IV. Some Process Meosurement Devices

TABLE 2-V. Some Process Control Devices TABLE 2-VI. Some Process Instrumentation Conddemtions

TABLE 2-Vll. Some Process Control Conslderntlons

TABLE 4-1. Piping Materials

TABLE 4-II. Federal Specifications Ear Filter Medin Grading Sizes

TABLE 5·1. Typical Wastewater Applications of Some Pump Types

TABLE 5-n. Recommended Transport Velocities fur Several Sludges

TABLE S-I. S17.e of Coarse and Fine Screen Openings

TABLE S-II. Some Comminuting-Type Cutting • Mechanisms

TABLE s-m. Some TypiCal Fine Screen Design Parameters for Treating SecDDdary Effiuents TABLE 8-IV. Klrschmer's Vnlues of {J

TABLE D-L Theoretical Maximum Overflow Rates for Grit Chamhers

TABLE D-IL Vnrlatlon In Quantities of Grit Removed During Wet Weather and Periods of Average Flow

TABLE lI-I. Some Chemleals and Their Pdnclpal Uses in Wastewater Treatment

TABLE u.n, ShIpping Onto and Characteristics of Lime Chemicals

TABLE 11-m. Strengths of Commercially Avail.able Alum

TABLE 11-IV. Some Physical Characteristics of Dry Alum

TABLE H-V. Characteristics of Ferric Chloride TABLE ll-VI. Average Crystallizntlon Temperatures for Vnrlous Ferric ChlorIde Strengths TABLE 11-''II. Characteristics of Ferric Sulfate TABLE ll-VIII. Compariron of Filter Yields for Different Chemical Addltions

TABLE ll-IX. Ratios of Alum to Phosphorus for Alum Trentment of Municipal Wastewater TABLE ll-X. Solubility of Aluminum Phosphate versus pH

TABLE ll-XI. Neutralization Factors for the More Common Alkaline and Add Rengents TABLE 11-XII. Inorganic Ions nnd Trace Elements Necessary for Most Orgnnisms

TABLE ll-XIII. Chemical Compounds Suitable fur Sources of Elemental Nitrogen and Phosphorus

TABLE ll-XIV. Vnlues of Kr used for Determining Impeller Power Requirements

TABLE 11-XV. Types of Chemical Feeders TABLE 12-1. Velocity Gradients Used for Different Wastewaters

TABLE 14-1. Renctor Basin Design Vnriables TABLE 14-II. Interrelationship oE Activated Sludge Vnrlnbles

TABLE 14-m Threshold Concentrations oE Pollutants Inhibitory to the Activated Sludge Process TABLE 14-IV. Characteristics of Some Aemtion Equipment

TABLE 14-V. Aerator MiKlng Requirements TABLE 14-VI. Advantages and Disadvantages of Aerator Test Methods

TABLE 14-Vll. Finnl Settling Basin Side Water Depths

TABLE 14-VIll. FlolV Models for Single Sluge Vnrlatlons

TABLE 14-lX. Common Design Parameters and Operating Characteristic., of Slngle·Stnge Activated Sludge Systems

TABLE 15.1. Comparison of Different Types of Trlekltng Filters

TABLE IS-II. Stage Treatment Functions TABLE lS-IIL Comparative Ph)'Slcal Properties of Vnrlous Trickling Filter Media

TABLE IS-IV. Appltcnbll!ty of Trickling Filter Design Formulations

TABLE IS-V. Performance Data fur Plastic Roughing Filters

TABLE IS-VI. Summary oE plastic Trickling Filter Performances

TABLE IS-VII. Phosphorus Removal In TrIckling Fliters by Mineral Addition

TABLE rs.vm, Comparison of Trickling FIlters and Activated Sludge Systems

TABLE IS-IX. Nitrification Performance of Tertiary Biological Towers

TABLE 16-L Solids Con.centrotlons In WlISte· water Sludges Without Thickening

TABLE l'1-L Attainable Effluent Concenlmtlons from Granular Media Fillmtion of Secondary Effiuent

TABLE 17-IL Recommended State GuIdelines for Granular Medin Filtrntion

TABLE 17-m Design Velocities and Flow Volumes

TABLE 18-1. Some Properties of Several Commercially Avallnble Carbons

TABLE 18-11. TypIcal Carbon Dosages for Different Column Wastewater Influents

TABLE 10-1. TypIcal Average Nitrogen Content of Domestic Wastewater

TABLE 10.n. Ammouia-Nltrogen Removal by Biological and Physical-Chemlcal Trentment

TABLE 19-m. Quantities of Chlorine Required for Three Wostewnter Sources

TABLE 19-IV. Effect of Air and Hydraulic Lending on Ammonia Removal

TABLE I9-V. Effect of Wnter Temperature on Ammonia Removal

TABLE 20-1. Forms of Chlorine Used for Wostewater Dlsinlection

TABLE 2D-II. Distribution of HOCI and OClwith pH

TABLE se-nr, Chlorine Dosage Design Guidelines

TABLE 2D-IV. Typlcnl Dccuy Rnte for NuOCI TABLE 22-1. Summary of the Major Rea~tlve Phases In Waste Stahlllzution Lagoons

TABLE 22-II. Mechanical Aerator Size and PerIormance Data

TABLE 22-m. Altltuda Correctfon Fnctnrs for OlC)'gen Tmnsfer-Rlltio of Barometric Pressure at Plant Location 10 Barometrlc Pressure at Sea Level

TABLE 22-IV. Empirical Design Criterln for Waste StabiH~nUon Lagnons

TABLE 22-V. Empirical Design Equations for U naernted Aerobic Lagoons

TABLE 22-VI. Empirical Design Equations for Aerated Facultative Lngoons


TABLE 22.vn. Applkntion, Advantnges, and Disndvnntnges of the Dilferent Lagoons Types TABLE 22.VIII. Approximate Power and Air Flow Requirements for Aerated Lagoons Treating Wastes from 200 to 22 000 People

TABLE 23-1. Quality of Selected Se~ondary Emueots Applied to the Land

TABLE 23-n. Stnte Guidelines. on Land Treatment

TABLE 23-m. Suggested Values for Major Inorgnnic Constituents In Water Applied to the Land TABLE 2.3-IV. Recommended Maximum Concentrations of Trace Elements In Irrigation Waters

TABLE 23-V. Snggested Limits Ior Saltnity in

IrrIgation Waters .

TABLE 23-VL Components of a Land Application Project

TABLE 2:J-VII. Storage Pond Quality and Recl!arged Emuent Quality

TABLE 23-VIII. Survival Times of Organisms TABLE 24-1. Generul Sludge Pumping Requirements

TABLE 24-n. Total Solids Concentrations of Some Low Viscosity Sludges

TABLE 24-m. Total Solids Conceutratlo!15 of Some High Viscosity Sludges

TABLE 24-IV. Pumpable Sludge Cakes

TABLE 24- V. Critical Velocities for Various Pipe Diameters

TABLE 24-VI. Sludge Cake Pumping Head Losses

TABLE 24-VIT. Design Head Losses for Sludge Cake Pumping

TABLE 24-VIII. Long Pfpellne Sludge Transportation

TABLE 1M-IX. Stnndby Pumplng Capacity TABLE 24-x. Some Sludge Flow Measurement Devices

TABLE 25-1. Hydracyclone Grit Removal Efficiency for Raw Primary Sludge ConcentratlO!15 TABLE 2S.IL Typical Sludge Thickening Design Parameters for Gravity Thickeners With Meehanlenl Fickets

TABLE 25-m. Soma Typlcnl Cbemicnl Dosages for Sludge Thickening

TABLE 25-IV. Typ!cnl Calculation of Sludge Parameters for Gravity Thickeners With Mechanlcal "Pickets"

TABLE 25-V. Some Chemical Conditioning Requirements

TABLE 25'-VI. Suggested Chemical Feed System Capacity Range for sWag Equipment

TABLE 25-vn. Effect of DOO Recycle on WAS Production

TABLE 25-VIII. Sludge Concentration Produced by Centrifugal Dewatering

TABLE 25-IX. Sludge Concentration Produced

by Vacuum Filtration .

TABLE 25-X. Component Dewatering Charnetsrlstles

TABLE 25-XI. Sludge Concentratlon Produced by Pressure Filters

TABLE ssxn Sludge Drying Bed Area Needed for Dewatering Digested Sludge in the Northern United SIDles

TABLE 2S-XIII. Anticipated Biological Quality of Composted Sludge

TABLE 25-XIV. Tho Products of Complete Sludge Combustion

TABLE 25-XV. Typicnl Heating Vnlues of Municipal Waste\vater Sludges as Determined by Bomb Calorimetry

TABLE 25-XVI. Average Chnracterlstlcs of

Wastewater Sludge

TABLE 25-XVll. A Comparative AnnlysIs of Typical Supplemental Fuels

TABLE 25-xvm. Typical Sludge Feed Rates nnd Multiple Hearth Furnnee Sf:zes

TABLE 2B-T. Some Charncterlstics of Aerobic Digestion Supernntant

TABLE 2B-ll. Typical DUFused Aeration Equipment Performance

TABLE 27-1. Typical Design Criteria for Standard Rate and High Rate Digesters

TABLE 27-ll. Typical Qunntlties of Sludge Produced by DiJferent Unit Processes

TABLE 27-m. Typ!cnl Composition of Rnw Primary, Digested Primary, and Rnw Actlvnted Sludge

TAllLE 27-rv. Crowth Constants and Endogenous Respimtion Rotes for Various Substrates

TABLE 27-V. Solids Retention Times Required for Design of Complete-Mix Digesters

TABLE 27-VI. Supernatant Charaetnristlcs of Digested Domestic Sludge for Dilferent Detention Times

TABLE 27-VIT. Suggested Gns Throughput far TyPlcnl Diffuser Layouts nnd Piping

TABLE 27-VIII. Heat Transfer Coefficients lor Different Digester SeetloD'

Project Planning

A significant amount of time is involved in the planning' and design of a wastewater treatment works. The initial phase consists of a facility plan which first must be prepared before a municipality may obtain a federal grant to prepare detailed design plans and specifications. 'The level of detail required in the facility plan will

Chapter 1

General Process Design Considerations

1 Project Planning

Facility Planning Area Plan of Study

Facility Plan

2 Efiluent Limitations

Bench-Scale and Pilot-Plnnt Testing

4 Assessment of Existing and Future

Situation Wastewater FWwlJ Infiltratwn and Inflow FloWil for Design Flow EquaUzation

Service Area and Site Location Design Profec:tWru

Industrial Wastewaters

10 Wastewater Parameters of Signifi-

cance to the Design Engineer Physical Chliracteristics Chemical Characterlsti()lJ' Biological Characteristics Variation in Chliracteristics BOD and COD Tests

Data Interpretation

15 Consideration of Alternative Processes WastBwatef Treatment

Sludge Disposal

19 Economics

Capital Costs OperaHng Costs Equivalerot Corts

20 Reliability Considerations System Reliability Flood ConditWns

24 Project Timing

24 References


vary according to the nature, scale, and location of the works. Local municipalities and consultants should discuss the extent of planning required by their community with officials of the state and the federal Environmental Proteotion Agenoy. Preapplioation conferences of federal, state, and local officials to discuss how to proceed will be held to the extent resources permit." 1

Facility plans must conform to applieable approved state basin plans, areawide waste treatment management plans, IIDd municipal permits. In addition, the state responsibilities in management of facility planning will affect the nature lind implementation of the plan; for example, (a) preparation of a priority list for construction grants and (b) state management responsibilities for effiuent limitations.

Facility Planning Area

The facility planning area for new wastewater treatment systems should be large enough to consider the cost-effective alternative methods of waste transport, treatment, handling, and disposal or reuse of sludge and treated eH!uent. An environmental assessment is an integral part of a faolllty plan.~

Plan of Study

A study plan must be prepared and approved by the state and the federal EPA before a facility plan is begun, and before a federal grant may ·be approved for II facllity plan. The study plan should (a) provide a map of the planning BIen, (b) list planning organizations and joint planning arrangements, ( o ) provide recent population .Ggures for the area, (d) describe why a grant for facility construction is necessary. (e) summarize existing Iaeility capabilities, (f) describe existing available data to assist with planning, (g) express opinion regarding sewer line condl-



tions, (h) provide schedule for completion, and (i) estimate costs.

Facility Plan

A facility plan can be prepared in seven major steps. During facility planning, environmental considerations should be gathered and assessed.' Alternatives should be evaluated for environmental impact at the same time they are evaluated for costs and other impacts.

Steps in the facility plan include:

1. EfHuent limitations. The facility plan should list the eHluent limitations applicable to the facility being planned. For example, all publicly owned treatment works constructed after June 30, 1974, must achieve "best practicable waste treatment technology" (the equivalent of secondary treatment). In those instances where publicly owned treatment plants are discharging to qelRuent limited" waterways, treatment in addition to the minimum secondary treatment level' is required.

2. Assess current situation. The fncility plan should describe briefly the existing conditions to be considered when weighing alternatives during the facility planning process. The following conditions should be described;

( a) planning area,

( b) organizational context, ( c) demographic data,

( d) water quality,

( e) other existing environmental conditions,

(f) eidsting wastewater Hows and treatment systems, including system performance, and

(g) infiltration and inflow.

3. Assess future situation. Included in this part of the facility plan are:

( a) planning period; usually 20 years beyond the date when the planned facility is scheduled to begin operation. Phased construction should be a consideration;

(b) land use; to be carefully coordinated with state, local, and regional regulations, policies, and plans;

(G) demographic and economic projections;


(d) forecasts of How and wastelonds; includes projections of economic and population growth, estimate of infiltration/inHow,o analysis of pollutant content and Hows in the existing system, sewer overHow data, industrial waste load projections, and pollution reducing possibilities; and,

( e) future environment of the planning area without the project.

4. Develop and evaluate alternatives.

For example, regional versus local treatment, alternative treatment systems and their impact on the environment, longrange sewer plans for the planning area, sludge utilization and/or disposal, facility location.

S. Select plan. The public is provided with alternative proposals, and hearings are held to explain each proposal.

6. Preliminary design of treatment works ..

Such information would include, as appropriate, a schematic flow diagram, unit processes, plant site plans, sewer pipe plans and profiles, design data regarding detention times, How rates, and sizing of units, an operation and maintenance summary, cost estimates, and a completion sehedule.1-'

7. Arrangements for implementation.

Following selection of plan and design, existing institutional arrangements should be reviewed and a financial program developed, including preliminary allocation of the costs among various classes of users of the system.'O-U

This chapter is concerned with those general considerations important in the process design of the treatment facility. Portions of the facility plan covered in" elude elHuent limitations, present and future design assessments, alternative process evaluations, and design projections. Chapter 2 covers general physical design considerations, and includes those environmental factors which should be assessed during facility planning.

ElRuent Limitations

The specified function or level of treatment of the facility to be designed is determined by the ability of the receiving waters to accept residual wastes or by allocation


set up by a regulatory agenoy. Federal guidelines state that water quality standards should enhance rather than simply maintain the quality of water. H prompt improvement in water quality is not possible at the time initial standards are set, the standards must be designed to prevent an increase in pollution. Thus, the concept of utilizing a portion of the assimilative capacity of the receiving water has yielded to the concept of improving or, at the least, maintaining defined quality criteria of receiving waters.

The level of wastewater treatment and method of efIluent discharge are established to protect the receiving body of water or water table and its usages, either present or projected. Although the design engineer's role in establishing the levels of treatment is generally minimal, it 1S his responsibility to interpret design requirements based on the established needs and the projected goals of the governing agencies.

The quality control requirements for a treatment facility are pre-established for the project, and are of two general types:

1. EfHuent standards, whereby the limiting values of parameters defining the efIluent quality are set.

2. Receiving water quality criteria, whereby the limiting value of parameters defining the receiving water quality are set.

Combinations of both of these controls are frequently used. "Where receiving water criteria are defined in addition to or in lieu of eHluent standards, the imposition of these criteria must, for process design purposes, be assessed and restructured to represent effiuent standards.

Requirements for treatment plant performance based on percent removal no longer may be used as primary design standards. The concept of percent removal does not embody consideration of the strength of the waste nor the increased difficulty of removing a percentage of material from a dilute wastewater concentration. Consequently, percent removal frequently will produce an effiuent having


a more serious impact on the receiving stream than will more deflnitive effiuent standards.

Receiving water quality criteria define limitations of .matenal concentrations in the commingled efHuent and receiving water. These materials may be either conservative pollutants or non-conservative pollutants. Conservative pollutants lire those which are not subject to change by biological action. Their concentration in the receiving water is a function of dilution. Ncu-conservative : pollutants are those which do change or are subject to change. The ooncentration of non-eonservative pollutants is a function of both the dilution and the reaction kinetics associated with their stability.

Because of the national implications of water quality requirements, the federal government through Public Law (PL)92- 500 has established certain minimum efHuent criteria as a first step in upgrading water quality. These criteria are equated to secondary treatment and are based on monthly, weekly, or maximum daily effluent requirements (Table I-I). If these minimum effiuent requirements are not suf· Eeient to attain acceptable water quality (established on the basis of a certain reo ceiving water How, that is, a 7-day Ill-year low flow), the water quality standards of the receiving waters will dictate the level of treatment. Also, the states have the right to set more stringent eHluent require. meats thnn those shown in Table I-I.

In time, the need for higher degrees of treatment, already established in PI. 92- 500, will require that the design engineer consider more than secondary treatment ("best practicable technology"). The challenge then will be to apply "best available technology" and ultimately that tech-

TAllLE 1-1. Secondru-y Effluent Criteria for PubUcly Owned Treatment Facilities


3D 45


20D 4DU

WIthIn mngi of 6.0 to 9.0

MonthlY Average

W •• kly A.omio



nology capable of total pollutant removal from the wastewater system.

Bench-Scale lind Pilot·Plant Testing

Before selection of applicable unit precesses, preliminary studies must be made. The objectives of bench-scale studies, for example, chemical jar tests, usually are (a) to determine whether or not the wastewater is amenable to treatment with the proposed operations or processes and (b) to obtain data for the design and operation of pilot or. full-seale facl1ities. After eliminating those altematlves that are operationally unfeasible on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-plant studies, a. cost comparison is required to select from among the remaining alternatives. Using the operating parameters developed from the laboratory studies and approprlnte scale-up factors, preliminary design ealculations can be made for pilot or full-scale faoillties.18

Assessment of Existing and Future Situation

The foundation of unit process design is

> based on the initial and future amounts and characteristics of the wastewater, anticipated variations, and the statutory requirements of regulatory agencies.

The acquisition of data to establish the quantity and quality of the wastewater must be preceded by defining the data which will be required. In tum, the data required ~ b~ in p~ dehllDrlned by the treatment processes considered and largely determined by the treatment requirements.

The plant process design is generally a function of peak and minimum loading conditions and not average or median eonditions. Many of the standard design application rates used reHect average conditions, whereby acceptable effiuent quality mayor may not be attained during peak loading conditions. For this reason, the design engineer must be aware of the variations in wastewater How and charaoteristics,. and should provide Hexibility in the design for both the variation in loading and the maximum loading which corre-


sponds to the frequenoy of acceptable operation desired.

Frequently, wastewater hydraulio and quality records are not available, thus requiring that data be generated during the data acquisition phase of the project. This usually requires data to be generated over a short time frame. As a result, interpretation must be tempered by considerable judgment, with allowances made for the reduced signiflcance of the short term undertaking.

When complete records are available, it is desirable to fully establish normal conditions and variations from the norm for the various parameters. Also, to develop trends caused by changes in the socioeconomio condition of the service area, a. history of data should be reviewed. Historical data are helpful in detecting trends' in wastewater volumes and characteristics, thus permitting more intelligeIlt projections when weighted with service population or other service area. characteristics.

Available operating records and anlllytical work pertaining to hydraulic and quality considerations of the wastewater should be reviewed for full comparison with the methods and accuracy used by the operating agency. The review should include the location, method, and frequency of sample collection, the analytical methods used, and the sample volumes used in the analyses, The design engineer's familiarity with the e.nlllyticlll methods will assist in the interpretation of the data by providing insight into the possible sources of error and the accuracy limitations of each method,

Wastewater Flows

The basic methods for estimating wastewater Hows for design purposes are:

1. Gaging How in existing systems and making corrections appropriate to in-

creased future requirements. .

2. Estimating and totaling the various components of the How.

Where a wastewater system already exists, the first method is usually the more reliable.

Where there is no existing wastewater

system, or where, because of multiplicity of sewer outlets, hydraulic limitations, or other reasons, it is not feasible to gage existing flows, design How rates must be determined by estimating the various components which contribute to the How.

The joint ASCE·VVPCF manual, "Sewer Design and Construction," and other sources list municipalities with. How rates varying from 0,2 to 1.9 mIld (50 to 500 gpd) per person, Because of this wide variation, a . complete study of each case is generally made. The poorest practice is the assumption of some arbitrary value as a basis of design. A more complete discussion of this subject is to be found in the joint ASCE-VVPCF manual?'

Gaging of Existing Outlel:li:-Flow measurements are usually made by use of weirs and 2.4-h recording meters. Other methods include use of dyes and floats. Measurements are taken during both wet and dry seasons. Flows are adjusted for contemplated increase in population for the period of design, including possible increase in How per person and added industrial wastes.

Domestic and Commercinl Flow:Water-consumption records, where available, are a good basis for estimating domestic How rates. Approximately 70· to 80 percent of domestic water consumption may be ezpeoted to reach the sewer. The portion reaching the sewer Is less where the use for lawn sprinkling is high or where industries using large quantities of water are present. The existence of water supplied from private wells or other sources can produce significant errors when estimating wastewater How rates from water supply records.

In the absence of any better basis, many state regulatory agencies accept a rate of 3BO lJperson· d (100 gpcd) including normal infiltration into sewers. Consideration is also given to the effect of air conditioning on wastewater Haws,

In some communities wastewater How from commercial establishments is quite small and may be considered as included in the domestic flow. In other communities, such as suburban developments and


large urban centers, special studies of commercial How are required.

Industrial WIIStewnter Flowl-Industrial waste flows are generally determined by survey. A more complete discussion. on I the need for and methods of making such

Ii survey, as well as a discussion of factors which might affect industrial contributions to a municipal system, will be found in a following section. It is important in the survey to determine How rates during the significant period of maximum How.

Storm Water:-Whele a combined sewerage system exists, it is usually uneconomical to treat more than a small portion of the storm water. A commonly used basis for wastewater treatment plant design is the adoption of II. maximum How of two to four times the average dry-weather How, the value depending on local faotors, including population. The design of stormwater regulators is discussed in the joint ASCE-WPCF manual, "Sewer Design and Construction." U

Infiltration and InHow

Infiltration refers to the water entering a sewer through such means as, but not limited to, defective pipes, pipe joint connections, and manhole walls. Inflow is the water entering a sewer system and service connection from such sources as, but not limited to, roof leaders, cellars, drains, cooling water discharges, manhole covers, cross-connections from storm sewers and combined sewers, and surface run-off. Groundwater infiltration increases with high groundwater levels, porous sub-soil conditions, structural defects in the pipe, poor joint material, improper foundation provisions, and poor workmanship during installation of the sewer. Leakage Into sewers and house connections built without proper supervision is often considerable.

In the past, allowance for groundwater in£ltrlltion and inflow was based on a determination of conditions affecting infiltration/inflow and the exercise of judgmellt by the engineer in evaluating their e1fects. PL G2-500 now requires that sewer systems be free of "excessive" extraneous waters, and that a cost analysis based on a sewer



survey be prepared to determine treatment plant expenditures for infiltration and inflow additions.

Flows for Design

Several flow rates are used for the design of various elements in II. wastewater treatment plant.

The average day flow rate for the period of design is determined by totaling the 24-h average of all components. This rate is generally used to determine such items as pumping and chemical costs, sludge solids, and organic loading.

The design average flow rate is the average flow during some mrudmum significant period such as 4, 8, 12., or 16 h, depending on circumstances. It may also be based on the total of the industrial How rate during the day shift plus the 24-h average of the other components. The design average How rate is generally used for mass loading of treatment units. Peak design rate, usually 2. to 2.25 times the design average flow rate. is used for hydraulic sizing.

The range of flow rates from minimum to maximum usually varies from 20 to 400 percent of the average daily rate for small communities having less than 1 000 people. from 50 to 300 percent for communities with populations between 1 000 and 10 000, and up to 200 percent for communities up to 100000 populations. Very large communities have variations from 1.25 to 1.5 average flow. As previously noted, in case of storm-weather flows, maximum flow rate is often taken at two to four times the average dry-weather flows, Because minimum and maximum rates are of importance in hydraulic computations and in sizing of channels, they should be estimated as precisely as possible.

Flow Equalization

The primary objective of flow-equalization basins for municipal wastewater plants is to dampen the diurnal flow variation, as well as variations caused by inflow /infiltration, and thus achieve a constant or nearly constant How rate through the downstream treatment processes. Current practice is


to pump the wastewater to the plant at approximately the same rate as the input Haws by gravity to the plant. Possibly a more desirable arrangement would be to pump the wastewater through the plant constantly at the design capacity of the plant. A desirable secondary objective of How equalization is to dampen the concentration and mass How of wastewater constituents by blending the wastewater in the equalization basin. This results in a more uniform loading of organics, nutrients, and other suspended and dissolved constituents to subsequent processes,"

Equalization tanks must be operated as aerobic, complete mixing units. Mixing must be adequate to keep all sollds in suspension, It should be recognized that microbial metabolism will be extensive in the equalization tank. If the plant employs the activated sludge process, the equalization tank acts as the mst stage of a two-stage process, In all likelihood, the eHluent quality from the two-stage system would show greater stability than a single stage unit.

Service Area nnd Site Location

The treatment facility will serve an area normally deRned by a dntinage bnsin or an assemblage of drainage basins, as established by planning groups. within the state( s ) . It is the written intent of PL 92-500 to encourage and facilitate the development and implementation of areawide waste treatment management plans. An areawide water quality management program should be carried out to gain. the following objectives:

I. Provide cost-effective point source treatment and control for areas of urbanindustrial concentrations having water quality control problems.

2. Provide procedures and methods for control of non-point sources in urbanindustrial and other required areas,

3, Provide for coordinated waste treatment-management in such areas.

The selection of a site for the treatment facilities is extremely critical. Site selection leads to the most vocal reaction from

ClV1C groups, Therefore, a thorough evaluation of all potential sites must be made, Complete isolation of treatment facilities from the populated sections or public use areas is not probable. Plants located in remote areas when constructed are soon surrounded by development. Therefore, special care must be given to designing the plant with aesthetic considerations and odor and noise control in mind. With absolute control over the potential problems of wastewater treatment plants, it is conceivable that the plant could be located anywhere, except possibly in Hood plains. However, absolute control results in additional expenses, and selection of wastewater treatment sites is normally in areas where occasional problems with visual and noise nuisances are not as critical from an aesthetic viewpoint.

A primary determinant of site selection is the service area of the plant. It is desirable to minimize the number of pwnping stations for economics and reliability. Therefore, the sites for consideration normally can be confined to points within the drainage basin which are accessible by the predominantly gravity-controlled collection system.

From the preliminary screening of sites based on topography, the remaining possible sites should be evaluated on the basis of economics and minimizing adverse environmental and aesthetic impact, and other factors. These include differences in costs for the collection system and plant outfall, subsurface soil conditions requiring complex foundations, the site's leeward zoning or land use, nearby historical sites, the ability of the site to accommodate future facilities, the amount of site work required for Hood protection and to accommodate the facilities, and the accessibility of the site to utilities, highways, and railroads as required for the plant service needs. Current planning approaches require consideration of a much broader range of alternntives for wastewater treatment than previously. One of the techniques that must be studied and evaluated is land disposal. The effects thnt future capacity increases and/or treatment Ie-


quirements could have on land utilization should be considered in the initial design.

The majority of plants rarely have alternative effluent disposal locations; however, where a selection of disposal locations is available, the eiRuent quality requirements may vary, affecting the economics of the project The alternative disposallocations should be investigated and determinations made of the effect of discharging from these alternative sites,' In addition to the considerations of the economic structure of the various alternatives and the differences in the quality of the elRuent to the diHerent locations, the effects of drainage basin diversions must be considered. Diversion of a significant amount of water from a water-short drainage basin to a water-rich drainage basin mny justify treatment to a high quality to retain the water in the water-short basin.

Present and projected design conditions must be based on the 1972 Act and the requirements stated therein. Consequently, characteristics of the service area must lend themselves to modification to meet future design requirements. The design period or stated time frame applicable to the process facilities sbould be selected with consideration given to cost-effective analyses related directly to those needs to be served,

Design Projeotions

The ability to project conditions affecting the process over an extended time frame is questionable, For instance, population projections for more than 15 to 20 years hence are of uncertain value. Therefore, except under unusual conditions, design periods for more than 20 years are probably not reliable, Over-extended design periods result in project expense that can be deferred several years. Underextended design periods result in losing the project facilities scale factor as an economizing agent to reduce costs. Fortunately, the ability to forecast future conditions and the economical considerations of design periods coincide. It is not coincidental then that the general practice is to establish design periods of 10 to 20 years



from the initiation of design. Deferred construction of some plant units also is a consideration to minimize expenses duriDg the established design period.

The projections of wastewater volumes and characteristics to the end of the design period are essentially based on the population of the service area. Wastewater volumes and characteristics are expressed in tenus of per capita units, BUd historical data are reviewed to determine if trends in the per capita units are applicable. large industrial contributions are also reviewed and discussed with the industry to assess trends; however, sound information is normally not available to project industrial wastes so that proportional allowances can be made with a great degree of certainty. Even so, industrial waste capacity commitments must be made in joint municipal-tcdustrial plants and identified as such in the design.ll

Population Estimates :-In estimating the domestic wastewater fraction of the average daily flow, no effort should be spared in assembling and studying as much population and water usage data as possible. It usually is rewarding to make inquiries about United States census reports, chamber of commerce studies, vote registration lists, school census statistics, area planning studies, and public utilities.

Future population trends depend on many factors, some known and some unknown. Known factors include location with respect to transportation facilities for workers, raw materials, and manufactured products; possible expansion of existing industries; availability of sites for residential, commercial, or industrial development: civic interest in community growth: availability of other utility services at reasonable rates: and real estate values.

Methods used in the past for population

predictions have included: '

(a) arithmetical increase per year or per decade,

(b) uniform percentage rate of growth based on recent census periods,

(G) decreasing percentage rate of increase,


(d) graphical comparison with the growth of other similar but larger cities, (e) graphical extension of the curve of past growth,

(f) logistic trend method, and (g) component method.

Details of these methods are discussed in other references.'D,lD It should be noted, however, that in the flnal analysis these techniques are tools and are not sub~titutes for the design engineer's judgment.

The simplest method for estimating future population, commonly called straightline projection, is based on the assumption that the increase per unit of time will be constant. This method is not reliable for short projection periods and therefore may be of doubtful utility to the design engineer. More sophistication is shown . in methods that assume the percent change in population with time is constant. Methods found in many engineering textbooks also include the graphical comparison and logistic trend techniques, both of which may not reflect current population trends and changes.

The most widely accepted method of projecting population is the component method. The method, in its simplest form, requires breaking the aggregate population into parts according to age and sex, and statistically applying average survival, birth, and migration rates to the parts over the projection time frame.

The population projection data are coupled with the per person waste volumes and characteristics to project design wastewater volumes and quality. Studies conducted by the United States Public Health Service have indicated a national average water consumption of 560 ljperson· d (150 gpcd), with an estimated domestio use of approrimately 230 1!person·d (00 gpcd), commercial and industrial use, 230 ljperson' d (60 gpcd) j and, pubUo use, approximately 9S1jperson·d (25 gpcd). For specifio instances, a wide variation will be observed in these rates, depending on factors such as location, climate, and size of community. Using the best available information, the design engineer then esti-

mates design wastewater characteristics with required efHuent quality limits set forth in the discharge permit or other directive.

It is axiomatic that the treatment efficiency must increase with increasing wastewater loads. The increasing uses of the receiving waters for recreation or other purposes may also affect the future treatment needs. These demands emphasize the need for state and local participation in environmental planning and decision-malting as a major intent of the 1972 Act. State and federal basin planning agencies should study plans and time-tables for hydrological changes and the antleipated changes in the beneficial uses or increased usage made of the natural water. Downstream reservoirs, navigational channels, upstream How control facilities, and basin diversions should be recognized as having effects on future plans for the wastewater treatment facility.

Industrial Wastewaters

When industrial wastewaters are involved in the design of a treatment facility, the characteristics of the wastewaters must be defined and its influence on the design of the treatment facility considered. In addition, the 1972 Aot requires that user charges 1> be applied to all users of public wastewater facilities, with additional charges applied to industries for the capital cost.

A survey of the service area should include a listing of all industrial wastewaters to be treated and the quantity of flow generated. This information may he approxlmnted from water meter records, How monitoring, process records, or similar sources. Some wastewaters can be characterized by the type of industry, and the significance of the specific industrial wastewater weighed to determine if mote reflned data are necessary to better design the plant facilities. Interviews with each significllDt industry are necessary to arrive at industrial waste loading projections, and surveys of the operation should be conducted to better define the wastewater disposal problem.


Certain industrial wastewaters will not be compatible with the treatment process under consideration. These include:

(a) wastewaters bannfu1 to process biology,

( b) wastewaters harmful to equipment, ( e) wastewaters presenting potential safety hazards, and

( d) wastewaters containing materials not properly treated 'by the pro-

cesSes employed. .

These wastewaters may include heavy metals, chemical wastes, extreme pH wastes, highly colored wastes, or wastes containing large amounts of oil or grease.

A few major industries may have wastewaters which require monitoring and analysis, either because the character of the waste is unknown or the quantity of the waste is sufficiently large that the typical characterizations by industry types are not sufficiently accurate. If data are not available, a sampling and flow measurement program should be conducted to establish the wastewater quantity and character.

Toxio and Pre-Treatment EfHuent Standardsr=-Pl, 92-500 calls for efHuent limitations for listed toxic pollutants. Pollutants chosen for inclusion on the list meet the following criteria:

1. Evidence that either directly or through transformation or bioaccumulatiou they are toxic at extremely low concentrations in water,

2. They are discharged in significant amounts from point sources.

3. Point source discharges are known to have resulted in incidents involving the types of adverse effects cited fn the Act.

4. There is 11 significant potential for the occurrence or recurrence of such incidents as a result of point source discharges.

5. Adequate data are available to establish IlD eHluent standard meeting the requirements of the Act.

A typical list would include;

(II) aldrin, dieldrin, .

(b) benzidine and its salts,

, "




( G) cadmium and all cadmium com-

pounds, (d) DDT, (e) endrln,

(f) mercury and nll mercury com-


(g) polychlorinated biphenyls, ( h) phenols,

( i) chromates, (I) cyanides, and (k) toxaphene.

The materials listed are toxic in very low concentrations (the exception being the industrial chemical benzidine, included because of its ubiquity and known carcinogenic properties).

Additionnlly, pre-treatment standards require any industry discharging into a municipal plant to pre-treat its effiuent so that it does not interfere with the operation of the plant or pass through the plant without adequate treatment.

Particular care should be exercised in the review of industrial wastewaters for conditions which cause high peak Bows (such ItS the batch operation used in breweries), low microbial nutrient concentrations, drastically varying pH levels, and industries with histories of casual attitudes toward

TABLE I-II. Physical, Chemfcal,lUId Biological Wastewater ChnrncterlBtics Considered

for Design


Plants Animals Viruses


Solids Temperature Color


Organics Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Surfactnnts Phenols Pesticides



Chloride Allrolinity Nitrogen Phosphorus Heavy metals Toxic materials


Oxygen Hydrogen sulfide Methane


wastewater disposal. In many cases, considerable wastewater reduction may be accomplisbed by in-house cleanup and control practices. It is almost always true that expenses of an in-bouse reduction in volume of pollutional loading are Iess- than treatment expenses. Large quantities of industrial wastewaters from a single source should be reviewed for characteristics such as biodegradability or adsorb ability.

Wastewater Parameters of Signfficance to the Design Engineer

Design considerations for wastewater treatment facilities are based, in part, on the characteristics of the water to be treated. An understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological wastewater characteristics, therefore, is essential.

The properties and make-up of waste-' water have best lent themselves to analysis by groups consisting of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Those characteristics most frequently studied for design considerations are shown in Table I-II.lb Some typicaldomestic wastewater constituent concentrations are given in Table I-III.

Physienl Characteristics SoUIb

Floating Debris. Grease, and Oil Slicks: -These are general characteristics of wastewater, and their presence in a receiving stream is evidence of gross pollution. The simplest forms of treatment are generally effective in the removal of these characteristics and their presence is indicative of untreated or ineffectively treated wastes.

Suspended Solids:---Suspended solids are defined as the matter which can be removed. from water by :Hltmtion through prepared membranes. Volatile suspended solids for the most part represent organics and may affect the oxygen resources of the stream; however, they are not a direct measure of total organics. Suspended solids may cause the undesirable conditions of Increased turbidity and silt load in the receiving water.

Dissolved Solids:-A considerable amount of dissolved solids may be added

to water during its treatment and use. High concentrations of dissolved solids may adversely affect receiving waters andl or future water uses,

Temperature ,

The mean annual temperature of wastewater will vary, depending on geographic location, from 10' to 21"C (50' to 70·F). The temperature of wastewater is an important parameter because of its effect on aquatic life, chemical and biological reaction rates, and the solubility limitations of gases such as oxygen depletions, Abnormally bigh temperatures can foster the growth of undesirable planktonic species and fungi, while low temperatures can limit the form of wastewater treabnent selected as well as possibly increase treatment time and plant size.


The color of domestic wastewater is usually indicative of age. Fresh wastewater is usually gray, septic wastes impart a black appearance to the medium. Industrial wastes may contain many coloring substances.

Color in the wastewater effiuent, whether from domestic or industrial sources, is to be avoided.


Odors in wastewater are caused by organic decomposition gases, by industrial compounds, and by reactions of wastewater constituents with added treatment process chemicals. Wastewater odor generally cnn provide a relative indication of its condition.

Chemical Characteristics Organics

The organic content of wastewater is the most significant factor in the pollution of many natural waters. The principal groups of organio substances found in domestic wastewater are proteins (40 to

(, 60 percent), carbohydrates (25 to 50 per" cent), and fats and oils (10 percent). In addition, wastewater contains small quan-


TABLE I-m. Arullysis of Typical Midwest Domestic Wastewnter


CDm:enLratlon. rn~/1

Tctnl solids (TS) Volatile T5 Nonvolntile T5

Total suspended 501ld9 (T55) Volatile T55

Nonvolatile TSS

Chemical oxygen demand (coo) Suspended coo

Soluble COD

Biodegradable coo

Soluble biodegradable COD Suspended bledegradable coo

Biochemical oxygen demand (DOD,) Soluble DOD

Suspended DOD

Cnlcium (Ca++)

Magnesium (Mg++)

Sodium (Na+)

Pctnssium (K+)

Phosphate (POn

Sulfate (SOj-)

Silicate (SiO,-)

Chloride (Cl-)

Bienrbouate (HCO,-)

Ammonia nitrogen (NH,-N) Organic nitrogen (nrg-N)

980 260 720 200 160 40

400 250 1511 JOO 150 150 200 100 100 60

24 80

B 30 80 26 100 280 JD


tities of a large number of synthetic organic molecules ranging from simple to extremely complex: in structure. The presence of readily bio-degradable organic matter in the receiving water will reduce the oxygen resources of that water, The presence of non-biodegradable or difficultto-degrade organic material complicates the wastewater treatment process. Some of the deleterious effects of this non-degradable fraction include the imparting of color and odor to the receiving' water, the possible toxic effects on aquatic organisms, and the additional treatment costs required for downstream usage.

In organics

The common inorganic constituents present in normal wastewater include chloride, hydrogen ions, allmlinity-causing compounds, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and heavy metals. The trace concentrations ol these substances can greatly affect organisms in the receiving waters through theh



growth-limiting or eutrophic characteristics. Algae and macroscopic plant forms are capable of using inorganics as substrate in their metabolism. The major elements which serve as inorganic metabolites are carbon, ammonia-nitrogen, and phosphorus. The nutrients alone are not offensive in normal concentrations; however, if natural conditions pennit, the growth of algae or other plants causes the Ionnation of an organic source in the receiving water ereating- a potential demand on the oxygen resources of the natura), water.

Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are present in all natural waters in fODDS available to plant life. In most natural waters, phosphorus is present in significantly lower concentrations than nitrogen or carbon. Phosphorus, however, is required in extremely small concentrations to sustain algal growth. Undesirable algol growths have been reported where inorganic pbosphorus levels were in the range of 0.01 to 0.05 mgfl. Nitrogen, required in higher concentrations than pbosphorus for algal growth, generally is more available because it may be used in several inorganic forms, and because atmospheric nitrogen may be fixed by certain algae. Depending on conditions in the stream, inorganic carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus may be the ratelimiting factor for algal growth. Careful study of the nutrient balance and plant life forms in a water body is necessary to determine which nutrient should be removed from a wastewater discharge to most effectively retard algal growth. Organic fODDS of carbon are also believed to stimulate growth of algae beyond that which would occur if the bicarbonate-carbonate system were the only carbon source.


Gases commonly found in raw wastewater include nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane. Although all should be considered in the design of treatment facilities, attention is most frequently given to oxygen, hydrogen sulfide. and methane concentrations within the treated wastewater.

Dissolved oxygen is required for all


ultimate consideration of treatment plant treatment plant over an 8-h period with operation. The communities and types of· the m~um hourly load being a~proxiorganisms usually considered in bi~logical mately twice ~e. average load. . It 15 susexaminations of receiving waters include pected that mimmum flow penods (and zoo- and phytoplankton, peryphyton, mae- concurrent minimum organic concentraroinvertebmtes, macrophytes, and fish. tions).. ch:uacteristic of int~ where inThese examinations can supply the infor- filtration/inflow are the dominant contrl-

mation to aid in: butions to wastewater treatment plants,

. . . will experience noticeable changes with

1. . Explanation of color, turbIdity, and implementation of extraneous sewer How

particulates. studies as required.

2. Interpretation of cb~miClll analyses, An array of COD, BOD, and ss data char-

3. Design and operation of wastewater acterizing II. raw wastewater can be ana-

treatment pl~ts. . Iyzed graphically for frequency distribu-

4. Dete~g the ext~nt of pollution. tion (Figure 1-1). This presenta~on .can . .5. Interpreting ~Blf-purification capabil- help the design engineer because It highities of the receiving waters. lights the return frequency which can be used to anticipate extreme and median data.

Frequently overlooked, but important to certain of the unit processes, is the variation in wastewater clmrncteristics during the day (Figure 1-2). By using the transient loading data displayed in Figure 1-2, an estimation can be made of peak oxygen rates in activated sludge processes by use of activated sludge kinetic models. It must be recognized that an efficient activated sludge system must be designed to meet the peale oxygen demand in the reactor basin and must be able to absorb the peak hydraulic demand in the final sedimentation tank.

Figures 1-1 and 1-2 are for illustration only. Similar curves should be developed

aerobic life forms either within the treatment facility or in the receiving water. In the absence of aerobio conditions, oxidation is brought about by the reduction of inorganic salts such as sulfates, or through the action of methane-forming bacteria. The end products are often very obnoxious. To eliminate possible nuisance conditions in the wastewater treatment facility and in the natural waters receiving the effiuent, it is important that an aerobic state be maintained.

Biological Characteristics Plants and Animals

The quantity and species of micro- and macroscopic plants and animnls in a receiving body of water should be viewed as the final test of wastewater treatment effectiveness. Within the treatment facility, the wastewater provides the perfect medium for good microbial growth. whether it be aerobic or anaerobic.

The bacteria and protozoa are the keys to the normal treatment plant biological unit process and to the natural. biological cycle in receiving waters, In the presence of sufficient dissolved oxygen, bacterin convert the soluble organic matter into new cells and inorganic elements. In turn, these are substrate for higher orders of living things thus causing a reduction of organic loading through the build-up of more complex organisms and/or removnl.

Within a wastewater treatment plant handling domestic wastes, baoteda, with concentrations ranging from 106 to lOH/m], will be the dominant plant/animal specie, with other organisms achieving varying degrees of importance depending on unit process and design, Consequently, wastewater treatment is directed toward using and removing the common bacteria nlong with organic and inorganic components.

Water quality in a receiving body of water is strongly influenced by the biological interactions that take place there. The wastewaters discharged to receiving waters become a normal part of the biological cycle, and it is the effect of these wastes on aquatic organisms whit:h should be the


Because of the increasing awareness that enteric viruses can be waterborne, attempts have been made to identify and quantify virus contributions to ret:eiving waters via wastewater treatment plants. Vilrious physical and chemical methods have been used to this end, with much work still required for appropriate sampling and measuring techniques.

Virus removal is required in connection with reclaimed wastewater used for indirect reuse in groundwater, discharge into Iakes and rivers used for body-contact recreation, and for discharge into dry stream beds that will naturally attract children for wading.

Virus removal in wastewater treatment plants is dependent On the type of plant and on the degree of treatment achieved. Normally. some of the estimated 200 to 7 000 virus infection units per 1 000 ml in raw wastewater will reach the receiving waters. There, the virus may eventually be transmitted through the food chain or water. usage' to a host organism.

Varilltion in Characteristics

Wastewater flow variations in treatment plants follow a general 24-h pattern, with minimum HOM in the early morning and peak Hows generally occurring in the late morning and the early evening. Approximately one-hill of the load arrives at the


( ..

FIGURE 1-L Typical frequency distribution of some raw wastewater parameters.



TABLE lwIV. Selective List of Ulllt Processes Used for Particular Wnste COllstituents

l1nltP",c ...

Sedlmentatlonl Il<ltaUon


• edlmontntlon

R.moVllI Wll!lte
Meclumism Conl!tltu~nt
Gravity SoUd p!uu.
Pnrtlcl e Solid ph •••
'lIi"'ltIItlon/ DfiDnle./lnorsonlto
,mvlty Coll.ld.1 ph ...
organl"/ln.rltllnl ..
Chomlcol ColloJdol p~ ...
bondl'l 'narllDn!t!l
Partld. S.lld ~h ...
olm<'lIlIUonl ol1ll1nlCl/lnorgoolCl
M~~~~1:1 Collold.l ph .. _
gmvlty olll'1nla/l •• rg.nl ..
Enttnpm~nl Solid pi ....
PorUcl. Celleldet "ho._
a.,,,,goU.nl orgonh:./lnorJlilnlcs
Ad,.rptl.n Salubl. l,h •••
Entmpment Sol hi ph .. e
Partlcl. C.Uold.1 ~h ...
:~!~~f!~n' DTlIilnlea/lnonj:nnlcs Dioloilleni tmltment


Co,bon udmrptlcn

to apparent inefficiencies caused by a certain amount of non-adsorbable organics in the wastewater. The biological process is subject to apparent inefficiencies as a result of non-biodegradable organics in the wastewater. Actually, each process is highly efficient for its application, A se-

lective listing of unit processes and the waste constituents for which they are generally applied and/or are effective is shown in Table I-IV.

The application of these various unit processes is described in subsequent chapters. The selection of a process train or alternative process trains should be made on the ability of the individual unit processes to remove specillc waste constituents. If the makeup of. all wastes were identical, the selection of a process package would- be relatively simple. However, varlatlons in the constituents and the relative portions of waste constituents in each phase complicate process selection unless the waste characterization is known. Knowledge of the wastewater condition and constituents is important so that the most applicable process train can be as" sembled. Once the total organic strength and the amounts of soluble and particulate organics of the waste have been determined, the anticipated performance of biological and cbemlcal-physical treatment systems can be generalized. Table I-V shows typical unit process capabilities for the treatment of a domestic wastewater. Supplementary data in Table I-VI outline the anticipated performances of unit process com blnations in tertiary plants


TABLE I-VI. Anticipated Performance of Unit Proceas Comblnatiolls In Tertlnry Plants Treating lllalaglca1ly Pretreated Wastewater

E<Umol.d FI""I HIlluent Ou.lIty
Sou"", of W .. tewatOf Addltlonol UnIt P"' .... U,_d
nonl COD 55 PO, T.rlJldlty
(mll/lJ (m,1ll (mlm (mill) UTU)
-- -- -- ---
Convendcnal activated
sludge Filtration 1-3 40-60 3-1 20-30 2-8
Coagulation and sedimentation 3-1 30-50 3-12 1-3 2-8
Coagulatfon, sedimentation, and 1-2 25-45 1 I I
Cnagulation, sedimentation, filtra- 0-2 5-10 1 1 .1
tion, and activated carbon
High-rote trickling
filter effluent Filtration 10-20 35-1iO 10-20 20-30 2-15
Coagulatinn and sedimentation 10-15 35-55 4-12 1-3 2-10
Coagulation, sedimentation, and 7-12 30-50 I 1 I
Coagulatlon, sedimentation, filtra- 1-2 10-25 I 1 I
tion and actlvated carbon treating wastewaters following biological pretreatment. Table I-VIT shows anticipated effluent concentrations for unit process combinations in plants treating wastewaters following physical pretreatment.

When evaluating the suitability of either brologloal or chemieal-physieal treatment,' the following guidelines can be made:

I. Chemical-physical treatment is a suitable alternative for low total organic strength wastes (BOD. less than 100 mg/l},

2. Chemical-physical treatment is a suitable alternative for a waste having a high pnrticulate organic concentration, provided the soluble organic concentrntion following chemical cougulatton, sedimentntlon, and filtration is less than SO mg/l BODD'

TABLE I-V. VllriollS ComblnBtions of Biological and Physlcal-Chemlcnl Unit Processes

FI rs 1 Unit S.",md Unit Third Unit
TypIcal ConcenlmUou.
RnwW .. te Tvpl .. 1 TVlllc:n1 Typical
Co.,Ulu""l Unll Oul Unit Out Unit Out
Process CDm:en· Pro"",,, Ceneen- Precees Coneen-
Col_ tratlon t .... ttcn tratlen
Solubl_ 1.ld.l 50Hd Tntnl (m~/Il (mu/ll (mulil
-- --
5 •• pended 2011 Sedlmen- A<I •• 1. 111-.111 F111mtlon .1-1
.olld. - - 200 so-iuo
Couu./,ed. 1D-3D Acl.,l. III-an F1llmUon J-1
Caau.(,od. til-ali Flit. 3-7
Acl. •• lIl-ln Flit. 3-7
nQU. ( enr- IlII-ISO Act.,I. tn-m F111mtl.n l-.1
banD.tecH.!) BO 40 80 lOn S_dlm.n-
lotion Flltmtlon
Comu.I._d. BO-lOO Act. 01. l1l-311 I-J
Co.g.(" •• BD-IUII Flit. 80-911 ;.d •• rlltton 3-13·
At:t...!14 10-30 Flit. 1-.1 Ad .. rpUon U-2
COl> t60 BD I~O 400 Sed. 240-3011 A<I. ,I. SO-IIiU FlJtrntlon 40-60
Co.~.I •• d. l6U-21111 Act •• 1. SO-lDO FUtrnUon 411-6U
Co.;.(,ed_ 1~1I-21111 Flit. 160-lBO Ad'o,pHan 20-311
Act.!! 4 sc-inn Flit. 4lHlU Ad,.mUon 5-111
l'h •• phoru, 9 - I 10 Cong.I._d. 2-5 r.lt• 0-1
Cong./._d. 2-5 ct, s1. H Flltmtlon 0-1 • No etedlt altnwn Ier remcvnl en •• ed by blolollcolnttll·II}'.


3. Chemical-physical treatment is suitable for wastewater treatment systems where no inHuent Hows will be received for substantial periods of time, for example, batch treatment or systems experiencing significant How variations.

4. Chemical-physical treatment is a desirable alternative if land space is limited or toxic substances are present in the raw wastewater.

S. Care should be exercised in the application of chemical-physical treatment systems On medium to high strength wastes (BODd greater than 200 mg/l}, For this situation, on-site pUot studies are desirable to determine obtainable effiuent quality and to ascertain if the biological activ-

TAllLE i-VII. AntlclpBted Performance of Unit Process Comblllntions In Plants Treating Physlcnlly Pretreated Wastewater

Eotlmol.d FlnBI Emu_nt OuoUtr
Source of \rD!!It~wnh!r Addlllon.1 Unit 1', ..... t: •• d
nOD, COD S5 POI Turhldhl'
(m.1Il (mg/l) (tntll) (mRIll (JTU)
-- -- --- ~
Screening and grit
removnl Coagulation aud sedimeutatiou 50-100 BO-180 10-30 2-4 5-20
Primary clarified 1-4
effluent Coagulation, sedimentation, and 30-70 50-150 2-4 0.5-2
Coagulation, sedlmentntion, filtrn- 10-25 30-45 2-4 0.5-2 1-2
tion and nctivnted carbon 17


ity anticipated in the carbon columns will be more of a detriment (odor, plugging) than an asset (higher organic removal).

Land Application of Wastewater:Wastewater application to the land is viewed by some as an alternative to other secondary treatment schemes, while others consider land application as a £nal add-on step for: liquid disposal and convenient water use. Alternative land disposal methods include various modes of surface and subsurface percolation and deep well injection. Combination land disposal and wastewater reclamation methods include inilltration-percolation, overland flow, irrigation, and groundwater recharge.

Sludge Dlsposul

When applying various unit processes, consideration must be given to the sludges produced from the unit process and the effect of these sludges on the overall operation of the plant facility, and on the economics of plant construction and operation.

For all practical purposes, the pollutants in wastewater are removed in the fonn of biological and chemical precipitates. Generally, influent solids are removed directly by a physical process,' whereas ~ colloidal and soluble pollutants are converted to solids and then removed by a physical process. The further processing and ultimate disposal of these sludges generally represents from 25 to 50 percent of the cost of wastewater treatment, thus emphasizing the need to consider liquid treatment and sludge handling concurrently, There are n variety of sludge handling methods and 1\ variety of sludges to handle, malting the selection of an appropriate technique a difficult one.

Sludges 01' sludge residues have, in the past, been disposed of in large bodies of water or on the land, There are several collection and processing methods available to effect an acceptable disposal product and/or to lower the volume of material required for disposal. The reclamation and reuse concept, although receiving much consideration, has had limited application, Regardless of the processing tech-


nology employed, a product must be disposed of whether it be in the liquid, dewatered, or incinerator ash state, The final selection of a disposal method requires an evaluation of factors other than economic ones because of aesthetic and other consideradons,

One of the sludge disposal techniques expected to be studied and evaluated in depth is land disposal Including aerated treatmenf/irrigation technology, Prior to sludge disposal, normal practice is to include a treatment method to render the sludge innocuous. The treatment method is usually aerobic or anaerobic sludge digestion, dewatering, or incineration. These methods may be employed singularly or in 'combination. H used in combination, it is important that the designer understand the characteristics of the material in relation to the unit processes to be employed. For instance, when. considering incineration, raw sludge should not be digested to reduce organic content because this also reduces the fuel value to the incinerator and may require continuous usage of auxiliary fuel. When considering aerobic digestion and landfill, the use of primary sedimentation basins is questionable because the oxygen demand of the sludge removed in the primarybasin-must be met either in the aerobic digester or the aeration basin, Transportation of sludge by pipeline to the land disposal site is generally more economical and more convenient than tank truck handling.

The addition of a dewatering step such as sand drying beds, centrifuging, or vacuum or pressure illtering prior to disposal reduces the ultimate disposal land requirements and the mElSS requiring transport; however, the operntional requirements increase and the capital costs are likely to increase, Also to be considered is the generation of a wastewater from the dewatering step. Prior to dewatering, sludge normally requires a preconditioning process such ElS chemical coagulation. Alternate methods such as heat treatment.have been developed to suppluilt the need for chemicals.

The dewatered sludge may be hauled

to a landilll or to a compost site. Groundwater contamination from leachate is of primary concern when landfilling is used. The handling of dewatered sludges for composting is a problem because special operations must be used to mix the semi-fluid sludge with the paper, wood., and/or other solid wastes to acquire a workable mixture, .

The treatment and disposal of sludge is common to all wastewater treatment plants. The reclamation of any beneficial constituents from sludge is currently considered impractical with the possible exceptions of producing soil conditioners and extracting treatment chemicals for reuse,

A summary of sludge types and applicable methods of processing and disposal are shown in Table I-VIII.


The ultimate selection among otherwise equally acceptable unit processes or process trains is based on an economic evaluation, The term "equally acceptable" should not be taken casually. At times alternatives are developed to meet a specific goal; however, one alternative may have capabilities not required to meet the specific goal, but that are inherent in the process. For instance a specific goal of 20 my I BOD and 30 mg/l ss can be met by the activated sludge process or the physical/chemical process; however, the physical/chemical process inherently removes phosphorus. Whether these or other processes should be considered equal depends on the anticipated need for phosphorus, heavy metal, non-biodegradable organle, arid nitrogen removals,

Economic studies generally are undertaken to finally select the process, Insofar as it is practical, it is helpful to reduce alternatives to dollars so as to have a common unit for comparison.1T-aO However, many important considerations cannot be expressed satisfactorily in terms of money. Consequently, intangible items also will affect the process selection (Cbapter 2).

Capital Costs

In the planning stage, detailed quantities of materials and construction labor re-


TABLE l-VIII. Some Sludge Hnndllng AltemntivBs

5lud~~ Typo

H""dlln~ Al!o"",Uv ..

Anaerobic digestion, liquid laud dlspesal

Annerobic digestion, dewater-

ing, landfill •

Chemical dewatering, loudfill Dewatering, lnelnerutlon, landfill or reclalm

Aerobic digestion, liquid mud disposal

Aerobic dlgeatlon, thickening, dewatering, landfill Thickening, chemical dewatering, landfill"

Thickening, dewatering, incineration, landfill" Thickening, anaerobic digestion. liquid land dlsposal" Heat treatment, dewatering, incineration, landfill or reclaim'

Chemically Dewntering, landfill

treated sludge Reclalm

Rltw wnstewnter . sludge

Biologically treated sludge

• Normally in mixture with raw wasteweter sludge.

quirements are not availnble, and other means of estimating capital costs are required. The methods most commonly used are as follows:

1. Unit Price. This method entails the application of a unit price to the size or capacity of a unit process or appurtenant facility. These unit prices are frequently available from equipment suppliers. A preliminary basis for design must first be prepared to apply this method.

2. Curve Pricing, The curve pricing method has been extensively developed for wastewater treatment unit processes and is nearly universally used in comparative cost studies found in the literature, The advantages of curve pricing are that the estimates can be obtained rapidly, and the curves generally represent real construelion cost reflecting economy of scale effects and typically used construction methods.

3, Major Equipment:InstalIed Cost Factors. Correlations between the costs for major equipment obtained from suppliers and the installed plant costs have been de-



TABLE' I-IX. Comparlslln IIf Design Alternatives by Equivalent Cllsts

HQul..ue~l CQ,IJr
Co.t Item.
A1t=tlve Alternative
1 2
Coc!'~~;\;'~~t~ to,! $1.1100.000 SBOO.OOO
Engln eer lng fiO.OOO 54.000
Land 20.000 30.UOD
1-.1101. f .. ",I •• dmlnl.ttaUve 4.0UO fi.ODD
Interest during: cenetraetrcn 45.000 35.000
Subtntnl $1.129.1100 $925.000
[.IlaUon prior to eenmuctien 56.000 4MOO
Totol CBI,Iu,1 C .. I. St,IRS.OOD 191),000
-Dept Servh::t 84.100 6MOO
OperaUnli and Ml1lnlll![l.ilnCe CO:!lU t
Perscnnel 3D.OOf] 40,000
Pnwer 12.000 6.000
Cbeml""h 4.000 JS.OUO
Mh<tl"'n~UJ utilltl es J.OOO J.DOO
MbtdlB.""u, ,uppU .. and
material!! ;!i.OCJD 5,000
AnM':.i~gg~~'(fo~~d S 54.00n $ 8MOO
ToW AnDI1ill C.,to , I~B,IDO S157.900 • Copllal CO,( ftto"ery r.ttor ~ 1[1 + 0°'\1 + ,1" - I' where n...- numbt;r yeaJ"3 dnd i:a interut.· In example: n = 15 y",,. nnd, - 5 pe",ent,)

Noiol Thl. com pori ••• wu.o b .. ed D. 196B dolla rs,

veloped, A preliminary basis of design must first be prepared to apply this method.

4. Comparable Plants. This method enmils obtaining cost data from a project comparable to the one under design. Quite frequently this approach results in a very realistic preliminary cost estimate.

Normally, estimates for treatment plants utihze one or a combination of these methods plus detailed estimation of quantities for facilities or work where experienced costs are not available. In applying estimating methods, the design engineer must be cognizant of the assumptions and conditions on which the estimating methodology was prepared, He will then be better able to take into consideration the peculiarities of the particular project, such as land costs and foundation conditions.

Inflationary effects must be considered when using previously prepared cost datil. Most cost updating is accomplished by use of indices. The most commonly used indices are the Engineering News-Recorcfs "Construction Cost Index" and "Building Cost Index," and the U. S. EPA Water Quality Office "Treatment Plant Index." The first two indices are general in nature


and are subject to less influence than is the EPA "Treatment Plant Index" which is the index of choice for use in cost updating.

Operllting Costs

The development of costs for 'utiliti~s and for process chemicals used in wastewater treatment is direct and subject to little error. Other operating costs such 115 payroll costs and miscellaneous supplies are subject to considerable variation and more intensive analysis must be made to develop information reHecting actual conditions. In the absence of the development of specific operating cost data for a proposed treatment plant, the design engineer has available from cost indices as well as other sources unit cost data that can be applied to the total plant or various treatment units for estimating purposes.Jl-U

Equivalent Costs

The capital and annual costs estimated for each alternative must be made equivalent to make an economical comparison. Anticipated inllation which occurs between the time of the estimate and the bid date should be considered, Table I-IX depicts no example of the calculations necessary to produce an equivalent annual cost. All other factors being equal, alternative 1 would be the method of choice.

Reliability Considerations

Reliability of treatment works must cover performance under normal as well as adverse circumstances. The criteria under which the treatment process is designed normally define reliability either directly or indirectly, Many regulatory agencies define a value which cannot be exceeded (which presumes a level of reliability). Knowledge of the variation in effiuent quality from unit processes is required. Because performance of unit processes is not consistent and is subject to efficiency reductions caused by shock loads as well as human error, effiuent quality from any process is not uniform. The variation of effiuent quality from normal is dependent on operational skills, extreme variations in

mUI ru 1I!I &5




~~t'~t-tl-.~-"'~~.~'~"~m~~~'~.~,,~~~'~~.-fl~~. iFnE:DUE:r;CY OF DcaJn~EJ~a

FIGURE 1-3. Typical emuent reliability of the activated sludge process.

input waste characteristics," and the inherent stability of the unit process.

Typical data depicting the reliability of the activated sludge process are shown in Figures 1-3, 1-4, and 1-5. For example the design engineer can expect the acti~ vated sludge unit process to produce 1l0Dij and ss effiuent concentrations of approximately 25 and 18 mg/l, respectively, 80 percent of the time (Figure 1-3). These data can be used in conjunction with 30- day, 7-day, and maximum-day eHluent requirements for reliability considerations. Data presented in Figure 1-3 IU"e for an activated sludge plant considered to be well operated, in Figure 1-4, for an activated sludge plant followed by long term sedimentation [less than 16 m~/m" d (400 gpd/sq ft) overflow rate}; and, in Figure 1-5, for effluent Bltration of an activated sludge plant. These data present normally obtainable reliability. The mtration data show the reliability of this unit process in obtaining a consistent quality eHluent,

System Reliability

The federal government has formulated reliability design criteria that apply to new wastewater treatment works as well as to additions or expansions, A plant's reliability is a measurement of the ability of a component or system to perform its designated function without failure. Fed-


.. ~ 1II ii 1;

i""r-~----~~~~ ~


FIGURE 1-4. Typical effiuent reliability of the activated sludge process followed by chlorination and low overflow rate sedimentation.

eral guidelines r suggest three classes of treatment works:

Reli[lbility Class L Works which discharge into navigable waters that could be permanently or unacceptably damaged by effiuent which was degraded in quality for only a few hours.

Reliability Class n. Works which discharge into navigable waters that would not be permanently or unacceptably damaged by short-term eHluent quality degradations, but could be damaged by COntinued effluent quality degradation.


II it. II> " ., '" " I ~ ~I •
I 1 I I I I I

s.."", ./ 1-00' -
~ , ,.

D., D.5 -:I 5 :'II ~D mI m 00 B8 W.5 !lUI 'IiUO


FIGURE 1-5. Typical effiuent reliability of the activated sludge process followed by IDtration.



Reliability Class m. Works not other- The system must be designed to include B:

wise classified as. Reliability Class I or 1. Trash removal or comminution.

Class II. 2. Grit removal.

Works Design Criterlal-Five general 3. Provisions for removal of settleable

areas must be considered for reliability solids.

features. 4. Treatment works 'controlled diversion

1. The potential for damage or inter- (either a channel or pipe, actuated by

ruption of operation because of flooding gravity overflow, to handle peale

must be considered when siting the treat- wastewater How, for example, exeess

ment works. Structure and electrical/ flows sent to a basin for later treat-

mechanical equipment shall be protected ment).

from physical damage by the maximum 5. Unit operation bypassing (bypassing

expected IOO-year flood. The treatment not required for pumps or for unit

works shall remain fully operational during operations with two or more units and

the 25-year flood, if pmcticable; lesser involving open basins, e.g., sedimen-

flood levels may be permitted, dependent tation basins, reactor basins, disln-

on local situations, but in no case shall fection basins, where the peak waste-

less than a IO-year Hood be used. water How can be handled hydrauIi-

2. All new works and expansions to cally with the largest How capacity

existing works shall be designed for fur- unit out of service).

ther expansion except where circumstances Other reliability features that must be preclude the probability of expansion. covered in wastewater treatment system During a works upgrading or expansion, design include component backup requirethe interruption of normal operation shill ments f. a and component design features

be minimized. and maintenance requirements.

3. Piping requirements include provi- Units Out of Service:-'The maintenance

sions for Hushing, drllining, and maintain- demands of most unit process compofng and repairing. nents require that they routinely be taken

4. Every vital meehanlcal component in out of service for repairs, painting, or the works shall be designed to enable re- other maintenance functions. For this pair or replacement without violating the reason, it is normal practice to duplicate effluent llmltations or causing a controlled each unit process to permit treatment when diversion. In addition, other maintenance one basin or unit is out of service. Capaand repair requirements include adequate bility to dewater the out-of-service basin access space, lifting and handling devices, also must be provided.

and the provision of essential services such Sludge Handling and Disposal System as water, compressed air, and electricity Design Criteria:-This system includes ill throughout the works. unit processes from the sludge pumps ser-

5. Equipment whose failure could be ¥icing the sedimentation basins to the hazardous to personnel or to other equip- final disposal of waste products, including ment shall have means for isolation, such ancillnry components. Sludge disposal Inas shut-off valves, or shut-off switches and eludes the special handling and treatment controls located away from the equipment of sludge bypassing a normal stage of

treatment. In some treatment works the to permit safe shutdown during emergenoy system may also include processes such as conditions.

recalelaatlon of lime or regeneration of

Wastewater Treatment System Design .acdvated carbon.

Orlterim-e-The wastewater treatment sys- The sludge handling system must be detem inoludes all components from and signed to include alternate methods of including the bar screens and wastewater disposal and/or treatment, as well as propumps to and including the works outfall. visions for preventing contamination of

treated wastewater. Component backup requirements cover holding tanks, pumps, anaerobic and aerobic digestion units, vacuum filters, centrifuges, and incinerators. Component design features and maintenance requirements include provisions for isolating components and protection from overland

Electrio Power System Design Criteria: -Reliability provisions for power source and dislribution depend on the particular class (1, II, or ill) of treatment works. In general, two separate and independent sources of electric power shall be provided to the works from either two separate utility substations or from a single substation and a works-based generator. H available from the e1ectrio utility, at least ODe of the works' power sources shall be a preferred source, that is, a utility source which is One of the last to lose power from the utility grid because of loss of power generating capacity. The independent sources of power shall be distributed to separate works' transformers in a way to minimize common mode failures from affeoting both sources. Power distribution reliability features within the works shall also include service to motor control centers, division of loads at motor control centers, power transfer, coordinated breaker settings or fuse ratings, equipment location, and emergency power generator starting.

The results of a power service reliability study is summarized in Table I-X This table shows that two independent power sources provide an extremely good level of reliability, and that only under the most severe reliability restrictions would the ex-


pease for an additional source of power be justified.

Instrumentation and Control Systems Design Criteria:-'The previously discussed five general areas that must be considered for treatment works design criteria also cover the requirements for the foll?wing:

1. Automatic control.

2. Instrumentation.

3. Alarms and annunciators.

4. Alignment and calibration of equip-


The reliability of these and other auxiliary systems, for example, drain, compressed air, service water, fuel supply, lubricating oil, and chemical supply, are dependent on the particular function of each in the wastewater treatment works.

Pump Stations:-No pump station should be designed with fewer than two pumps. Each pump in stations designed with only two pumps should be rated to handle the normal design capacity of the station. The total number of pumps to be used is dependent on the capacity of the station, the variation in the rate of How, and the storage capacity available in the wet well.

Flood Conditions

Executive Order 1l2.96 requires that flood hazard be evaluated by all federal executive agencies in ndministering construction programs supported by federal grants, The three general types of land area where flood hazard is common are riverine Hood plains (such as valley areas adjaoent to n stream or river), coastal flood plains ( areas bordering a lake, estuary, ocean, or similar body of standing water),

TABLE I-X, Power SOUl'ce Reliability

Simple nodllll PrlmorJI SoI""Uve S=nd;uy Sol""Uve
Sy.tem Sy.tern Sy,tem
l'awCf seuree
Follu"",{ HDUII Dnlvn{ Fllllu, .. / Han",Dol'ln/ Fan",,,/ Hour.!! DDwn/
VelI' YOII' Venr Y .. r Yenr Year
Single 13.8 kV source 1.12 1.0 1.0 S.O 1.0 2.7
Single 115 kV SOUrce with 2
feeders to 13.S kV 0.3 5.5 0.3 3.5 0.2 1.2
Two independent 13.8 kV snurces 0.1 5.0 0.06 3.1 0.03 O.B 23


and debris cone flood plains [areas along the bases of mountains that developed by deposition oE debris carried by flow from the mountain streams). In each case, the flood hazard evaluation will be made by the federal agency, based on either the long-range plan of land-use regulations for the area or on a ease-by-case consideration of the suitability of a proposed use :in a particular flood plain. Flood-proofing standards applied througb building codes and regulations to flood plain structures can permit development in the "risk" areas by holding flood damages and other effects within acceptable limits.

During the 25-year flood conditions, the plant shall remain fully operable in service and Iunction.' Typically, flood conditions also coincide with the peak wastewater How. Many plants were designed to provide only partial treatment of wastewater prior to discharge under these conditions. Normally the primary basins are elevated to enable discharge of peak flows under all river stages, or pumping capacity following treatment Is provided to enable discharge under all river stages.

Processes following primary treatment are generally capable of providing treatment of flows which are two and three times the average flow rate. The dilution of the pollutants in the wastewater at these greater flows enables, with proper design, the continuation of treatment under extreme flow conditions encountered during flooding.

Project Timing

The project schedule ~MB should be fully developed by the design engineer to avoid the situation where an unreasonable schedule is established, perhaps unknowingly, by the regulatory agency or operating agency. If either planning time or construction time is compressed, the project may be ill-conceived or not economically planned.

A schedule of required planning and construction man-hours should be developed with equipment delivery times and consideration gtven to review times of planning, regulatory, and operating agencies.


Project timing is established prior to detailed work on the plans and specifications.


1. "Munleipul Wnstewnter Treatment, Works Constructlon Gronts Program," U., S. EPA, Wnsbingon, D. C. (197B) •.

2. "Prepnratlon of Environmental Impact Statements." Fud. Raglatcr, 40, 72, IBB11-1I1827 (April 14. 1975); 40 CFR Part B.

3. "Primnry Envltonmentnl Factors in the Design and CDnslTuction of Municipnl Wastawater Works Evnlnation and Control" U. S. EPA Offict! of Warer Programs Operations, Wnshington, D. C. (1974).

4. "Alternative WIlSie Management Techniques for Best Pmetleable Waste Treatment." Teeb. Inf. Rep't, U. S. EPA, Washington, D. C. (Mnrcb 1974).

5. "Secondary Treatment Infurmntlon," Fed.

Register, 31l" 159, 22298-22299 (Aug. 17,

1973); 40 CFR Part 133. ,

6. "Guidance for Sewer System Evnluntlan."

U. S. EPA, Washington, D. C. (March 1Il74).

7. "Design Crlteria for Mechnnfenl, ElectrIc, and Fluid System and Component Rellabll!ty." Tech. Bull, U. S. EPA, Washington, D. C. (1974). .

B. "Design, Operation nod Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities." Teeb. BuU., U. S. EPA, Wnshington. D. C. (1970).

9. "Protection of She1l&h Waters." Teeb. sen, U. S. EPA, Washington, D. C. (1974).

10. "Water Pollution Control Construction Grllnts for Waste Treatment" Section 1, Regulation No. I-I, U. S. EPA, Washington, D. C. 11. "Joint Treatment of Industrial and Municipal

WnstBwnter." Water 'Pollution Control

Federation, Washington, D. C. (1916).

12. ''Financlng and Charges for ;Wnstewater Systems." Warer Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D. C. (11l73).

13. "Wnstewater Engineering." Metcalf and

Eddy Inc., McGmw-HllI Book Ilo., New York, N. Y. (11l72).

14. "Sewer Design and Constructloa," Joint Amer, SOCI. Civil Engr.-Wnter Poll. Control Fed. Manual, Water Pollution Control FederntlOll, Washington, D. C. (11l66).

15. "Flow Equalization." Tech. Transfer, U. S.

EPA, Washingbln, D. C. (1914).

ie. Clark, J. W., and Vlessman, W., [r., 'WIltel' Supply and Pollution Control" International Telrtbook Co., Scranton, Pa. (11l65).

17. Evenson, D. E., Orlab, G. T., and M01l5er, J. R., ''Preliminary Seleotlou of Waste Treatment Systems." Jour. Water Pall.· Control Fed., 41, 11, 1845 (1969).

18. Rowan, P. P., Jenkins, It L., and Butler, D.

W., "Sewage Treatment Construction Costs." Jour. Water Poll. ControZ Fed., 32, 6, 594 (1960).

Ill. "Modem Sewage Treatment Plants, How Much Do Tbey Castr' U. S. PHS Pub!. No. WIl, HEW" Washington, D. C. (11l64).

20. Smith, Ro, "Cost nf Conventional and Advanced Treatment of Wnstewnter." Jour. Watar Pall. Control Fod., 40, Il, 1546 (19BS,.

21. "Water Pollution Control • • . Fnets and Figures." Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D. C. (11l76).

22. "Operation of Wastewater Treatment 'Plants,"


Water 'Pollution Control Federation, Wasblngten, D. C. (11l7B).

23. 'Park, W. R., "Cost Engineering Annlysis."

John Wiley and SODS, Ine., New York, N. Y. (1973).

24. Antill, J. M~ and Woodhead, R. W., "Critioal Path Methods in Construction Praedce," John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, N. Y. (191l5).

·25. "General Information Manunh 'PERT •.• A Dynumic Project Planning aud' Control Method." PubI. No. E 20.,g067-I, mM Corp., White Plnlns, N. Y.

26. "Hnndbook of Envlroumentnl Civil EngineerIng." R. G. Zilly (Ed." Van Nostrnnd Reinbold Co., New York, N. Y. (1975).


Chapter 2


General Physical Design Considerations

26 Flant Layout

Process Units Con!lllcting Conduit

Plant Roads and ParJdng Facilities Service F aGilities

33 Site Work and Structural Foundations Soil Conditions


Flood Protection and Control

34 Plant Aesthetics Architecture Odor Control Noise Control

36 Plant Hydraulics 38 Plant Operation Sampling

Instrumentation and Control 41 Plant Utilities-Wnter Supply 41 Flant Utilities-Electric

General Design Considerations Supply Voltage and Distribution


Feed Systems Control Panels Au:riliary Features·

46 Plant Utilities-Gas 47. References

After selection of the method of treatment, the physical facilities of the treatment plant must be defined. These are the aspects of the project that, when given careful consideration, will minimize the cost, add to the attractiveness of the plant, fit the operational needs of the process and plant personnel, and offer flexibility for incorporating design modifications for future stricter needs.

The plant design helps convert the functional needs of the project from concept into reality, This chapter reviews the considerations mnde during the plant design process, while limiting the scope to avoid detailing rigid requirements or reproducing handbook tables available elsewhere.


Plant Layout

The achievement of optimum layout for current and future needs requires considerable effort; particularly for the medium and larger sized plants. The sizing and arranging of facilities, evaluation of alternatives, and planning for future expansion and upgrading require thoughtful consideration, Although process units, because of space and cost considerations, are generally arranged first, the design engineer should be aware that the layout must integrate the functions of all components. Some Interesting plant layouts are shown in Figures 2-1 through 2-4.

Process Units

Engineers tend to form habits and preferences without purpose in the form of process units used. The rationale for using specific forms-rectangular, circular, or square basins, for example-should be based on specific considerations such as the size of the plant, space nvailability, number of units, nnd economics. Circular basins have economic advantages in providing a shorter containing wall and permitting wall design by ring tension, but may require more complex influent distribution and effiuent collection structures. The square basin wnll design requires greater wall thicknesses; however, savings may result from the ability to utilize common walls. Square or rectangular basins also permit more compact layouts that result in minimizing land requirements.

In general circular basins are more economlcal for small plants and square and/or rectangular basins are mare economical for larger plants. Space, structural, and capital cost considerations are not the only factors involved in deciding the shape of basins. Considerations such as density current control, surface skimming, and equipment maintenance may be overriding factors.

Selection of the number of modules that will comprise a single unit process can be

FIGURE 2-1 The 91000 m-fd (24 mgd) Eagan Township, Minnesota, trentmeat fncility includes 2 primary settling basins, 4 reactor basins in the complete mix arrangement of the activated sludge process, 4 final settling basins, 2 chlorine contact tunks, and an outfall sewer to the adjacent Minnesota River.

made easier by the use of a process flow diagram to visualize modular arrangement relative to the entire system. Because of uncontrolled breakdowns, the selection of a low How period for repair or maintenance cannot be depended on to reduce the modular requirement The effects of additional flow and pollutional loadings on remnining modules, when one is taken out of service, must be evaluated in terms of plant performance, eHluent quality, and receiving water quality. Although two modules for each significnntunitprocess probably would comprise the minimum requirement, large plants, because of available equipment sizes, often have a multiplicity of modules.

ill the plants become larger, the module size should "increase correspondingly. Mu'nicipnl practice is now following industrial experiences where single module capacities of 95 000 to 190000 mB/d (25 to 50 mgd) for reactor and settling tank; are employed successfully and reliably. Although providing several modules for a unit process bas advantages, this approach generally results in increased capital and operating

costs when compared to a single unit approach.

In selecting the size and number of modules, plant expansion also must be considered, A modular size can be selected that will enable ndditions for increased flows or pol1utional loadings to be made nt reasonable intervals after the initial construction program. It is desirable that nll modules for a process be the same size and that they be designed to avoid large amounts of excess capacity during initial years of operation.

When several modules are used, as with large plants, the division of How to individual modules becomes more expensive and complex. Hydraulically, similar inlet piping or channels cannot be used reliably for How and solids distribution. Positive means of How splitting or distribution entailing deliberate imposition of head loss to minimize the effect of How variations should be used. This is especinlly difficult when providing for future expans:ion. The distribution of How influences the process lay-



out and should be visualized prior to final arrangement,

The arrangement of all future facilities should be contemplated at the time of initial design. In addition to visualizing additional process modules to meet future capacity needs, space should be allocated for facilities that will increase effiuent quality to meet future requirements, A thoughtful and flexible approach to plant layout is needed to avoid an inefficient and disorganized layout that may result in an inability to expand in the future. Throughout plant layout considerations, occupational safety and health standards should serve as a guide for the design engineer,'

Connecting Conduit

The connecting conduit between process units presents the primary means to expand the plant expeditiously. Although all circumstances of future tie-ins to existing conduit may not be foreseeable, mnjor tie-ins

can be predicted and provisions made in the piping or channels to prepare the way for future facilities,

Valves or gates in the connecting conduit must be made to isolate units and modules for servicing and maintenance. The valves or gates in the 'conduits need only have manual operators or nuts that can be controlled by portable manual or power driven operators.

It is helpful to visualize the operational capabilities and needs of a process by developing schematic drawings of the process units, interconnecting piping, and valves, and by mentally operating the plant by isolilting process units and redistn1mting flows,

Much emphasis is placed by design engineers and operators on providing Hexibility in design. A certain degree of operational Hexibility is required; however, providing for an ultimate degree of Hexibility in process piping may be an unnecessary expense. An essential ingredient is the engi-


FIGURE 203. The 95000 mD,d (25 mgd) Pima County, Arizona, treatment facility (expansion will increase the capacity to 190 000 mIl d) incorporates concerns for utility IlS well as aesthetics. Architecture, noise lind odor control, landscaping, and community recreation (golf, boating, and fishing) all are prominent design considerations in this activated sludge facility.

neer's attempt to envision how changes in design wastewater conditions could affect operation of the various process units and to then give consideration to providing Hexibility to meet applicable e.ffiuent statutes,

Plant Roads and Parking Facilities

Unit processes should be grouped together to minimize head losses and to economize on conduit costs; however, sufficient area for vehicular access must be provided to service equipment in process areas and elsewhere. The frequency with which equipment is to be removed or replaced may limit the justification for access roads, A satisfactory road layout within the plant grounds is needed not ouly for light vehiculartrnffic but, wherewarranted, for the

FIGURE 2-2. This Memphis Tennessee, facility will employ contact stabilization and is designed for a peale flow of 950 000 rna, d (250 mgd). The major facility units consist of (from right to left) pumping station, administration and maintenance building, grit tanks, contact stabilization and aerobic digestion tanks, blower building, return sludge building, chlorination building, final tanks and sludge thickening tanks, and chlorine contact tanks, Temporary sludge lagoons are in the upper left quadrant.


movement of large vehicles such IlS chemical delivery trucks, cranes, and snow removal equipment Large radius curves are required to keep trucks on the pavement and thus prevent damaged sod, rutting, and improper drainage conditions, Plnnt drive grades for truck access should be limited.

Another design need is the location of adequate employee and visitor parking. Employee parking can be located at the rear of the building or near the entrance to the locker room. Administration buildings should be located near the antrunca of the site for the convenience and control of visitors and delivery people. Also, because the administration building will be more aesthetically pleasing than other plant facilities, it generally should be in public view.





FIGURJ): 2-5. Functional diagram for plant administration building including laboratory.

FIGURE 2-4. Layout for medium-sized 68000 mIld (18 mgd) activated sludge facility. From top-left to bottom-right; activated sludge units. plant service building, equalization basin, filtration units, visitor parking, administration center, employee parking, and vehicle storage building.

Service Facilities

In colder climates, enclosed facilities for maintenance, equipment, and storage should be provided. Some of the service facility design considerations include the placement of equipment at points of maxi. mum usage, the location of maintenance

facilities near tbe plant. center, and the administrative control of labor and supplies. During plant layout, several service buildings may seem desirable, but the end result of this approach could be a cluttered appearance. With careful planning, a unl-

. fled building approach can be realized to minimize efficiency losses and reduce costs.

In laying out service buildings, the design engineer attempts to establish the needs of the plant currently and at the time of planned future expansion to determine the advisability of deferring the ultimate space requirements. In some instances, it is diffi· cult to defer construction of space for future looker IDOm Incillties Dr laboratory needs without extraordinary structural modifications later. It may be more advantageous to provide space for the future during the initial construction. Blowers, pumps, or chemical feed facilities may be


coordinated more effectively in the future at relatively small cost if space Is provided in the initial design. However, if future requirements are excessively large as compared to initial design needs, provision Is generally made for a future addition. Empty floor space for the future should be provided only when the incremental requirement Is relatively small.

Space requirements and the relationships of spaces for fue various functions vary over extreme ranges depending on the organizational structure of the operating agency and, at times, on the individual personalities within the operating agency, Administration and maintenance facilities require the greatest effort in formulating the concepts. Area and space relationships should not be set arbitrarily. Area requirements depend on the number and types of people served, For example, laboratory area depends on the types of analyses run and the number of samples analyzed. In addition, special requirements associated with the possible employment of handicapped persons in laboratory asslgnments should not be overlooked. To visualize space relationships, listing the functions to

be performed and preparing functional diagrams is helpful. A specific example, shown in Figure 2-5, demonstrates design requirements that incorporate space for public use as well as for plant service and administration. A typical detalled adtration building layout is shown in Figure


2..8. Other designs, for example, a multistoried facility, also should be considered.

Maintenance:- The over-riding consideration for maintenance provisions is thllt each unit be designed to be removed from service Indlvidually, This necessitates the avallability of properly shed access openings, tank drains, and work space as well as Hushing water and mobile lifting devices. Throughout the plant, facilities are provided for flushing and drain lines. These lines should be directed back to the treatment works, not to effiuent discharge.

Operating Gallerlesl-Underground tunnels are often used to allow for ready access to piping and passage of operating personnel between buildings and tank units. Sometimes, particularly in the larger plants, the additional expenditure can be justified on the basis that operation will be more convenient, pleasant, and efficient In the smaller treatment plants, tunnels are used less frequently because of cost considerations.

Tunnels are sometimes formed by using the straight wall construction of adjacent


cQNIRtl, In! tOOL


FIGURE 2-6. Detailed layout of a plant adnUnistration building.



tank structures. The Hoar slab may be common to all structures.

Since tunnels normally terminate in basements, hand Or motor operated metal "rolling doors" at either end are useful in preventing drafts that may carry noxious odors, fumes, or fue from one building to another. These doors effect adequate closure and minimize space needs. The need for emergency lighting in galleries should not be overlooked.

Shopsr-c'Ihe importance of .maehlne shops in the operation of wastewater treatment plants increases with the size of the plant and is greater in locations remote from commercial shops. In plants of 19000 ml/d (5-mgd) capacity and larger, the incorporation of shops in the plant design warrants consideration.

General Stores:-A general store should be centrally located on the plant site. In some cases. plants carry a complete stock of spare parts. materials, and operating supplies. The room is usually well provided with steel shelves and bins. In the very large plants it may be necessary to man this room at least 8 h of the day.

Locker Room:-Most treatment plants provide a locker room equipped with separate lockers for each employee. Two lockers per employes are frequently desirable, one for street: clothes and one for work clothes. In addition, this room may be furnished with sturdy tables and benches, a foot-pedal operated drinldng fountain with protected spigot, and sometimes with a combination kitchen unit/sink and an upper storage cabinet. The size and extent of these facilities will depend on the number of operating personnel to be employed.

Toilets, Showers, and Lavatories:-Adequare facilities for personal hygiene are essential for the health and well-being of the plant employees. The toilet, shower, and wash room are most often located adjacent to the locker room. These rooms should be furnished with hot and cold water, wash basins, showers, urinals. water closets, and a slop sin], closet with storage space for cleaning materials, soap. towels, and toilet paper. Lavatories are frequently of the long, shallow. wall-mounted type or


industrial circular type located in the center of the Hoar. Foot-pedal control through a hot and cold water mixing valve is desirable to avoid contamination of fixtures.

Garage:-The treatment plant is' frequently provided with a garage large enough to accommodate all trucks, tractors, and lawn equipment used in plant operation and maintenance.

Tools and Equipment:-The nature of tools and equipment to be stocked at any plant will depend on the particular type, size. and facilities involved. At the small plant where little or no mechanical equipment is used, only a few tools are needed. At the large plant, on the other hand, necessary tools and miscellaneous equipment may he extensive. The following list is representative of the tools and equipment stocked in a 26000 maid (7 mgd) 2-stage activated sludge plant with granular media filtration, vacuum Illters, and incineration:

1. A complete set of small tools, such as those used by millwrights, automotive mechanics, plumbers, carpenters, electricians, and sheet metal workers; also, trowels and concrete finishing tools.

2. Tools and equipment for outside maintenance such as a wheelbarrow, shovels, rakes, and lawn sprinklers.

3. Housekeeping equipment such as floor brushes, mops, and pails.

4. Maintenance equipment such as grease guns. oilers, a vacuum cleaner, cotton rags, and a trouble lamp.

5. Foul weather apparel such as rain clothes and storm boots.

6. Heavy equipment such as a portable trash pump, garden tractor-lawn mower, and mobile light and power units.

7. Heavy vehicles such as a truckmounted sewer cleaner with aecessories, a dump truck, pickup truck, and tank truck B. Laboratory equipment such as BOD incubator, balances, centrifuge, standard testing apparatus, glassware, and chemicals.

9. Snfety equipment such as portable gas Indicators, first aid kits, protective equipment, resuscitator, IITId self-contained breathing apparatus.

At smaller plants it is frequently more .

economical to rent large, expensive tools than to buy them. Tools, however, are generally available for caring for lawns, shrubbery, and trees, for repairing pumps, for painting, and for miscellaneous work.

Store Rooms:-Store rooms are important because much of the portable plant equipment is bulky and vulnerable to damage if not properly stored. Equipment such [IS window screens and doors are kept in the' storage area during the winter months. The room is' usually designed with truck loading facilities and equipped with an overhead door.

Lightingl-A good lighting system will promote safer and more efficient working conditions. Proper use of natural and artificial light can minimize lighting design costs without compromising the objectives of satisfactory illumination. If it is carefull~ considered in the original design, it is possible for a one-shift plant to operate with natural ligbt about 90 percent of the time. Single-story structures generally have window areas of approximately 30 percent of the Hoar space to be lighted. Where the dimensions of the building are such that window lighting cannot serve the interior, clerestory or saw-tooth construction can be applied to admit natural light. Glass-block construction is frequently used to provide natural light where such construction can be employed effectively in the architectural treatment of the building. Increased natural lighting will increase plant heating and cooling demands. Therefore a major consideration for lighting design i; the cost of heating and cooling large glassenclosed areas.

Outside lighting usually consists of polemounted units with spacing related to the intensity of ligbt required and the height of the fucture above grade. The standard roadway units run approximately 8 m (28 ft) above grade and are spaced at intervals of 55 m (180 ·ft) Or less depending OD roadway use. Installations involving a number of fixtures are frequently high-voltage systems of the series type, having a regulating transformer with astronomical time clock for automatic controi. General-site ligbting may be limited to plant entrance roadways,


access roadways to various treatment units and parking areas. '

Lighting of tank walkways and operating plntf~rms ~ good pr~ctice, ~ is lighting of exterior stairways, railroad sidlngs adjacent to building structures, power substation IlDclosures, and building entrances. These items are desirable even though a plant may require only one-shift operation.

Although specific lighting requirements will vary, Table 2--1 constitutes a guide to the minimum needs of [I wastewater treatment plant.

Site Work and Structural Foundations Preferably, the site location studies will result in the selection of a site where few

TABLE 2-1. Mlnimwn Lighting RequJrements for Some WlUlteWllter Treatment Plant Arens

I..o .... Uon.

I M[nhnurn n- I

lumlnatJon (Foot-C.ndl es )

Typ es •

G.n.m! Llchtlng

Screen rooms 10 1.]..[
Motor room. IS 1.]..1
PUmll reoms is 1,.1-[
F1U.er room! 15 1,3-[
blr.~\~~~~:rntlnc coll.rI .. 5 I.J..[
15 1._1-1
Offi= JO 2.l.4-[ or I'
LahorDtorle.s. 5U 2.3.4-[ Dr I'
nrnltlnc room. 50 .J,~I nr F
Su.mph!: PI1lDQtDUon recms 511 3.4·1 or I'
Garn.o:e 5 1-[
Mllcldne ShODB 3D J,o:..[
Eloctrlc .hop. JD 3.4·1
SturDDt mom. 5 t-[
BoUer morrill 15 3.4-1
CorrIdor.!! 10 2.J.4-1 or I'
~Dhbl .. 20 2.J.4-1 Dr I'
CQufcrenu: roome JD l.J.4·1 Dr I'
Outside !link wolkwan 2 l-l.rM
Outsld e e !lI[rwor. 5 1-1
Outside prlmorY roadway 0.5 I-M
Outside .,condory ro.dw.y D.J I·M
Outold. ont",utes 5 1-[ Dr M
Outsld. newer .ubalalfon. I 1-10' M
Rnflroud .ldlnG' 2 I-l Dr M LOCllll se d G.n.",[ Llghllna

LabotDtory b..,th ... Mlll::htlle :!IlIap 'fQ.uipTnl!nt Inlttumcnt. plln~1 Swltcbboard,

S.mpllng lotDtI ...

1.3-1 atF 1.3-lorF 1.3·1orF 1,.1-IDrF 1.]..lorF

100 100 30 30 20

• t - dl~~rn"'tDT .b.\,o lump. ,..RecUng oIl lIgbt dewn- 2 - In~Ii.',;'tt.I\:,:f1'R~[.~I.cod b.tw.on acuree of light nnrl J = .. ml-dlrect (romblunUon Dr dlreet ond Indlrect lIght-


4 - "r.,lldlr.ct (comb[noUon .1 dlrect nod Indl",.t light-

] Ia inl::O-nd6t!!nt

I' - a •• "" ee nt

M = mercurr.'/Dpe:r Not.,Ft-c X 10.16 a 1m 1m'.



~provements are necessary and foundation problems are minimal. However because most plants ore located in rivervalleys, site improvements and foundation problems are usually a significant expense.

Soil Conditions

A thorough subsurface investigation should precede design; however because of timing problems, the design' and soil investigations are generally done concurrently, The design engineer needs to know the supportive strength of the soil: the occurrence and location of any rock or compressible strata; groundwater table elevation~: where piling is required; the capacity of pile loads: and estimates of pile terminal elevations,


Site drainage requires careful consideration and planning. Although not affecting the. plant process performance, building ~ul~tenance increases when grades are drained to buildings or drainage sumps are not provided. Grounds around the plant should be graded to swales, channels or storm water piping inlets, The rainfall' return. frequency used to design drainage facilities depends to a large extent on geographic and Hood damage considerations. A 10 to 15 yr rainfall return frequency is commonly used Embankment slopes should be minimized to allow for easy mowing and maintenance. Pavement is crowned or sloped to prevent puddling,

Flood Protection and Control

. During C?ustruction, soil type and eroaon potential should be considered and appropriate control measures taken, Assurance must be made that on-site Hooding will not cause plant shutdown, Flood hazards must be evaluated so that potential damages and other effeots can be held within acceptable limits, g, a Design river stages typically ore based on Corps of Engineer design floods. In the event no prior design data are available, river stages have been based on a 100 yr design flood calculated from backwater curves,


Plant Aesthetics

or hydrogen peroxide; by chemical addition, for example, adding lime to raise pH and keep H2S in solution; and by adsorption, as in powdered carbon addition.

2, Reducing Odor Transmission. One method of controlling odor transmission to and within the treatment plant is through the control of bacterial growth during transit. Adding oxygen in the form of alr, pure oxygen, or hydrogen peroxide and in other ways encouraging the growth of desirable bacteria, by microorganism seeding, for example, can reduce the possibility of odor transmission. Another in-plant control technique consists of covering the tanks that produce odors, such as primary and grit removal unit processes. A network of suction ducts connected to the covered tanks can exhaust the gas into the activated sludge air diffusion system where it is absorbed into the mixed liquor.

3, Odor Masking, Odor masking or odor counteraction, although used extensively, are only stop-gap measures, Masking is based on the principle that wben two odors are mixed, the stronger will predominate. Counteraction occurs when certain pairs of odors in relative noncentratlons are antagonistic, thus diminishing the effect of each, Masking is used more frequently than counteraction, the latter being more difficult to achieve because of the BITay of odors from wastewater,

4, Collecting and Treating Odors, The most positive form of odor control, and a method gaining greater following, is to collect and treat the odorous gases, Covering unit process facilities to localize odor can prevent the gases from reaching the atmosphere, The general treatment methods used B include wet scrubbing (absorption), incineration or catalytic combustion, carbon adsorption, and chemical oxidation.

Noise Control

Design of a wastewater treatment plant to control unwanted and annoying sounds must take into account two aspects of noise management-nuisance problems to adjacent properties and occupational health problems for plant personnel,

Noise has been shown to result in social


A wastewater treatment plant should be designed as part of the neighborhood. Past designs have concentrated on utilitarian considerations with insufficient thought to aesthetic orchitectural treatment. Although some attempts have previously been made to provide superfioinl architectural treatments, consisting primarily of cosmetic arrangements of masonry facing units and varying fascia widths, more substantial considerations are necessary. With aesthetic concerns given more importance, landscape and architectural eonsiderations will be weighted more heavily and, hopefully will result in a facility that engenders the same citizen pride as other civic structures .. -· All an example of what can be done, the use of plant effiuent for landscaping irrigation (where permissible) can help give the grounds a park-like aspect that otherwise might not be economically possible,

Odor Control

A plant must not only look good to establish a respectable reputation, it must not offend the other senses, Design must include odor control.

Odors of "wastewater origin" are often formed as a result of bacterial action on the ~astes .when insufficient dissolved oxygen IS available to the bacteria, or when anaerobic bacteria are part of the unit process, as in anaerobic digestion,

Odors from wastewater treatment plants cnn usually be attributed to septic raw wastewater, overloaded secondary treatment facilities, and sludge treatment practices, Odor abatement programs i usually consist of one or more of the following

metho~: .

1. Reducing Odor Production. Killing the bacterin or limiting their numbers is an effective means of reducing odor prod~ct!on. Chlorination is probably the most WIdely used chemical treatment to control odors, although ozone has also been used as a disinfectant Odor abatement can also be accomplished by providlng supplementary oxygen, in the form of air, pure oxygen,


and economio damages,D, 1D The frustrations and bad feelings that can be caused by nuisance noise emphasize the desirability of satisfactory treatment plant design.

Noise can frequently be reduced at the source by improving the design, by shielding the source, or by a combination of the two. Examples include shielding and improving the muffling of combustion engines and air compressors, restricting the operation of noise-producing equipment to certain hours of the day, and improving vibration characteristics of equipment such as blowers, air heaters, and compressors, The construction of solid barriers, the planting of belts of trees and other vegetation, and the modification of the material and shape of building exteriors are measures that modify the propagatlcn of sound. Distance from the source also will effect some noise reduction. A single noise source radiates pressure waves in the form of a sphere, Because the pressure varies approximately inversely with the distance from the source, the noise level will decrease 6 dB for every doubling of the distance from the SOUIce.D

Employee protection against the effects of noise exposure should be provided when sound levels and durations per day exceed

TABLE 2-ll. Recommended Background Noise Criteria

Spoc. Typ.

40-50 5[}-(jO 55-65 60-70

Nor •• Le.d, dll[A)·


Conference rooms, offices Lobbies, laboratory, work areas Light maintenance shops

Work spaces requiring com-


Work spaces not requiring communication, but no risk of hearing damage


Quiet residential Average residential Commercial Industrial

42 47-56 sz-e:



• The loudness of any noise and the annoyance it may cause is a function of intensity (amplitude) and frequency. The A·weighted decibel scale, dB(Al, permits differentiation between two broadband sounds of equal intensity but of different frequencies.



TABLE 2-m. Typical Head Requirement Ranges for DIfferent Unit Processes


0.5 (minimum) 0.2-2




10-15 10-20

H ... d R.Qul",",..,t{ll)

Screening (Coarse) Grit Removal Primary Treatment Activated Sludge

Trlcltling Filters (Single Singe) Effluent Filtration

Carbon Adsorption

Note: Ft X 0.3048 = m.

those listed in "Occupation III Safety and Health Standards." 1 Some recommended background noise criteria are shown in Table 2-II. Noise control methods are covered elsewhere in other references.·

Plant Hydraulics

The bydraulic design provides adequate capacity for the maximum design rate of flow througbout the various plant structures and is established by calculating the hydraulic losses between and through the various units of the treatment plant The design is generally started from the high water level in the receiving body of water and extended, in reverse direction, through the outlet conduit and the treatment units.

Water surface elevations are computed from the maximum and average rates of

flow at the end of the design period and for the minimum initial flow. These computations, which take into consideration unit modules that may be out of service, are often summarized as a hydraulic profile. Hydraulic profiles usually are developed for all main paths of flow through the plant. They may include a proflle of the ground surface, and are a necessity in establishing the optimum elevation of plant structures and hydraulic controls (Figures 2-7,2-8, and 2-9).

Typical head requirements found for various types of wastewater treatment plants are shown in Table 2-ill,

The functional hydraulic design of all treatment units and conduits is based on consideration of wastewater solids-either maintaining them in suspension or allowing their deposition. This establishes the design limits on velocities of flow. The various unit process chapters and the subsection on piping and valves (Chapter 5) should be referred to for velocity Informntion,

A minimum velocity of 0,6 m/s (2.0 fps) at design average flow is usually considered adequate for channel Row of unsettled wastewater, At minimum flows, a minimum velocity of 0.3 to 0.5 m/s (1.0 to 1,5 fps) is necessary to transport suspended organic matter through the channel. In

"l!.nA.not~ BA.sltlS







ArdRDwtonI1Ul5tn~tutl-_ TaWarh

5111ItdW~UIrE'umj3ing-5a..lIllD Oulf.lIsttnI

AIO\lcnm Conhlclila.in

FIGURE 2-8, Typical hydraulic profile for an activated sludge plant. Water surface elevations are as shown when flow is 160 000 m~/d (42 mgd).

both instances, somewhat lower velocities could be used for settled wastewater. With large ratios of peak to minimum flow, the minimum velocity may be such as to require mixing in channels, Also, the frequency of occurrence of the minimum rate is considered, If the lower velocity is infrequent and somewhat above 0.3 m/s (1 fps), the cleansing effect of the higher rates of flow might be depended on to flush the channel free of deposited solids. Quite often, all channels carrying activated sludge mixed liquor, returned activated sludge, and waste activated sludge are artlflcally mixed with air regardless of flow velocity.

In the conveyance of wastewater between the elements of a treatment plant,



the losses of head may be grouped as follows:

1. Frictional resistance to flow in COnduits;

2. Miscellaneous losses associated with flow in conduits, such as in bends;

3. Head required for discharge over weirs and other hydraulic controls;

4. Free-fall surface allowances;

5. Head allowances for future expansions of the treatment plant.

The head losses through the plant must be determined prior to structural detail and design.

Methods for calculating head losses are available in many texts. The manual "Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers" 11 presents an excellent sum-






fL!m.D '"''''*'1_ .OOI------~~Ir_~~----------------------------------------------

TDTricllltnqFltter Dblrlbullon 5.a..

FIGURE 9r7. Typical hydraulic profile for Influent pumping and primary treatment Water surface elevations lire as shown when flow is 160000 maId (42 mgd),


W.'''' Oud.1I


FIGURE 2-9. Typical hydraulic profile for a melding filter plant, Water surface elevations are as shown when How is 85000 m" f d (24 rngd).



mary of the hydraulic design of conduits and open channels,

Plant Operation

termined by the regulating agencies, but should be established during design to enable incorporation of the proper degree of accessibility to critical sampling points. 'The point of sampling is also critical to assure that representative samples can be obtained.

Automatic sampling, properly designed


PrimIUYD e .,I ..

TABLE 2-V. Some Prccesa Control Devices


Metericl funtti-on


Accessible sampling points should be planned before, in, and after each unit process. 'The frequency of sampling is de-


Pneumatic Time pulse Electronic Digital


Pneumatic Electric time pulse Digital

On-off differential

TABLE 2-IV. Some Process Measurement Devices

Meterina Junrtlnn Pt!mnlY Device RanKe At'CUroC)l OutPUt
Flow Propeller 7tol;12tol ±2% of actual flow
Magnetic 3 to 30 fps ±l % of max. lIaw
<3 fps ±2% of max. flow
Venturi ;;1:0.5% ol max, 1I0w
Flow tube ;;1:1% of actual now
Pnrahnll flume ;;1:5% of actual flow
Kennison or parabolic ;;1:1 % of max. scale
Variable area meter ;;1:2% of max. SCIlla
Shunt meter ±2% of nctuul flow
Positive displacement
diaphragm meter ±1 % of actual Bow
Pressure Liquid-to-air diaphragm o to 2~ psi ±I% of max. scale
Strain gauge o to 50 000 psi ±0.5% of max. scale
Bellow. I to lliO psi ±1 % of max .• eale
Bourdon tube o to 5 000 psi ±1 % of max. scale
Temperature Thermocouple o to 1 BOODF ±l % of max. scale
Thermal bulb o to 200DF ±1 % of max, scale
Level measure- Float o to 3S ft ;;1:1% of actual head
ment Bubble pipe o to 185 It ;;1:1 % of actual head
Diaphragm bulb o to 50 ft ;;1:1 % of max. scale
Photo cell (sludge level Fixed No accuracy statement
Speed Tachometer generator ;;1:1% of max. scale
Drag cup tachometer ±2% of max. scale
Weight Weigh beam Fractions of pounds-to-
tons ;;1:0.1 % of actual weight
Hydraulic load cell ;;1:1 % of mnx. scale
Strain gauge ;;1:1 % of max. scale
Turbidity Nephelometer o to 40 units ±2 % of actual reading
Density Gamma rndlntian Potable water-to-con-
centrated sludge ±2% of actual rending
Infrared detector I 500 to 6 000 mgjl No accuracy statement
Ultrasonic I to 5 % total solids No accuracy stntement
Dissolved oxygen Membrane electrodes II to 20 mg/I ±0.1 mgjl of reading
pH Selective ion 1 to 14 pH units ±O.1 pH units
Gas analysis Gas chromatography ±5 % of actual reading Control modes

Proportional Padng

Note: Ft X 0.3048 = m.

and adequately maintained, will provide more precise information on plant performance than manual devices because samples can be obtained more frequently and more consistently at the sample point.

In many plants continuous sampling is practiced by installing small pumps to deliver continuous samples to the laboratory. Long transit times are to be avoided as they may affect the quality of the sample, Generally, it is best to continuously pump a stream from the sample point past the sampler to keep the line clear and the sample fresh.

Most automatic samplers can be equipped with refrigerated cabinets designed to maintain the sample between 4 and 10·C (41 and 50"F) to preserve it in a comparatively unaltered condition.

Instrumentation and Control

Instrumentation and control equipment for a wastewater treatment plant should meet the specific functional needs of the particular plant, with special attention directed toward operational requirements. 'The point of instrumentation or control, the purpose, and the type of records or control means should be defined. For instrumentation, the primary device and local or remote output must be determined, In turn, the instrumentation may be required to alert the operator to perform some control function. Some process measurement and control devices are shown in Tables 2-IV and 2-V.

NOLO: FL X 0.3048 - m; pal X 6.895 - kN 1m'; D.!iSSl'F - 31) - 'C.


Distances to 20110 ft

Max. loop resistance of 3 000 n Requires shielded cables

±0.5% of mIlL scale accuracy

±1 % of max, scale uccuracy over a Ifl-to-I range

Frequently asscelated with time-pulse signals; used for controlling pumping equipment

Frequently used to Vllry pipeline How with liquid level Frequently used for controlling chemical feed pumps

Infrequently used controls should be local; continuously used controls should be located at the control room or perlormed automatically, For example, influent pumping operations should be controlled automatically, based on the influent How rate. For small plants, scum pumping from pits could be controlled- locally and manually, based on routine surveillance of the scum level in the pits. Where several factors may contribute to cause the operator to perform a control function, an alarm may be provided. For instance, effiuent turbidity from a process unit such as an activated sludge final sedimentatin basin may be caused by bulking sludge, denitriflcatfon in the final basin, or an improper sludge inventory in the final basin. The operator sbould be alerted to the result of the problem either by routine manual surveillance or automated surveillance, but he must review the situation to determine the control

function required. .

Various instrumentation and control COnsiderations are presented in Tables 2- VI and 2-VII.

'The selection of primary instrumentation requires n knowledge of range, accuracy, and operational problems when the instruments are used with wastewater. Tbis information is available from equipment suppliers, and most operational systems can. be reviewed at existing plants. The instruments should be selected on the basis of their suitability to operate under the de-




TABLE 2~Vl Some Process InlIttumentntion Consldemtlons

Ilned conditions, and should be easy to calibrate and maintain,

Plant Utilities-Wllter Supply

An adequate plant water supply is one that increases in magnitude with an increase in plant size and degree of treatment. Among basic water requirements of a treatment plant are those for:

1. Sanitary use, including water for lavatories, showers, urinals, toilets, slop sinks, lunch room sinks, laborntories, and drinking fountains.

2. Flushing needs, including water for basing down operations at all settling and other process tanks, at sludge-pump locations, at sludge-sampling sinks, at sludge Blters, and for floor areas and equipment,

3. Cooling needs, including water for compressors, shafting, bearings, afterooolers, sprays in inclnerators, and wet scrubbers.

4. Equipment operation requirements, including wnter for hydraulically operated sluice gates, gate valves, and plug valves; for pump sealing water and I or flushing water; for hydraulically operated control valves; for heating boilers; chlorinators; screenings grinders; and Hushing primary mensuring devices,

5. Treatment process uses, including water for sludge elutriation, dilution of chemicals, ash-removal systems, and defonming spmys.

e, Sprinkling needs, including lawn sprinkling, plant and shrubbery watering, and vehicle washing.

7. Fire protection, including water for fue hydrants, fue sprinklers, and bose lines.

In developing plant water requirements, it is good practice to tabulate carefully all the various wnter uses with the volumes and rates that ~ust be supplied under varying operating . conditions. Cross connection control nnd backHow prevention should also be prime considerations when determining water needs and usnge.

Use of Effinent at the Plnntr=-Plant eRlu~ ent has been used for many purposes, including Hushing and fonm control, chlorinator-injector waters, lawn sprinkling, fue

~lIu. Mol.rlnE FuncLlDn Prlm_n·V •• f •• Rnn~. OutPlItt Output·
Raw wnstewater Flow Gravity (flume, 2-20 rngd Remote TIR
weir) and mag-
netic. (pressure)
Level Float, bubbler 3-6 ft Local I
Rendor basin Dissolved Oll}'gen Membrane elec- O-S ~g/l
trode Remote I, HA,LIl
MLSS Density meter 1 501Hi 000 Local I
Final basin effluent Turbidity Surface scatter
turbidimeter 0-40 unlts Remote I, HA
Flow Magnetic 0-20mgd Local I,T
Return sludge Flow Magnetic meter,
Venturi 0.5-3.0 mgd Local I,T
Solids concen-
tration Density meter 0-10% Leeal I, R' LA
Waste sludge Solids concen-
tration Density meter 0-10% LOI:al I, R, LA • T = tntaliae, I = indicate, R = record, HA = high nlarm contact, LA = low alarm contact. Note: Mgd X 3,785 = m'/d; It X 0.3048 = m: in. X 25.4 = mm.

TABLE 2-VIL Some Process Control ConsIderations


Timer, BOA control On-off lights

Equlp m ,nt Control Mode

Lecal Control StallDn nomot. CDntral St.tI.n

Influent pumps On-off differential (wet well


HOA control On-off lights

Emuent disposal On-off differential; Proper-

pumps tionnl (final settling tank. level)

HOA control

On-off lights

On-off control and lights


Remote override

Filter reed pumps

Remote override

Open-close momentary button, position indicator, O-tOO% open


Chemlcal feed pumps

Pacing (pipe line flow)

HOA control

On-ofl control and lights, onoff lights

Return sludge pumps


Remote override

On-off control, on-off lights speed control, speed indicator, 0-100% of max. speed

On-off lights

Primary sludge pumps

On-off differential (sludge density; timer)

!-IDA control

Waste sludge pumps

On-off dlflerentinl (timer)



protection, general plant operating use, and incinerator off-gas scrubbing. Safeguards such as additional screening of the treated wastewater can help deter transmission line plugging.

Plant Utilities-Elecrno

The majority of wastewater treatment plants use power furnished by an electrical utility. Generation of power from wastewater gas production is usually not economical except for larger plants. The economics of power generation can be determined only after a detailed study of the particular plant, with consideration given to the adequacy, reliability, and quality of gas; the capital, operation, and depreciation costs of generating electricity; and the cost and reliability of purchased power,

The design of a wastewater treatment plant electrical system must conform with the applicable codes and regulations of the municipality concerned and with the operating rules of the serving utility,l~, ta The majority of such codes are in su bstnntial accord with the National Electrical Code and the National Electrical Safety Code," and, in the absence of local detailed requirements, these latter standards usually are the basis for electrical design. In addition, the requirements set forth in "Occupational Safety and Health Standards" 1 should be considered. On completion of construetion, the contractor is often required to obtain and furnish certification of inspection and approval from all required authorities and the underwriters.

Genernl Design Considerations

In the final design of a power system for a wastewater treatment plant, the ultimate objective is an adequately sized, reliable, safe, and economically sound system. An accurate estimate of the electrical load and the associated characteristics is required.

A preliminary analysis of the project is usually rnnde as soon [IS the general nature of the design has been estn blished to determine the approximate size and Iocntion of major items of electrical equipment and to



furnish the utility with the information required by its engineering department The information generally desired by the utility includes plot plans showing location of the plant and the various structures, total connected load for both lighting and power; maximum estimated demand; size and locations of motors and starting characteristics; and load growth projection.

The physical layout of the plant will affect the location of electrical equipment and the characteristics and configuration of the plant power system. A small or compact plant layout lends itself to centralized distribution and transformer location and radial feeds to the individual loads. A larger and more spread out plant may be more suited to high voltage distribution, looped feeders, and the location of electrical equipment, such as transformers, near the load. Most cases will be a combination of the two situations.

The nature of the electrical loads in a wastewater treatment plant will establish the voltage levels required at the plant site. Lighting, convenience receptacles, and very small motors [less than 0.4 kW (O.S hp)] generally require a 120/240 V, single phase, 60 Hz power supply. Larger motors [0.4 to ISO-plus kW (0.5 to 200 hp n, which mnke up the bulk of the loads in most wastewater treatment plants, usually require a low voltage, typically 480 V, 3- phase, eo Hz power supply. Very large motors will normally require a medium voltage power supply such as 2. 400 or 4160 V, 3-phase, 60 Hz. Loads requiring high voltage levels in excess of 5 000 V will be rare. Additional electrical design information appears in Chapter 5.

The plant power load and characteristics are determined by preparing II motor list of each item of equipment and the character of use, such as continuous, standby, or intermittent. Usually included with the preliminary design is an on-line diagram of the power distribution system indicating each motor and the power source, Such a diagram indicates the nature of the mnjor components of the power distribution system. The lighting load can be estimated from the areas of the various structures by


using appropriate wntt per area factors obtained from the National Electric Code.1D

Power company rate schedules should also be examined when designing a plant power system. In addition to charges for actual power .consumed, most power companies add a maximum demand charge. The maximum demand charge penalizes the user for large short-time power usage and is frequently based on the highest rate of usage in the preceeding 12 months. Uniform power usage is, therefore, economically important.

In addition to computing the connected load, the design engineer must also consider demand load, possible plant growth, and reliability. The total connected load is the sum of all electrical loads [expressed in kilo volt-amperes (kVA)] connected to the power system. The demand load (in leVA) can be thought of as the actual peak operating load of the plant. When the demand load is calculated, maximum plant How conditions should be assumed. In designing for expandability, it is importnnt to select equipment and circuit ratings thnt are Adequate for future load growth and allow space for additional electrical equipment and circuits. Reliability (Chapter 1) is generally maximized by providing alternate sources and routes of power supply.

Supply Voltage and Distribution System

When power is obtained from a utility, choice of power-supply voltages for the particular loads is limited by the types of service available from the utility at the plant site. The policy and distribution system of the local power company have an enormous effect on the design of the plant power system.

The most important electrical characteristics of a power company's distribution system are the power capacity, distribution voltage, and short circuit capacity.

Power Capacityl-The power capacity of the distribution system should obviously be at least equal to the load it is to supply, Two separate and independent full-capacity sources of electric power are generally required. In this con ten, "independent" means that each power feeder comes from

II separate power company substation, and "full capacity" means that each feeder is capable of handling the total connected· load of the power system, A much less desirable, but acceptable, situation would be to have two feeders each capable of handling the total demand load, but not less than one-half the total connected load. However, even this may not be possible. It may be that only one substation is available, or that the power company cannot provide a second full capacity feeder. In this case, consideration should be given to taking two feeders from a single substation, shedding all but the most essential loads, providlng on-site power generation, providing auxiliary engines for essential equipment, or some combination of the above.

Another consideration that must meet with power company requirements is the form of load transfer on power failure. The power company must be consulted as to whether load transfers may be manual or automatic, what form automatic load transfers will take, and what provisions should be made to prevent paralleling the power company lines and connecting them to each other.

Distribution Voltnge:-The power company's distribution voltage normally will be much higher than the voltages required for use on the plant site, usu-ally in the IS kV class, while plant loads are usually in the 5 kV or 600 V classes. A decision must be made to distribute power on the plant site at the power company's voltage and transform at the individual loads, to provide initial transformation at the service entrance to the plant, or a combination of both. With primary service, the supply voltage is usually established by the utility. With secondary service, any of the several standard distribution voltages can gener-. ally be made available.

. The terms primary and secondary feeder generally apply to the feeders to and from a transformer, and are covered in a following section, "Feed Systems."

The decision as to the use of primary versus secondary service requires careful consideration of the plant layout, rate schedules for both services, current and


short circuit ratings of equipment, cost of a substation, cost of primary and secondary wiring and metering equipment to the plant for both services, and requirement for plant personnel to maintain the equipment Generally, a lower power rate is nvailable for primary service, a common factor being a 5 percent reduction when compared to the cost of secondary service. To be economically justifiable, the added investment for transformers and substation equipment should be recovered by the net power savings (gross savings less added power loss in substation, generally in the order of 1 percent) in a reasonable period. With primary service, the plant assumes responsibility for maintenance of high-voltage equipment not otherwise found in the plant, and this factor requires consideration in the economics of the comparison. Common nominal primary supply voltages for wastewater treatment plants are 2400; 4160; 4800; 6900; 7200; and 14400 V. Distribution at primary voltages is generally not justified except in the largest plants with motors in excess of ISO leW (200 hpDr with motors located in widely separated areas.

The most common secondary system voltage in wastewater treatment plants is 480 V, 3-phase, with 120 V for lighting control circuits and small appliances obtained from .fue 480 V system by means of small air-cooled single phase or 3-phase transformers. The maximum total voltage drop for feeders and branch circuits should not exceed 5 percent between power source and final utilization.

Main voltage distribution equipment is usually selected to provide for adequate protection and normal and fault switcbing. From a protective standpoint, the main consideration is that the equipment have adequate capacity to withstand and interrupt fault currents of the maximum magnitudes calculated for the particular power supply and motor load.

Short Circuit Cnpacity:-The short circuit capacity of a power distribution system is the amount of power (or current) that the system can supply to a short circuit. For most power company distribution sys-



terns, the short circuit capacity at the distribution line normally will range from 50000 kVA to practically infinity. At paints in the plant power system this will be reduced by the impedance of cables and transformers between the distribution line and the short circuit, and increased by the effect of running motors connected to the short circuit.

All equipment in a power system must have a short circuit, or interrupting, rating greater than the short circuit capacity at that particular point. in the system. If short circuit capacities are excessive, they can be reduced by adding a transformer or reactors at the service entrance.

Feed Systems

Two basic configurations of dual feeders to an item of electrical equipment, such as switch gear or a motor control center, are the primary and the secondary selective systems. In the primary selective system, the equipment has Il. single bus with the entire load connected to it. In the event of a power failure, the feeder that is normally supplying power is disconnected and the second feeder is connected to the bus to supply the load. In the secondary system, the equipment has two buses, each supplying one-half of the load and each normally connected to a power feeder. A normally open bus tie is provided. In the event of failure of either feeder, it is disconnected and the bus is closed so that the other feeder will carry the entire load. In either case, the transfer may be manual Or automatic. In most cases, positive means must be taken to prevent paralleling the two feeders.

In the primary selective feeder, a transformer primary has a switch that can select one of two feeders, and normally would supply a single load group such as a motor control center. In a secondary selective system, the load group is designed to select one of two transformer secondaries. Both techniques can be used to further increase reliability.

A radial feed system is one in whicb individual load groups are served by individual feeders from a central point. A loop



feed system is one in which a feeder is taken to several load groups from the central distribution point and returned to the central point. The feeder may then be energized from either end. A third type of system, sometimes referred to as a loop system although, strictly speaking, it is a looped radial system, is to take each of two feeders to the primaries of several transformers and to make the transformers primary selective. A typical example of a dual-feed arrangement is shown in Figure 2-10.

13,900 V 7500 KVA 4160 V


MCC *4


Control Panels

Electrical control mechanisms should be mounted completely wired with numbered wires; tested; and furnished with marked terminal blocks, preferably in one location. The panel should be easily accessible so that the contractor can readily connect all service leads, motor leads, and push buttons, and complete all additional wiring required outside of the control panel.

The control panel should be free-standing and of a design suitable for the atmosphere in which it is to be located. Indoor panels especially should be well ventilated, and ventilation of the room in which the control center is located is also necessary. Otherwise, the heat generated in the panel and by motors and other equipment in the room, especially blowers, may raise the ambient temperature sufficiently to cause the overload heaters to trip. The heat produced must be dissipated for proper operation of the electrical controls and for the comfort of the operators.

Control enclosures include NEMA I indoor metal enclosure (standard); NEMA I with gaskets: NEMA 2, drip tight; NEMA 3, weather resistant; NEMA 4, watertight; NEMA 5, dust tight; NEMA 12 (NEMA 5 with gaskets). Other semihazardous and hazardous (explosion proof) enclosures are available. The control center should be located in a clean air area, adequately lighted and ventilated, and readily accessible for observation, inspection, and repairs. In the smaller installations, access for inspection and repairs is through front compartments of the control center, where-

4160 V 100 KVA 480 V



MCO -2


FIGURE 2-10. Typicul example of n dual-feed power system. Note that MCC refers to "motor control center."

as, in large installations, access is gained through walkways in the back of the control center.

A separate circuit breaker panel should be installed within the main control panel center to provide single phase 120 V, 60 Hz current to all pilot lights, selector switches, push buttons, Hoat and Heatless type switches, pressure switches, timers, meters, clocks, and all other circuit controls. The use of voltage other than 120 V for circuit

controls is strongly discouraged. The use of high voltage for circuit controls is dangerous and unnecessary. If 120 V cannot be readily secured from the type of service furnished by the power company, a transformer should be installed on the inside or outside of the panel for conversion of 3- phase to single phase 120 V.

A separate circuit should be used for each operation, if possible, so that inspection and repnirs can be readily made with-



out taking other items out of operation, On circuits feeding electronic control equipment, such as How meters, it is often necessary to provide the circuit with surge protection from lightning.

Inside the control center a main disconnect switch should be provided 50 that the main source of power to the panel can be cut throughout the panel in times of emergency and for normal inspection and repairs. The disconnect switch is usually of the . fused, non-fused, or circuit breaker type. On smaller installations, a circuit breaker is the most popular disconnect switch.

Auxiliary Features

Power Outletsi=-Power outlets are desirable at a number of locations to permit equipment .such as portable pumps and welding machines to he used with a standard length of cord. Such outlets are provided with an extra pole for grounding, and portable cords are provided with a grounding conductor.

Public Telephone Conduits:-An empty conduit system is frequently provided to permit the location of a public telephone where required for the plant operator's convenience. Actual wiring is generally installed by the telephone utility.

Intercommunication Telephone and Public Address Equipments-c-Provisions are frequently made for communication facilities that permit more efficient operation of the plant In the event the initial budget will not permit actual installation of such equipment, empty conduits can be installed. Either conventional private telephone systerns or electronic communication systems are generally used.

Grounding:-Safety of operating personnel against the possibility of injury caused by electrical shock in the damp locations normally associated with wastewater treatment plants makes grouoding an important design factor. The system neutral of the low-voltage system (usually a 120- V to 20B-V, 3-phase, 4-wire system) must be effectively grounded so that a fault in any phase wire will operate the protective de-


vice immediately. All electrical equipment and all conductive components of equipment enclosing or mounting electrical devices and building steel should be permanently and effectively grounded in accordance with Section 250 of the- National Electric Code.U Such equipment grounding ensures that the voltage to ground of this equipment cannot reach harmful levels, All underground distribution system ap" purtenances (such as cable rack, manhole covers, and pull boxes) and aerial distribution system equipment (such as lightning arresters and transformer cases) are generally grounded,


1. "Occupadonn] Safety and Health Stnndnrds."

Fedaral RegLstar, U. S. Dept. of Lnhor, Occupational SaIety and Health Admin., 311, 105 (111711,); 37, 202 (19711,).

2. "Design Criteria fot Mechanical Electric, and Fluid System and Component Relinbility." Tech, Bull., U. S. EPA, Woshiogtoo, D. C.

(1974). .

3. "Design, Operation and Mninteoance!lf Wastewitter Treatment FncWt!es." Tech. Bull~ U, S. EPA, Wnshlngtoo, D. C. (1970).

4. Ml1IISoo, .A. E. "Construction Design fur Lnndscape Architects." McGmw-HiIl, New York, N. Y. (19'14).

5. "Direct Environmental Factors at Municipal Wnstewllter Treatment Works." U. S. EPA, Office of Water l'rogrnm Operotioru, Washington, D. C. (1976).

6. Simonds, I. O. "Landscape Architecture."

McGraw-Hil~ New York, N. Y. (1961).

7. Cox. J. P., "Odor Control and Olfuctlon."

PolL Sci, Pub!., Lynden, Wash. (H175).

B. "Process Design Mnnual for Upgrndlng ExistIng Wastewater Treatment Plants." Technology Transfer, U. S. EPA, Washington, D. C., (1974).

PllUlt Utilities-Gas

Natural gas, liqui.fied petroleum gas (LPG), and digester gas have been used. as power sources for engines, boilers, incinerators, and carbon regeneration furnaces. The use of gas as a power supply has severn! important advantages," Because of high anti-knock values, natural gas and LPG fuel permit engines to operate lit better efficiencies than gasoline or diesel fueled engines because of the higher compression ratios that may be employed. Combustion is clean, which results in lang lubricating oil life and no gumming, carbon build-up, or varnish problems. Also, fuel storage is minimized because most engines can operate directly from gas-mains or from gas storage at the digester.

Disadvantages include the inconsistency of natural gas and digester-generated "gas because of impurities, the possibility of service interruption, and the Bre-hazard associated with combustible or hazardous material, Also, present and future cost and availability must be considered,

Natural gas is considered to provide a minimum of 37 MJ/m! (1000 Btu/en ft) low beat value (the bent recoverable by the engine in the normal mechanical process). Digester-generated gas bas a somewhat lower rating." Dual systems have bean. developed la whereby peak plant loads can be satisfied with natural gas, while digester-generated gas can be used for lesser demands.


9. Shaheen, E. L, "Environmental Pollution:

Awareness and Control" Engineering

Teehnol., Inc., Mahomet, ill (1974).

10. Bernnek, L., "Noise and Vlbmlion Control" McGrow-HiIl, New York, N. Y. (1971),

n. "Design and Construction of SonItaI)' and Storm Sewers." Manual of Prnetice 8, Waler Poll Control Fed., Woshlngton, D. C.; Manual of Engineering Practice 37, Amer, Soc. of Civil Engr., New York, N. Y. (11169).

12. "National Electric Code, An Americnn Natlonal Stnndard," NFPA No. 70-11175, ANSI C1-1971, NatJ. Ffra Pmtection Assoc., Boston, Mass. (1975).

13. Roe, L. E., "Prnctices ned Procedures of industrial Electrical Design." McGmw-Hlll, New York, N. Y. (19'12).

14. Gunl:her, F. I., "Gas Eng!oo Power fOT Water nod Wnstewater FacUities. Part 2-Fuel Systems." Water & Sewage Works, 112, 12, 443 (1965).

15". "Sludge Digester Gas Handling In Alubamn," Water & Sewage Warb, 115, B. 374 (1968).

16. Hunt, H. H., and Clarke, W. N., Sr., "Design and Operation of the First DIgester Cas Turbine in the U. S. A." Jour. Water Pol!. Control Fed., 40,7, 1346 (1968).


Chapter 3

Occupational Health and Physical Safety

48 Major Hazards in Wastewater Treatment Plants

49 Representative Design Considerations Occupational Health

Physical Safety

56 Personal Protective and Safety Equipment

56 References

What is the value of avoiding cessation of full-scale operations, of preventing accidents and property damage, of saving a life? Failure to consider these questions carefully has led to the underemphasis of occupational health and physical safety in the design of wastewater treatment plants, a situation that is no longer acceptable.

Accident frequency at wastewater treatment plants is many times greater than that of comparable industrial groups.' 'This problem must concern the design engineer. In existing plants, situations created by him may become major considerations in facility . safety programs.

Regulations of the U. S. Department of Labor, based on the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970, are of major signillcance to designers of wastewater treatment facilities,' Federal, state, and local health and safety statutes must also be considered. Private national organizations "~ anq .industry-specillc groups such as the"Nlltional Safety Council, a the Chlorine Institute," and others T-IO have published information on health and safety that will be very useful in plant design. Rules and regulations are updated continuously, however, and the design engineer must be aware of changes,

To design a facility with a healthy and safe environment, it is not enough to consider the static condition of the plant. The activities of operation and maintenance personnel should be constantly considered. Speci£cations should require manufacturers to certify that equipment meets applicable federal, state, and local requirements coo-


ceming health and safety, In addition, the design engineer must be aware of Special health and safety considerations during construction and initial operation of the facility. The general contractor might be required to furnish infonnation to the construction supervising agency 00 his procedures and on any temporary structures to be used during construction and start-up, where these affect the health and safety of personnel.

Major Hazards in Wastewater Treatment Plants

In design of 11 wastewater treatment plant, the two basic categories of major environmental concerns are occupational health and physical safety.

Occupational health hazards include exposure to chemicals and biological infeotive agents and to other harmful environmental conditions, It is ocoupational health considerations that periodically precipitate complaints and cause fatigue in workers, making them more accident prone. Physical safety considerations involve the pro" taction of workers from accidents caused by mechanical or other failures.

As an example of safety considerations, the design engineer should provide adequate air conditioning facilities in areas known to be subject to excessive humidity. Similarly, he should design reactor basins to allow for easy extrication should a worker slip and fall into one. Major types of hazards within each of the two categores follow:

1. Occupational health hazards include chemical substances that directly attack body tissue, either internally or externally. Among these are poisons, corrosives, dust, fumes, mists, gases, vapors, and smoke. Biological infective agents can similarly at" tack body tissue. Environmental hazards include radiant energy (infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and ionizing radiation

and particulates), noise, illumination, dampness, temperature and humidity, vibration and shock, and oxygen dellciency.

2, Physical safety hazards include fire, burns, explosion, electric shock, falls, drowning, impact, rotating machinery parts, materials handling, pinning and crushing, and sensory devices.

The design engineer, in evaluating health hazards, should be aware of the interrelationships, overlap, and cause and effect considerations that exist within and between the two categories.

Representative Design Considerations The following items must be considered by the engineer in the design of a wastewater treatment plant These recommendations are intended to stimulate the thinking of the design engineer and in no way are intended to represent a complete check list

Occupational Health

1. Chemical.

(a) Separate mechanical forced ventilation (with automatic timeelock operation) for influent room, wet well, dry well, and screen or comminutor room. Some operations will require continuous ventilation.

(b) Separation of the wet well and the screen or comminutor room from other facilities, with separate outside access considered.

( G) Pump station, where applicable, with a super-structure to facilitate entry and ventilation and to provide natural light

(d) Ventilntion to force fresh air into wet well so that exhaust ventilator does not "pull in" sewer gases from influent sewer lines discharging to wet well,

( e) An open channel provided immedlntely ahead of waste How entry to inHuent structure to provide for venting of explosive gases and vapors.

(f) Adequate ventilation in the grit chamber.

(g) Chlorination, chlorine evaporator, and chlorine storage rooms separate, above ground, and each open only to outside air, (h) View windows to the chlorine evap-


orator and chlorine storage rooms for observation from the outside.

( i) Forced mechanical ventilation thnt can be actuated automatically by light switches provided at chlorination rooms, chemical handling rooms, and laboratories,

(i) Ventilation exhaust ports adequately dispersed and located to discharge where there will be no contamination of air inlets in other areas. Where general or _space ventilation is utilized, a minimum of 15 complete air changes per hour are pro" duced,

( k) Ligbtl ven!: switches located outside the chlorination rooms.

(l) A photo-electric control to actuate ventilation and lighting when the lightbeam is interrupted on entrance to a room.

( m) In special test areas of the Jaboratory, additional ventilation (explosion proof motor) with laboratory hoods.

( n) The hood and room exhaust systems balanced so that a negative pressure is not created in the hoods.

(0) Separate storage areas for dnngerous chemicals.

(p) Dust collectors on chemical elevators at loading points,

(q) Liquid chlorine containers stored in well-ventilated fireproof structures witb protection against direct exposure to the sun.

(r) At the incinerator, satisfactory methods to handle dry pulverized sludge to preelude dust accumulation that results in potential dust explosion hazards.

( 8) Effeotive methods for the removal of dust, fly ash, and soot discharged from the stacks,

(t) Exhaust facilities for permanent welding units.

( u) Sludge storage tanks located upstream of vacuum filters with all safeguards against hazards of toxic and explosive gases. ( u) Sludge pumps with pressure gauges to indicate build-up of gases when pumps are out of service.

( w) All gas protective devices used with a digester in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

( ;t) Automatic gas alarm systems, 'both visual and audible, to detect explosive



andl Dr combustible gases and vapors and to shut off all power in the area being protected except emergency (and explosion proof) ventilating and lighting equipment Such alarms also in the screen or comminuter room, in the digester area, and elsewhere as needed.

(y) Automatic chlorine leak detection devices (especially in large installations) to signal equipment failure and "fail safe" shutoff How of chlorine to evaporators . and/or chlorinators.

( :0) The location of sensing devices for a signal transmittal in actuating emergency procedures.

( aa) Sludge pwnp areas ventilated naturally and mechanically in a manner similar to that for wet wells.

(bb) Both influent and discharge pipes to sludge pumps valved so that, if pumps are dismantled, sludge and gas cannot enter work area.

( co) Sludge pumps with quick closing type sampling valves.

(dd) Washdown facilities for cleaning purposes wherever there is II. possibility of spillage.

( Be) Adequate drainage in all chemical storage and working areas.

(ff) Piping and storage tanks coated to retard corrosive action.

(gg) Pull-chain or pedal-operated deluge showers with pedal-operated chestlevel higb wash spouts and floor drain, where appropriate, in all areas where chemicals are being handled or stored.

( hh) In hazardous areas, the use of a portable ladder rather than man-hole steps to discourage easy entry.

(ii) Waste gas burners and vents located a safe distance from the building.

. (if) Automatic shutdown controls to terminate the How of hazardous waste materials to the inciJlel'lltol' in the event of a Eame-out,

( kk) For incinerator installations, fully automatic ignition start controls.

(ll) A disinfection system selected to minimize handling and transportation problems.

( mm) For liquid ferric chloride, sulfuric acid, and other corrosive liquid chemicals,


acid-proof pumping equipment permanently installed for pumping liquid chemicals to the point of application.

( nn) Gas outlets in the laboratory equipped with substantial handles and clearly identified. .

( 00) Dry bypochlorite stored in a cool dry area.

(pp) Safeguards for facilities using sodium chlorite for disinfection.

(qq) Safeguards for plants generating andlor using compressed gases.

( rr) Adequate ventilation if methanol is used in plant processes.

(ss) Materials and devices used for storing, transporting, or mixing hazardous chemicals to be compatible with the ohemi-, cal (s) involved.

( tt) Dllces or curbs capable of holding the stored volume plus II safety factor of 25 percent in each liquid chemical storage area.

( uu) An acceptable "frequency of preparation" for chemicals used.

( 00) Safety equipment, including portable ventilation equipment such as air blowers and adequate lengths of non-collapsable ducting; hydrogen sulfide, methane, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and oxygen deficiency indicators; industrial type vacuum cleaner;" chlorine emergency repair kit; und proper self-contained air breathing apparatus.

2. Biological

( a) Fencing around all plant structures where unauthorized entry could result in personnel mishap or disruption of plant operation.

(b) Provisions fol' the sofe collection of


(G) Pedal-operated laboratory sinks, toilets, and wasb sinks.

(d) Shower facilities with bot and cold running water for employee rooms.

( e) Eating rooms separated from other facilities.

(f) Two lockers for each plant employee ( one for work clothes and another for street clothes).

(g) An automatic washing machine for wasbing work clothes.

( h) Wasbdown facilities for cleaning purposes wherever there may be spillage. ( i) Disinfectant dispensers.

(f) The potable water supply, where used for plant processes or other purposes such as washdown of equipment, protected by bacldlow preventers (or airbreak discharge).

(k) Warning signs indicating nonpotable water outlets.

3. Environmental.

(a) Provisions affording protection

against infrared radiation from combustion units, ultraviolet radiation from arcwelding, and ionization radiation from radioactive substances.

( b) Equipmeot design for noise reduction.

( c;) A maximum permissible noise level during operation, expressed in decibels of sound under standard test conditions.

(d) Air compressors, vacuum pumps for fllter units, centrifuges, blowers, standby power units, and other similar equipment producing high noise levels located either in isolated buildings or rooms Dr within acoustically sound-proofed structures for maximum sound reduction.

( e) A super-structure to provide natural light for the pump station.

(f) Adequate lighting throughout the plant and particularly in areas of operational activities, including repair and servicing of equipment valves and controls.

(g) Ex.terior floodlighting to provide for nighttime operation, matntenanca und inspection at each non-enclosed plant unit as well as for general illumination of plant operational areas.

(h) Emergency battery-operated lights for interior areas, particularly in the vicinity of stairways.

{ i) Sludge pump areas well ventilated. (1) Both Influent and discharge pipes to sludge pumps valved so that dismantling will not result in sludge entering the work area.

(k) Sludge pumps with quick closingtype sampling valves.

(I) The pump areas well-drained to Ia-


cilitnte hosing down for cleaning after pump dlsmantllng.

( m) Chlorination facilities with concrete floors and adequate but separate drainage from other facilities.

( n) Incinerators with adequate temperature controls.

(0) Heavy hatchway covers with spring assistance to prevent injury.

(p) Hoists to lower and raise men and equipment into pit areas.

( q) Chemical storage areas properly situated to eliminate the necessity of reaching beyond safe bandling limits.

(f') The applicability of handlift trucks

for chemical handling. .

(s) Lifting associated with bags and drums of chemicals at a minimum level; discharge of chemicals preferably made through a floor chute with low curbing.

( t) Safety equipment, including, radiological monitoring equipment, decibel meter noise analyzer, explosion proof Hashlights, and portable lifting equipment.

Physical Safety

1. Fire.

( a) A fire alarm located at the plant. (b) Automatic firefighting systems.

( G) Firefighting devices located in each separate structure at accessible points near the entrance to areas of likely conflagration. ( d) Doors from potentially hazardous

areas tight-fitting, self-closing to open out, and equipped with panic bars.

( e) Laboratories and basement areas with two easily reached exits reasonably remote from each other.

(f) Interior doors, where appropriate, to swing both ways and have wire glass panels.

(g) Laboratory wall surfaces, ceilings, and furniture made of fire-resistant materials.

(h) If oxygen is used for activated sludge aerators, detectors provided at points of possible leakage from supply tanks.

(0 Waste gas burners and vents located a safe distance from buildings.

(i) Proper safety transport for incoming chemical and fuel supplies.



(k) Controls for the incinerator burner system to assure adequate purge time; interrupted pilot, Harne scanner, and safety controls to prevent the possible lighting or re-lighting of a burner in a potentially hazardous atmosphere.

(Z) All electrical equipment adequately grounded.

(m) Wiring properly insulated, grounded, and non-exposed.

( n) Fire extingttlshers suitable for the area and the equipment to he protected. (0) An emergency power supply for critical lighting and ventilation.

2. Burns.

(a) Cages or guards around accessible hot exhaust piping.

(b) Permanently installed acid-proof pumping equipment for liquid ferric chloride, sulfuric acid, or other liquid chemicals.

( 0) Pull-chain or pedal-operated deluge showers with pedal-operated chest-level wash spouts in all areas where chemicals are being handled or stored.

(d) Laboratory sinks and wash sinks with pedal-operated faucets.

( e) First aid kit.

3. Erplosion

(a) The screen room or comminutor room separated from other facilities and provided with separate outside access. (b) The wet well located either in a separate structure or accessible only from the outside.

( G) The pump station with a super structure to facilitate ventilation.

(d) Entry ways for the room holding a gas or oil fired heat exchanger to satisfy safety requirements.

( e) Separate structures for standby engines used for emergency electrical power. (f) Sludge pump areas as well ventilated naturally and mechanically as wet wells. (g) Waste burners and vents located a safe distance from buildings.

(h) Separate rooms . for chlorinators, chlorine evaporators, and chlorine storage, with each above-ground opening only to outside air.

(i) View windows to the chlorination facilities for observation from the outside.


(;) Separate storsge areas for dangerous chemicnls.

( k) An open channel immediately ahead of wastewater entry to influent structure to provide venting for explosive gases and

vapors. .

(l) Sludge storage tanks upstream of vacuum filters with all safeguards against hazards of toxic and explosive gases.

(m) Doors from potentially hazardous areas tight-fitting, self-closing, opening out, and equipped with .panio bars.

( n) Potentially explosive areas provided with blowout or rupture panels.

( 0) Separate mechanical forced ventilation (with automatic timeclock operation) for influent rooms, wet wells, dry wells, and screen Or comminutor rooms.

(p) Ventilation to force fresh air into the wet weIls so that the exhaust ventilator does not "pull in" sewer gases from the influent sewer lines.

(q) The grit chamber adequately ventilated.

( r) Forced mechanical ventilation that will be automatically actuated by ligbt switches for chlorination rooms, chemical handling rooms, and laboratories.

(&') The ventilation exhaust ports adequately dispersed and located to discharge where there will be no contamination of air inlets in other areas.

( t) Lightl vent switches located outside the chlorination room.

( u) A photo-electric control to actuate ventilation and lighting when the lightbeam is interrupted on entrance to a room. ( t) In special test areas of the laboratory, additional ventilation with laboratory hoods.

( w) The hood- and room-exhaust systems balanced so that a negative pressure is Dot created in the hoods.

(x) Motors, switches, lights, and wiring explosion proof in screen area, grit chamber, wet well, digester area, laboratories, sludge pumping area, and wherever explosive gases may be present as a result of accident Of malfunctions.

(y) Switches, electrical equipment, and wiring associated with the wet well located . in a non-hazardous area.

(z) Dust collectors provided on chemical elevators at the loading point

(aa) Safety and relief devices on heat exchangers.

(bb) All gas protective devices at the digester area provided in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations.

( co) At the incinerator, satisfactory methods to handle dry pulverized sludge to preclude dust accumulation that could result in dust explosion hllZlll'ds.

( dd) Sludge pumps with pressure gauges to indicate buildup of gases when pumps are out of service.

( ee) Automatic gas alarm systems, both visual and audible, to detect explosive andj cr combustible gases and vapors and shut off all power except to emergency and explosion proof ventilating and ligbting equipment Such systems provided in the screen or comminutor room, the digester area, and elsewhere lIS needed.

(tf) An automatic chlorine leak detection device (especially in large installatioos) to signal equipment failure and to provide fail-safe shntoff of chlorine flow to evaporators andlor chlorinators.

(gg) If oxygen is used for activated sludge aeration, oxygen leakage detectors at the points of possible leakage from the supply tanks.

(hh) Automatic shutdown controls to terminate the flow of hazardous waste materials in the event of incinerator flame-outs, (if) Fully automatic ignition start controls for the incinerator.

un A proper safety train on the incoming fuel supply of the auxiliary fuel system.

( kk) Burner system controls to assure adequate purge time; interrupted pilot, flame scanner, and safety controls to prevent the possible ligbting Of relighting of a burner in a potentially hazardous atmo-

sphere. . ..

( ll) Heat treatment processes with properly designed reactors and capacities.

( mm) All medium and high voltage cables completely enclosed in either CODduit or covered tray and adequately marked to warn personnel oE contents.

( nn) Laboratories with two easily


reached exits reasonably remote from each other.

( 00) Interior doors to swing both ways and have wire glass panels.

(11P) Safety equipment to include explosion-procf flashlight, safety tools (nonsparking), and industrial-type vacuum cleaner.

( qq) Safety harnesses for entering vaults or pits containing potentially hannful or explosive gases.

( rr) Gas piping and pressure relief valves on digesters with adequate flame traps.

(88) Sediment and drip traps at low points in the gas system.

(tt) Waste gas burners located in an open area for easy observation.

( uu) Gas collection system to segregate as much of the piping and appurtenances as possible.

4. Electric Shock.

( a) Allelectrical equipment adequately grounded.

(b) All wiring properly insulated, grounded, and unexposed.

( G) Control circuit voltages not over 120 V.

(d) All medium and high voltage cables completely enclosed in either conduit or covered tray and adequately marked to warn personnel oE contents.

(e) Switchboards with "dead front" and "dead rear,"

(f) In moist areas, where there is no possibility of flammable gas accumulation, moisture proof enclosures for switches, equipment, and lights.

(g) Electrical "loek out" facilities to prevent accidental starts when machinery and equipment are being worked on or otherwise taken out of service.

( h) An emergency shutoff switch, clearly labeled, at all machinery units.

(i) Well-ventilated indoor control panels.

(f) Appropriate control enclosures.

(k) Safety equipment including safety tools.

5. Falls.

( a) Rest landings on stairways.



(b) Non-slip stair treads on landings and stairs.

( G) Equal height and proper slope on stair risers.

(d) A separate handrail where entrance is provided by ship's ladders or manhole steps. Ladder or manhole steps extending above entrance level also Call provide a handhold for entering.

( e) Fixed ladders more than one story high equipped with safely cages.

(f) Tall ladders provided with rest or

offsetlaneungs. .

(g) Use of non-slip surfaces (such as concrete Boated smooth with broomed finish) or added non-slip covering for floors and ramps.

( h) Ramps with a pitch commensurate with intended use.

( i) In cold climates, gratings on outside stairs, and wn1kways on tanks wherever possible.

(1) Wbere spillage is a problem, as in sludge pump and vacuum filter areas, sufficient faucets, adequate Hoar drainage, and water repellent wall surfaces provided for cleanup purposes.

(k) Concrete Hoors with adequate drainage for chlorination facilities.

(1) Durable, non-slip Hoar material in the laboratory.

( m) Safe collection of wastewater and process flow samples.

( 11) Adequate width for tank wn1kways. ( 0) Process tanks with adequate railings, lifesaving devices, and interior ladders or manhole steps.

( p) Lift-rings and grating locks Hushmounted to prevent tripping.

( q) Elimination of "head-hackers" such as low pipes, valves. ceilings, and suspended equipment

( r) Double handrails or chains, fencing, or guards of proper height at floor and wall openings, pump wells. influent structures, open tanks, and above ground ramps.

(s) A safe method for lamp replacement ( t) Emergency battery-operated lights for interior areas, particularly in the vicinity of stairways.

( 1.1) Exterior Hoodlighting for nighttime operation and maintenance and inspection


of each non-enclosed plant unit as well as general illumination of plant operational area.

( e) Adequate lighting in the grit chamber.

(w) A super-structure lit the pump station to facilitate entry and provide natural light.

(:r) Proper painting to provide light color in darker areas and to distinguish walking areas, including steps, by contrasting colors.

(y) Metals, paints, and other materials selected to resist tbe corrosive effects of hydrogen sulfide and other sewer gases. greases, oils, and similar constituents frequently present in wastewater.

(z) Safety equipment to include ladders with non-skid feet.

6. Drowning.

(a) Fencing around all plant structures where unauthorized entry could result in personal mishap or disruption of plant operations.

(b) Manholes, steps, or permanently attaehed ladders inside of tanks. basins, or wet wells, for entry or exit in cases of emergency.

( c) Life preservers attached to ropes lind located near open tanks.

( d) Safety poles.

(e) Provision for lifelines along tbe internal walls above the water surface.

(f) Adequate widths for walkways in tanks.

(g) Snfesampling techniques.

(h) Adequate railings, lifesaving devices, interior ladders, or manhole steps in ' process tanks.

7. Impact.

(a) Elimination of "head-knockers" created by low pipes. valves, ceilings. and suspended equipment

( b) Equipment. piping, valves. and other appurtenances arranged for ease of access, uncrowded, and with ample walk areas.

( G) All commonly used passageway doors equipped with a glass panel to prevent accidental opening into another person.

(d) Stairways with kickplates around stairwell openings and with adequate railings.

(f1) Hatchway covers with springs or positive locking devices to hold tbe covers open (unless they swing free of opening and lie Hat).

(f) Well-planned, safe operations associated with incoming railroad cars.

8. Rotating Machinery Parts.

(a) Equipment, piping, valves, and other appurtenances within structures arranged for ease of access, uncrowded, and provided with ample walk areas.

( b) Adequate space between machinery to permit maintenance in a safe manner. ( c) Cages around exposed rotating shafts and all other moving parts on machinery.

(d) Guards around long, exposed vertical shafts to safeguard the worker from contact or injwy from "whipping" if tbe shaft breaks.

«(J) Shafts with painted spiral or other markings to indicate running conditions. (f) Positive displacement pumps with an air chamber and a pressure switch that will stop the pump at a pre-set pressure.

(g) Electrical "lockout" facilities witb padlocks to prevent accidental starts when machinery and equipment are being worked on or otherwise taken out of service.

(h) An emergency shutoff switch, clearly labeled, at all machinery units.

( i) Centralized control and malfunction

warning systems. .

(f) Running equipment equipped with indicator lights.

(k) Safety equipment to include a first aid kit.

9. Materials Handling.

( a) Fixed or portable electrical hoists witb ceiling lifting devices for lifting heavy loads, including chemicals, pumps, motors, and equipment for repair or replacement

( b) Lifting attachments such as hooks or eyes on heavy equipment

( c) Hoists to lower and raise men and equipment into pit areas,

(d) The disinfection system selected for


wastewater treatment to minimize handling and transportation problems.

( e) Chemical storage areas situated so personnel do not have to stretch beyond

safe handling limits. _

(f) Lifting associated with bags ana drums of chemicals at It minimum level: discharge of chemicals prefembly mad~ through a Hoor chute with low curbing.

(g) The applicability of handlift' trucks, (h) Well-planned, safe operations associated with incoming railroad cars.

(i) Adequate space for equipment repair or replacement

(n Cleanout connections large enough for the operator to get hands and necessary tools through.

10. Pinning and Crushing.

( a) Electrical "lockout" facilities with cylinder padlocks to prevent accidental starts when machinery and equipment are being worked on or otherwise taken out of service.

(b) An emergency shutoff switch, clearly labeled, at all machinery units.

( c) Centralized control and malfunction warning systems.

( d) Running equipment equipped with indicator lights.

(e) Special equipment bracing where

required. •

11. Sensory Devices.

( a.) Sensing devices equipped with visual and audible alarms both nearby and at 11 centralized location, placed in all hazardous areas for combustible or explosive gases and vapors.

( b) Where oxygen is used in sludge aeration, oxygen leakage detectors at appropriate points on tbe supply tanks.

( G) Chlorine leak detection device to signal equipment failure in larger installations.

(d) A fire alarm at the plant

( e) An automatic signal for incinerator flame-out,

(f) Centralized control and malfunction warning systems.

( g) Visual and audible alarms.

( h) Running equipment with indicator lights.



(i) Electrical lockout facilities with cylinder padlocks to prevent accidental starts when machinery and equipment are being worked on or otherwise taken out of service.

(f) Provisions to deal with infrared radiation from combustion units, ultraviolet radiation from nrc welding, and ionizing radiation from radioactive materials.

(k) Pressure gauges at sludge pumps to indicate buildup of gases when the pumps are out of service.

(l) Warning signs indicating dangers such as explosive 'gases, high pressure pipes, and underground utilities.

(m) Warning signs, by each non-potable water outlet

( n) Standardized color coding of process piping and emergency equipment: i. orange to designate dangerous parts of machines, or energized equipment, and Hammable gas lines; it blue, potable water; ill. yellow, chlorine; iv. black, raw sludge; v. brown, treated sludge; vi. purple, radiation hazards; vii. green, compressed air; viii. jade green, process or Hushing water (non-potable); ix. gray, wastewater; x. orange with blue letters, steam; xi. white, traffic and housekeeping operations; and xii, red, fire protection equipment

( 0) Safety equipment to Include hydrogen sulflde, methane, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and oxygen deficency indicators.

Personal Protective and Safety Equipment

Even with the best of safety designs, unhealthy and unsafe conditions will be encountered. Hence the need for protective and safety equipment The design engineer should assume responsibility for specifying the equipment and its proper placement throughout the facility. He should consider personal protective equipment in the areas of head protection, ear protection, face and eye protection, protective respiratory equipment, foot and leg protectors, and protective clothing.


It should be noted that there are various categories of protective respiratory devices with specific applications and limitations in the protection they afford. Respiratory devices are certified by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. The design engineer should take care to locate safety equipment so that it is easily accessible in case of emergency. Essential safety equipmment includes safety belts, harnesses, life-jackets, and lifelines. Storage facilities should also be specified for firstaid equipment.

Chapter 4


Construction Materials

58 AirLines

58 Anchor Bolts and Expansion Anchors


58 Bolted Flanges


58 Carbon Sluny Piping Cleanouts

58 Chlorine and Chlorine Solution Lines 59 Chlorine Dioxide Construction Ma-


59 Cleaning Threads and Joints 59 Concrete

60 Corrosion Prevention


1. Burke, G. W .. Jr., "Disabling Injury In Wastewater Works." Deed.r and Data, Water Pollution Control Fedemtfon, WashingtGn, D. C" (March 1973).

2. "Oecuputiocnl Safety and Health Stnndnrds." 29 eFR, Part 1910, FBderol Ragirlar, 37, 202 Part II (1912).

3. "Safety In Wastewater Works." Manual of Practice No. I, Water Poll. Conhol Fed., Wasblngton, D. C. (1975).

4. Hopf, P. S., "Designer's Guido to OSHA."

McGraw-HilI, New York, N. Y. (1975).

5. "GUide to Occupational Safety Literature.

Vol. 1." National Safety Council, Ohlcagc, Ill. (1975).

6. "Chlorine Manual," Chlorine Inst., Inc., New York, N. Y.

1. Brandt, A. D., "Industrial Health Engineermg," John Wiley &. Sons, Ine., New York, N. Y.

8. De Beumer, R., "Modern Safety Practices."

John Wiley &. Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. 9. "Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology." 3 vol., InterscJence Pub!. Inc, New York, N. Y. 10. Brake, P., (ad.), "Industrial Snfety." Prentice Hnll Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J,

11. GueUcl!, J., "Chemical Snfety Supervision."

Reinbold Pub!. Co., New York, N. Y.

12. Lipplst, G., "Accident Prevention Admlnisttn. tlon," McGraw-HIll, New YDrk, N. Y.

13. "AccJdent Prevention Mnnual for Indushinl Opemtlons," Nntl, Safety Council, Chicngo, Ill.

14. Petersen, D., "Teehnlques of Safety Menagement," McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y.

15. Salt, N. 1, "Handbook of Dangerous Mnterlnls." Reinhold Publ, Co., New York, N. Y. 16. ChemiCilI Safety Dam Sheet Series, Mannfncturing Chemists Association, W ashlngtcn, D,C.


61 Drain Lines and Plum bing


61 Floor Plates and Grating


61 Gaskets, Piping 62 Gas Lines

62 Gasoline and Oil Lines 62 Gates

63 Guards for Equipment Drives


63 Hypochlorite Storage


63 Joint Material


63 Linings


63 Manhole and Hatchway Frames and Covers

63 Metalwork


63 Non-Metal Materials


64 Ozone Piping


64 Paints and Protective Coatings 66 Pipe Sleeves

66 Piping

67 Power Wiring 67 Pressure Lines


67 Railings


68 Sewer Piping 69 Sludge Lines 69 Stairways


69 Tanks, Metal Chemical Mixing and


70 Tanks, Non-Metal Chemical Storage 70 Thresholds

70 Trickling Filter Media

V 70 Valves

72 Vent Ducts, Non-Metal 72 Vent Pipes, Metal


73 Water Lines

74 Weir Plates, BnfBes, and Troughs; Metalwork

74 Weir Plates, Non-Metal 74 References

Materials and construction requirements for wastewater treatment plants vat}' because of the different process requirements and the size and complexity of resulting facilities. This chapter deals with treatment plant materials and construction requirements relating to the process designs, and does not include criteria for superstructures. For particulars concerning the construction and materials of specific equipment, manufacturer's and supplier's catalogs 1 should be consulted.

Three principles are fundamental to the engineering design of process-onentad




1. Durability. The normal structuralli£e of 20 to 50 yr must be considered.

2. Cost control. Material selection is an important factor in minimizing maintenance cost,

3. Environmental suitability. The corrosive environment associated with wastewater treatment facilities (moisture, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, extreme pH's) must be considered.

Air Lines

Air lines 100 mm (4 in.) and larger are usually constructed of standard weight steel pipe, cast iron, or flberglass-reinforced mortar. Smaller air lines are generally constructed of standard weight steel pipe although cast iron is sometimes used.

Joints for cast-iron piping are usually of the mechanical or flange-bolted type. JOints for steel piping 100 rom and larger may be the flange-bolted type, the welded type, or made with flexible couplings. Smaller steel IJipe usually has screwed-type fittings and joints.

Small steel air lines, 100 mm and under, are protected by galvanizing. The factory coating -given standard cast-iron pipe is considered adequate protection unless the pipe is to be submerged in liquids injurious to the IJiping material.

Air piping is Iaid and erected in accordance with standard practice for waterpiping installation. The suction and discharge oE all blowers and compressors are provided with expansion joints to prevent pipe loads from reaching this equipment and to keep vibration from being transmitted through pipe lines. Insulation is very often used On air-intake lines to blowers.

Anchor Bolts and Expansion Anchors

Anchor bolts fabricated from steel confonn to ASTM designation A-36, A-307, or A-7 for structural bolts.: Ancbor bolts, whicb are either through-bolts or set in concrete, and nuts are usually bot-dipped galvanized after fabrication; where severe corrosion is expected, special metals such


as Monel, stainless steel, Everdur, or steel with hard chrome plating are used.

Pipe sleeves should be used in conjunction with anchor bolts so that lateral corrections can be made in the final positioning of tbe bolt The sleeves can be Blled with molten lend, lead-suIfui. compounds, or nonshrinking grout after bolt settings are complete.

Expansion anchors are used extensively to bolt down small machinery and to support light suspended loads. Expansion anchors are ordinarily used to accommodate machine bolts or cap screws up to 2.5 mm (1 in.) in size.

In the case of loads having a high torque or high vibration, or where direct tension is exerted on the expansion anchor, it is well for the design engineer to refer to the manufacturer's bulletins and to seleetu specific expansion anchor.

The quality of the concrete and of the workmanship in installing it has a material bearing on the efficiency of the anchor selected.

Bolted Flanges

All screwed or welded flanges 8-4 are designed for the pipe according to the working pressures to be used. Bolts have coldpressed square heads and hexagon nuts and are made of cadmium-plated steel, stainless steel, or galvanized steel

Carbon Slurry Piping Cleanouts

Long-radius elbows or tees and crosses with eleanouts should be used at points of slurry piping direction change. Carbon steel is suitable for piping and fittings.

Chlorine and Ohlorina Solution Lines

. The piping systems for the application of liquid or gaseous chlorine consist of the chlorine supply system, beginning at the chlorine containers and terminating at the inlet to the chlorinator, and the chlorine solution system, whicb conveys the chlorine solution from the chlorinator to the point of application.

For the chlorine supply system, the piping should be Schedule 80 black seamless steel and the fittings 13B 000 kN /m~ (2 000

psi) forged steel.5 Reducing fittings must be used because bushings cannot meet this criterion. All unions should be the ammonia type with a lead gasket joint. A ground joint union should not be used. Expanslon tanks should be of welded steel construction but can be a standard 46 or 68 kg (100 or 150 Ib] chlorine cylinder.

The water supply line to the chlorine injector is constructed from standard water line materials. From the injector forward, a corrosive chlorine solution that requires special materials will be encountered. The chlorine solution lines can be either Schedule 80 polyvinylchloride (PVC), rubber lined steel, saran lined steel, or certain types of fi~er cast pipe. Ceramics, stoneware. plastics, and rubber have also been used for sodium and calcium hypochlorite solutions.

The injector vacuum line between the chlorinator and the injector carries moist chlorine gas and is usually constructed of Schedule 80 PVC. Some types of fiber cast pipe are also suitable. There is DO known corrosion resistant metal pipe available for this use. Saran and saran lined steel pipe have been used for this purpose; glass pipe has been found impractical. The only time that glass pipe should be considered is in the case of remote injector installations. When the injector is located in thechlorlnator room, the equipment manufact.u:cer always supplies Schedule 80 PVC for the interconnecting piping.

The chlorine solution piping and open channel diffusers are made of Schedule 80 PVC pipe and fittings. Fins and wall brackets are also available in PVC. Nuts and bolts for assembly of the underwater portion should be type 316 stainless steel. All other bolts should be galvanized or cadmium-plated steel.

Fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe and epoxy fiberglass reinforced pipe are not recommended for chlorine gas application because of possible gas condensation to liquid chlorine. causing premature pipe failure. Polyester or vinylester fiberglass reinforced plastic may be considered for chlorine solution piping. Joining materials vary but generally consist of a two-part




adhesive that, when mixed in an exact ratio has a pat-life of 15 to 20 min. Flang~ gaskets should be full-sized of the best quality rubber or other material with a 40 to 90 durometer hardness.

Chlorine Dioxide Construction Materials

Construction materials for a chlorine dloxide faoility, including the system' for handling sodium chlorite solution, should be identical with those used for chlorine gas or hypochlorite except that rubber bose and rubber-lined pipe should be avoided.

Cleaning ~hreads and Joints

Pipe joints are cleaned thoroughly 0 before the joint is prepared. All steel pipe up to and including 3B mm (1.5 in.) is reamed to remove burrs, stood on end, and well pounded to remove scale and dirt Copper pipe has the burrs removed, and both sides and outside of fittings are cleaned thoroughly by sandpapering. Threads are cleaned with a wire brush andlor compressed air.


Concrete has been used successfully for a long time, and its use is increasing because of quality improvements. The importance of good concrete and the special considerations in using it for saaitary engineering structures is described in a publication of the American Concrete Institute (ACI),T and in others.B-n It is essential to use concrete that is dense, nearly impervious, and has a smooth flnlsh, This is purticularly important for wn1ls and slabs that are exposed to moisture or frost, and for channels or conduits subject to wastewater flow. Also, because of the corrosiveness of wastewater, 11 lfberal covering of impermeable concrete is needed to protect the reinforcing steel. Other important considerations are highlighted below.

Admixtures:-Cornmonly used admixtures include air-entraining agents and pozzolans, Air entraining agents improve the workability of the concrete mixture with less segregation of aggregate and less bleeding of water to the surface. This makes the concrete more resistant to frost Poz-


, r


, \.



zolans also improve the workability of the mixture and increase resistance to sulfate attack.

Calking and Sealants:-AlI joints around door frames, windows, and other openings in exterior wills, joints where masonry abuts other surface finishes, and all control joints should be calked and sealed. Calking compound should be an elastic oil or resin base.

Cement:-Types I and II Portland cement 10 conforming to ASTM C150 are commonly used in treatment plant structures. Some engineers prefer Type II because of its greater resistance to sulfate attack and lower heat of hydration. Other types of Portland cements and Portland pozzolan cements are also used. Type V cement is used when severe sulfide conditions are expected.

Concrete and Masonry Protection:-Exterior foundation surfaces below finished grade should be protected from moisture by a bituminous foundation coating. This is particularly important in preventing the seepage of water into areas such as pump rooms and pipe galleries that are located below grade.

Exterior masonry surfaces located above grade, such as the concrete superstructure, concrete block, or brickwork should be treated with a water-repellant coating. Clear, silicone-base coatings are available for this purpose.

Finishes:-The smooth finish of exposed concrete surfaces are not only aesthetically important, but necessary for efficient operation and maintenance. Smooth surfaces in channels improve How characteristics; smooth B001'S and slabs facilitate maintenance and safety, Exposed walls are burlap-rubbed to remove form marks, while floor areas receive a steel trowel or broomed finish, Arens su bj ect to foot traffic and likely to be wet should have a nonslip finish.

Joints:-Properly designed joints are necessary to permit expansion and contraction without cracking and to allow placement of the concrete in logical sections. ACI recommends that expansion joints be provided in any non-circular structure hav-

ing a dimension of 31 m (120 ft) or more in any principal direction.

All expansion joints must include some type of compressible pre-formed filler. If the member must be watertight, a waterstop and a joint sealant at the liquid face also are required. Rubber waterstops permit greatest joint movement, but deteriorate in the presence of light Plastio waterstops are less elastic, but also less susceptible to deterioration from light exposure and drying.

Construction joints should be located where they least impair the strength of the structure and provide logical separations between segments of the structure. Usual spacing is 3.0 to 4.6 m (10 to 15 It) vertically and 6.1 to 9.1 m (20 to 30 ft) horizontally. A keyway should be provided ut each joint, and, where necessary for watertightness, a water stop should be used.

Reinforcing Steeh-« Tension steel, compressive steel, and web or diagonal tension steel is used for reinforcing, It is usually in the form of bars," but wire fabric is also used. Steel rod surfaces are usually deformed to increase bond resistance, Dimensional requirements for deformed steel bars are specified in ASTM 305.

Corrosion Prevention

There are several ways to prevent or retard corrosion in a wastewater treatment plant 10 The choice of method is influenced by the corrosive environment encountered and by the economics of the situation. If justified economically, corrosion resistant construction materials can be used initially, and frequently will not require any additional protective coatlag, Stainless steel. aluminum, and plastics are examples of materials of this nature. It is possible that the higher mst-cost corrosion resistant materials would be used more often if ·the cost of repeated applications of paint and the eventual replacement of the structural material itself were given full weight However, it usually is less expensive to use ordinary structural steel to which protective coatings must be applied,

Sacrificial anodes and the imposition of


a countercurrent on the system have been used for cathodic protection by altering tha nature of the corrosive, Digester gas lines are prime candidates for such proteotion because of the safety hazards associated with ·this gas. Sometimes a coating of anoilier metal, such as zinc in the case of galvanizing, can be used. In other cases, electrical isolation at .points of connection of dissimilar metals may be practiced.

In most structural work, however, the protective coating used will be paint.'D In some cases extra heavy coatings of gal. vanizing have been speci.6ed with very good results. Paint coatings are universally used for wood and metal. Their low cost, ease of application, choice of colors. and good protective properties account for their wide popularity.

Drain Lines and Plumbing

Underground or underfloor soil and waste piping and fittings are usually of extra heavy cast iron. When connected to laboratory sinks, the piping is of corrosion resistant material such as Duriron, Durichlnr, or polyethylene. Water closet bends are of cast iron. Cleanout tees on laterals are equipped with brass top screws for cleanout purposes. Vent lines are constructed of cast iron, asbestos cement, or polyvinyl chloride material.

All joints for drain lines and plumbing are of the bell and spigot type with push On gasket, lead. or oakum as the jointing material.

Oleanout openings of either the tee or the lateral type are provided on all soil and waste lines. Cleancuts are located at the ends of all lines, where a change in direction occurs and where lines pass through outside walls to outside sewer lines. All soil and waste lines are pitched a minimum of 21 mm/m (0.25 in./ft). Vent lines are connected to oil and waste lines at the bottom and at the top above the highest fixtures,

Floor Plates and Grating

Steel and aluminum Hoor plates are the most economical and convenient means of closing miscellaneous Hoor openings,


Checkered Hoor plate, which gives good footing, is available in thicknesses from 16 gage to 13 mm (0.5 in.]. Because of corrosion considerations, thicknesses under 6 mm (0.25 in.) would be used only in building areas that are dry and provided with optimum ventilntion.

In sizing floor-plata sections, puticnlarly those that will be removed frequently, a maximum weight per section of approxl. mutely 27 kg (60 Ib) is the rule. Plate flngerholes or drop handles are provided for section removal. Steel frames for supporting Boor plates are made of standard weight steel shapes, with the component parts of the frame kept to a minimum to reduce welding costs. A good practice is to hot-dip galvanize the steel .plates and frames after fabrication. Aluminum floor plates and grating are fabricated of aluminum alloys as recommended by the manufacturer for the particular installa-tion. Aluminum floor plate and grating frames cast in concrete should be pre-coated with a bituminous compound to protect the aluminum from the chemical aotion of the concrete.

Grating used for walkways Of stair treads bas the advantage of being light and easily handled as well as strong. It also offers less deflection in proportion to the weight of metal per area of Hoar plate used. Grating is made from painted or galvanized steel or alloyed aluminum bars. A rectangular bar pattern is recommended because it is more easily kept clean. Tread surfaces should be non-skid for safety. Steel grating is difficult to keep painted, while aluminum grating requires no paint-

ing or protective coating. . .

Gaskets, Piping

Gaskets for cast-iron or steel-Hanged joints ~DI!!.1 are made of 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) thick cloth-inserted, best quality rubber, 1.5 mm red rubber, liD g (4 oz) canvas, or 1.5 mm sheet asbestos. Canvas gaskets are coated with thread lubricant or red lead and oil when instilled, Sheet asbestos gaskets are also coated with thread lubricant to assure nogbt joint Ring gaskets cover the face of the Hange to the



inside edge of bolts, and full-faced gaskets are supplied with bolt holes.


Where gas lines come in contact with sludge, as in a digester, the pipe material is standard weight cast iron, Exposed gas piping is standard weight galvanized steel.

JOints for exposed pi,ping 100 mm (4 in.) and larger are the Hanged type. Pipe joints under 100 mm are the screwed type, alth!lugh welded joints are sometimes used. For underground piping the mechnnical joint is most common:

Galvanized Hat·bead cast or malleable iron fittings are used on screwed joint pipe. Cast·iron Hanged £ttings are used on eastiron piping 100 mm (4 in.) diameter and larger, Where welded piping is used, either Hanged or welded fittings are installed; an ample number of flanges should be provided to facilitate dismantling of pipe,

It is Important that all gas piping, whether exposed or buried, be sloped to a grade that will permit proper draining of condensate. It is also important that II fum foundation be provided beneath the pipe and caution be exercised in bac1cfilling over the pipe. If these points are not watched, pockets may be formed in the pipe that will collect condensate and stop the flow of gas.

In neutral soil it is not necessary to wrap steel gas piping, if it is galvanized. However, in highly acid and alkaline soils the pipe should be wrapped with a protective material.

Where soil characteristics require coating of steel piping, a coal-tar enamel is used. Cast-iron gas lines are coated on the outside only.

Cathodic protection is not generally needed on natural gas lines. However, most IIUth orities have stricter corrosion requirements for digester gas lines because of the serious safety hazards associated with leakage of this corrosive gas.

All interior gas piping is installed with the pipe pitched to drip traps. Ample tees should be provided with removable screwed plugs or blind flanges for clean out


purposes. A drip trap of approximately 1 I capacity should be provided at every change in vertical direction. Drip-trap outlets are run to floor drains when it is convenient to do 50. POsitive-type traps that do not allow gas to escape while emptying should be used as a safety precaution.

the size and shape of the gate may be adapted to that of the conduit or opening.

Sluice gates may be made in a wide range of materials to fit the particular need at the point of usa, In the smaller sizes, gates of Everdur Of other relatively noncorrosive metal are common. In larger sizes, cast iron and fabricated steel predominate. Moving lind wearing parts are commonly Of bronze but may be obtained in stainless steel.

Small sluice gates are either lever Of wheel operated, but in the larger sizes the labor !lIld time involved is considerable and motor-driven equipment is usual. Hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders have been installed in special cases.

Guards for Equipment Drives

Guards are fabricated from galvanized expanded metal in weights consistent with their size. Light bar angles and flat bar stock are used to form a framework for the expanded metal. Adequate fastening of the brackets holds the guard in position and reduces vibrations that may be transmitted from the equipment being guarded.

Hypochlorite Storage

Storage tanks 11,.a made flf reinforced fiberglass and lined with epoxy have been successful, while rubber or PVC lined steel tanks have proven unsatisfactory. Storage tanks should be equipped with a level gauge and transmitter for continuous readout of contents.

Joint Material

Jute packing should be of the best quality untarred braided hemp or jute. Fibertype packing material is fabricated of £ber specifically for use on water pipe. Rubberjoint packing material consists of hollow rubber tubing ( except on small sizes, where solid tubing is used) or solid wedgeshaped sections speci£cally designed for water-main joint packing.

Cnseline and Oil Lines

Standard weight black steel pipe is usually prcvided for this. service on sizes 25 mm (1 in.) and larger. Galvanized steel pipe may also be used. Cast-iron pipe has been used for buried oil lines, Where smaller pipe is required, copper tubing is usually provided. Screwed or welded-type joints are used for steel pipe while soldered or flared-type joints are used for copper tubing.


Flap Gates:-Cast-iron flap or backwater gates are often used when a simple automatic shutoff or back-pressure gate is required. Such gates are usually equipped with bronze seats or faces.

Flood Gates:-Flood gates are fabricated of steel, wood planking, or shaped logs. The individual sections life hand placed and removed. Such gates are suitable only where infrequent operation is required.

Slide Gates (Stop Plates) :-Hand-operater slide gates of aluminum or steel often are used in small flow channels where gate operation is infrequent. Large hoist operated gates of this kind sometimes are used when low cost is a prime factor, Guides for slide gates are made of cast iron or aluminum, and a variety of patterns are available, of either cast-in-place design or bolt-on construction. In flow channels, the guides are cast in place and flush to the channel bottom and wall to avoid resb'ictions. Aluminum guides cast in concrete are pre-coated with bituminous compounds to insulate the aluminum from the chemical action of the concrete.

Sluice Gates:-Sluice gates are used on conduits that do not operate under pressure and are preferable to valves because


Linings are used in chemical mixing and storage tanks and, increasingly, to provide an impervious membrane in channels,


tanks, and lagoons. Rubber, plastic, or asphalt linings are available for various applications, Factors to be considered in selecting II lining include nature of the fluid, temperature range, an.d type of structure in which it is to be installed.

Manhole and Hatchway

Frames and Covers

Because manufacturers offer a great variety of satisfactory manhole and hatchway frames and covers, it is advisable to purchase stock items rather than fabricate them from steel-plate and angle-iron shapes,

In selecting cast-iron frames and covers, it should be noted that floor loadings in the average plant usually allow for the use of light-weight covers, For outside manholes subject to truck traffic, heavy duty covers should be selected.

In specifying such frames and covers, particularly those for hatchways, consideration should be given to the need for such accessory items as local conditions dictate, These include hinges, drop handles, lifting rings, latches for locking, and ratchets to hold covers open for ventilation.


Materials commonly used in wastewater treatment plants for miscellaneous purposes are steel, cast iron, aluminum, and, to a lesser extent, stainless steel. Stainless steels used include types 304 and 316, In areas where unusual corrosion problems prevail materials such as Monel, Everdur, Of oth~r alloys are used. The corrosion properties of various materials are discussed at length in the Paints and Protective Coatings Manual," Other metalwork categories are covered elsewhere in the

chapter, .

The design of all equipment relating to personal safety, railings,ladders, stairs, and drive guards, should conform to "Occupational Safety and Health Standards,""'

Non-Metal Materials

With the development of quality plastic and reinforced fiberglass, non-metal items are finding increased use in wastewater




treatment plants. Wood products generally are limited to Hight scrapers for rectangular sedimentation tanks, stop logs, flood gates, and trickling Elter media. Other non-metal categories are covered elsewhere in the chapter.

Ozone Piping

Porcelain, stainless steel, glass, and, where moisture is absent, aluminum, are suitable piping materials for corrosive ozone. The preferred material is type 304 stainless steel, welded- or Hanged.

Paints and Protective Coatings

Paints and' protective coatings for wastewater treatment facilities are covered. com.prehensively in WPCF Manual of Practice 17,lP which should be referred to before selecting coatings and preparing speclflcations, For ease of reference, some important considerations are presented here. (The subsection "Corrosion Prevention" should also be consulted.)

Painting Preparation:-The lasting qualities of any paint are greatly affected by the condition of the surface to which the paint WIl5 applied. Preparation of the surface may involve the removal of rust, mill scale, dirt, oil, grease, or old paint films by mechanical cleaning, such as wire brushing; chipping and scraping; sanding; sand or sbot blasting; and flame conditioning; or, by chemical cleaning with solvents, acids, or caustics.

In the case of steel surfaces, hand or power steel-wire brushing is the most widely used method. Sand or shot blasting are also used for thorough cleaning of steel, both in the shop and in the field. The four degrees of cleanliness that can be a btained are described. in the specifications of the Steel Structures Painting Council." The type of protective coating to be used often dictates' the type of blast cleaning. Flame cleaning leaves the surface WIUID, dry, and in good condition for receiving paint

An alternative approach to the preparation of ferrous metal surfaces for painting involves chemical methods such as piclcling,


weathering, phosphatizing, and chromatizlng.

In the case of galvanized iron to be painted for decorative purposes, special treatment is necessary. The smooth galvanizing must be .roughened by washing with a mild acid such as aeetic orphosphoric acid. Where this is not practical, a zinc dust/zinc oxide primer may be used.

The fundamental rule that the surface be free from all extraneous material such as dirt, grease, and oil is also ·true for concrete. It is advisable to cure new surfaces unless one of the water-cement or rubberease paints is used. Ordinary oil paints will be destroyed by the free alkali in the concrete unless the surface is first washed with a solution of zinc sulfate [0.4 kgfl (3 lb/gal)] or a 2 percent zinc chloride/3 percent phosphoric acid solution. At times, n. grout rub may be used before coating new concrete surfaces. The grout rub consists of 1 part cement plus 1 part 60 mesh silica sand. The rub is cured for three days by keeping the surface moist The surface then can be acid etched prior to coating. Where paint is to be renewed on old concrete floors, the surface can be cleaned by sanding, scraping and wire brushing, or by using paint removers. For unpainted floor impregnated with grease and oil, it is necessary to prepare the surface by wet scrubbing, dry solvent, or caustic lye.

The preparation of wood surfaces, where they occur, is important for their preservation and appearance. Knots and sappy spots should be coated with shellac and depressions filled with putty and then sanded. Plastered surfaces are repaired as necessary with crack filler and then primed with a good sealer coat

Paints for Metal Surfaces:- When phosphoric acid washes are used as a pretreatment, It phosphate coating is formed. as a crystalline layer on the surface by the chemical combination of the acid with the metal. On new galvanized iron or plain steel, phosphoric acid washes help secure a good bond for subsequent coats of paint; the phosphate layer also inhibits some corrosion. This is particularly valuable when the .paint Blm has been scratched, because

the phosphate coating then wfI.I retard COrrosion effectively. Most leading paint manufacturers supplyphosphorlc acid washes for field applications. When washes are used on steel, mill scale must Brst he removed completely by sanding or pickling.

A paint job will be no better than the prime coat. The primer, which is usually a shop coat, forms a bond between the metal surface and succeeding coats. A good primer for steel should contain a rust inhibitor. The general purpose primer most often used for steel contains zinc chromate-iron oxide pigments in II phenolic resin tung oil varnish vehicle. Most manufacturers produce this type of primer under various trade names. This primer gives good service except in very damp atmospheres. Universal primers developed in recent years for use on submerged or unsubmerged metal are combinations of several special resins and rust inhibiting pigments. They accept a wide variety of top coats such as alkyds, epoxies, coal-tar rubber base, and emulsions. Red lead and oil paint also provide satisfactory metal primers for most situations. For submerged steel work, coal-tar coatings are often used without any separate .primer. Tar-base coatings are often reinforced with asbestos fibers to retard sagging. Vinyl primers are also sntisfactory for submerged surfaces and tolerate slight moisture condensation on the metal without hlUID to adhesion qualities.

Thickness of the prime coat should exceedthe anchor proflle by at least one mil. The temperature at which the prime coat is applied, and the temperature range to which the surface will be exposed must be considered when evaluating the appliesbility of a primer. It should also be noted that coal-tars and bituminous. coatings have different. temperature resistances in wet and dry applications.

Top coats, which are usually field coats, serve to protect the prime coat and to decorate the surface. It is imperative that top coats be compatible with the prime coat. Many types of coats are available for lise on metal, some more suitable fOr


submerged surfaces. Bituminous coatings have been used for many years for sub. merged surfaces. Coal-tar epoxy, vinyl, and vinylidene chloride paints are also excellent for this purpose and have good corrosion resistance. Grease coatings are often used to protect steel surfaces,both submerged and non-submerged. These consist of bituminous wnxy compounds containing chemical rust inhibitors. They have the advantage of being easily and quickly applied.

For non-submerged metal surfaces, frequently used coatings include chlorinated rubber paints, alkyd coatings, epoxy coatings, vinyls, and aluminum paint, Chlorinated rubber and alkyd coatings have been used extensively for this purpose. Alkyds have good gloss and color retention after prolonged exposure, but .they are not satisfactory where moisture or condensation is involved. Chlorinated rubber paints, however, have good resistance to moisture, condensation, and hydrogen sulfide gas and, thus, are also useful for concrete surfaces. For severe exposure conditions, vinyl, vinylidene chloride, or epoxy coatings should be considered. In the case of vinyl coatings, a low Hlm buildup per coat necessitates multiple coats, thus increasing the cost of application.

Space does not permit recommendation of specific paint systems for the many different types of equipment and exposure conditions encountered at a wastewater traatmentplant. The Steel Structures Paint Council standards " should be coosulted for relevant information. For illustrative purposes, painting of the inside surfaces of components such as sludgedigestion tanks and gas holders will be considered here. Various conditions may cause corrosion of the steel in these tanks. Tbeenvironment contains hydrogen sUI£de,carbonic acid, and moisture, all of which attack the steel to some extent, although the absence of oxygen means there can be no sulfurous or sulfuric acids formed from the hydrogen sulfide, In general, this corrosive condition is quite mild in most plants. The hydrogen sulflda and the carbonic acid nevertheless do



make a slow and continuous attack on un- for submerged concrete surfaces, Where protected steel. In view of the undesira- . color is desired, vinyl coatings or epoxy bility of periodic shutdowns for repainting amines may be used.

after these tanks go into service, and con- Because baseboards, door casings, and sidering the difficulty in attaining proper other wooden constructions are subject to conditions for repainting even in a shut- rot by the prevalent moisture, they should down, it is wise to paint the metal interior all be treated with ,pentachlOlphenol or as effectively as possible at the time of algal fungicide. They may then be varoriginal construction. This requires more Dished, waxed, or painted with lead-free than the average paint job. A good paint paints.

for this purpose is a vinylidene chloride Plaster walls and ceilings present DO paint of the water emulsion type, As with special problems other than the use of a all paints, the steel surfaces in the tanks seal coat and lead-free top coats, Where must be thoroughly sandblasted to bare the walls are likely to be damp, a watermetal and then pretreated with phosphoric cement paint, a polystyrene paint, or a acid. phenolic varnish-type paint will be sam-

Paints for Non-Metallic Surfecesr=-Mnst factory. .

painting of Don-metallic surfaces is done In some cases, painting of beat insulato improve the plant's appearance, al- tion mny be desired. Such insulation is though under certain conditlons protective usually either molded or covered with· painting of concrete is advisable. canvas, presenting a very porous surface.

Rubber-base paints are superior to A seal coat such as polystyrene paint or water-cement paints for concrete as they aluminum paint will be necessary before are easily cleaned and more resistant to applying decorative coats.

corrosive gases. Some rubber-base paints may be o:ffectedby grease, but they are unaffected by the lime or free alkali found in all masonry, and they do not contain lead pigments, which are unsuitable for wastewater plants, Concrete floors are difficult to keep painted properly because a few hundredths of an inch of paint film must withstand all the abrasion of traffic. Rubber-base paints seem to be the best available for concrete Hoors, however, Smooth concrete should be etched with Piping

hydrochloric acid to provide a better Piping requirements in wastewater treatbonding surface. A solution of one part ment plants range from wastewater and commercial muriatic acid with three parts sludge conduits, drains, and water lines to of water can be used at the rate of 40 1/002 chemical process piping, Many different (1 gal/IOO sq ft), after which the floor pipe materials are used to accommodate must be rinsed thoroughly and allowed to this wide range of uses, and in recent years dry 2 to 3 days before painting with two the choice has expanded greatly (Table 4- cants of rubber-base enamel or epoxy. I). They now include carbon steel, cast

Pigment may be added to the concrete iron, ductile iron, and glass Or TeHon as it is being mixed. Such treatment has coated pipe, Glass and Teflon have beprovided many plants with statisfactory COme popular for those applications where colored fleers. head losses :per length of pipe are high and

For submerged concrete or for water- grease tends to coat surfaces, thus reducing proofing concrete, bituminous or coal-tar pipe area. More recently, plastic pipepoxy coatings are used, although some ing 00-'9 capable of withstanding pressures manufacturers produce rubber-base paints upto21000kN/m' (300psig) is belng used

Pipe Sleeves

Pipe sleeves provide openings for pipes to pass through walls or slabs. Cast-iron and standard weight steel pipe are used, but galvanized pipe is preferred to prevent corrosion. Where sleeves are located below grade or in walls subject to hydrostatic pressure, an annular fin water stop located at mid-length should be provided.



! -

because of its low cost, ease of installation, and low friction factors. Construction materials for various pipe line applications are listed elsewhere in this chapter,

Power Wiring

Power wiring consists generally of Insulated conductors in galvanized rigid steel conduit for maximum protection of wiring. Fiber or plastic conduit can be used for underground runs if it is protected by concrete encasement. In corrosive atmospheres, PVC-jllcketed galvanized rigid steel conduit should be considered. All electrical wires should have an insulation rated at 600 V and be listed by Underwriters' Laboratories (U /L) 19 as moisture and heat resistant," For wiring installed underground or in damp locations, the insulation should be listed for use as direct burial, with either a rubber insulation and neoprene jacket, U jL type RHW-USE, or crosslinked polyethylene insulation, U /L type RHH-RHW, USE. For all other wiring, PVC insulation, U /L type TRW, can be used. In cases where higher than normal temperatures are encountered, such as near furnaces, insulations with suitable temperature ratings must be used. Wire No. 8AWG and larger is usually stranded for ease of instnIIation. The use of single conductor cables throughout the plant simplifies the number of cable types required for the project

Pressure Lines

Cast-iron, ductile iron pipe, welded steel pipe with epoxy liner, and cement-lined and coated steel pipe are frequently used for pressure piping, Asbestos-cement pipe is also used to convey wastewater under pressure, but not as extensively as cast iron. For lines 0.4 m (16 in.) and larger, reinforced concrete pressure pipe and ductile iron pipe have often been used.

The dimensions, weight, and character of materials, the allowable variations in diameter and thickness, and the method of manufacture and coating for cast-iron pipe have been required to conform to A WW A, ASTM, federal, or ANSI specifications, Cast-iron pipe specifications have been re-


TABLE 4-L Piping Mnterlals

TyplQ] Applh'.Uo~ CODa:.nLr:a .. M.lul.lof
u •• -
Influent 0.5 to 1 c,~~, RCP, ac,
Soca.dozy ,oUch 0.5 to 1 C,P,CI
PrimOI}' •• Ud, O.HIII C, G. T, p. D. CI
Thld:r.nod _ludiC 4 to 10 C,T,P,D.CI
5 to 10
DIg .. lod xludgo l to 10 CtP,T,CI
Chomi<,aUy tnotod 0.1 to 1 C,S.P
.Iudlll' B to 2S C.P.H,CI
0.5 to 10 C.I:I
<0.1 5
<0.1 C,CI.T,A, P
C. CI, S, G. T, p,
Aluminum •• U.I. 13~n~ G,Hrl.~. P. T S
Calcium oxldo C. CI. D, G, il. P.
Calclum bydnald. as 1099% C.SC:I'D, G, H. P,
Sulfurl.lldd 93:1. 5. G
Furl. <hlorid. 59ID~B% C.H
Sodium hvdroxlde 73% C.S.H
C.,bo~ l1uflY 201030 G • As percent total _.lIdo unl otherwl .. lndlcated.

tC-carbo .... 01' 5-5taln1 tooh G-G1 ... II •• dlA-

AlumInum' T-'rol1~o Un.d. P-Plutlo; CI-Cost lronj 0- DuolUo I"':.· H-Pinotio or rubber ho.o; RCP-Rtlmo,ad plaJUo moru!r; RC-R.lnfor<otI enncrete; VC-Vltrlfiffi <I.)'.

vised based on studies, made by ANSI and coordinating bodies, on the effect of tren.ch loads and method of laying as well as mternal pressures, These specifications are derived from "American Recommended Practice Manual for the Computation of Strength. ~d Thickness of Cast Iron Pipe." n

Fiberglass reinforced plastic for pressure lines also should be considered because of its economy, corrosion resistance, and excellent pressure ratings. Manufacturers have determined, for example, that a 0.3 m (12 in.) fiberglass reinforced pipe rated at 17 000 leN/m" (.250 psi) steady pressure will have a non-catastrophic burst of approximately 138000 kN/m; (2 000 psi) by ASTM procedures.

The dimensions for fiberglass reinforced pipe are the same as ·those for standard steel pipe, with approximately one-te~th the weight. No coating is needed ~lde or out, nor will corrosion or degraphitization occur.


Railings are made of steel pipe or aluminum and generally are 38 mID (1,5 in.) diam. Welded pipe railings are pr~erred to provide a smooth surface top rail. A standard railing consists of a top rail, inter-



mediate rail, and posts, and should have a vertical height of 1.1 m (42 in.) measured from the upper surface of the top rail to the floor. Stnir railings should have a vertical height between 0.8 and 0,9 m (30 and 34 in.) as measured from the upper surface of the top rail to the surface of the tread.

Railing posts are either set in pipe sleeves or have stanchions that are secured to slabs or curbs, The annular space between the post and the pipe sleeve is filled with a non-shrinking grout.

For locations of railings and special requirements such as number and spacing of intermediate rails and the need for toe plates, national and local building and safety codes should be consulted.

Sewer Piping

The most widely used materials for gravity sewer lines are reinforced concrete, vitrified clay, asbestos cement, and cast iran. The development of plastics, fiberglass, and other synthetic materials has increased the choice of piping materials." The character and volume of the wastewater to be handled as well as trench loading will dictate the type of material best suited to the work. For wastewaters having a narrow pH variation and not susceptible to sudden shock acid or alkaline loads, reinforced concrete pipe material can be safely used. However, for wastewaters containing industrial wastes having a wide variation in pH, the usual practice is to use vitrified-clay pipe for sizes up to 1.1 m (42 in.) diarn and concrete with a protective coating for larger sizes. Protective coatings and pipe linings for sewers are discussed in WPCF Manual of Practice No. 17.~D Reinforced plastic mortar pipe and epoxy-lined asbestos cement pipes developed in recent years have also been used in some cases.

The depth of cut, type of soil, and the ultimate use of the ground surface above the pipe will determine the required strength of the material to be used. The permissible variation in dimensions and physical test requirements for the pipe to be used are speci.6ed to conform to the latest standards of ASTM,


Pipe materials used for handling plant storm drainage are corrugated metal, concrete, and asbestos cement.

Branches on clay pipe fittings are specified to be fastened securely and completely by fusion in the process of vitrification to the barrel of the pipe. SlantS, curves, and branches for non-reinforced concrete sewer pipe are usually speci.6edto conform to ASTM designation 014.1

A commonly used joint for concrete or clay sewers is the a-ring or gaslcet type joint. Extreme care must be taken when preparing a joint of this type. Other joints used are the mastic-type bituminous, poured-type bituminous, die-cast taperedtype bituminous, and cement mortar and jute type. All patented joints should be installed in strict conformance with the manufacturer's recommendations, Any special requirements of regulatory agencies also sbould be checked,

Solid wall plastic pipe now is being made in a wide variety of pressure ratings and materials, and may be competitive with concrete linings, especially when labor is considered and long life expectancy is required. Fiberglass reinforced plastic and polyvinyl chloride also enjoy the advantage of not being subject to attack because of wide iJH variations and other corrosive conditions,

Durable solid wall plastic pipe is tested, by most manufacturers, to ASTM stan-

. dards, Designation numbers are different because many ASTM numbers do not apply to plastic because of its heterogeneity and reaction differences.

Rigid cement joints are acceptable with fiberglass reinforced pipe because of the inherent flexibility of the product itself. Installation of many systems in earthquake areas, even near the epicenter, has proven the ability of the plpe to absorb many times the misalignment that would cause fnilure in most common materials, Burial depths are rarely a problem. Bedding and filling around the pipe should be done carefully in accordance with manufacturer's instructions to prevent excessive deflection of the pipe section.

Sludge Lines

The choice of materials for sludge piping includes carbon steel. cast iron, ductile iron, glass or Teflon coatings, lind plastic. Glass and TeHon coated pipe have become popular for those applications where head losses per foot of pipe are high and grease tends to cont surfaces, reducing .pipe area, More recently, plastic piping capable of withstanding pressures up to 21000 leN/m' (300 psig) is being used because of its low cost, ease of installation, and low friction factors.

The material selected should be capable of withstanding the shut-off head of the pump, and should be resistant to abrasion lind corrosion. In small plants, it is recommended that suction pipes that are not exposed never be smaller than 100 mm (4 in,) diam. Discharge pipes that are exposed can be as small as 50 mm (2 In.}, otherwise, 100 mm pipe is used to facilitate cleaning,

Sludge piping is installed in much the same manner as cast-iron water pipe. It is usually well supported and pitched where necessary for drainage. Vents are provided at all high paints so that gas generated by digesting sludge will not accumulate and develop pressures higher than that for which the pipe is designed.

An adequate number of bolted flanges and flexible couplings is provided on exposed sludge lines for ease in dlsmantlmg and the insertion of cleaning equipment should it ever be required. Tees with blind flanges equipped with 40 to 60 mm (1.5 to 2,5 in.) hose connections in lieu of elbows are often placed at -the ends of long pipe runs to facilitate redding, cleaning, and Hushing. If flushing is done with water, it must he "protected» to avoid potable water contamination, and it is good practice to < provide ample flushing connections. Hented sludge or supernatant is sometimes recirculated through the sludge lines to prevent grease accumulation.

All high pressure piping for sludge heat treatment systems should be tested at 35 000 kN/m! (500 psig). Low pressure testing


can be performed at 13800 kN/m! (200 psig) or at 1.5 times the working pressure ~hi.chever is greater. Heat-treated sludg~ plpmg should be provided with connections and drains for steam cleaning.

All heat exchanger .piping and other hot water pipes should be insulated.


In designing metal stairways, federal, local, and state safety codes should be reviewed, In some cases, the use of a ship's ladder may be considered, but only when access from one level to another is infrequent

Steps are readily obtainable in a variety of metals, including abrasive cast iron and steel or aluminum grating with safety nosings,

Manhole steps or steps into wet wells are usually cast iron with non-slip treads, spaced at 0.3 m (12 in.) intervals, Everdur, aluminum, galvanized steel, stainless steel, and Monel sometimes are used where corrosive conditions are severe.

Nosings are provided for concrete and steel stairway treads as a safety measure, They are available in abrasive metals cast from iron, bronze, aluminum, or nickel, with cast iron and aluminum being the most common, Nosings vary in depth from 80 mm (3 in.) and up and generally are 150 mm (6 in.) less in length than the tread length. Stair nosings and treads should have non-slip finishes.

Tanks, Metal Chemical Mixing nnd Storage

Cylindrical steel tanks are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants for chemical mixing and storage. Depending on size, they are constructed of at least 5 mm (0,2 in.] thick mild steel plate sidewalls and have either a Hat or hoppered bottom. Stilfening angles are also provided. Unlined tanks are used for lime solution, while rubber, lead, or plastic lined, Or otherwise corrosion resistant tanks are used for mixing or storing liquids such as ferric chloride and alum, On large tanks, linings are tested with a spark tester to ensure against pinholes or defects, Chemical tanks used for the heat conditioning of sludge



should be capable of handling cleaning agents at temperatures of at least 90·C (200"F).

Tanks, Non·Metal Chemical Storage

Fiberglass-reinforced plastic has become an economical alternative to lined steel tanks for chemical storage. Tanks may be made of translucent materials so that the liquid levels can be readily seen. All fiberglass components should meet the applicable requirements of the Society of the Plastics Industry.

Steel-reinforced concrete lined with rubber and faced with acid proof brick and mortar also has been used for chemical storage.


Thresholds are installed at exterior doors and are available in abrasive metals including cast iron, cast aluminum, or cast bronze. Extruded aluminum also has coma into wide use.

The joint between the threshold and the floor is calked to exclude driving rain, If heavy loads are trucked over the thresholds, the joints are filled with, or set in, cement mortar.

Trickling Filter Media

Crushed stone is the most widely used natural media for trickling BIters, Crushed slag and gravel also are used. Speciflcations require that media as equidimensional as possible be used. A 60 mm (2,5 m.) aggregate size frequently is used (Table 4-II)!'

Other materials frequently used for trickling illter media include redwood slats and synthetic modules made of plastic.


The problem of valving on lines that carry wastewater or sludge differs from that on water lines only to the extent that more consideration must be given to the amount and character of the solid matter. Special materials are. used for valves located at points where gas may accumulate, The tendency for Bbrous material to lodge on projecting parts is an important consideration. In general, valves are used only where they are essential, and are so located that they How full at all times.

Ball Vulvesr-c-Bull valves are used particularly on connections to tanks under liquid pressure, They are available with full bore (free area through valves not less than inside pipe diameter) for ease of cleaning.

Butterfly Vnlves:-Because of the solids contained in wastewater, butterfly valves may be unreliable, although construction using dry valve stem operation can reduce some of the operating problems. Butterfly valves have been used for check valve service on large pumps and for final effiuent They are used in special cases on air and settled wastewater lines for throttling or for shut-off.

Carbon Slurry Valves:- Valves used in the carbon slurry piping system should be of the plug or ball type.

Check Vlllves:-When possible, the piping system of wastewater treatment plants is designed for use without check valves oE any kind because wastewater and sludge may obstruct the opening and seating of the flapper, The system can be designed without check valves by terminating discharge lines above the hydraulic gradient or by

using plug valves operated through pressure control. If check valves are used, the swing type is preferred to tilting disk types. Swing check valves are provided with an outside spring and lever or outside weight and lever, They should be Installed in tbe horizontal position to minimize the effects of solid matter ill the wastewater.

Chlorine Solution Valvesl-Valves for manifolding can be either the bnll or diaphragm type. The bnll type is satisfactory up to 50 mm (2 in.) Flanged, rubber lined, or PVC lined diaphragm type valves are preferable in 80 mm (3 in,) and larger sizes.

Chlorine Supply Valves:-Valves for chlorine supply lines should be those approved by the Chlorine Institute. Two shut-olf valves are used, one for main line shut off and the other for isolating cylinders (header valves), Header valves are identical to the outlet valves of ton containers, with Monel seat and stem. Main line valves are made of cast iron and can be either the ball type or rising stem, The ball type is more popular because its design not only indicates the valve position at a glance, hut also makes valve operation easier. V alves for chlorine solution lines should be polyvinycbloride bnll valves.

Diaphragm Valves:-Diaphragm valves are used for chemical feed service as well as on aeration lines. Generally, valve sizes for these applications range from 20 to 100 mm (0.75 to 4 in.).

Gate Vnlvesl-Gilte valves are often used when the How through closed conduits or pipes is to be controlled.

When ordinary wastewater is involved and where valves are so located that the working parts are submerged at nll times, valves with cast iron bodies and bronze mountings, such as are in general use for water service, are satisfactory. In special cases, when acids or other corrosive liquids are involved, for example, valves of special material lire justilled. Bronze and brass lire p articularly vulnerable to attack by hydrogen sulfide in gaseous form and therefore stainless steel is frequently used for the working parts of valves that cannot be submerged for the greater part of the time.

TABLE 4-TI. Federnl Specifications fQr Filter Medin Grading Sizes

Arnbunll'llu1nz 510vo (Squar" Op<ninp), Pen: en t by Wel~ht
Noml ... 1 Sizo (Squ.,.
OponiDl[>, inchea) lin. ZoS in. lin. 1.3· In. lin.
4in. J.5 in.
3.5 to 2.S 100 90-100 - ()-10 0-5 - -
3.5 to 2 100 90-100 - - 0-10 ()-S -
3 to 2 100 100 9()-100 - 0-10 ()-S -
3 to 1.5 100 100 9D-100 - ~ 0-10 0-5
2.5 to i.s 100 100 100 90-100 - 0-10 O-S Note: In. X 25.4 = mm.



Solid-wedge Dr single-gate valves have been installed to control the flow of raw wastewater. However, because of the tendency of grit and other solids to accumulate in the space needed Ior tight seating of gate valves, plug valves are preferred. Gate valves are seldom used in sludge service in most recently designed facilities, although knife gate valves may be appropriate for this service.

Gate valves of the double-disk Or parallel-seat type are generally not suitable for use on lines that CIIII}' wastewater or sludge, but were used quite often prior to the development of the plug valve. Because of their widespread uses in water service, double-disk valves are available in a wide range of sizes and metals, and for a variety of operations.

Valves with rising stems and outside yokes are used when it is essential to know the degree of opening.

Quick-opening valves equipped for lever operation are used on small lines where the pressure differential is small. Because of operating difficulties, the use of such valves is limited to 150 mm (6 in.) and smaller sizes,

The question of gear operation is tied in with valve size and operating pressures. In general, nll valves of 0.4 m (16 in.) and larger are equipped for gear operntion, while in some cases smaller valves are similarly equipped,

When the valve must be located too high for convenience, a chain-operated handwheel should be used to permit operation from the Hoor or ground level.

Gate valves, particularly those that must be used frequently, can be provided with pistons that are connected to the gate and operated by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure within a cylinder. Water, oil, or air is used to operate the valve; an important consideration is the selection of the proper piston size and the liquid or air pressure required to move the gate under maximum conditions of head differential Because of the auxiliary equipment required, the use of this type of valve is limited to central pumping stations or other plant structures where space is available. Isolated install a-



tlons of this type are seldom justified because of the expense involved.

Large gate valves intended for frequent operation in a horizontal position are fitted with rails or tracks to guide and support the gate in its passage through the valve body. Stainless steel tracks are preferable to bronze.

Hydrostatic Pressure Relief Vnlves:Where ground water is high and free movement of water under the bottom slab is assured, the tendency for .!lotation of structures can be avoided by the installation of hydrostatio pressure-relief valves, These usually have cast-iron bodies and lead faces and seats.

Hypochlorite Valves:-Hypochlorite solution shut-off and rate controlled valves CIlD he ill PVC or PVC, Saran, or rubber lined cast iron,

Knife Gate Valves:-These valves are applicable for use on lines carrying sludge or activnted carbon slurry, or where space is at a premium. The sharp edge on the gate is designed to cut through any solids that interfere with closing.

Motor Operated Valvesr=Electric motor-driven operating equipment is available to fit most valves and virtually any type of gate valve or sluice gate in a wastewater disposal system. Suob equipment is frequently economical because auxiliary pumps, tanks, and pipe lines are unnecessary and very little additional space is required.

Motor-operated valves are particularly suitable for automatic or remote control. Some valves have been equipped with a geared operating unit that can be turned by means of a portable pneumatic or electric wrench,

Mud Valves:-Cast-iron mud valves are used in channels and hoppers to control or shut off the How of wastewater sludge or for dewatering purposes. Usually these valves have bronze faces and scats.

Pinch Valves~-Pjnch valves consist of a cylindrical rubber sleeve that is closed manually or by uir pressure. These valves have been used for sludge and slurry service.

Plug ValvBs~-Plug valves commonly are used on sludge lines and on wastewater

pump discharge lines. They come as lubricated and nonlubricated types, and usually are made of cast iron throughout These valves should he opened and closed frequently to prevent freeze-ups. Lubricated plug valves rely on the shearing action of the port to prevent material build-up and may be obtained either with full-sized circular ports or with restricted openings. The non-lubricated type has an eccentric plug that moves out of the flow stream when fully open. As the valve may be opened or closed by a quarter turn of the plug, it is particularly adapted to lever and hand operation in the smaller sizes. Large plug valves commonly are equipped with gears similar to those on large gate valves. The valves may be operated by handwheels or motor-driven devices; they may also be operated by hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders, but, since auxiliary equipment is required, such operation is justifiable only in special instances. Cone valves are used on large wastewater pump discharge lines,

Telescopic Valves:-It is common practice, especially in the smaller plants, to control the How of sludge from settling tanks to sludge pumps by the use of bandoperated telescopic valves. These consist of brass or bronze sleeves that slide up lind down in a cast-iron pipe. Telescopic valves are more effective on secondary sludges since the viscosity variation is small and there are few fibrous substances to interfere with their operation.

Vent Ducts, Non-Metal

Corrosion resistant fiberglass ducts are being used to a greater extent in pumping station wet wells and areas requiring ventilation because of a corrosive environment Ducts CIlD be circular or rectangular in cross section, and manufactured to dimensions comparable to sheet metal ducts. Wall thicknesses range from 2 to 8 mm (0.09 to 0.31 in.), depending on the duct size. Stilfeners are needed on ducts having II. dimension greater than 0.9 m (36 ia.).

Vent Pipes, Metal

In addition to plumbing vents, there are two special venting applications common to wastewater treatment plant usage, one

concerning the venting of wet wells, the other the venting of rock-Blter beds.

Wet well vents act as an air relief during pumping operations and provide ventilation. They are constructed of fabricated steel, cast iron, or steel vent caps or with a turbine ventilator or similar exhauster device.

Rock-filter vents consist of stacks of single or double strength soil pipe set around the perimeter of the filter wall. Soil pipe is available in single-hub, l.5-m (5-ft) lengths, and a variety of short extension pieces are available from stock so pipe cutting usually can be avoided.

The exposed vent openings are covered with an air inlet consisting of a cast-iron plate with slotted openings.

Water Lines

Outside water lines, 80 mm (3 in.) and larger, are usually of cast iron, conforming to the A WW A, ASTM, federal, and ANSI speci£cations.a", DB

Bell lind spigot and mechanical joint cast-iron pipe is available in the 50 mm (2 in.) size. For water lines less than 50 mm diam, size-threaded cast iron is sometimes used, but not underground unless expansion joints are installed. Where neu':al soil conditions are anticipated, pipe SIZes under 40 mm (1.5 in.) are usually galvanized steel or soft temper copper, type K, L, or M, to suit the job, In acid or alkaline soil, such pipe is protected by wrapping, or plastic pipe is used.

Inside water lines under 80 mm (3 In.) are the cast-iron screwed type, galvanized steel, or bard temper copper.

Copper lines are usually. soldered at the joints, but Bared-type fittings also are used. H sol~er is used, the type recommended by the pipe manufacturer for the service required is generally chosen.

In places where it is necessary to bridge new £II, piers or beams are provided to support piping. Where outside piping is placed parallel to walls of newly built sbuctures, the piping is supported by brackets anchored to the walls or by posts extending to the wall footing.

Buried cast-iron piping is often specified to be coated at the foundry by the manu-


facturer and normally does not require additional coating before or after instal-

lation. .

Two methods of protecting water piping fro~ corros~on involv.e the use of magnesrum or zinc galvanic anodes in beds or groups as the source of current or the use of a rectifier graphite anode combination as the current source. Each method has limitations and each speclflc application should be carefully studied to determine the most efficient and economical cathodic

protection method to use. .

Piping connected to equipment is provided with unions, flexible couplings, Or companion Hanges located so that there will be no strain on the equipment and so that the piping may be dismantled readily. Suitable hangers, brackets, clamps, and braces are provided to securely attach pipe to ceilings, walls, or Hoors through the use of inserts or anchor or expansion bolts; Hangers are preferably of the adjustable-rod, split-ring type. Floor-mounted pipe supports usually are fabricated of structural steel or of black steel pipe with suitable cast-iron saddles. Will-mounted brackets or racks normnlly are fabricated of welded structural steel. Braces of steel are provided to prevent lateral movement of pipe. It is good practice to support piping at intervals of not more than 3 m (10 ft).

All piping subject to a wide temperature differential is erected in such a manner that expansion and contraction can take place without injury to the piping, fitting, equipment, or supports. Hot water piping and heating piping, when passed through Hoor and walls, are installed in pipe sleeves, Either pipe sleeves or wall castings are used for cold water piping,

Exposed hot lind cold water lines are covered with 25-mm (I-in,) thick sectionalized, pre-molded fiberglass insulation having an integral vapor barrier outer covering with self-sealing laps. Pre-molded urethane foam and flexible rubber foam also are used. Fittings are covered with similar pre-molded sections or built up out of Hat slabs of the same materials. High temperature steam lines usually are covered with a 100 percent calcium-silicate insulation. Asbestos material is being phased



out Outdoor piping lines must have insulation protected by a weather-proof outer jacket, usually made of light gauge aluminwn metal.

Automatic air vents ore provided on all high points of hot water heating mains. Where vents ore installed over finished floors or ceilings, emergency overflow connections to the nearest drain ore provided,

Before water mains are placed in service, they are disinfected. This is generally done by following the procedure outlined by the American Water Works Association." It is general practice to clean and check all lines before placing them in service. This is especially true for air and chlorine lines.

On sizes 50 nun (2 in.) and above, fiberglass reinforced pipe offers economy and resistance to scaling, tuberculation, and corrosion, It is also impervious to all normal soil pH conditions without coatings, wrappings, and/or cathodic protection.

Supporting and burying are done in the same manner as is the same size steel pipe. The hangers used are the same as those used with steel pipe. The insulating value of fiberglass reinforced pipe is greater than steel; however, where additional insulation is required, it should be the same as that used with steel. From the standpoint of potable water, most fiberglass reinforced pipe has National Sanitation Foundation approval •.

Weir Plates, BnfBes and Troughs:


Weir plates usually are made from steel or aluminum in thicknesses ranging from 5 to 13 mID (0.2 to 0.5 in.). A minimum thickness of 6 mm (0.25 In.] is recommended. Steel weir plates commonly are hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication, although painted plates also are used. Scum baffles, which are subjected to the abrasive action of a scraper arm, usually are made from steel. Weir plates are also made of fiberglass.

In fabricating weir plates the following general rules apply; slotted or square holes for anchor bolts are provided to allow for adjustment; if square holes are used, extra



large washers are necessary; bolts, nuts, washers, and other fastenings should be hot-dipped galvanized or made of stainless steel; and for long weirs, those that are serrated with gO'-angle notches are preferable to straight-edged weir plates.

Metal eHluent troughs most often are fabricated from steel or aluminum plate and may consist of a V-sectlon of welded plate forming the channel proper with bolted-on weir plates along the sides to regulate the How of eHluent into the trough. Where the effluent is relatively free from settlable solids, a trough of constant channel section and depth will reduce the fabrication costs greatly. Pre-cast concrete and fiberglass troughs have been used in some instances.

7. "Concrete COD.'ltruction Design Handbook."

Amerlcan Concrete Inst., Detroit, Mioh. (1973).

8. ACI Committee 350, "Concrete Sanllluy Engineering Structures," Amar. Concrete 11U1. Jour. (Aug, 1971).

9. ACI Committee 350, "Discussion," Amer. CORorotB 1M, Jour. (Feb. 1972).

10. "Concrete Construction Handbook," Waddell, J., (Ed.). McGrnw-HII1, New York, N. Y. (1968).

11. "Handbook of Concrete IIDd Cement," Chief o£ Engrs., Corps of Engrs., U. S. Army, Wasblngton, D. C.

12. Johnson, R. F., "Structurnl Concrete." MeGmw-Hfll, New York, N. Y. (1967).

13. "Concrete Manual," U. S. Bureau of Beclnmutton, Denver, Colo. (1963).

14. "Standard Specillcatlons for Concrete Aggregates." ANSI A37.124 ASTM C33, Ame r, Soc. for Testing IIDd MaterWs, FWm-

delphill, I'll. (1974). .

15. "Recommended Practice for Concrete Floor IIDd Slnb Construcdcn," ACI 302 Amer, Concrete Inst, (1969).

16. "Stnndartl. SpecillcatioD.'l for Portland Cement."

Amer. Society for Testing lind Materials, Philadelphin, PI!. (1969).

17. "Uniform Buildlag Code Standard for Concrete Reinforcement Bars." Intl. Conference of Bulldlng Olllclals, Pasadena, Cn.Iif. (1973).

lB. "Corrosion Coatrol in Munlclpal Wnstewater Treatment Faeillties," U. S. El'A, Municipal Wastewater Systems Div., Contract No. 68-01-0969, Wa.sWngton, D. C. (1974).

19. "Paint and Protective Coatings," MlIDuoJ of Practice 17, Water FoIL Control Fed., WlI5hington, D. C. (1969).

20. "Rubber Gll.Sket Joints for Cast-hon Pressure Plpe und Flttings:' Amer, Water Works Assoc., Denver, Colo.

21. "Performance of Casketed Joints for Ca.st-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings." Uuderwriters Laboratories, Inc., Chlcngo, TIl. (1967). 22. "Llquld Chlorine Storage Tonks and Systems." Factory Mutual System, Norwood, Mass. (1967).

23. "Code for Fiberglass Reinforced Plnstic Pressure Vessels." Amer. Society of Mach. EDgin., New York, N. Y.

24. "Occupational Snfety and HenIth Standerds," U. S. Dept. of Labor, Foderal Rogl.rtar, 36, 105 (1972).

25. Steel Structures Painting COUDell, Fittsburgh, I'lL

26. "Standard SpecJJicntion fo. Polyethylene Plastic Pipe." Amer. Society for Testing IIDd Materials, PWiadelphill, I'll. (19B8).

27. "Acrylonlt:ri1e-ButedJene-St:yrene Plasdc Flpe."

USC (1969) u. S. Dept. of Commerce, Nat!. Bureau of Sfnndnrds, Washington, D. C. (1969).

2B. Standard Specillcation lo. Polyvinyl Chloride Plastie Pipe, Amer. Society for Testing and Materinfs, FhllD.delphia, I'll.

29. Stnndnrd Specillcation for Polybutylena Flastic Pipe. Amer. Society for Testing and Mnterlnls, Phllndelphln, I'll. (1968).

30. Underwriters' Lnborntories, Inc., ChJcago, Ill.

31. "Naticnal Electrical Sniety Code." Amlll'.

Natl. Standards Inst, New York, N. Y. (1940).

32. "American Recommended Practice Manunl for the Computntion of Strength and Thick· ness of Cast-Iron PIpe." Amer. Water Works Assoc., Denver, Colo.

33. "Design and Construction of SanitarY. IIDd 8lollll Sewers," Manual of Practice 9, Water Poll. Control Fed., Washington, D. C.; Manual of Engineering Prnctlce 37, Amer. Soc. Civil Engr., New York, N. Y. (1970).

34. Archer, E., and Robinson, L., "Handbook of Trickling FiltlU' Design." Public Works Jour. Corp., Ridgewood, N. J. (1970).

35. "Cast-Iron Fipe Centrifugnlly ClISt in Metnl Molds. for Water or Other Liquids." Amer. Water Works Assoc" Denver, Colo.

36. "Cnst-Iron Pipe CentrifuguUy Cast in SlIDdLined Molds, for Water or Other Llqulds." Amer, Waterworks Assoc., Denver, Colo. 37. "A Procedure For Disinfecting Water MI1ins."

AWWA C60l, Amer, Waterworh Assoc., Denver, Colo.

Weir Plates, Non-Metal

Plastic weir plates consist of reinforced plastic not less than B rom (0.31 in.) thick, fabricated of polyester resin reinforced with fiberglass mats, with the glass flbers being at least 25 percent of the laminated weight. The fibers also extend to all edges of each piece. All surfaces are smooth and straight except, of course, for the notched edge of a serrated weir. Corner pieces are rounded to radii suitn ble to and consistent with the thiclmess and strength of the material. Similar reinforced plastic plates, 110t less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick, are used to cover each bolt slot and to form closures lit the end of plates.


1. "Water Pollution Control Product Guide:' Water FoIL Control Fed., WlIShlngton, D. C. 2. American Society for Testing and Matermls, 1916 Race St, Philadelphia, I'lL

3. '''Qunlity standnrds for Steel Castings for Valves, F)lIDges and Fittings IIDd Other Piping Components." MlIDnfllcturm Standardi:mtion Society of the Valve IIDd Fittings Industry, Arlington, VIL (1971).

4. "Standard Steel Pipe Line Flanges." Manufacl= Stnndnrdizntion Society of the Valve IIDd F[ttings Industry, ArlingtDU, Va. (1970).

5. ChIorina Institnte, 342 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.

6. "Clennlng Fnbdcated Piping." Pipe Fabrication Inst., Pittsburgh, I'll. (1962).


Chcxpter 5

Combination Circuit Breakers and Magnetic Starters

Motor Control Centers

Control Modes

98 Control Systems


Automatic Constant or Adjustable Speed

Automatic Variable Speed

104 Piping and Valves Materials

Suction Piping Discharge Piping Force Mains

Surge Reliq Protection Air Vents and Blow Offs

By-Pass Piping Between Pump and Cone Valves

107 Pump Station Structure WetWe1L

Dry Well-Pump Room 110 References

The pump types shown in Figure 5-1 can be clnsstfied more generally as either centrifugal, rotary, or reciprocating.' These catagories refer to the mechanics of moving the liquid. The nomenclature used in the following paragraphs refer not only to the essential mechanics of movement but also to the service for which the pump is designed.

Pumps and Pumping Appurtenances

77 Pump Classmcations

Centrifugal, Two-Port Non-Clog Radial Type

Centrifugal, Two-Port Clean Water

Radial Type

Gentrifuga~ Vortex Flow Type Mixed Flow Type

Axial Flow Type

Air Lift Pumps

Air Lift Ejectors

Grinding Pumps

Screw Lift Pumps

POSftfVB Displacement Plunger, Rotary and Diaphragm Types

88 Pump Appurtenances Air Chambers

Gland and Pump Seals Time Clocks

Pressure Gauges Priming

88 Pump Design Considerations System Head-Capacity Curves Effects of Viscosity

Number of Pumps Required Performance Curves


Future Expansion

91 Pump Drive Mechanisms Direct Drives

Belt and Chain Drives Right Angle Drives Auxiliary Drives

92 Pump Motors

Squirrel Cage Induction Wound Rotor Synohronous Multi-speed

Direct Current

94 Motor Selection Considerations Atmosphere

Pump Type and Size Voltage


Speed Acceleration-Deceleration



In the design of wastewater treatment facilities, the engineer is faced with the selection, design, and use requirements of pumping equipment for a wide range of applications, Including the pumping of untreated wastewnters, completely treated wastewaters, mixtures of domestic and industrial wastes; dilute and well-thickened raw and digested sludges; scum containing n mixture of grense, floating solids, and trash; return and waste activated sludges; chemical solutions; Hushing wafer; spray water and pump seal water; tank 'drntnage, and sump pump water. The many pumps

< avnllnble for these npplicatlons may be classified lIS shown in Figure 5-1; some typical applications of these pumps are shown in Tnble 5-!. References such as "Pump Application Engineering," "Pump Selection, n Consulting Engineer's Manual," and others will be helpful in matching the demands of the design with the characteristics of a particular pump.'--

Pump Classifications Centrifuga], Two-Port Non-Clog Radial Type

Capacity-Head and Range Characteristics:-The centrifugal two-port radial non-clog pump ranges in size (rated by the size of discharge) from a minimum of 51 to a maximum of 510 mm (2 to 20 in.). The normal recommended capacity for these pumps is from 3 to 1300 If s (50 to 20 000 gpm ). Pumps are available for cpcrating heads from 8 to 60 m (25 to 200 ft) total dynamic head (TDH). Higher heads may be obtained by operating these pumps in series.

The operating characteristics are such that the maximum head is obtained at shutoff, with an increase in capacity resulting in a drop in head. The power is at a minimum at zero cnpacity and increases as the capacity is increased. The power will generally reach a peak nt or near the maximum effiCiency.

Efficiency r=-The efficiency of the centrifugal non-clog pump starts at zero at shut-off, or zero capacity, increasing rapidly until n peak is reached at approximately the , mid-point of the overnll capacity range of the pump. The efficiency can be likened to an inverted parabola. Therefore, for peak efficiency, best mechanical performnnce, and quietest operation, a pump should be selected so that the range of operation will be nt the mid-point of the total pump curve. When operated at or near peak design efficiency. efficiencies :ange .from 80 percent for the 51 mm (2 m.) discharge pumps to approximately 85 percent for the 250 to 510 mm (10 to 20 in.) size. <

Non-Clog Characteristics I-These pumps



I'1J1oI!p5 GnmDUm
SCAm urr
PO:5;lIVE nDlM'!'
DI"P-HnAQM FIGURE 5-1. Pump classificntions for wastewater treatment worles.

derive their "non-clog" characteristics from the type of impeller used in their construction. The impellers are well rounded and free from sharp corners and projections likely to catch and bold rags and stringy material. They are most frequently of twovane or two-port construction (Figure 5-2), and either of the enclosed or the semienclosed (sometimes referred to as open) type.

The enclosed impeller consists of two or more vnnes between two plates or shrouds. The lower, or outboard, shroud has a center opening into which the liquid to be pumped enters. The upper, Or inboard,

FIGURE 5-2. Centrifugal rlldlal pumps are most frequently of two vane or two port construction.



T A1!LE 5-1. Typical WlUltewater Appllcntions of Some Pump Types

Ho" n.=.d Hend Aff.ot., How In ........ d Hood AIT«:ts.
Typo Pump Urn,1 M ... lmuln
Suo!lon Lilt (ft)
Capaeltr POYt'ftf Input Cnpodty PoworInput
Centrifugal, 2-port
non-dog 15 Increase Depends on Speed Decrease Depends on Speed
Centrifugal, 2-port
dear-water IS Increase Depends on Speed Decrease Depends on Speed
Centrifugal, vortex
flow 15 Incrcaae Depends on Speed Decrease . Depends on Speed
Mb:ed Flow 15 Increase Depends on Speed Decrease Depends on Speed
Axial flow 15 Increase Depends on Speed Decrease Depends on Speed
Air lift 30 Increase Decrease Decrease Increase
Grinding 10 None Decrease Decrease Increase
Screw lift 0 Increase Decrease Decrease Increase
Positive displacement,
plunger, rotary, and
diaphragm 22 None Decrease None Increase • While pumps have the capability of handling the solids concentrations shown, movement of the solids to the pumps may be difficult.

Note: ft X 0.305 ~ rn,

shroud contains the impeller hub, keyed or threaded to the pump shaft, The lower shroud has an extended lip around the center opening circumference that extends into the suction opening of the pump casing or volute. Both the impeller nnd the suction cover enclosed-type impeller pump can normally be furnished with renewable rings.

The clearance, or spacing of the point between the extension of the lower shroud and the pump suction cover, is directly

related to the pumping efficiency. The liquid recirculating from the higher pressure of the volute into the lower pressure area of the suction "eye" reduces the efficiency of the pump, The clearances normally allowed between the impeller and suction cover may range from 0.250 to 0,B40 mm (0.010 to 0,025 in.] depending on the size of the pump, application, nnd other factors. Mter long periods of use or abnormal wear caused by abrasive materials, it is recommended that the clearances be


TA1!LE 5-1. (Crmlinued)


~h..rmuln Solid. G ••• rully H •• dl.d· ('ill

Sam. Typlml Applh:"UD"


Disinfected secondary effluent




Not applicable



1. Raw wastewater sludge

2. Primary settled sludge

3. Secondary settled sludge

4. Land application of wastewater

5. Chemically treated sludge O. Incinerator slurries

1. Flushing water for general cleaning

2. Sprny water to ~p foam down J. Pre- and post-chlorination

4. Solution water for chemicals

S, Incinerator quenching" and cooling Ii. Seal water for pump stuffing boxes

1. Sludge recirculation

2. Effluents with stringy material

1. Sludge recirculation

2. Land application of wastewater

1. Clear-water service in wet wells

1. Raw wastewater

2. Return sludge

1. Homes and small lift stations

1. Raw wastewater solids

2. Plant influent

3. Return sludge

1. Primary settled sludge

2. Thickened sludge

3. Aerobic or anaerobic digested sludge

4. Incinerated sludge

S. Heat conditioned sludge

6. Chemically trea ted sludge

7. Slurries

H. Chemical feed

cheeked, wearing rings replaced (if used and if necessary), and other corrections made to bring the pump hack to its original efficienoy.

The semi-enclosed impeller is constructed with the vanes attached to an upper or inboard shroud. No lower shroud should be used. The vanes are so designed that the open portion of the impeller is contoured to follow the design of the suction plate of the volute. The ruction plate, therefore, serves as the lower shroud of the impeller. The entire lower edge of each .impeller

vane maintains a running clearance that prevents the higher pressure liquid from recirculating to the suction eye area of the impeller, The pump efficiency depends on the maintenance of the constant clearance between the contour of the impeller and the suction cover.

The semi-enclosed impeller will usually have higher efficiencies initially; however, the enclosed impeller generally retains the original clearances and efficiencies longer. Further, as indicated previously, the enclosed impellers can be fitted with wearing



rings that can be replaced both on the impeller IIDd on the suction cover at a Considerably lower cost than the replacement of either the impeller or the suction cover, or both.

General Construction:-Centrifugal radial two-port non-clog pumps are available to operate in either a wet well or a dry well installation.

For wet well installations, submerged wastewater ejectors are available that can be suspended in the wet well. These are normally constructed such that the thrust bearing is mounted above the floor plate within the pedestal on which a vertical motor is placed. The motor is :!lexiblecoupled to the pump shaft, which extends through the floor plate, through the packing box, IIDd is enclosed in a housing composed of either pipe or tubing extended to the discharge casing. Inside of the enclosed housing, mounted at intervals generally not to exceed 1.8 m (6 ft), are radial sleeve bearings for guidance of the pump shaft. These pumps are not recommended for continuous heavy duly, nor for deep sewer or deep pit installation, because of the length of ~haft and enclosing pipe, as well as the large number of sleeve guide bearings necessary for operation. Maintenance is difficult since the entire pump must be removed for any repairs.

Also available for wet well installation are submersible pumps. These generally are constructed as pumps close-coupled to a submersible motor. The motor bearings serve as both thrust and radial bearings for the pump. These pumps are built for intermittent duty and are limited in size to the power available on submersible motors. On small but deep wet well installations of 4.6 m (15 it) and deeper, submersible pumps may be more economical on the initial installation. Again, these pumps must be entirely removed for servicing. Frequently,' because of the special nature of the motor, servicing can be accomplished only at the motor manufacturer's factorycertified service station.

For dry basin installations, both horizontal or vertical pumps are available. The horizontal pump is normally mounted on a


common base, flexible-coupled to its driver. On the larger units, the pump and its driver may be mounted on adjacent bases, The pump construction is such that the shaft is ill. the horizontal position baving the thrust bearing mounted adjacent to the driver end of the shaft and the radial bearing mounted closest to the impeller. The stuffing box is normally placed between the impeller and the mdialbearlng to prevent the How of liquid along the shaft The stuffing box: houses four to six: rings of packing IIDd the water seal ring. On pumps with mechenleal seals, the packing and the water seal ring are replaced by the mechanical seal. The portion of the shaft going through the stuffing box is normally constructed with a replaceable sleeve, eliminating the need for replacing the entire shaft if the packing scores the shaft portion go-' ing through the stuffing box. The stuffing box: construction is such that a lubricant access passage is provided to the water seal ring. This passage admits grease Dr fresh water to lubricate the seal. Where mechanical seals are used, it is essential that clear water be provided to the seal on wastewater pump applications to prevent premature failure.

Vertical pumps normally are furnished in one of two conllgurations: with the motor mounted on a pedestal directly connected to the pump (vertical pedestal mounted); or, in those instances where the possibility of flooding of the dry well exists, it is more desirable to mount the motor at an elevation above the top of the wet well (vertical open shaft). The motor is connected to the pump through ODB or more sections of flexible shafting. The pump construction is identical to that of the borizonal pump with the addition of a 90 degree suction elbow adjoining the pump suction plate. The elbow serves to change the flow from the wet well from horizontal to vertical into the eye of the impeller. A handhole opening should be provided in the suction of both horizontal and vertical pumps for ease of inspection and clearance of objects that may become entrapped in the impeller eye.

A desirable feature of the horizontal pump is the ense of maintenance and re-

moval, The vertical pump, however, does require considerably less floor space. The vertical pump with the motor mounted on a floor above affords additional protection for the motor. Also, by merely disconnecting the pump end of the flexible shafting, it is possible to service the pump without removal of the motor. The additional cost of the flexible shafting (vertical open shaft configuration) must be weighed against the added protection for the motor and the additional ease of servicing realized, when compared to the vertical pump with the motor mounted directly above ( vertical pedestal mounted). Because vertical shafting can be a source of vibration, safety cages are required.

Centrifugal, Two-Port Clenn Water Radial Type

Capacity-Head and Range Oharaeteristics:-Applications requiring lower heads and capacities can be ful£lled with the close coupled pump. For larger capacities of higher discharge heads, a flexible coupled pump is generally used because of the need for a more rugged power frame.

EfficiencYl- The efficiencies obtainable with the centrifugal water type pumps vary with the size of the unit and the relationship of the required head and capacity to the optimum design of the individual pump. Efficiencies in the upper 80 Of 90 percent range are available with the large double horizontal split case pumps.

General Construction:-The close coupled pump and motor arrangement is generally used with smaller pumps. The pump impeller is mounted directly on the motor sbaft and almost without exception uses a mechanical seal to contain the fluid in the pump casing. Packed seal units are available; however, these are less common and generally not used in the clean water type application.

The flexible coupled clean water centrifugals may be obtained in either end suction, single side suction, or double suotion units. They are available in vertical split case or horizontal split case, depending on the conflguration of the unit They are also available in single and multi-stage


units. The single stage units are used for lower beads, while the multi-stage units are used when higher heads are required.

While the double suction honzontally split case pump is generally the most expensive of the three flexible coupled clean water centrifngals, it has many advantages. Normally the entire rotating assembly CnD be removed without disturbing either the piping Of the driver. This fncllitntes dismantling and repair when bearings, impeller, or casing wearing rings must be replaced. This type normally requires the least maintenance and generally outlasts the others.

Centrifugal, Vortex Flow Type

Capacity-Head and Range Characteristics~-The centrifugal vortex type pump has a characteristic performance curve similar to the centrifugal radial non-clog pump. The pumps are available in sizes from 51 to 200 mm (2 through 8 in.), delivering capacities from 3,2 to 320 1/ s (50 to 5 000 gpm) at heads up to B4 m (210 It) TDH.

Efficiency:-The efficiency curve of the vortex pump is similar to that of the Donclog pump. It too reaches its peak at the mid-point of the overall capacity runge. The maximum efficiencies obtainable with the vortex pumps are somewhat less than those obtainable with the radial non-clog pumps, When operated at or near the peak efficiency, the vortex: pump may reach efficiencies 5 to 20 percentage points below the equivalent sized non-clog ]_lump,

Non-Clog Characteristics:-The vortex: pump is designed so that the impeller is completely recessed from the volute area, thus creating no restrictions between the impeller and the volute. The fluid and entrained solids do not enter tbe impeller, but pass from the ruction line through the volute into the discbarge line. Thus, with a proper volute design, it is possible to handle any solids that may pass the suction nozzle.

The impellers are multi-vaned and semiopen (Figure 5-3). They are recessed in the discharge casing, completely removed from the volute area, and generate 11 whirl-




FIGUlI.E 5-3. Vortex or torque How pumps have a multiplicity of vanes cut into the impeller.

fig or circular motion that extends into the suction opening. The vortex created directs the How of both the Huid and entrained solids entering the pump into the volute area, where the How is forced out by centrifugal force.

General Construction:-The centrifugal vortex type pumps are available for either a wet well or dry well installation. The construction is similar to the centrifugal radial non-clog type pumps.

Mixed Flow Type

'Capacity-Head and Range Character. istics:-Centrifugal mixed How pumps are avaflabls in sizes £rom 0.2 m through 2.1 m (8 through 84 in.) The normal capacity range for these pumps is from 63 to 5 000 lis (1000 to 80000 gpm). Pumps are generally available in heads ranging from 3 to 18 m (10 to 60 ft) TDH. The operating characteristics of the mixed How pumps are similar to those of the centrifugal radial non-clog pump.

Efficiency 1- The efficiency characteristics of the centrifugal mixed How pumps are similar to the efficiencies of the centrifugal radial pumps. Because of the larger sizes involved, peak efficiency will normally range from 80 to 88 percent, depending on the size and characteristics of the individual pump.


Non-Clog Characteristicsl-The mixed How iropelleris an intermediate design between the radial and the axial flow propeller, with How components of both. It is suitable for handling wastewater or storm water because it is normnlly designed with wide unobstructed passages. For a comparable pump discharge size, the nonclog or radial pump will pass larger solids; however, because of the availability of this type of pump in the large discharge sizes, they can be considered for Wastewater and storm water applicatioos. The impeller most closely resembles the enclosed impeller of the radial non-clog pumps (Figure 5-4).

General Coostruction:-The centrifugal mixed How pumps are available only for operation in a dry well installation, in both the horizontal and vertical configuration. The construction is similar to the centrifugal radial non-clog pumps. These pumps are primarily available as packed pumps. Mechanical seals are available, but, because of high costs, they are not nonnnlly used. Renewable wearing rings are available for impellers and casings to maintain the clearance necessary for efficient operation.



FIGURE 5-4. Mixed How pumps develop their head partly by centrifugal force and partly by the lift of the vanes on the liquid.



FIGURE 5-5. Axial How pumps develop head by the propelling or lifting action of the vanes.

Axial Flow Type

Capacity-Head and Range Characteristiest=-The axial How or propeller type pump has a somewhat different characteristic performance curve than the radial or mixed How type. The input horsepower at shut-off may be in excess of twice the horsepower necessary at the rated condition. This restricts the application of this type of pump to a narrower range of capacities.

The pumps are available in sizes from 0.2 to l.8 m (B through 72 in.), delivering capacities from 32 to 6 300 II s (500 to 100 000 gpm) at heads of 0.3 to 12 m (1 to 40 ft). These are primarily designed for large capacity, low head operations.

Efficiency:-Efficiencies vary with the size and pump design, but normally range from 75 to 85 percent over the limited recommended operating range of these pumps.

Non-Clog Characteristics:-Axial or propeller How pumps develop their head by the propelling or lifting action of tha vanes (Figure 5-5). This pump is primarily used for clear water service. It should not be . used in wastewater application since pro-

pelling large solids or stringy material could be a problem.

General Construction:-This pump is designed for wet well installations, It is furnished with a vertical shaft having its suction at the bottom through a contoured opening. The propeller is mounted near the bottom of the shaft, which is totally submerged in the liquid to be pumped, and enclosed in a housing or bowl. The shaft is likewise enclosed in a small housing inside the discharge pipe. Sleeve bearings are furnished at intervals slmilnr to those in the wet-well type centrifugal non-clog


I 'I



pump. The shaft may be driven by a vertical hollow sbaft motor, vertical solid shaft motor, or a right angle gear drive thnt can be powered by horizontal electric motor or engine.

The Huid is given velocity by the propeller, Hows vertically through the pump column, and is generally ejected at right angles at the pump discharge flange, Positive shut-off valves should be avoided in the pump discharge piping because of the high horsepower required at shut-off head. Adequate means of lubrication should be provided for the bearings in the line shaft, as well as the bearing normally provided in the suction bell.

Air Lift Pumps

Cnpncity-Head and Range Characteristics:-Air lift pumps are used for return activated sludge applications in the smaller treatment plants.

General Operation and Constructiom-« The pump consists of a vertical pipe, open at both ends, the lower end of which is submerged in the liquid to be pumped (Figure 5-6). Compressed air is admitted to the bottom of the pipe, reducing the average density of the mixture relative to the outside of the pipe. Thus, at the proper nir/liquid ratio, the liquid rises to the desired elevation. Air lift pumps are used


FIGURE 5-6. Air-lift pump.



where a source of air pressure is available for the duty required. They are relatively inexpensive to Install, malntain, and operate.

Air Lift Ejectors

Capacity-Head and Range Charncteristics:-Air lift, or pneumatic, ejectors can be used for pumping raw wastewater including solids that can enter the receiving container (Figure 5-7). Units are available in 1.9 to 9.5 1/ s (30 to 150 gpm) capacities at heads upto 18 m (60 ft).

General Operation and ConstructiomAn air lift ejector consists of a receiving container, inlet and outlet check valve, air supply, and liquid level detector. When the wastewater reaches a preset level, air is forced into the container, ejecting the wastewater. Following the discharge cycle, the air supply is cut off and wastewater Rows through the inlet into the receiver.


FIGURE 5.7. An air-lift ejector. As wastewater rises in the receiving containers and contacts the electrode, air is forced into the container ejecting the wastewater.


Grinding Pumps

Grinding pumps are a relatively new wastewater transfer mechanism, primarily used to handle domestic wastewaters from one to three homes, although they are available in larger sizes. Grinding pumps can also be utilized to reduce screenings and primary sludge underRow solids to particle sizes of less than 10 mm (0.4 in.). Discharge heads are limited, and pumping efficiencies are quite low. The ground screenings are sluiced to the grinding pump and, after disintegration, returned to the waste streams, thus eliminating any messy solids handling problems,

Periodic maintenance of the units is required. Cutters normally are rebuilt with hardened materials. Water-Hushed cutlass bearings are recommended.

Screw Lift Pumps

Capnclty=Head andRange Charueteristics:-The screw lift pumps range in size (rated by the diameter of the screw) from a minimum of 0,3 m (12 in.) to a maximum of 3.7 m (144 In.) in diameter. The normal rated capacities may range from 6.3 to 4400 1/ s (100 to 70 000 gpm) The screw pumps are primarily used for low lift, high capacity, non-clog pumping installation. They are primarily suited for lifts up to 7.5 m (25 ft) but are available for lifts up to 12 m (39 ft) in the larger hydraulic capacities.

The operating characteristics are such that the head remains relatively constant, decreasing slightly as the fluid level at the inlet to the screw rises. The pumping rate lind the horsepower demand increase automaticnlly with the rise of the Huid level at the inlet, while the pump operates at a low constant rpm.

Efficiency:- The efficiency of the screw pump increases from the minimum capacity to its rated capacity, with near maximum efficiency effectively produced across the entire top 70 to 80 percent of the pumping range. These units are suited for variable capacity operation, because the rate of discharge is controlled by the fluid level at the inlet to the screw. No variable speed drive


FIGURE 5-S. Screw lift pumps are used primarily for low lift, high oapncity, non-clog pumping installations.

is required. The horsepower varies almost directly with the pumping capacity, resultIng in high efficiencies over a larger variance of pumping capacity,

Non-Clog Characteristics:-The revolving spiral limits the passage of solids to those smaller than the dimension of opening between the Bights. Any solids capable of passing through the Rights are readily conveyed with the water through the pump (Figure 5-B),

General Construction: -The screw pump normally consists of two or more leads of steel Righting, welded around a water tight steel tube. A trough of steel (gBnernIly on the smaller diameter screws) or concrete must be provided for conveying of the liquid and entrained solids, The screw is driven by a motor through a speed reducer at the top of the unit, The bottom of the screw is immersed in the inflow channel.

Unlike the ceotrifuglll pumps, screw pumps require no wet well or suction and discharge piping, These units are used primarily for low lift of wastewater, sludge, storm water, or irrigation water.

Positive Displacement Plunger, Rotary. and Diaphragm Types

The positive displacement type pumps are used because of their ability to move heavy sludges; efficiency is never a factor lind rarely measured.

Positive displacement pumps have one common characteristic-there is no direct connection between inlet lind outle!:; thus these pumps do not backRow. Generally, they operate with close clearances. A comparison of the delivery capacity of two types of positive displacement pumps is shown in Figure 5-9. For comparison only, a 30 m (100 ft) TDH was used.

Plunger Pumps:-Plunger pumps (Figure 5-10) are employed to ensure positive delivery at the design :Bow rate, These pumps are available in simplex, duplex, triplex, and quadruplex models with capacities up to 7.61/s (120 gpm) per plunger and discharge heads up to 73 m (240 ft).

The most common variety of positive displacement pump used in wastewater treatment is the reciprocating type plunger pump, It is generally used in handling sludge at maximum heads of 20 to 30 m (60 to 100 ft) TDH. This type of unit



n:: 25
... 20
::r 15
0 10
0 250 350 400 DISCHARGE. opm @ 100 ft total dynamic head

FIGURE 5-9. Comparison of the delivery capacity of two types of positive dis. placement pumps. Note: hp X 0.745 = kWl gpm X 0.0631 = lfs; it X 0.305 = m, .

operates best with some suction lift and will generally not be used for capacities greater than 6.3 ]/5 (100 gpm).

. For domestic wastewater sludge applications, no special construction materials are required. The base may be welded of steel or cast iron with cylinders and pump body

FIGURE 5-10. Flunger pumps are employed to ensure positive delivery lit the design Bow rate.


of niekle alloy, cast iron or semi-steel. Pistons are often hardened to reduce wear.

The pulsating effect of the reciprocating plunger can help prevent sludge bridging or rat-holing of sludge hoppers. While they are self-priming, they are generally located on elevation equal to or above the surface of the material being pumped. If the head on the suction side of the pump is too high relative to the discharge, that is. pumping from II digester, sludge pressure may lift the ball checks and sludge will flow through the pump when it is not in operation and cause undue slippage during the pumping cycle.

Variable capacity of a plunger pump is achieved by adjusting stroke length and speed or varying operating time on intermittent operations. As much as practical, variable capacity should be achieved by adjusting speed and operating period, using the pump at full stroke, Since tight packing is required to sen! the piston, wear will occur at this point If the stroke is short, localized wear will shorten piston life and accelerate packing wear and leakage at long stroke. Overall maintenance of pump and ball check is minimized by operating

the pllIIlp at the slowest practical speed and a long stroke,

Cross bead guides will minimize uneven piston wear caused by side thrust Where excessively abrasive conditions are expected, piston wear can be reduced by hardfacing or hardening. Shear pins are provided to prevent pump damage by high pressure resulting from plugged or shutoff lines. For more positive control high pressure shut-off switches are sometimes used.

Ball checks are readily accessible through large quick-opening valve box covers. Air chambers are always installed on the discharge line and are recommended for the suction side. Pressure gauges normally are mounted on top of the air chambers, The top of the air chamber should be fitted with a suitable air connection to periodically blowout the scum accumulation and to replace the water-logged air chambers with compressed air,

The plunger pump and the diaphragm pump are perhaps the best equipped of all the positive displacement pumps to handle heavy abrasive sludges.

Rotary Pumps: -There are many types of rotary pumps, of which the screw (more commonly known as the progressing cavity pump) is the most widely applied (Figure 5-11). Other rotary pumps that have minor applications in sludge handling and disposal include the gear. vane, and lobe designs. These pumps may be used for metering chemical feed or fuel to a combustion system, but rarely for handling sludges, lIS abrasive conditions result in unacceptable maintenance costs.

Operating characteristics of progressing cavity pumps include smooth delivery of How, self-priming [suction lifts to 8.5 m (28 ft)],· and discharge capabilities up to 251/s (400 gpm).

Progressing cavity pumps have a continuous screw rotor fitted into a matching stator. Construction materials suitable for most applications (except chemicals) are a cast-iron body with II tooled steel rotor and a rubber stator.


FIGURE 5-11. The progressing cavity pump is the most widely applied rotary pump.

Mounting of the pump may be horizontnl or vertical without affecting pumping efficiency.

The bulk of the wear is taken by the stator and the flexible connector, the rate a function of abrasiveness and pump speed. Gritty sludges may cause excessive wear even at low speeds.

The progressing cavity unit provides an almost constant delivery at varying heads. Also, because check valves are not part of the assembly, the pump is clean to operate and can handle reasonably large particles. Leakage around the shaft is controlled with a mechanical seal.

Diaphragm Pumps:-Diaphragm pumps (Figure 5-12) are characterized by a Hex-

FIGURE 5-12. Diaphrngm pumps are characterized by a flexible membrane located between the pumped material and the driving force ..




ib1e membrane located between the sludge and the driving force. The reciprocating action provides suction and discharge pres· sure using check balls or valves to prevent baeldlow,

The driving force may be provided by direct mechanical means, such as a CIlID· shaft or eccentric, or by fluid pressure. High pressure air can be used to expel the chamber, and, where a suction lift is required. vacuum may be employed to assist filling the pump bowl.

This type of pump is commonly used to pump thick sludges and septic tank contents, and for metering chemicals.

Pump Appurtenances

There are other appurtenances that can improve pump operation and assist plant operation.

Air Chambers

Plunger pumps should always be provided with an air chamber on the discharge side. and preferably also on the suction side, to reduce shock. These chambers are usually approximately 0.2 m (8 in.) ID X 0.8 m (30 in.) long, equipped with a drain valve and air vent

Gland and Pump Seals

On centrifugal pumps designed with mechanical seal type stuffing boxes. the seal sbould be designed to be serviced externally. This seals the sbaft 'against air leakage and Bases maintenance. The seal can be either grease or water lubricated.

. Water not only provides the seal, but prevents grit from entering the seal area and scouring the shaft Automatic grease lubrication also helps prevent sbaft score.

Clean water should be used for shaft seals. If potable water is used, an air-gap arrangement and separate sealing water pump' are required, consisting of a small pump with a Boat-controlled How switch and a small reservoir. Treated elBuent has been used for this purpose. If the elBuent is not free of gritty material, it will increase maintenance costs. Generally, the seal water is only used wben the pump is in operation. A solenoid valve wired across


the pump starter can be used. A manual by-pass is also suggested.

Time Clocks

The prudent use of time clocks and elapsed time meters on pumps can. help the small plant operator who 'bas many other duties to perform. A 24--h time clock will permit the operator to establish a regular pumping period. Repeat time clocks are good for those intermittent operations that are not handled satisfactorily by other start and stop means, such as high/low level controls.

Elapsed time meters may provide an indication of pumping volume; however, even with positive displacement pumps, the accuracy is often questionable because of higb suction losses (vaporization and partial chamber £11) and wear.

Where multiple units are to be pumped in sequence, time clocks with automatic programing of valves and pumps can be used. The sequence can be controlled with a secondary operating time clock or other devices, such as those that measure density.

Pressure Gauges

Pressure gauges are useful to check the pumping bead and to ascertain if there is a pressure build-up in the line and a loss of pumping capacity. Pressure gauges sbould be protected by a diaphragm that will keep solids from the inner parts of tbe gauge.


Wastewater pumps are available with various designs of priming equipment. Some have automatic priming devices that become inactive after the priming is aecomplisbed, and others incorporate a hydraulic device that is part of a self-priming pump. The self-priming designs are usually more compact nnd better for portable use.

Pump Design Considerations System Head-Capacity Curves

Since centrifugal non- clog wastewater pumps are not self-priming, they must be locuted at an elevation such that at start-up they will have a positive suction head.

Further, since most pumps are designed for best operation with a suction lift of not more than 4.5 m (15 it), the draw down as well as the losses in the suction piping should be such that the suction lift at the pump inlet flange be at a minimum. An exception to this general rule migbt be noted on positive displacement pumps being used for sludge service where a sligbt suction lift is desirable.

To determine the specific requirements of each pumping unit, it is first necessary to calculate and plot the head-capacity curve for the system. This is calculated by the summation of the static lift and friction losses in the system. The static lift is determined by the elevation differential between the low water level in the wet well and the high point of the discharge force main. The friction loss is determined by the summation of the friction losses through the suction pipe, suction fittings, the discharge pipe, discharge fittings, and force main. See the next section, "Piping and Valves," for guidelines to establishing sizes. By consulting hydraulics handbooks, the valves and fittings in the system can be equated to an equivalent length of pipe and added to the pipe length in the system for tbe calculation of the friction losses.

Effects of Viscosity

The liquid handled by a pump affects the bead and capacity lit which the unit can operate, the required power input to the pump, and the materials of construetlon.! Liquids with viscosities different than water require careful study because their handling presents problems in pump selection, construction, and use.

There are three different units that may be encountered describing the viscosity of a specillo liquid:

( a) Saybolt seconds universal (ssu), (b) centistokes (kinematic viscosity), where stokes times 10-' equals m'js, and

( c) centipoise ( dynamic viscosity),

where poise times 0.1 equals Pa s.


To convert one unit of viscosity to another:

Kinematic Viscosity (in centistokes) Absolute Viscosity (in centipoise)

Specific Gravity (1)

and, above 250 ssu;

ssu = Kinematic Viscosity (in

centistokes) X 4.62 (2)

Although considerable testing has been done to determine the effects of viscosity on the pump performance, it is difficult to predict accurately the difference in performnnce of a pump when bandling a higb or low viscosity liquid from its performance when handling cold water.

High viscosity liquids affect the performance of centrifugal pumps in three ways 1.: the pump develops a lower head than when handling water; pump capacity is reduced when moderate or higb viscosity liquids are handled; and, the power input required is higber.

For rotary and reciprocating pumps, the rated pump speed should be decreased for viscous liquids. Since pump capacity is a function of the rated speed, capacity will decrease with an increase in viscosity.

Flow conditions may be improved by the addition of polymers to wastewaters and sludges. Polymers can cause a reduction in liquid viscosity by lessening the cohesive forces between particles within the fluid.

Number of Pumps Required

The reliability of pumping performance must cover adverse as well as normal circumstances. The federal government has formulated design criteria 4, & for treatment plant components ( including pumps), based on three reliability-of-operetion classes (Chapter 1).

In general, a backup pump should be provided for each set of pumps that performs the same function. The capacity of the pumps should he such that, with any one pump out of service, the remaining pumps will have the capacity to handle peale How. (It is permissible for one pump to serve as backup to moretban one set of pumps.)



BOr-T-'-'--r-r-.-'--r-r-~,--r-r~-.rt 70 60


c- 50 « ~140



<i!: lO )-

~ 10

~ O~L-~~~-L~L-~~~-L~L-~~~-L-9




FIGUllE 5·13, Typical system head curve showing static and friction head losses. Note: hp X 0.745 = kW; gpm X 0.0831 = l/s; ft X 0,305 = IlL

If II. future expanded design flow is anticipated, the pump station sbould be so designed that the additional capacity will be able to be pumped by either the addition of one or more pumps, or by the modification of the original pumps, If the original pumps are to be modified, they should be selected so that larger impellers or higher speed motors may be used, H the future additional capncities are to be handled by additional pumps, it is desirable that identical units be used. If the future capacity is to be handled by modlflcntton of the original pumps, the electrical capacity of the station and the motors sbould be designed in anticipation of this. While it is desirable that no station be designed with fewer than two pumps, the total number depends on the capacity of that station, the vuriation in the rate of flow, and the storage capacity available in the system. The more pumps used, the greater the initial expenditure, and, generally spenking, the lower the maintenance costs, If lnrge variations are expected in the flow rate into the station and the storage capacity in the wet well is small, it is desirable to have more pumps, operutlng only one during the low inflow rates and bringing more into the system as the rnte increases.


Perfnrmanee Curves

Figure 5-13 shows a typical system head curve, indicating portions of the totnl dynamic head composed of static head and of friction head, Tbe head capacity curves of one pump, two pumps, and three pumps in parallel operation also are shown.

In this illustration, the design condition for the station would be 38 lIs (600 gpm) nt a TDH of 11 III (36 ft). If the station were designed initially with two pumps, a peak capacity of 63 I[s (1000 gpm) could be handled. With the addition of a third pump, the station could ultimately have a capacity of 76 lIs (1200 gpm).

The maximum horsepower would be required when the pump was operating by itself, With two pumps, the capacity of each would be 32 1/ s (500 gpm) with the appropriate reduction in horsepower, Similarly, witb three pumps operating, each would contribute 25 lIs (400 gpm), again at a reduced power requirement.


Low capaclty [63 lIs (1000 gpm) or less] and high hend non-clog wastewater pumps are currently designed for efficient operntion at speeds as blgh as 1 BOO rpm.

As the size of the pump increases, the maximum impeller diameter also increases, resulting in pump designs of lower maximum speeds. The maximum desirable speed depends on the head and the capacity required by the individual pumping unit, However, at a lower speed, less wear and lower costs can be expected.

Censtant-Speed Versus Variable-Speed Drives:-Constnnt-speed multiple pump stations are generally used when it is not essential that a continual flow be discharged. Constant-speed drive is the simplest, most reliable, and lowest in cost, The control system to operate it is also simple, reliable, and economical However, if it is essential that the discharge from the stntion be continuous, a variable speed drive is required to adjust the pumping speed to the influent flow rate, Stepless controllers vary the heud-capacity curve of tbe pump along the station bead curve. In wastewater pumping, while a Bow is continuous from the station, the flow rate will vary with the elevation in the wet well. Pump stations having a large variation in the flow rate would require more pumping units under the constant speed system than under a multiple speed or variable speed system,

The operating efficiency of constant or multiple drive units is generally better than that of variable speed drives, because the latter frequently operate a good portion of the time at reduced speeds. Variable speed drive efficiencies only approach the efficiencies of constant speed units when operating at maximum speed; therefore, if variable speed drives will be operating at reduced speed for a major portion of the time, their operating costs may be higher. Friction losses at reduced speeds will be smaller, however, and this can have a benellcinl effect on operating costs. Additional information relating to speed considerations is presented in a 5U bsequent section,

Future Expansion

When designing a pump station, required future capacities should be considered. Three alternatives for future expansion are avaflable.

Modi£cation of Original Pumping Units:





!'UMl'S AJIIU l'UM!'lNU A1'l'UllT.I!;NANLlt!.~

-The original pumping units can be modified by increasing the impeller diameter and using the same speed motors, or by instnlling larger horsepower and higher speed motors with either the same impeller diameter Or another diameter, if required. The least expensive modification would be increasing the impeller diameter; however, to do that, the motors originnlly specified should be large enough to power the pumps with larger impellers,

Additional Pumping Units;-If the future expansion is to be handled by additional pumping units, the structure as well as the piping must be designed initially to accept these units, It is best to add units identical to the original pumps. This reduces maintenance costs, since parts will be interchangeable, If identical units are not practical, then the piping should be designed to handle larger units, if they are required as additions.

Replacement of the Original Pumping Units:-This is the least desirable alternative and is generally used only where the expansion is of such magnitude that the great change from the original design makes it impractical to USe the original pumps. Pipe sizes, electrical capacity, and other factors should be considered in regnrd to this type of expansion,

Pump Drive Mechanisms

The motor, turbine, or engine can be arranged to drive the pump through direct drives, belt and chain drives, Ilexible couplings, fluid drives, or a combination of these, Fluid drives are popular for boilerfeed, refinery, and process pumps, and will not be covered in this manual.

Direct Drives

The most common drive configuration is the power unit direcUy connected to the pump. This can be either close coupled, with the pump mounted on the driver shaft; Bexible coupled With the driver mounted adjacent to the pump; or flexible coupled with the driver mounted at a distance from the pump using one or more pieces of flexible shafting. The direct connected drive results in the most efficient operation because no power is lost between



the drive and the pump. The application and overall requirement on the configuration of the pump and drive unit will determine the relative positions of the pump and driver.

Belt and Chain Drives

When pump speeds different from those available with standard motors are required, Or when variable speed is required, pumps may be belt driven. This type of drive is generally used with It horizontal pump and requires more floor space than the direct driven unit. Power losses through the belt and wear result in 11 less efficient unit with greater mnlntenance requirements.

Speed modifications of belt and chain drives can be accomplished easily and economicnlly by changing the pulley or sprocket ratio, This approach is a good alternative to variable speed drives, providing such modifications are not required frequently. There is also more flexibility to change speed and operating characteristics if the design speed is improper for optimum operation.

The power transfer capncity of variable pulley drives is a function of the speed, that is, the position of the belts within tbe sheaves.

Variable pitch pulleys mounted on pump or motor are commonly employed for low horsepower units and where the speeds are not changed often. The motor is mounted all n sliding base providing belt take-up. Speed adjustment may be manual, local, or remote, . or controlled automatically by process requirements. The positioning of pulleys may be through the use of pneumatic, hydraulic, or electrical drive. Remote-manual control is recommended when the signal indicating need for speed change is located away from the pump. The operator should be provided with a process calibrated speed indicator at the location of the speed controller. Split-sheave variable pulley drives that are infrequently used will become inoperative.

V-belt drives are provided with enough belts to carry the load to be transmitted. An added advantage of the V-belt drive is


the taking up of shock by slippage when starting large motors or when peaking loads occur. This slippage can save motor bearings Or a burned-out motor.

Chain drives are not commonly used because of noise and maintenance problems. However, they are most suitable for' driving high torque loads, such as a sludge cake l)ump, at low speeds. Also, chain drive is recommended when multiple units are driven at low speeds with a common motor and timing speed control is needed.

Right Angle Drives

Right angle drive units are used on vertical pumps being driven by horizontal power units, These units are used primarily when an engine-type drive is mounted On the floor above the pumps, The powar is transmitted through the right . angle drive to flexible shafting, and, in tum, to the vertical pump.

Auxiliary Drives

Auxiliary drive units are generally used for pumping applications where power failure is anticipated. A vertical pump is driven through n right angle drive, which then has the ability to receive its power in the vertical position from a vertical motor, and in the horizontal position from n standby engine. A clutch type coupling is used between the right angle drive and the engine and is engaged only after the engine has reached partial speed. The engine and electric motor drive are interconnected electrically, first to start the engine on power failure, and second to stop the engine on the re-establishment of power.

Pump Motors

The primary source of power for pump drivers is the electric motor. The characteristics' of electric motors are determined by tile power available, the configuration of the pump and driver, and tile location. The location, of course, determines the type of enclosure necessary.

In large wastewater treatment plants, where sufficient digester gas is availa ble, engines using methane and natural gas can be used for driving pumps.

Auxiliary power source requirements are discussed in Chapter 1. In general, two separate and independent sources of electric power are provided to the treatment works.' The need for unit standby capacity is determined by statutory requirements, the function involved,fue size of the plant, the anticipated service period, the repair time, and the arrangement of the units.

The basic types of electric motors available for pump drives are the squirrel cage induction motor, the wound rotor induction motor, the synchronous motor, and the shunt wound d-e motor. Of these four, the overwhelming favorite, particularly in low horsepower sizes, is the squirrel cage induction motor. Its simplicity, low cost, and versatility make it the best choice unless conditions indicate a need for speed control. In large horsepower sizes and where variable speed control is necessary for economic or process reasons, the wound rotor induction or synchronous motor are generally used. In rare instances d-e motors have been used, generally in very large sizes where their superior efficiency offsets the high initial cost and high maintenance requirements.

Squirrel Cage Induction

The squirrel cage induction motor is 0. double excited a-c dynamo. The stator windings are usually excited by 3-pbase, 60 Hz a-c. The rotor winding is excited by an inducted a-o voltage of variable frequency. The speed of the motor is 0. product of the frequency of the applied voltage and the number of poles (stator windings). Maximum operating speed will be something less than the synchronous speed; for example, if synchronous speed equals 1 BOO rpm, full load speed equals 1 770 rpm. Power factor will vary depending on full load speed, construction, and load. Motor efficiency is generally in the 89 to 92, percent range. Units are available in all sizes and configurations, including vertical and horizontal, wlth dripproof, explosion-proof, Or water-proof enclosures, Special motors for use with vnri-


able frequency or primary voltage controls are also available.

Squirrel cage induction motors are generally used for all COnstant speed applications up to 370 kW (500 hp), although very low speed applicntions (under 514 rpm) may warrant the use of the synchronous motor.

Wound Rotor

The wound rotor motor is a standard variation of the work-horse, three phase induction motor. In the more common squirrel cage induction motors, the rotor is made of copper bars and is internally shorted. The wound rotor motor bas 3- phase rotor windings similar to the stator. These windings are brought out to slip rings where they may be connected to external resistances through brushes that ride on the slip rings. By varying the effective external resistance, the speed of the motor may be controlled.

Wound rotor motors are available in vertical and horizontal configurations at virtually every speed and horsepower. Secondary controls, discussed in more detail in a subsequent section, include resistorbanks, liquid rheostats, resistance/ reactance controls, and electronic/resistance controls.

The efficiency of the wound rotor motor is comparable to that of the squirrel cage unit butthe power factor will be slightly lower in units of the same size and speed,


The synchronous motor varies from the induction machine infuat the rotor is either a permanent magnet or a d-e electromagnet. Operating speed is the same as the speed of the rotating electromagnetic field, for example, 1800, 600, 900. Speed may be changed only by changing the frequency of the source or by changing the number of stator poles, Power factor is constant. Motors may be purchased with a power factor of unity or a leading power factor. Efficiency is relatively high, The major disadvantage is the high cost of motors and starters in the 750 kW (1 000 hpj range.




A variation of the common squirrel cage motor that has been used to increase the versatility of constant speed pumps is the multi-speed motor. These motors use multiple stator windings connected in series or parallel to produce two or more fixed speeds. They have been limited in application because each successive speed had to be twice the preceding speed, 600- 1200, or 300-600-1200 rpm, for example. Pump performance will not generally be satisfactory with a speed variation this extreme. The newly developed pole amplitude modulated (PAM) motor provides more usable speeds; however, a variable speed control with infinite variations is preferable to the less .flexible multi-speed motor.

Direct Current

Direct current motors do not offer sufficient advantages over the various a-c options available to merit serious consideration.

Motor Selection Considerations

The exact motor to be used for any given application will depend on the type and size of pump, the plant size, the type of power available, the degree of reliability required, the atmospheric conditions, the type of control applicable, and other general design criteria.


The atmosphere in which the motor is to be installed should be considered and, where necessary, explosion-proof or outdoor enclosures speciflecL If abnormally bigh ambient temperatures nre anticipated, the motor temperature rating should be adjusted accordingly. Space heaters to prevent condensation within the motor bousing are desirable. Thermal detectors are strongly recommended for any motor using electronic speed controllers.

Pump Type and Size

The type and size of pump selected for any given application will set SOme practical limits on the motors to be considered.


For example, synchronous motors are not available under a certain horsepower; pumps for a specific head and" .flow will require certain motor speeds. In general, the motor should be suitable for the intended load and sbould be non-overloading throughout the enlite pump curve. The motor "full load speed less any control losses" should be compared to the "pump speed required and any control losses added to the pump requirements" when determining horsepower requirements.


The proper primary voltage to be selected for any application is determined by the unit size, usage, and degree of reliability required. Three phase power should be used if at all possible. The use of single phase, 120 V equipment is limited -to sizes 0.4 kW (0.5 hpj and smaller. Generally, a 480 V primary is used for motors up to 300 or 370 kW (400 or 500 hp ), and higher voltages are considered above that point. The higher voltages allow smaller feeder lines but require heavier insulation and are more dangerous to operating personnel. Also, many power companies limit the number of full voltage starts of large motors to prevent motor inrush currents from causing service interference to other customers. While the economics of across-the-line or full voltage starting is more attractive, reduced voltage starting may be required to meet power company standards.

Regulations regarding dual power sources ( Cha pter 1) for certain critical areas also can in.Huence the voltage selected.


Three phase motors are used much more frequently than single phase motors. The single phase motors are not as rugged and dependable for intermittent or continuous service as are 3-pbase motors. For integral horsepower motors [0.7 kW (1 hpj and larger] only 3-pbase motors sbould be used, especially on frequent start and stop operations. If only single phase current is available, a converter should be provided

that produces symmetrical 3-phase motor operation from single phase power lines.


Motor speed is dependent on pump selection and availability. Pump speeds are generally in the 900 to 1200 rpm range. As a general rule lower speed pumps will be larger and more expensive, but more reliable. A low speed motor will also be larger and more expensive. Motor efficiency is relatively independent of the full load speed rating; however, power factor decreases as synchronous speed decreases.

The degree of reliability required of any particular pump may affect the type and speed of the motor selected. As mentioned above, lower speed units are generally more reliable as the wear on bearings, packing, and other wear surfaces decreases substantially with II reduction in speed. Variable speed controls may increase reo liability further. In addition to reducing the average operating speed, the continuous operation characteristics and "soft start-stop" potentials reduce wear on starters and bearings. Some variable speed control systems offer the further advantage of limiting inrush current to a value below the load-full speed motor rating so that simple alternator failures are not compounded into motor damage. TIle highest reliability factor will be realized from a pump/motor control unit that has the least number of components, operates at the lowest average speed, makes the least possible number of starts over a given time period, and is comprised of individual components having the highest practical reliability rating.

Mechanical variable speed drives are available in a wide variety of types and sizes for horizontal or vertical mounting. The integral motor-variable speed drive is available with high-low speed ratios of up to 10: 1. They may be either belt- or direct-connected to the pump.

Electrical variable speed drives are available in both a-c and d-e, with doc available from a-c via compact solid-state




recti6ers. These units are increasingly used in those applications where a wide range of speed control is desired, high torque is needed at all ranges in speed, and fully automatic control is required. The prime movers are compact and are not as susceptible to maintenance problems caused by nOO-l15e.

On constant speed applications that are subject to frequent start and stop service, the motors and pumps may include slow acceleration and slow deceleration devices that can be fleld set over a range of 0 to 305.

A speed indicator should be installed within easy sight of the drive unit and wherever n remote manual control Is located, with minimum and maximum speed limits clearly marked. Minimum speeds for each pump selected should be determined by checking the selected pwnp system curves against a full range of speeds, Particular effort must be made to stay within the manufacturer's recommended operating ranges, thus avoiding excessive vibration. Provision should be made to easily Beldadjust upper and lower speed stops on the drive controls so that "flne-tunlng" may be accomplished readily in the Held. Routine speed adjustment maintenance is II need, but not often a reality. All alternative means of speed control are to be surveyed for those applications where speed adjustment is seldom required.


Acceleration-Deceleration Controllers

This device should be provided as part of the starting equipment for each pump subject to frequent start and stop operations and also at installations subject to serious water hammer problems on start up or shut down. The controller is normally a type that can be Beld adjusted to bring the motor to full speed or to a full stop in o to approximately 30 to 60 s without need of changing wires or components. The controller should be of a design capable of limiting inrush current to 200 percent of motor full load current rating and able to provide the motor with overload protection on each of the three phases.



Combination Circuit Breakers and Magnetic Starters

A combination circuit breaker and magnetic starter should be provided for each motor; the size and type will depend on the current and voltage requirements of the connected lead. On small installations and on large installations of special design other than modular, it is common and advisable to install a separate circuit breaker followed by a separate magnetic starter for each motor. Full-voltage starting of motors is generally the most economical and reliable method and is most frequently used except in those cases where the requirements of the utility or of the driven equipment demand a lower starting current Reduced-voltage starting, using either reactors or auto-transformers, can be used on these latter applications, Starters for single-phase fractional horsepower motors are generally of the manual type. Starters for polyphase motors up to about 4 kW (5 hp) and associated with handcontrolled equipment, such as ventilating fans, can be of the manuul type, but all other motor starters are generally of the magnetic type. Each starter is equipped in each phase leg with thermal overload relays of the proper size for the associated motor. The use of beater elements on two legs only is not advisable and is in viol 11- tion of the National Electric Code." The use of magnetic starters smaller than Size 1 is not customary in a wastewater treatment plant, where reliability is a major consideration,

The combination circuit breakers and magnetic starters should be of a size that will provide the motor and its circuitry adequate protection from short-circuit, overload, and under-voltage. The type and size selected should be checked mid used with the approval of the power company. For some applications involving frequent starting and stopping, stepless acceleration and deceleration controllers (in II previous subsection) have been used sueoessfullv, Across-the-line magnetic starters in'lieu of reduced voltage starters are also used. Under many conditions,


these stepless controllers have been used alone without any magnetic starters. Larger wet wells or batteries of pumps also have been used for applications involving frequent starting and stopping.

Moter Control Centers

A separate circuit breaker panel should be installed within the main control panel center to provide single phase 120 V, 60 Hz current to pilot lights, selector switches, timers, meters, clocks, and all other circuit controls. The use of voltage other than 120 V far circuit controls is strongly discouraged. The use of high voltage for circuit controls is dangerous and unnecessary. 1£ the 120 V current cannot be secured readily from the type of service furnished by the power company, a transformer should be installed on the inside or' outside of the panel for conversion of 3- phase current to single phase 120 V current. A separate circuit is used for each operation so that inspection and repairs can be made readily, without taking other items out of operation. On circuits feeding electronic control equipment such as How meters, it is often necessary to provide the circuit with surge protection from lightning, particularly when the pump station is located at the end of II. long power line.

In addition to the above items, each motor should be provided with a disconnect switch and a three-way selector switch for hnnd-ofl-autornatic (H-O-A) operation. The selector switch should be mounted on the front outside of the panel, with one green pilot light ("automatic") indicating that the motor is "available" but not running and One red pilot light indicating motor is running. Frequently a white light is included to indicate "power available." An indicating voltmeter and ammeter with .selector switch to check voltage across each pair of phases and amperage on each phase should also be mounted on the front of the panel on the incoming power line. Other accessories that may be needed for It complete installation should also be mounted, for example, phase failure indication, phase reversal protection, clock, and indicating and recording panel.

Motor starters can be provided either as individual units or as units assembled in a control center. Individual units are lower in equipment cost but require considerably more labor for mounting and wiring than the units in grouped control. Control centers can ·be furnished with all automatic contra] filatures assembled and wired at the factory, and generally need less space than do individual units. A detailed economic study is required for the pardcular :plant to see if the advantages of the grouped control are justilied.

Enclosures for motor-control equipment are selected to suit the location. Weather resistant enclosures, NEMA Type 3, 3R, or 3S, as appropriate, should be used for outdoor locations. Where frequent hosing of equipment 'and Boors is expected, watertight NEMA Type 4 enclosures should be installed. In hazardous Or corrosive areas, NEMA Type 4X, 7, 8, 9, 10, or II enclosure is preferred. In places where light splashing, seepage, dripping, or external condensation of non-corrosive liquids occur, the NEMA Type 12, dust-tight, driptight industrial enclosure should be installed, In dry, heated areas or where atmospheric conditions are normal, the general purpose NEMA 1 enclosure may be used, Each motor starter may be provided with extra interlock contacts to permit automatic control features in the. future.

Control Modes

Motor selection is also affected by the control mode selected for any particular application. Control modes available for pumping applications include automatic constant speed, manual constant speed, automatic adjustable speed, manual adjustable speed, automatio variable speed, and manual variable speed. In each case, the first term describes the method used to tumthe units on and off and the second describes the operation of the drive.

Manual constant speed describes a unit that is started by depressing It pushbutton or turning a selector switch and that has a £Xed speed motor directly coupled to the pump. Automatic adjustable speed refers


to a pumping unit with a manually ad. justable speed control mechanism, such as a variable pitch pulley system, that is started and stopped on an automatic basis, Automatic variable speed refers to a completely automatic system that controls the number and speed of operating units.

Adjustable speed units are inherently limited to low horsepower applications. Tbe squirrel cage motor is used almost exclusively, Variable speed controls use a wide range of special motors, a special motor being any standard design that is not stocked but is manufactured ·to order. The control and the motor should be obtained from a single source to assure compatability and to avoid possible problems such as additional motor heating.

Wound rotor motors to be used with liquid rheostat secondary controls are generally obtained with the pump as are motor clutch combinations.

Constant Speed Control:-The simplest system to control either flow or pressure is the manual constant speed type. Using whatever information is available, the operatortums on a pump (or pumps) that then operates lit the motor-full lead speed until he turns the unit( s) off. This type of system might find application in a supervised tank filling operation, sludge pumping operation (sometimes in conjunction with How control valves), or a plant water system. Its major drawback is that the motors, must be supervised constantly or they must be inherently capable of continuous, unsupervised operation. The advantage of extreme simplicity, however, should not be overlooked.

1£ continuous operation or continuous supervision is not practical, an automatic constant speed system may be desirable. Such control would be appropriate for sludge pumping on a time interval basis, sump pumping by level control, influent or emuent pumping by level control, or any other pumping application where a measured variable may be used to turn a pump on and the same or a second variable used to • turn it off, The system must be such that the operation of the pump at full speed during the "on" period is acceptable.



Adjustable Speed Control:-Manunl and automatic adjustable speed systems vary from constant speed systems only in that the fixed operating speed may be adjusted ?asily. This type of control is used mostly in !"-he area of sludge pumping where speed adjustments can be used to improve the efficiency of continuous or time interval pumping programs.

Automatic variable speed is the most sophisticated and effective method of controlling pum~ operation. Essentially, any measured variable can he used as the controlling parameter to' achieve precise control of flow, pressure, or level.

The possible use of variable speed pump controls should be considered from the viewpoint of economics and process. In many instances the use of automatic variable speed controls will reduce structure costs substantially. Because each pump can operate at an infinite number of How rates, the total number of pumping units may be reduced. Continuous operation also allows the design engineer to ignore the usual limitations on starts per hour associated with constant speed pumping thereby reducing wet well size. Ther~ need be no provisions made for storage.

Variable Speed Control:-With variable speed pumps, most, if not all, treatment processes benefit from a smooth, even How of wastewater through the plant, Variable speed controls can eliminate the surges and variations of on-off operation, leaving only the normal daily peaks and valleys. Even these can be smoothed with a How equalization system where variable speed units pump at a fued How rate through the plant lind other units operating from level signals pump the excess to a holding basin. Return and waste sludge pumps may also be controlled to deliver activated sludge at a rate proportional to .total in· flu~nt rates, as a function of sludge density, Of m accordance with any other measured variable selected by the engineer. In physical-chemical plants, variable speed units may control the pressure to the earbon columns or maintain a constant level in a filtration basin.

Automatic variable speed controls should


be considered any time a structure size is sHeeted by pump cycle limits lind any time the process would benefit from evenly controlled How, pressure, or level.

Control Systems

The selection of a control system and a specific control mode is at least as important as the selection of the pump. To determine the proper type of control for any application, the engineer must first establish a set of parameters to define the desired results. Then a control system is specified that will allow the pumps to pro. duce the desired hydraulic effects. Considerations of efficiency or power factor should not be allowed to obscure the primary purpose of a pump control, which is to obtain a desired hydraulic effect.

Different processes or different pumping systems within a given process will require varying degrees of control of the two primary hydraulic parameters=pressure and flow. In all instances, the simplest system that will provide the desired result will be the most satisfactory overall

There are no hard and fast rules as to the weight that should be given to any of the factors involved in the determination of the particular type of control most suitable for lIny given application. Ultimately, the engineer must weigh such variables as cost, efficiency, power factor, reliability, operational effects, structural costs, and ease of operation and choose the system best suited for the application at hand. Such selections are not always obvious, however. Automatic variable speed controls are often more reliable lind maintenance free than presumably simpler on-off controls. Similarly,· the overall efficienoy of· a variable speed system may be greater than that (If an on-off system despite control losses, The pump operates against a lower average friction head, thus saving in pump power what is lost in the control. Another important consideration is the sopbisticatiou and competeace of the operating and maintenance personnel The selected control system must be compatible with their training and experience or satisfactory operation will seldom be achieved.





Manual control systems generally consist of pushbutton stations or selector switcheS that energize or de-energize the pump motor starter. Pushbutton stations are electrically interlocked so that the units would have to be restarted manually after a power outage, while a selector switch would remain in the on position and would restart automatically. Manual control systems are rarely used with anything other than constant speed pumps.

Automatic Constant or Adjustable Speed

Time:-Pumps are started atregular intervals and operate for a preset length of time. Time-controlled systems are generally used for sludge Jlumping.

Pressurer=-Pressure drop is used to start the pumps in plant water systems, sometimes in conjunction with a hydropneumatic tank. Pressure is generally sensed by a standard pressure switch.

Flowl-Pumps are turned on as flow exceeds a certain value or turned off when flow drops. Plant influent How variations may be used to sequence on or off or vary the speed of return sludge pumps. Influent How signals are generally from II How meter or weir, with millivolt control.

Leveh=Mcst of the automatic constant

. speed systems operate from level signals.

Pumps are turned on as levels rise and turned off as 'they fall. Influent and emuent pumps, sump pumps, and certain inplant transfer pumps may be controlled in this way.

Level detection systems include the following:

1. Float switches using a rod or tape.

The simplest type of control :is a Hoat connected through a rod to a switch that is opened or closed by the float, depending on the water level in the wet well. The float switch can be direct connected to the control circuit of the starter, thus starting and stopping the individual pump. In duplex: or multi-pump installations, the flollts can be set to trip the switch at different elevations, thus operating the required number of pumps, depending on the eleva-


tion in the wet well Alternlltion of the lend pump in II duplex or multi-pump installation is recommended. This is generally accomplished by the connection of the float switches to the individual pump starter through lin electric type alternator.

Float type controls are economical, simple, and reliable when operated in effluent or clear water. However, when operated in raw wastewater or sludge, mainteuanoe problems can develop from grease coating the floats and rods, solids puncturing the Hoats, or corrosion of the float, rods, or tapes . Corrosion resistant material can he used for the float, rods, or tape, and flushing with clear water will help reduce grease coating.

2. Enclosed floats. Enclosed float switches consist of an encapsulated mercury switch that may be either open or closed when the float is in the pendant position. As the liquid rises, the construction of the Hoat changes the angle of the mercury switch, reversing its condition. These units are rugged, long-lived, and not subject to the corrosion and turbulence problems that plague the rod or tape type Hoat switch.

3. Electronic probes. Probe type controls have recently begun to replace the floats, With the use of relays, it Is possible to control a single pump, a duplex: Installation, or a multiple pump installation. The number of probes depends on the number of pumps or functions needed. The use of the probe control eliminates the mechanical failures aecompanying the Iloat type control. In wastewater applications, the possibility of the immersed probes being coated with grease, resulting in a failure of operation, has been precluded by enclosing the probe in a sealed tube below which is suspended a bladder type con-

-tainer with fluid that will conduct the slight current necessary for the probe type operation. Variation of the water level in the wet well is reflected by a variation of the level in the sealed tube. As each electrode or probe is immersed in the fluid, relays are energized, starting additional pumps or energizing lin alarm circuit The number of pumps to be operated or circuits to be energized is limited to the number



.I r

of probes that can be suspended in the enclosing tube.

4. Captive air systems. Captive Ilir systems, using a diaphragm and small dlametertubing to transmit pressure signals to switches that turn pumps on and off, have been used with varying degrees of success. The diaphragm is vulnerable and any leak in the transmission line prevents operation.

5. Bubbler systems. Pneumatic, or air bubbler, type control is generally used for II duplex or multi-pump installation. A small compressor pum'pS air into a tube immersed in the wet well. The water level reBects a back pressure in the system, thus energizing pressure sensitive switches that will start and stop the pumps at different elevations. This system is dependent on a constant Bow of air through the pipe that prevents it from clogging. This system has no moving parts in contact with the wastewater and is,therefore, generally reliable and easily serviced.

Recent developments in electronics have led to the increasing use of solid-state switching circuits. In this type of system, the bubbler pressure is transduced to a voltage or current signal that is fed into an electronic network, Variations in signal level are used to turn the pumps on and off.

Automatic Variable Speed

Most of the fully automatic systems use a bubbler system for primary level detection. The back pressure from the bubbler may be transduced to II pneumatic or electronic signal for use in on-off and variable speed control of the individual pumps. At least one system works directly from bubbler pressure without an interposing transducer and with the corresponding increase in reliability. .Dn-off controls are generalIy pressure sensitive switches or electronic trips as previously described The actual speed control device may be an electromagnetic clutch, a hydraulic clutch, a primary voltage control, a secondary control for a wound rotor motor, or a variable frequency power supply.

Eddy Current Clutches:- The clutch consists of a constant speed member di-



rectly close-coupled to a synchronous or induction motor and a variable speed member connected to the pump. The magnet member is connected to the load, and the field member to the driver. The field member surrounds the magnetic member. As increased speed is required of the load, d-e current is introduced into the magnet, exciting it and causing eddy currents. The magnetic flux produced by the magnet develops torque, tending to tum it and the connected load in the Slime direction as the developed torque, thus producing an output speed proportional to the amount of d-e current The d-e power applied to the field is controlled by a current signal. This signal may be derived from any measurable variable. Clutch efficiency is 2 to 3 percent below wound rotor motors with secondary resistance.:

Speed range is approximately 50 to 95 percent of motor rated speed. It is desirable to select the motor as close as possible to, and above the maximum of, the desired speed of the pump. Failure to do so will result in high slip, with input horsepower of the motor wasting as heat rather than passing to the load.

Eddy current clutches are available in a full range of sizes and speeds, in both horizontal and vertical configurations. This is a reliable speed control means for remote manual or automatic control. However, the use of this type of drive is not encouraged for applications where the motor drive is mounted above the driven bead and directly to it, for example, directly to the pump frame of vertical dry pit pumps. The weight of the combined unit is frequently greater than that of the pump, causing imbalance and requiring specinlbracing.

Wound Rotor Motor Contro1s:-Wound rotor motor controls are available in four categories: fixed step resistors, liquid rheostats, reactance/resistance controllers, nod electronic rheostats.

When using wound rotor motors, control is accomplished by controlling voltage on either primary or secondary windings. Contra] of voltage on secondary windings is especially desirable on motors over 75

kW (100 bp) or on voltages over 480 to reduce the amount of power the control must handle. Depending on the control system, a restricted full speed mayor may not be experienced with these motors.

Wound rotor motors that can provide a series of speed steps numbering from two to seven have applications to pumps where mechanical problems at the pump locations are to be minimized, the van-drive motor is too large, or the pump output is automatically controlled by process changes. The motor-controller enclosure space requirement is enlarged considerably depending On the number of speed steps desired. Other advantages of this type of drive are that the inrush current draw of these motors during starting is greatly reduced, and the mounted weight of the motors, while generally slightly greater than that of a normal NEMA Design B motor, is considerably less than that of a motor-magnetic clutch combination.

Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) units have undergone major design advances and are nOW widely applied to small to medium sized prime mover requirements. Speed selection is infinite over a 20 to 40: 1 speed range. These units are most suitable for remote manual and automatic controls using process indicators. Maintenance of controllers is simplified by the use of plug-in components.

1. Fixed step resistors. Fixed step resistors with wound rotor motors were included in many older installations to, take advantage of the speed control capabilities' of the motor and to reduce starting currents to a minimum. The major drawback to this type of control is the large number of. control points needed for reasonably close control and the higb maintenance associated with the contactors and complex control systems.

2. Liquid rheostats. The liquid rheostat has enjoyed many years of use in fields other than pump controls. The original units were quite large and varied resistance by changing the distance between electrodes immersed in a conducting liquid bath. Each phase of the wound rotor motor was connected to a £Xed electrode. The

(S) pUPoIps-eEll

FIGURE 5-14. Schematic diagram of manometer action level controlled liquid rheostat and wound rotor motor driven wnstewater pump.

movable electrodes were grounded. A chain drive mechanism positioned the electrodes at varying distances, depending on the value of an electronic signal. These units were bulky and cumbersome, and the chain drives with their reversing motors were service prone.

A variation on the trnditionalliquid rheostat specifically intended for pump control applications has been used extensively. The electrodes are fixed and the electrolyte is forced to move up or down, covering more or less of the plates and thus varying the phase to phase resistance. Electrolyte movement is by manometer action from a sealed compartment that is directly connected to the wet well bubbler tube (Figure 5-14). This type of liquid rheostat is rugged, reliable, and easily understood by operating personnel. Rheostat controls are available from 4 kW (5 hpj and up and are used with wound rotor motors. Efficiency is the best of Rny slip-type control. Hent losses are transported easily from the pump room. Motor starting currents may be beld to under 100 percent of full load current, which can be highly important if standby generators are required.




These units allow an altered wave form to be reflected to the motor causing significantly higher than average motor currents. Motor and control should be supplied by one SOUlt:8 to insure compatability,

Several other methods of electronic control of wound rotor motors have been attempted in recent years. These include regenerative systems that restructure the secondary power and feed it back into the line, and primary voltage controls that feed power to a wound rotor motor having a fixed secondary resistor. Neither method has been used sufficiently to obtain a reliable evaluation. The second method is highly inefficient and can cause motor heating problems. It is possible that sine wave deformation in either instance can cause higher than usual motor currents and may nHect standby generator control.

Primary Voltage Controls:-Modern primary voltage controls utilize power SCR's to feed an adjustable portion of each sine wave through the motor. The RMS value of the power supplied to the motor is controlled by adjusting the point in the a-c cycle at which the SCR is allowed to conduct. The variable voltage transmitted to the motor varies the available torque output. Since the torque load of the driven

load is constant at a given speed, a reduc- ment have been used from time to time, non of available torque will slow the load including clutches using water as the hydown until its requirement drops to the draulic fluid and hydraulic pump-motor level of the available torque. combinations. Most have proven unsatis-

This type of control has a number of factory or have no particular advantage inherent disadvantages-slip losses nor- over the more commonly used devices. mally are dissipated in the motor; large Vllrinble Frequency:-Thougb perhaps frame special ''high slip" motors are re- more applicable to constant torque loads quired; efficiency is poorest of slip-type with close speed control tolerances, the controls; motor currents often will exceed high cost of energy has led to a consider- 135 percent of full load full speed value at able interest in variable frequency power a reduced speed; power wiring must be supplies. This type of drive is a true varilarger than normal for a motor of a given able speed drive in that the motor will vary horsepower; the power factor is poor; and, its output speed with Or without the load finally, speed range is limited because of connected. In operation, these supply loss of cooling at low speeds. For these systems utilize power SCR's and rectifiers reasons, the use of this control generally is to, first, change 3-phsse, SO-Hz power to limited to low horsepower units and spa- doc, and then to restructure the doc into an cificnlly to water pressure boosting. output of variable frequency and voltage,

The motors used are either a special A number of techniques are used to miniNEMA D High Slip or a wound rotor motor mize harmonic output and improve power with fixed secondary resistor. If the wound factor and efficiency. Some units boast rotor motor is used, it must have a greater high efficiency but have relatively poor than normal thermal capacity. In either power factor. Others have a constant high motor, thermal protective switches should power factor but a reduced efficiency. be provided in each winding because slip Some systems require motors with addilosses will be dissipated in the motor and ' tional thermal capacity, as motor heating. because primary currents will exceed nor- caused by excessive harmonics will occur. mal full loud values by as much as 30 If this type of control is to be used, both percent. the motor and control should be supplied

Liquid Clutches:-Hydraulic slip clutches by one supplier and a separate power supin two basic designs have ·been used in ply furnished for each motor so that a treatment .plants. The earliest design, the failure of one power supply component hydrokinetic, featured a drive member that will not prevent operation of more than imparted energy to a hydraulic Ruid. A one pumping unit. In SOme instances, ~ne driven member is positioned at a variable power supply has been used for multiple distance from the drive member so as to pumps on the premise that the pumps control the torque transmission character- could operate [IS constant speed units in istics. These units are now seldom used an emergency. This would require that in wastewater pumping applications. the wet well include sufficient storage for

A newer development is the hydrovls- constant speed operation, which probably cous clutch. Essentially this is a. wet would cost mare than the additional conclutch that transmits energy through the trol uriit (s ).

sheer strength of the oil. These units are The advantages of this type of drive are comparable to the eddy current clutch considerable. It does use ~e stana:u=d with slightly higher efficiency at full speed NEMA Design B motor, allowing applicaand a lesser efficiency at reduced speeds, tion in virtually any location, or m any and may provide an infinite series of speed mounting configuration. Because of the control. The primary use of these units constant volts/frequency over the greater has been for :plant water or sludge handling range of speeds required, the power output pumps. is directly proportional to the frequency.

Other types of power transmission equip- Hence, at 30 Hz, a 75 leW (100 hp), 1 aDO



FIGUllE S·IS. Schematic of wound rotor induction motor with electronic secondary controller.

3. Heactance/resistance units. Reac-

tance/resistance units use fixed resistors with cnntactors for two or three steps. A small saturable core reactor is used in each phase to "£1l in" between the resistance values. Control of the eontactors for the resistance steps and of the reactor is by means of a doc signal voltage or through a motorized cam stack. System efficiency is roughly the same as for a liquid rheostat and wound rotor motor, but power factor is decreased as the reactance is added. Contactors and cam stacks increase maintenance and failure probability. Availability is limited to lower horsepower.

4. Electronic rheostats. Electronic rheostats (Figure 5·15) use a fixed resistor sized for a minimum inrush current with a second resistor in parallel. AIl SCR controls the flow of current through the second resistor on a time ratio basis. By varying the on-time of the SCR, the average resistance time can be controlled. Efficiency nod power factor are approximately the same as for the liquid rheostat hut the orlglnal cost is considerably higher. Electronic controls are unfamiliar to many plant operators and maintenance personnel.

Some variations of this device have been offered with greatly reduced filter circuits.



rpm motor will run at 900 rpm and deliver 37 leW (50 hp), Further, it will draw power for a 37 kW (50 hp) output with no heat buildup caused by ,power wastage as found with variable voltage or hydraulic drives. Efficiency of the motor over normal range will generally stay above 85 percent The pumps can be operated at any speed up to, or above, the standard motor's full load speed, allowing normal pump impeller selection.

Pjping and Valves


Piping material, sizes, and arrangements, particularly where high viscosity sludges are involved, are very important Poor piping design could result in failure of the pump to perform as designed.

In recent years, the choice of materials for piping has expanded greatly. The engineer has carbon steel, cast-iron, glassor Tellon-coated pipe, asbestos-cement, concrete, and plastic pipe to choose from. Chapter 4, "Construction Materials," should be consulted for suggested piping materials.

The material selected should be capable of withstanding the shut-olf head of the pump. Preferably, the material ( even after extended use) should not abrade or corrode.

Pipe sizes, except for those in the smaller plants, are selected on the basis of sustaining a reasonable head loss. In small plants, it is recommended that suction pipes that are not exposed never be smaller

TABLE son. Recommended Trnilsport Velocities for Several Sludges

Tolal V.!Ddty
Typfolll AppllcatlDIl SaUd. {fnd
I nfluent sDlids 0.5-2 2-8
Secondary solids 0.5-2 2-8
Primary sclids 0.2-1 2-8
4-10 2-4
Thickened sludge 5-10 2-4
Digested sludge 3-10 4-6
Chemleally treated sludge 0.2-1 3-8
Dewatered sludge 8-25 1-3
Incinerated sludge 0.5-10 5-8 104

than 100 mm (4 in.) in diameter. Discharge pipes that are exposed can be as small as 50 mm (2 in.); otherwise, 100 mm dinm pipe should be used for ease in using cleaning tools. On wastewater applications, the pipe diameter should be at least one diameter larger than the diameter of the sphere size that can be passed by the pump impeller.

In general, it is not recommended that velocities above 1.5 mls (5 fps) be used for high viscosity sludges in an attempt to control grease deposition. Alternate means, such as improved piping materials or modifled arrangements, should be employed.

. The sizing of the piping as well as pumps should be based on overall system needs. Poor underflow densities can occur because the pump and piping was oversized, causing breakthrough in the settling tank or thickener. For example, too large a sludge pipe will encourage grease accumulation. Table 5-il contains recommended transport velocities for several sludges.

The treatment plant should be arranged to minimize the length of suction lines. Both suction and discharge piping should be kept as short as possible with a minimum of direction changes and valving.

Suction Piping

Separate suction pipe lines from each pump to a suction well are preferred and should be used when feasible. Manifold arrangements for multiple pump operation at the same time, if not properly designed, are troublesome and have been known to produce unbalanced flows to each pump.

The suction piping should not contain any .higb spots. Trapped air or wastewater gases produce an air lock that can seriously restrict or stop the flow to tbe pump on the system. An eccentric reducer should be used at all horizontal changes in pipe sizes on the suction side of each pump with the top of the pipe level and preferably On a flat or rising grade from the suction well to the pump or vice versa. A straight suction with a concentric flare increased at point of suction into the wet

well is preferred Over a suction pipe with a -turned elbow, with or without a flange Hare Elling in the wet well. The turned down elbow is often a source of clogging, particularly wben pipe line velocity is low, and it is often a common higb spot and trap for air and wastewater gases because of an improper piping installation by the contractor. A gate valve normally is provided on the suction side of each pump so that the pump can be readily taken out of service for inspection and repairs.

The suotion plplng should be sized to produce a velocity of at least 0.9 mJs (3 fps) on all applications except services handling gritty material and sludges, where the velocity should be at least 1.2 m/s (4 fps). On solids handling services, the pipe lines normally are provided with a 25 to 51 mm (1 to .2 in.) bose bib connection so that the pipe line can be backflushed periodically with water, steam, or compressed air, particularly on pipe lines conveying sludges and gritty materials.

Discharge Piping

A check valve followed by a gate valve should be installed on the discharge side of each pump. The check valve will preferably be of the outside lever and weight type as a means to be sure that the pump lS pumping and to prevent check valve slamming. The check valve should always be mounted in a horizontal position. Check valves mounted in a vertical position soon accumulate debris on the top side of the Hap to a degree that will restrict the opening of the check valve and the capacity of the: pump. If the pumps are not cycled at frequent intervals the degree of clogging can be II serious problem, particularly if the material being pumped contains a lot of clay or grit from construction or infiltration from the sewerage system.

The practice of increasing by several sizes the diameter of the piping, check valves, and gate valves just beyond the pump discharge nozzle to reduce friction losses is debatable. The oversized check valve and the oversized increaser only cause rapid wear to the pins of the check


valve, frequent clogging, and a higher loss through the partly opened check valve. Tbe check valve and gate valve should be sized the same as the pump discharge nozzle or increased to the size that will produce a velocity not greater than 3 mis (10 fps) through the check valve at maximum pump capacity. Velocities as high as 4.6 mls (15 ips) have been wed by some engineers without any apparent difficulties except an increase in friction loss through the check valve.

Force Mains

The force main normally is sized for current and future needs so that it will convey wastewater or sludges without creating friction losses beyond the capacityhead capability of the available pumps that can be selected. In short length systems where friction and Etting losses are a small percentage of the total head, higher velocities can be used than on force mains of considerable length. On a multiple centrifugal pump system, as each pump goes into service the head increases. Consequently, the capacity of each pump in service decreases. If the force main is not sized adequately, the requirement of two pumps in operation, brought about by the increase in the head, may not provide any more discharge than one pump alone. This condition has often been noted in the field because the engineer did not analyze fully the sizing of the force main and the pumps selected, based on the bead produced in the system as more than one pump is placed into service.

The first step in the selection of the force main is to construct a bead-capacity curve for the system based on the full range of the station for current and future pump age requirements. This curve is obtained by plotting against capacity the sum of the static head and the hydraulic losses for a given capacity. By superimposing pump capacity-bend curves furnished by pump manufacturers, the capacity of each pump in service alone or in combination can be readily ascertained. These pump curves should be modi£ed for the system losses occurring between



the source and the manifold exit. For centrifugal pumps and for any given capacity-bead condition, to double the capacity when two pumps are in service, the bead must he the same as when one pump is in service. This also applies to situations involving more than two pumps. Since the head will not be the same, the system-head curve will show the increase in head as the Bow is increased in the force main and the capacity that will be delivered when one, two, or more pumps are

in operation. .

The velocity in the force main on wastewater applications should be at least 0.9 to 1.1 mls (3 to 3.5 fps ). Lower velocities, however, have been used on long force mains. On such applications, a means should be provided to Husb tbe transmission pipe line periodically at a velocity of 1.1 m/ s (3.5 fps) by putting two or more pumps in service at the same time, by injecting It good size plug of compressed air into the force main, or by using a pipe cleaner.

The force main and adjoining piping on the discharge side of the pump should be heavy enough to withstand the maximum hydraulic head on tbe system, including abnormal pressures that may be produced by water hammer and surge pressures.

Surge Rellef Protection

The sudden closing of a valve or hydrant, power failure, or the starting and stopping of a water column as on reciprocating pumps can create an enormous pressure in the pipe line in less than a second. This pressure increase, called water hammer, is produced by an oscillating shock wave traveling at the speed of sound. The piping system installed sbould include an allowance for water hammer and should include means for reducing the magnitude of the surge pressure that is likely to be created in the piping system. Water hammer is a complex phenomenon. The assistance ilf a hydraulic expert should be sought, p nrticularly on complex high pumping head systems.

In small installations with low static head and short length force mains, B standard


check valve may be adequate, To be on the safe side, however, the cheek valve should be of the outside lever and weight type or the squlvalent, By adjustment under actual operating conditions in the field, the weigbt can be located on the lever in a position whereby the leverage will cause the check valve to close within the time required to prevent it from slamming. On some installations it bas been found necessary to add weights to those furnished with the check valve by the manufacturer or to extend the length of the lever arm.

On larger installations with bigh static head, or low static bead and long force mains, it may be necessary to provide special valves, such as automatic cone or ball valves. These are constructed to close and open slowly as a means of reducing the. pressure waves. When cone or ball valves are used in wastewater applications, a bypass between the valve and pump buck to the wet well should be included in the design. The cone and bill valve, as for the lever type check valve, must be field set for proper closure to prevent water hammer and creation of undue pressures in the pump-pipe system.

Another means of surge suppression is to inject compressed air into the force main at the pump station end at a rate of 19 to 37 lIs per metre dlam (1 to 2 cfrn/in. diam) of the force main. The air injected into the force main serves two purposes-as an air cushion along the entire length of the force main to absorb the oscillating shock waves, and as a source of o:l.ygea to minimize the formation of hydrogen sulfide and thus prevent. the wastewaters from becoming septic, odorous, and corrosive. On such installations, the compressors are wired to start automatically when one or more pumps are in service and stop automatically when no pumps are operntlng.

When air is injected into a force main, the transmission main should be free of higb spots likely to trap the injected air. If high spots cannot be avoided, they should be provided with adequate automatic and manual means to be vented to

the atmosphere. Use of automatic vents alone can result in ineffective venting because of plugging with solids.

On reciprocating pumps such as plunger type sludge pumps, air chambers sbould be installed on the suction and discharge side of each pump. An air connection for compressed air should be provided en the top of each vent to displace the water that gradually nocumulates in the air chamber.

Air Vents And Blow Oifs

All pumps are provided with vent fit!ings. On vertical pumps the vent opening ~ located on the top side of the pump CIlS· mg near the stuffing box and on horlzontal pumps on the top side of the pump volute. A separate valved pipe line,' preferably 13 mm (0.5 in.) diam, sbould be extended from each pump vent to the wetwell on a rising grade and without any low spots. A pump vented to a common vent pipe should not be used.

On force mains, all bigb spots are normally vented with- proper and adequate automatic and manual devices. The vents sbould not necessarily be located at the bigbest elevation. When wastewater is being conveyed in the force main, the air bubble is likely to be some distance downstream from the higb spot when liquid is Bowing, and at the higb spot only when there is no How. Under such conditions more than one air release device may have to be installed, A velocity of at least 1.2 m/ s (4 ips) is required in the pipe line to shear the bubble and to keep it moving down-grade, On all low spots where gritty material is likely to accumulate and restrict How through tbe pipe, a blow-off should be installed if practical. .'

By-Pass Piping Between Pump

and Cone Valves

'Power operated automatic cone or bill type valves combine the functions of check and stop valves. Such valves are often used on pump discharge piping systems to prevent water hammer and excessive surge pressures in the discharge piping and force main when the pump stops during normal operations or under emergency


conditions. On such instillations, 11 gate valve on the discharge side of the cone or ball type valve has often been helpful in times of inspection, repairs, and emergencies. It is also advisable to instnll a by-pass pipe line to the wetwell with a pressure relief valve on the by-pass. This line should open when the cone or balI valve is going through a closed to open position when the pump starts and vice versa when the pump stops. If such a precaution is not taken, the high bead, excessive recirculation, and beat produced in the pump casing will soon cause excessive wear and damage to pump stuffing box glands and to close clearances in the pump between the suction plate and impeller. The by-pass should be sized and selected for field setting to open at a pressure bend slightly greater than the head on the pumps at maximum operation conditions. Velocity limits through the regulator should be set 50 as not to exceed 3 tn] s (10 ips) nt some pre-determined, lower-than-shut-off; capacity-head point on the pump system capacity head curve.

Pump Station Structure

The pumping station structure is a major part of the cost of the station. It is therefore essential it be efficient from n struetural standpoint, that it be economical to construct, and that the size of the wet well and dry well (if required) and the space requirements of all equipment to be housed be carefully determined, with efficient use made of ill space. Often, the pumping station structure bouses, in addition to the pumping equipment. part or all of the other treatment process equipment. For this reason, its size and shape may be dictated by the space requirements of equipment other than the pumps themselves. This is pari ticulady true of the superstructure or above-ground part of the building.

Tbe substructures or below-ground parts of influent stations are often deep and expensive because of the low elevation of the incoming sewers. EfHuent and other treatment plant stations, on the other band, may have little if any substructure. Rectangularsbaped structures are used to a greater

r .\



to all conditions. In general, however, the larger the storage capacity in the outfall sewer supplying the pump station or the more closely the pumps are able to follow changes in the incoming How rate, the smaller the wet well. On small pump stations the practice is to provide, between the cut-in and cut-out levels, a storage volume equal in litres to twice the maximum inflow into the wet well in litres per minute merely to protect the starting equipment from overheating and failure caused by too frequent starting and stopping. On larger instnllations, the effective capacity of the wet well should not exceed 10 min for the design average 24 h How. Wet wells that are too lnrge cause serious maintenance and operation problems because of excessive deposition of gritty and organic material. The build-up of excessive amounts of grease and other Hoating debris on the side walls and surface of the wet well also is a problem.

The wet wells should be narrow, but not less th an 1.2 m (4 ft) for ready access, and should be [IS deep as economically possible between the cut-in and cut-out levels to the point of almost Hooding the incoming sewer. Under such operating ·conditions, centrifugal pumps tend to ride longer on the How because, as the static head decreases, the capacity of a centrifugal pump increases. Conversely, as the static head increases, the capacity decreases. Such design is very relevant to return activated sludge npplicntions.

On screw type pump installations, the wet well is very small and therefore free of the grit and scum problems common to wet wells designed for centrifugal pumps of the wet pit or dry pit type.

Where continuity of pump station operation is important, consideration should be given to dividing the wet well in two sections properly interconnected to facilitate repairs, cleaning, and expansions.

Wet wells and suction channels should be designed so that dead areas where solids and scum may accumulate are avoided. The bottom should be sloped as steeply as possible in the direction of .!low so that deposits and scum accumulations are carried to the pump suctions by the scouring




SWlTCHBOARD D 1..-.-------'1





FIGUlIE 5-16. Wastewllter pumping installation (II) elevation (b) plan.

extent than circular-shaped structures, because there is more usable space in the former (Figure 5-16).

Round caisson-type structures, however, may be economical if a deep substructure is required where foundation conditions are poor and horizontal loads are of the same order of magnitude as vertical pressures.

The .!loor of the superstructure and nll openings to the wet well and dry well

sbould be above maximum Bond stage or be amply protected from flood waters and high water levels in the wet well.

All safety and other requirements should be met as required by local, state, and national codes and regulatory agencies.

Wet Well

There is no method for the sizing of pump station wet wells that is applicable



action of the high velocities at low operating levels.

The wet well should be welllighted with fixtures that are both vapor proof and explosion proof.

Packaged pumping stntions are a recent development for installations with outputs up to approximately 200 math (1.3 mgd).T Some types are supplied in factory-built chambers ready for installation. Others are based on a welded steel "wet well" to whicli pumps nnd appurtenances are attached.

Dry Well-Pump Room

The size of the dry well depends primarily on the number and type of pumps selected and on the piping arrangement. (Totally submerged pumping units do not require dry wells.) A good rule of thumb for those installations requiring dry wells is to provide at least 0.9 m (3 ft) from each of the outbonrd pumps to the nearest side will and at least 1.2 m (4 £t) between each pump discharge casing. Sufficient room is required between pumps to move the pump off of its base with ample clearance left over between suction and dischnrge piping and room for on site repairs, inspection, or removal from the pit to the surface for repairs. The space between the wet well and pump suction well dell ends on the size of the pump suction piping, valves, and fittings. The gate valve should not be connected directly to the pump suction nozzle. Because of space requirements it is often impossible to install or operate a gate valve designed for installation next to the pump. The gate valve should be connected to the pump suction by flanged reinforced flexible connectors or mechanical joints, so that the piping can be connected without putting any strain on the pump suction. The instnllation of a similar flexible connector piece on the pump dischnrge nozzle is advisable for the same reason.

Depending on the size of the pump station, consideration should be given to the Installation of monorails, lifting eyes in the ceiling, and "A" frames for the attachment of portable hoists, cranes, and other devices. Such assemblies should be constructed to permit safe and easy removal and disassembly of pumps, motors, control



centers, piping and other heavy equipment and piping, and valves and fittings that may be located in the dry well and the superstructure of the pump station. All doorways and openings likely to be used for installation and removal of the equipment should have ample width and headroom.

The dry well should be well lighted by fixtures that are vapor proof and explosion proof. All safety and other requirements should be implemented in accordance with local, state, and national safety codes and regulatory agencies.

Provisions should also 'be made for drainage from pump water seal connections. Stuffing boxes on pumps provided with water and grease seals are equipped with drip pockets tapped generally for a 13 mm (0.5 in.) drain pipe connection. As the packing glands wear, the drippage can be considerable. These drain pipe connections should be piped to the drainage gutter or drainage pump sump. Otherwise, the leakage from the stuffing box is likely to make


the equipment Hoor slippery and hazardous to the operator.

Chapter 6

Preaeration and Postaeration


1. Hicks, T. G., and Edwards, P. E., ''Pump Application Engineering." McGrnw-HiI~ New York, N. Y. (1971).

2. Walker, R.t "Pump Selection, A Consultlng Engineers Mnnunl," Ann Arbor Science Pub!.

Inc., Mich. (1972).

3. KnrllSSik, I., and Carter, R., "Centrifugal Pumps." F. W. Dodge Corp., New York, N. Y. (19BO).

4. "Design Criteria for Mechnnicl1l, Electric, and Fluid System and Component Relillbllity." U. S. EPA, Office of Water Program Operation, Wnshington, D. C. (1973).

5. "Municipal Wll3wwater Treatment Works Construction Gmnis Program." U. S. EPA, Wnshlngtont D. C. (1975).

6. "NatiDnal E1ectrlc Code, An American National Standard," NFPA No. 7(}"1971, ANSI CI- 1971, Natl, FIre Protection Assoe., Boston, Mass. (1971).

7. Bartlet, R. E., "Pumping StntiOn5 for Water and Sewage." John Wiley "" Sons, New York, N. Y. (1974).

III Preneration Application

Design GonslderatiollS Methods of Preaeration

113 Postneration Application

Design GonsideratioJlN Methods of Postaeration

115 References



Aerating wastewater prior to primary sedimentation has been practiced for over 40 yr in the United States."• However, its use has not been widespread, but rather limited to certain troublesome wastewater treatment problems. Its initial use was primarily for odor control and/nr prevention of septicity, As preaeration became more widespread and longer aeration periods were tried, additional benefits were obtained. 0,' Preaeration is now used to achieve one or more of the following objectives:

1. Odor control.

2. Grease separation and increased grit


3. Prevention of septicity.

4. Grit separation.

5. Flocculation of solids.

6. Maintenance of DO in primary treatment tanks at low flows.

7. Increased removals of Bon and ss in primary units.

8. Minimizes solids deposits on side walls

and bottom of wetwells,

Usually, pre aeration cannot be justified unless a speclflo objective, such ns those listed above, is to be met. It now is common to combine grit removal with preaeration as one unit process (Chapter 9). Also, preaeration has been used in wetwells advantageously.

Design Considerations

Principles of Aeration:-There are difficulties involved in establishing any single hypnthesis for the processes occuring during the preaeration process. G Some of the chemical and physical changes that take place during the preaeration of wastewater are:

1. The potential of the wastewater is reversed from negative to positive, thus stopping the reduction of some solids and oxygen-consuming compounds that would otherwise require an unnecessary amount of oxidation,

2. Entrained H2S (if pH is lower than 7) is removed by preaeration,

3. Entrained CO~ is removed, thus increasing alkalinity and buffering capacity of the wastewater.

Other data • show that maintenance of a sufficiently high oxidatlon-reduotion potential (ORP) is not achievable with preaeration. Even though the ORP of the Los Angeles Hyperion wastewater was increased from 10 mY to 170 m V by preaeration (30 min), thus indicating a large increase in easily oxidizable or reducible substances, it had dropped hack to 35 mY after primary sedimentation. It was concluded that preaeration of wastewaters that are highly septic and have a high oxygen demand could not achieve the desired oxldation-reduction potential level. Any benefit obtained would be offset by further anaerobic degradation during primary sedimentation.

In another study, T it was shown that it was possible to achieve an ORP that did not decline during subsequent sedimentation. It further was concluded that a 60- min preaeration period was necessary to attain the required ORP value.

Preaeration Time:- The Ten States Standards a recommend a detention period of 30 min (at design flow) to achieve effective



1951, operationol data from 51 treatment plants using preaeration were tabulated." The compiled 5S removal data (Figure 6-1)

80 r.:-:-----::::::::::~::::::::::::::::r~:j illustrate the effect of preaeratlon," The

~ : ;;~ effect of increased dealtentionditime a1Amso is

~ 4U min evident from plant-so e stu les at . es,

.. 60 Iowa." At Ames, a combination of 45 min

~ preaeration and 60 min plain sedimentation

~ outperformed 120 min of plain sedlmenta-

~ 40 tion. An average improvement of 7 to 8

~ percent in both primary BOD and 55 re-

~ movals following preaeration was observed.

:=; 20 It is thought1l that this improvement in BOD

~ and 55 removal is a result of uniform dis-

~ tribution of How and solids to settling tank

~ DoL --,..1.00--..120-0 ----::!::----:-40=0---;;;!soo inlets. Optimum efficiency of preaeration iii SUSPENDED SDLtDS IN HAW WAOTEWATEn. moll and sedimentation is shown (Figure 6-1) to vary directly with the wastewater solids content,

Pre aeration periods may be reduced to 10 to 15 min if odor control and prevention of septicity are the primary objectives.

Pultrldon iml!!

FIGlmE 6-1. Effect of preaeration on removal of suspended solids in a primary settling tank. (Removal based on 2 h detion time in settling basin.)

solids flocculation when inorganic chemicals are used in conjunction with preaeration. A minimum of 45 min (at design flow) is recommended to obtain increased BOD reduction.' If, however, polymers are used, these detention times may be varied. In

Air Requirements

Figure 6-2 is a representation of additional data accumulated in a survey of preaeration practice.' For the Ten States Standards" recommended pre aeration time of 30 min, a minimum aeration rate of 0.B2


D 5 111 15 20


FIGURE 6-2. Air flow required for different periods of preneration. Nole; eu ft/ gal X 7.4B1 = 1/1.


]/1 wastewater (O.ll cu ft/ gal) is' determined from Figure 6-2. This minimum rate has been veriBed and recommended by othllrs.o-11

The exact amount of air required to accomplish preaeration design objectives is not easily determined and is based not only on wastewater quality but also on the physical characteristics of the preaeration tank and on the tank cross section in particular. Sufficient air must be provided in the tank to guarantee turbulence adequate to maintain the tank contents in suspension. More air will be required if deep and wide tanks are used than for tanks that are comparatively shallow. Requirements for more air in the case of deeper and wider tanks result from the fact that the amount of air necessary to prevent increased deposition of solids is the critical factor. If air is supplied at a minimal rate, usually between 1.5 to 6.2 1/ s per metre of tank (1.0 to 4.0 cEmllio ft), the required agitation to maintain solids in suspension will be accomplished. "

Practice therefore indicates that a minimum preaeration air supply of 0.82 1/1 wastewater (0.11 en ft/gal) is to be provided in!tinlly. Satisfactory facilities for increasing air How in the hopper bottoms should be provided if experience indicates that solids deposition cannot be avoided by altering other aspects of the process, such .IlS physical changes to the air supply equipment and/or arrangement,

Methods of Preaeration

Diffused aeration and mechanical aeration are two methods of introducing air into wastewater. Details on design, types, and performance of various diffused and mechanical aeration systems are covered in Chapter 14 and in other publications.ll-H

Diffusers are 'classified either as porous or nonporous. Porous diffusers in the form of plates or tubes are either of the ceramic type ( constructed of silicon dioxide Dr aluminum oxide grains held in a porous mass with a ceramic binder) or of the nonceramic type (consisting of fused synthetic beads and similar to ceramic types, or


plastic-cloth tubes). Nonporous diffusers may be of the nozzle, orifice, valve, tubular upflow, or shear type. Nozzle and orifice type diffusers are constructed of metal or plastic, have larger openings, and release larger bubbles than the porous type diffuser. Valve type diffusers have a disk or valve that closes when the air supply is shut off. They also release larger bubbles than do porous diffusers. Tubular upBow type diffusers cause a circulation of gas and liquid through the unit. Shear type diffusers, square in shape, provide for the reduction of the bubble size by the shearing force of the water entering the diffuser at the open top in a counterflow direction to the upHowing air. The WPCF publication, "Aeration," describes many different types of diffusers availnble.>

The number of diffusers required is calculated by determining the total amount of air required and dividing by the recommended air flow rate per diffuser, usually 1.9 to 7.1 lIs (4 to 15 cfm) per diffuser. The spacing of the diffusers is between 150 and 600 mm (6 and 24 in.) on center.

In general, mechanical aeration is accomplished by surface aerators or submerged turbines. Oxygen transfer rates for diffusers and mechanical aeration devices are discussed extensively in Cbapter 14 and in other publications.v



The practice of postaeration has come about in recent years because of the more stringent water quality standards being adopted by various regulatory agencies. Although federal secondary elHuent criteria for publicly owned treatment facilities do not include DO, many local discharge requirements specify a minimum DO concentration ranging from 2 to B mg/I, depending on the stream requirement. The eH!uent from most treatment processes does not normally have the DO level that these receiving waters require. Consequently, postaeration must be used before the wastewater effiuent may be discharged. Although little work hns been done in the area of










FIGURE 6-3. Various postneration devices: (a) diffused aeration. (b) turbine type aeration, (c) pump type. aeration. (d) agltator-nerator system, (e) cascade aerator, and (f) U·tube aerator.

wastewater postaerntiun, the mechanisms by which treated eHluent may be oxygen enriched have been developed previously, primarily for water treatment.

Design Considerations

Generally, DO concentration requirements of 2 to 4 mgtl would be desirable for secondary treated eHluent, while levels of 6 to 8 mgtl might be required for systems using some type of tertiary wastewater treatment. The desired levels would be selected rationally on the basis of eIBuent and receiving water How rate, organic concentration, temperature, and renction kinetics.

Methods of Postaeration

Oxygen may be supplied to the plant effluent by menns of diffused or mechanical


aeration equipment or by cascade aeration similar to that experienced in a waterfall (Figure 6_3).l'-1! Information relative to sizing diffused and mechanical aeration devices is given in Cbapter 14, Sizing of cascade aeration systems has been proposed using the following formulas":

r = (C, - Co)/(C, - C) (1)

r - 1

11 = O.H ab (1 + 0.046 T) (2)


r "" the defici t ratio,

C. "" DO saturation concentration of the wastewater at temperature T, mg/I, Co = DO concentration of the postaeration influent, mg/l,

C = required final DO level after, postaeration, mg/I,

a. = water quality parameter equal to 0.8 for a wastewater treatment plant effluent,

b = weir geometry parameter equal to unity for a free weir and 1.3 lor some step weirs,

T = water temperature, °C, and

II = height in feet through which water falls.

Il-tube aerators (Figure 6-3) also may be considered for USe IlS postaeration devices. Design considerations include air to water ratio (ranging from 0.20 to 0.25), tube cross-sectional area, and depth.

In calculating air needs for the postaeration of secondary eHluents, the oxygen requirements should be met after the secondary aeration tank. Although most of the carbonaceous oxygen demand will have beensatisfied by secondary treatment, a signlflcant nitrogenous oxygen demand may still remain and, if it does, will have to be satisfled in the receiving stream," by postaeration, Dr by the methods discussed in Chapter 14. For secondary eHluents receiving filtration, the wastewater will exert a much reduced, but still signlflcant, oxygen demand.


1. Roe, F. C., "Preaeraunu of Sewage by Air DilfusiDn." Pub. Worka, 64, 7, 16 '( 193M. 2. Hatlleld, W. D., "Operation of the Preueration Plnnt at Decatur, ruinols." Saw. Works leur; 3, 4, 621 (1931).

3. Currie, F. 5., "Preo.erntion, Grit cpamben; and Sklmming Tanks." Ssw. Works Iou«, 17, 1, 4B (1945).

'.I. Gehm, H. W., "Grease Removal at Army Sewage Treabnent Plants-Discussion." Sew. Works IOllr., 10,2,315 (1944).

5. Roe, F: C., "Preueration and Air Flocculation."

S8W. & Ind. Wastes, 23, 2, 127 (1E151).


Il. Bergman, R. D., at at, uAe1'lltion Requirements of a High Oxygen Demand Sewage," Sew. & Ind. Wa3tc.t, 29,7,768 (1957).

7. Prntt, J. W., "Discussion-Aemtlon Requirements of a High Oxygen DemllDd Sewage." Ssw. & Inci Wastes, 29, 7, 78E1 (1957).

B. "Recommended StnndanJs for Sewage Works."

Great Lakes-Upper M!s.risslppl lUver Bd. of Slnte San. Engr., Health Eduention Service, Albnny, N. Y. (1971).

EI. SeideL H. F., and Baumann, E. R., "Effect of Prenerntlon on the Primary Trentmant of Sewage." lour. Wafer Poll. Control Feci, 33, 339 (1961).

10. Koppe, S. E., and Neighbor, J. B., "Some New Developments In Aeration: 1 PreAerntion and Aernted Grit Chambers," Sew. & Ind. WastllJ, 23, 7, 633 (11l51).

11. "Aeration In Wasll:wnter Treatment." Manunl of Pmctice No.5, Water Poll. Control Fed, Washington, D. C. (1971).

12. MetCll!f and Eddy, Inc., "Water Engfneeringr Collection, Treatment, Dlsposnl," McGrnwmn New Yorle, N. Y. (11l72).

13. Hardenbergb, W. A., BDd Rodia, E. R., ''Wilter Supply and Waste Disposal." Intemational Textbook Co., Scranton, Fa. (1961).

14. Babbitt, H. E., and Baumann, E. R., "Sewerage and Sewnge Treatment," John WUey 1% SODS, Ine., New York, N. Y. (1965).

15. "Process Deslgn Mnnual for Upgmdlng Existing Wnsll:wllll:r Treatment Plants." U. S. EPA, Office of Technology Transfer, Washington, D. C. (1971).

lB. Kormnnik, R., "SlmpUJied MathematiCilI Procedure for Designing Post-Aemtioo Baslas," Jour. Water Poll. Control Fad., 41, 1E156 (lEl69).

11. Barrett, M. J., at al., "Aerntion Studies of Four Weir Systems." Water & Wasts EnglncarIng (G. n.), 64, 9, 407 (lElIlO).

lB. Speece, R. E., BDd Orosco, IL, "Design of U-Tube Ae[]ltion System." laur. San. Eng. Dlo., PrOD. Amer. Soc. Civil Engr., 90, SA3, 715 (1970).

Ill. "Process Design Manual for Upgrading ExistIng Wnslewnler Treatment Plants," U. S. EPA, Office of Technology Transfer, Washington, D. C. (1E174).

20. Courcbnine, R. J., "Significance of N!tri6CJltion in Stream Balance-Effects OD the Oxygen Balanoe," Jour. WafOT Poll. Control Fad., 40, 5, 835 (1E168).


Chapter 7

Pre chlorination and Intermediate Chlorination

116 Preehlorination force main with a detention time in excess

Application of 20 to 30 min. .

Design Considerations The reaction of chlorine gas with water

119 Intermediate Chlorination is rapid:

Application Ch + H20 p HOCl + H+ + CI- (1)

Design Considerations

119 References At a pH of 5, the amount of HOCI in

solution approaches 100 percent. With the

Frechlorination addition of hydrogen sulfide:

Although 'the principal use of chlorine in HOCI + H~S ~ S~ + HCI + H20 (2)

wastewater treatment is for disinfection This reaction requires 2.2 mg/l chlorine per purposes (Chapter 20), it also is employed mg!l of sulB.de as hydrogen sulfide, The in other capacities.l.~ The practice of IIP- addition of 8.87 mg!l chlorine to each mg!l plying chlorine to the plant headworks is of sulfide will theoretically oxidlze the sulknown as prechlorination, Pre chlorination fides to sulfates:

is used principally to control odor, cerro-

sion, and septicity, and to aid in grease S' + 4 C]~ + 8 OR- p

removal. S04 + 8 oi- + 4 H20 (3)

In actual practice, dosage ample for some

Application intermediate reaction point is adequate. It

Odor Control:-Odors are usually a reo is customary to run chlorine demand tests sult of putrefaction of solids in wastewater. to determine the suitable dosages. . ExperiConsequently, odor abatement programs ence shows that whenever hydrogen sulfide are directed at either killing the bacteria, becomes a problem, the chlorine demand of providing sufficient oxygen, or otherwise raw wastewater may range up to 40 to 50 eliminating the odoriferous material. mg/I. Since. the chlorine reacts first with

The putrefaction process can produce a the sulfides present, it is not necessary to "Variety of odorous compounds. The most satisfy tbe organic chlorine demand of the prevalent and most obnoxious odors are wastewater to achieve hydrogen sulfide COnthose resulting from hydrogen sulfide that trol. The dosage that produces trace amis produced by the breakdown of sulfur perametric residuals after a few minutes compounds. It is generally conceded that contact is usually sufficient.

if the hydrogen sulIlde is either controlled The point of application of chlorine must or destroyed, odors from other putrefaction be in the How before the wastewater surprocesses will similarly be controlled. faces at tbe treatment plant, otherwise the Therefore, insofar as chlorination is con- hydrogen sulfide will come out of solution cerned, odor control is synonymous witb as it enters tbe plant. The control of the the destruction of hydrogen sulfide. How- chlorination application should' be comever, destruction of the sulfides often. pletely automated because of the inherent solubilizes heavy metals in the wastewater, characteristics of hydrogen sulfide. Hydroand may cause problems in a plant employ- gen sulfide not only gives off an intolernble ing anaerobic digestion of tbe primary "rotten egg" odor, but it can paralyze the sludge. olfactory nerveIn a matter of a few min-

It is well known that hydrogen sulfl.de utes, Because the gas is deadly poison, this can be generated in copious amounts in chnracterlstic has caused deaths from hybotb free Howing sewers and in force mains. drogen sulfide exposure because workers Hydrogen sulIide is certain to form in any were unaware of its presence.



'The chlorlnatlon equipment will normally have two modes of control-one a flowproportional signal and the other II dosage signal from a hydrogen sulfide air sampler.

Corrosion Control I-Hydrogen sulfide not only produces obnoxious odors but also can cause devastating corrosion of concrete structures. The hydrogen sulfide generated in a sewer reacts with oxygen, in the pres· ence of oxidizing bacteria and in the humid atmosphere above tbe water surface, to produce sulfuric acid as II condensate on the walls of tbe sewer, wet well, or other structures. This acid is strong enough to destroy even the best of concrete mixes. By the removal of hydrogen sulfide, chlorination controls tbe primary source of both odors and corrosion. Chlorine can be used effectively eitber to prevent the formation of hydrogen sul£de by up-sewer treatment or by destruction of hydrogen sulfide at the end of a force main just prior to its discharge into the wet well or pumping station of tbe plant The point of application in a force main is at least 10 diameters upstream from the point of discharge to provide mixing and reaction time.

Prevention of Septicity:-All of the biological treatment processes are most efficient when the inHuent wastewater is fresh. Treatment efficiency ma.y be effected adversely and the biological process upset if the wastewater becomes septic. The prac· tice of prechlorination can be used to prevent septic action by maintaining the iniluent In a fresh condition. This results in 11 wastewater with settling characteristics that may be superior, and also prevents septicity in the. sludge blanket in the primary sedimentation units. Septicity is a problem in newly constructed plants that receive wastewater from a collection system sized for future flows, from a collection system not having proper velocities to prevent putrefaction from taktng place, and with certain organic industrial wastes. Generally, ·tbe chlorine dosage used to control odors also will control septicity.

Grellse Bemovnh - Many treatment plants are troubled by high concentrations of grease in the influent Prechlorination has resulted in varying degrees of success

In grease removal. The chlorine may be applied as a solution ahead of tbe primary tanks or ahead of aeration tanks. Often as little as 2 to 5 mg!l will suffice to bring about an improvement in grease removal.

Chlorination plus aeration is more effective in the removal of grease than just chlorination. For tbis treatment method, dry chlorine gas is mixed with tbe air supply to tbe aeration tanks. Conventional solution. type chlorination equipment may also be used; however, air instead of water is used to power the injector. Customary practice is to use 2 to 10 mgt] chlorine.

Design Considerations

Primary design considerations for the application of chlorine in wastewater treatment works are covered in detail in Chap. ter 20 and in other publieatfons," Considerations specific to pre chlorination are dis. cussed in the following subsections.

Dosage:-Design of a prechlorination facility is based on the maximum chlorine needed for the given situation. Initially, the complete system is considered, Including tbe chlorine required for prechlorlnation, intermediate, and posteblorination ap' plications. The equipment then is broken down into two groups: one group for prs. chlorination and intermediate points of application, the other group for postehlorfnation ( dlslnfecnon). This equipment is arranged 50 that the first group can provide standby service for postchlorination equipment. A tbird group may be desirable if botb pre- and postchlorination are to be continuous. The third group is arranged for hotb intermediate chlorination and standby for either pre- or postchlorinntiori. Since pre- and intermediate chlorination are rarely ever on II continuous basis, the standby systern can be used for prechlorination.

Chlorinator capacity is a function of the How signal and the chlorine demand of the wastewater. This concept applies to both pre· and postchlorination, but not intermediate chlorination because the latter chlorine feed rate is usunlly on a manual control basis.

The required chlorine dosage for pre. chlorination is difficult to predict with any


Chapter 8

Coarse and' Fine Screening

120 Introduction

120 Coarse Screens BorSCTeens Comminutors Woven~Wire Media

123 Fine Screens Fj.:r:ed Screens M Doing Screellf

128 Location Considerations 129 Hydraulic Considerations Velocity

Head Los»

130 Quantity of Coarse Screenings 131 Composition of Coarse Screenings 131 Handling of Screenings

133 References


Screening was one of the first methods used to remove gross pollutants from wastewater. In fact, the main purpose of many of the first wastewater treatment plants was to remove only the visible pollutional materials.

Screening devices can be classified as fine or coarse. Fine screens can achieve a significant degree of suspended solids removal; coarse screens are used primllrily as protective devices (Table 8-I).

In modem wastewater treatment plants, coarse screening is used primarily to remove or reduce in size the solids and trash

TABLE ~I. Sue of Coarse and Fine Screan Opanlngs


Typo of S.,.oon Oponlng (lnln) ,Rom1U1:s

Bar &."'0" ahead of nW'WELI!ItewIlL'fr pum,," .nd .,I~ oh~lnh."

Bar 1It:rel:!n nhel1t1 of eilLer dl!.lIree..s Dr procuses

51 to I.J (1 to 61 n, )

l5 mm (I In.J openIn~. wldoly .0- c:~pLM mDtltilSIo.c-

O;~.:rng n r"ncUo" or hydrouJJc .. pacity of de.!",

Openfnlill lUI! than l.l mm (D.09 In.J have been used lor pretreatment and/or l'""'IUY trutlnebt

IU 1051

(n.15 to 2 in.)

~ to ID

(U.2S tD U.75 In.)

Fl>od (,tollo) , ...... , 2.3 to M

(n.IIP to n.l5 In.)

M'DvJnll. fine ~~[I. 'O.D2 to D.3


that may interfere with the downstream operation of treatment plant equipment, such as puml1S or valves, mechanical aerotors, and biological :Blters, and that subsequently may affect the efficiency of treatment plant ,processes, There is no guarantee, however, that inappropriate materials will not get into the various plant unit processes,

Fine screens were developed in the wnterworks industry where they are occasionally employed for the purpose of physically removing algae and other aquatic plants by direct screening, During the past few years, several fine-screen Installations have been made for the purpose of upgrading secondary treated wastewater eHluent to tertiary standards (a process termed "effluent polishing"), and to protect downstream processes, for example, centrifuges and close-tolerance pumps.

Coarse Screens

Coarse screens are normally employed as the first treatment unit for the primary purpose of protecting plant equipment against reduced operating efficiency: or physical damage. An indication of their effectiveness can be obtained by examining the maintenance costs and downtime of the equipment and processes that the coarse screen is intended to protect. Included in this group are bar screens, comminutors, and the coarser woven-wire media, The most commonly used coarse 'screens are the bar and comminutor types.

The size of screen openings is usually determined by the operation that follows the screen and the maximum particle size that the screen can process effectively and economically,

Bar Screens

A bar screen consists of vertical or inclined steel bars spliced at equal intervals across a channel through which wastewater' flows. Bar screens are used ahead of raw

wastewater pumps, meters, grit chambers, and primary sedimentation tanks, and in by-pass channels around mechanically cleaned screens Or comminutors. Bar screens with relatively large openings of 50 to 150 mm (2 to 6 in.) are often termed trash racks. Their principal function, partieularly with a combined collection system, is to prevent logs, timbers, stumps, or other large heavy objects from entering the treatment plant,

Bar screens may be cleaned manually (Figure 8-1) or with mechanical devices available from several manufacturers, If cleaned Duly periodically, the removal of the damming produced between cleanings may result in surges of relatively high flow; this higher velocity' reduces capture efficiency. With a mechanical cleaning mechanism frequently operated, such How interference will be held to a minimum.

The use of a mechanically cleaned bar screen tends to reduce labor costs, provide better How conditions and screening capture, and cause less nuisance, Such a device is, therefore, almost always used in large to medium plants, and frequently even in the small plants. For a combined collection system, mechanically cleaned bar screens are preferred to trash removal


FIGURE 8-2. Mechanically cleaned bar screen,

devices because of their superior ability to handle large quantities of debris and screenings under storm conditions, and because of their rugged construction,

The mechanical cleaning devices consist of rakes that periodically sweep the entire screen (Figure 8.2), removing the solids for disposal. Most meehanfcal bar screens use endless chains or cables to move the rake teeth through the screen openings, Screens may be front or back cleaned. It has been reported that, in some instances, front-cleaned screens may be subject to bottom jamming by unusual deposits of trash. If channel velocity is maintained above 0.2.5 mls (0.75 fps), jamming is minimized. The back cleaning or through-cleaning screens, which are not subject to bottom jamming, are afforded protection from damage by the screen, However, the longer rake teeth , , on back-cleaned screens are more susceptiFIGURE 8-1. Manually raked bar screen, ble to bending and breakage. A cleaning



FIGDlIE 8-3. Comminutor Iastnllation,

mechanism utilizing buckets with teeth rakes is available for use in the combined grit-removal and screening chamber. These generally are used in medium or small plants.

The following types of controls can be used alone or in combination on mechanically cleaned bar screens:

1. Manual start-stop.

2. Automatic start-stop by clock control.

3. High-level switch.

4. Differential head level actuated starting switch on cleaning mechanism.

In many plants mechanically cleaned bar screens are used in conjunction with screenings grinders (sometimes called shredders) and grinding pumps (Chapter 5) that return the macerated screenings to the wastewater flow for subsequent removal in the primary treatment process. Mechanically cleaned bar screen mecbanisms will characteristically discharge on the upstream or downstream side of the bar rack, 'as determined by the particular piece of equipment. Front discharge of screenings before shredding may be preferable to back discharge, as any screenings lost in handling are dropped upstream of the screen and therefore will again be sub-


jected to the chance of removal. Grinders should be located near the source of screenings to be processed. Grinders usually are fated in terms of volume of screenings per hour. Greater horsepower is used where heavy instantaneous loads are anticipated or where automatic feeding is used,

Water requirements for grinders vary with the type of screenings, point of discharge, and type of grinder, The water used may be Bnal emuent or utility water,

Grinders used are of the hammer mill or the dlsintegrator type. The hammer mill type depends on speed to disintegrate the screenings. The disintegrator type uses a low-lift impeller with fixed and rotating cutting blades arranged in front of perforated screening plates,

Mechanically cleaned bar screens have slopes ranging from 45 to 90 deg from the horizontal. Steeper slopes are preferred to conserve space, Manually cleaned screen slopes range from 30 to 75 deg. For the hand-cleaned screen, a flatter slope increases the ease of cleaning and reduces the tendency to cause pending between cleanmgs, Current practice is to use slopes of 30 to 45 deg,


Comminuting devices are installed in the wastewater How to cut retained material generally to 6 to 19 mm (0.25 to 0,75 in.) without its removal from the How (Figures 8-3, 8-4, and 8-5; Table 8-II). The use of such a device tends to reduce odors, flies, and unsightliness often found around screenings that are handled by other means. Solids from comminutors and screenings grinders may cause deposits in digestion tanks and rag accumulations on air diffusers. Also, eomminutors are known to create "ropes" of material that can adversely affect some treatment equipment such as mechanical aerators, mixers, and pumps, H a comminuting device is to be used, manufnotursrs' data and fating tables are consulted to select the unit size on the basis of the largest particle that may he allowed to pass. An allowance must he made for screen plugging, as comminutor hydraulic curves are based on clean water.

Woven-Wire Media

Coarse woven-wire media screens are used after trash racks and have been used on occasion in both flat and basket form to screen settled wastewater before introducing it to biological filters (Figure 8-6).

FIGURE 8-4. Comminutor in a straight channel installation.


FIGURE 8-5. Comminutor installation showing an emergency bar screen by-pass.

Their purpose is to remove any solids that will tend to clog filter orifices. The use of this type of screen is also applicable when settled wastewater is introduced to gravity sand filters. Their use prevents stoppages in pipes and distributing equipment and also helps to reduce clogging of the sand.

Fine Screens

Fine screen openings have varied from 2.3 to 6.0 mm (0,09 to 0.25 Ia.) in the past,

TABLE B-n. Some Comminuting-Type Cutting Mechllllisms

Dllferent CnlUnll M.cl!.nl"". .

1. Coarse material is cut by cutting-teeth and shear bars on a revolving drum that posses through a stationary cutting comb.

2, Cutters on an oscillating arm contact fixed cutters. on the semicircular drum.

3. Stationary grid intercepts larger solids while smaller solids pass through to cutting teeth mounted on rotnting disks. Cutting teeth also mounted on the combs of the grid.

4, Rotating cutters travel up and down a bar screen cutting retained solids and permitting entry.



FIGUBE s.a. Mechanically cleaned coarse screening device.

with a few installations employing openings less thnn 2.3 mm. However, in recent years static screens with openings less than 2.3 rom have been used for pretreatment and/or primary treatment. In addition, revolving drum screens are being used at an increasing rate for upgrading secondary treatment plants. Perforated plate and closely spaced bars normally have openings greater than 0.02 mm, Woven wire screens are used when finer screening is required.

Fixed Screens

The application of static screens (Figure B-7) to municipal wastewater treatment CIIn result in DOD and 55 removal in the range of 20 to 35 percent,' Consequently,

the use of fine screens may become more common for pretreatment and possibly even for providing primary treatment. This will be particularly true in the upgrading of existing small treatment plants. The screening media employed may be perforated plate, woven wire cloth, or

closely spaced bars. .

In the past, fine screens were used in lieu of primary sedimentation tanks to remove solids from the wastewater before secondary treatment or discharge to the receiving waters. Today, only the former choice would be a viable possibility in the United States. Their use would require a detailed cost study and a comparison of the derived treatment results. While fine

screens in the past could be expected to be expected to remove 25 to 35 percent remove only 5 to 10 percent of the 55 in SS, with some removals as high as 60 perthe raw wastewater, static screens with O.S cent. Primary sedimentation tanks can be to 1.5 mm (0.03 to 0.06 in.) openings can expected to remove 50 to 60 percent 5S.


I j.



! I

F1GURE B-7. Fixed or static screen.




FIGURE 8-8. Section of fine screening device.

In addition, the wastewater DO is raised to 2 mg/l or more, thus assisting in grease removal and subsequent biological treatment

Moving Screens

Moving fine screens (Figure 8-8) closely approximnte continuously cleaned screens. The strainer consists of It rotating cylinder having a screen attached to the circumferential area of the drum (Figure 8-9). Different screens (stainless steel, nylon, polyester) can be employed, with openings commonly varying from 0.02 to 3 mm, Screens with pore sizes as small as 0.005

mm are now available from some commercial sources but are seldom used.

For some moving screen devices, liquid enters the center of the drum and moves radially out through the screen, depositing a mat of solids on the inner surface of the fabric. Other devices use 'How from the perimeter to the center of the drum. The drum is rotated so that the fabric can be cleaned by water jets mounted above the top of the drum's rotation, and possibly activated by monitoring differential pressure. The fabric has a shape and weave to a~ow the water from the baclcwash jets, an Integral part of the screening equipment, to penetrate the screen and to remove the mat of deposited solids.

The backwash system maybe activated automatically by increased differential pressure (headless ). Once the headless is reduced to normal values, the washing system could be deactivated. Conductivity probes may alsobe used to trigger the backwash system. The backwash water is then collected and returned to an upstream process for additional treatment.

While screens employed have relatively small openings and can remove blologioal .floc:! up to 0,035 nun, the size of the open-


FIGURE 8·9 (a). Line drawing of a fine screening device.

FIGURE 8-9 (b). Fine screening device,

ings themselves cannot account for the overall solids removal efficiency, of the unit, The mat of previously removed solids on the screen provides the meohanlsm for removing the small particles and colloids present in secondary efBuents.

One of the principal advantages of a moving fine screen is its low head or operating power requirement The headless across the screen usually varies from 0.3 to 0.5 m (12 to 19 in.), including inlet and outlet structures. A maximum headless of 150 mm (6 In.) is allowed through the screen,

Fine screens have been used to polish secondary effiuents as well as aerated lagoon effiuents." I-I They also are used to < provide protection for close-clearance equipment and may be used for the treatment of combined sewer Hows,",I. "Whenever fine screens are to be used to consistently achieve a 55 concentration to meet a regulatory agency requirement, the design engineer should satisfy himself that the required efHuent quality will be achieved.

The performance of a fine screen device varies considerably depending on influent solids concentrations, operating hydraulic head, and the degree of biological conditioning of the solids. Other variables that exert il lesser in.Buence include fabric aperture, screen speed, and raw wastewater characteristics.

A fine screen will perform well over a


range of in.Buent suspended solids, although it is extremely sensitive to Influent solids Euctuatlons.!" Suspended solids removals of rfl to 89 percent for 0.020 mm screens and 55 to 73 percent for 0.035 mm screens have been achieved when processing secondary effiuents. Some associated lIOD removal also is achieved. A substantial decrease in the unit's capacity will be experienced during upsets in the upstream biological process. Although .flocculation ahead of the screen will have II favorable effect on both effiuent 5S and removal eHlcienC!f. the fragile nature of chemical floc eventually may cause solids buildup on the screen. The resulting increased head serves to drive some particles through the screen, and the efBuent quality and removal efficiency suffer nccordingly,

Design Considerations:-Typical design parameters for a moving fine screen processing secondary efHuent are shown in Table 8-ill. Other data 11 show a hydraulic loading variation (based on flow rate per screen width) of 0.7 to 2.2 mS' m" d (60 to 180 gpm/sq ft) for screens fitted with 0.020 to 0.036 mm fabric.

The fine screen can be equipped with a headlnss device that will automatically control the drum speed and the quantity of applied backwash water. Headlosses through nne screens can be calculated

TiIllLE 8-m. Snme Typical Fine Screen Design Po.mmetel1l for Treating Secondary Effluents

OpomUnIL Chlln1ct.rlst!a

Drum speed, rpm

Screen surface area, sq ft Screen openings, mm Hydraulic loading, gal/sq

ft submerged screen/ min:

0.020 mm fabric

0.035 mm fabric Backwash water flow, % Backwash pressure, psi

0.7 to 4.3

41 to 700 0.020 or 0.035

10 13.3

3 to 6 % of the totnl flow 20 to 80 (applied inter-

mittently) 0.25 to 0.5

Screen head loss, ft

Note: gal/sq ft X 0.0407 = m'/ro'; psi X 6.119 = kN/m'; ft X 0.3048 = mj aq ft X 0.0929 =0 m'.



from an orifice type equatien':

Q = CA (2gk) I (1)


Q = flow, efs,

A = area of openings in the screen, sq ft, g = gravity constant, 32 ft/s~,

C = screen coefficient (generally between 0.3 and 0.6; a 100 mesh screen, for example, has an open area of 30% (C = 0.3),

h = headless through the screen, ft.

Slime growths and scale, which tend to develop on the fabric, will cause an increase in headless, Slime growths can be partially controlled by ultraviolet lights placed close 1:0 the screen (nylon screens will be harmed by uv light). Lime treatment may be used to control scaling. In some instances, to provide positive slime removal, chlorination immediately upstream of screens using polyester fabric may be used. Ifn metal or nylon fabric is used, the screen may be taken out of service occasionally and cleaned with a chlorine solution. If oil or grease are present, steam cleaning the metal fabric should be considered. Hot water should be used for cleaning nylon or polyester screens.

Location Considerntions

In determining the location of a Coarse screening device, the major concern is the protection of equipment. The largest particle that may be allowed to pass may be governed, for example, by the minimum opening in a pump, pipe, fitting, or piece of equipment followmg the screening device. Fine screening equipment location is based on influent particle size as well as the degree of treatment expected, The Iollcwing locetion considerations are for coarse screening devices. The equipment manufacturer should be consulted for fine screen particle size and location limitations.

If the sewer system is very deep at the treatment plant site, or a pumping station is provided at same distance from the plant, if: may be desirable to use only a coarse bar screen prior to pumping. In the latter case, it would still be possible to


provide a bar screen with smaller clear openings after pumping. If it is necessary to place a screening device in a deep pit or channel, it is mandatory that approaches from above be wide enough for comfortable access and suitable for the elevation of collected materials. In IIddition, ample splice for maintenance work . should be provided,

On combined sewer systems, coarse bar screens are normally ;provided ahead of the pumps to protect them from debris.

Practice varies as to the location of screening devices at the treatment plant. Present practice calls for coarse bar screens to be located upstream from the grit chamber. Bar screens and/or comminuting devices, located before or after the grit chamber, are upstream from the raw wastewater pumps. Locating bar screens down- . stream from the grit chamber also has the advantage, if the screens clog, of settling out solids in the grit chamber rather than in the influent sewer. This advantage is not as great in the case of mechanically cleaned bar screens. Past practice has been to locate screening devices downstream from grit chambers to prevent gritty material from causing premature failure of comminutor teeth nnd combs. However, experience has shown that the more frequent replacement of teeth and combs is less costly and troublesome than the problems associated with rags in the grit chamber. However, whether the screening device is located ahead of or after the grit chamber, it should be readily accessible because of the nature of the materials handled and the frequency of inspection and maintenance.

The necessity of locating screening equipment in an enclosed structure is de" pendent on two factors-the equipment design and the climatic conditions. A structure will not only protect the equipment, but can make maintenance easier and be aesthetically more attractive. Whether the screening equipment is located in an enclosed structure or not, the drive mechanism of a mechanically cleaned bar screen should be enclosed.

Any structure that contains a screening

device, particularly mechanically cleaned bar screens, requires good ventilation. This will prolong the life of the equipment by minimizing the accumulation oE moisture and by removing the corrosive atmospbere. In some cases, combining good ventilation with air drying or heating units may be warranted.

Hydraulic Considerations

The hydraulic considerations presented here are for the design of a bar screen in" stallation, When comminuting devices or other coarse or Bne screens lire to be used, the particular manufacturer's data and ratings of these units should be followed for channel dimensions, capacity ranges, upstream and downstream submergence, and horsepower requirements.


The velocity distribution in the approach channel is very important to good bar screen operation. A straight channel ahead of the screen insures good velocity distribution across the screen and maximum effectiveness of the device. Use of other than a straight approach channel bas often resulted in large parts of the How passing through one side of the channel, This latter case, however, is not too great a problem with comminuting devices.

The velocity of How ahead of and through a bar screen affects its operation substantially. The lower the velocity, the greater the amount of material that will be removed from a given waste. However, the lower the velocity the greater the amount of solids deposited in the channel. Therefore, the design engineer must satisfy himself that the wastewater's approach velocity to the screen does not fall below a self-cleaning value or rise to such a mugnitude that it Will dislodge screenings. Velocities' of 0.6 to 1.2 01/ s (2 to 4 Ips) through the screen openings have been used with reported satisfaction. At present the lower rate is preferred for low Bows, and a maximum of 0.9 m! s (3 Ips) for storm Bows is common practice. The "TenState Standards" limits the velocity through the screen openings to O.B m! s (2.5 Ips)?!


The velocity in the rack chamber of bar Screens should be greater than 0.4 m/s (1.3 fps) lit minimum Bows .to avoid grit deposition when grit chambers follow bar Screens. Where considerable amounts of storm water are to be handled, appecaeh velocities of approximately 0.9 mls (3 fps) are desirable to avoid grit deposition at the bottom of II mechanically cleaned screen, which might otherwise become inoperative when most needed during storms,

Head Loss

Usually accepted practice has required that an absolute minimum allowance for loss through a hand-cleaned bar screen be 150 mm (6 In.) assuming frequent attention to the screens by operating personnel. The maximum head loss through clogged racks and bar screens is generally limited to O.B m (2.5 ft}, The head loss for continuously cleaned mechanical screens of whatever type selected can be maintained very nearly constant with a constant Bow. Curves and tables for head loss through the screening device are usually available from the equipment manufacturer. The head loss with comminutors ranges from 50 to 310 mm (2 to 12 In.] depending on the Bow and screen opening size. It is important to insure that the loss of head through the screening device at maximum Hows will not surcharge the iniluent sewers.

If steady two-dimensional Bow is assumed, and if the wastewater is considered to be incompressible and inviscid, the head loss through a bar screen can be calculated in terms of the Bernoulli equation. That is to say, the depth of Bow and velocity head before the screen must equal the depth of Bow and velocity head after the screen, plus friction losses. The head loss will necessarily vary with the qunntity and nature of the screenings allowed to accumulate between cleanings. The head loss created by a clean screen may be calculated by considering the Bow and the effective area of the screen openings. The effective area of the screen openings is the sum of the vertical projections of the screen openings. It is possible to estimate




the head loss through a bar screen by means of Equations 2 or 31B:

V' - tt2 1

h=~XO.7 (2)


h = head loss, ft,

V = velocity through bar screen, fps, tt = velocity upstream of bar screen,

Ips, and

g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/sq sec.

or from:


hI. = {J b It. sin (J


h t: = head loss, ft,

{J .. a bar shape factor (Table 8-1V),1~ W .. maximum cross-sectional width of bars facing upstream, ft,

b = minimum clear spacing of bars, ft,

h •.. upstream velocity head, ft, and

(J .. angle of bar screen with horizontal.

Equation 2 can be used to calculate head losses through clean or partly clogged bar screens. However, Equation 3, Kirschmer's equation, only applies to the head loss through a clean bar screen.

TABLE a-IV. K1rschmer's Values IIf {J

Bar Type ~

Sharp-edged rectangular 2.42

Rectangular with seml-eircular upstream

face 1.83

a~~ 1~

Reetangular wlth semi-clrcular upstream

and downstream faces 1.67

Quantity of Coarse Screenings·

The volume of coarse screenings can vary significantly from location to location. This is a difficult item to evaluate without actual operating data. If such data are available, they should be used and weighted moreheaviIy than any other single item in arriving at the quantity of screenings to be handled.




The quantity of screenings is most important in cases where the screenings are to be removed from the wastewater How. The quantity is dependent on clear opening in screen, wastewater How, type of collection system, and particular com-

munity characteristics. .

Published information such as shown in Figure 8-10 provides average and maximum values of screenings in screenings volume per unit of wastewater How. Such information can then be adjusted according to type of collection system and community characteristics. Figure 8-10 is based on data obtained from 133 installations of manually cleaned and mechanically cleaned bar screens from a general cross-section of United States collection systems. These data may be low when compared to combined systems alone. .

Of the variables affecting the quantity of screenings, the most important is the clear opening between bars. For openings between 25 and 50 rom (1 and 2 in.), the volume of screenings removed per unit of How or per person is approximately proportional to the clear opening dimension. For each 13 mm (0.5 in.) reduction in clear opening size in this range, the volume of screenings will be approximately doubled. For screen clear openings Jess than 25 mm (1 in.), the volume of screenings removed will increase very rapidly as the clear opening is reduced. If a coarse rack is to be used, it should be realized that the removal by such devices has very little relation to the volume of How.

In the case of a combined collection system, the variation in the quantity of screenings can be quite large between wet and dry periods of the year. The volume of screenings removed will also vary in relation to the length of the collection system and may double with a short, ~ opposed to lengthy, interceptor system. This condition can be explained by the fact that with a lengthy collection system, solids are more subject to disintegration.

The volume of screenings removed can also be aHected by industrial and commercial wastes such lIS those from textile mills and institutions. In addition, peak

z w w a: o III

U. o

~ ~

<C ::I a




FIGUllE 8-10. Average and maximum volume of coarse screenings per wastewater volume for 133 collection systems (cu ft/mil gal X 0.0075 =:: l/m~).

daily removals may vary considerably from average conditions.

Composition of Coarse Screenings

Composition is an important consideration, along with volume, in the disposal of screenings. Largely organic in composition, some coarse screenings are of plant origin while some are of animal origin. A portion of the material in the screenings is readily decomposed, while other material is resistant to bacterial decomposition. Some of the material is, itself, odorous and some material picks up objectionable odors from the wastewater.

Although fecal matter is found in screenings, it is not the major constituent. Almost every conceivable object has been found On bar screens including railroad ties, trees, tires, money, and false teeth. The composition of screenings varies with the season, For example, in the autumn large quantities of leaves Bnd their way into the collection system, especially. in

the case of combined systems. On the other hand, seasonal industrial operations may result in a screenings composition change caused by loss of product Or malfunction of industrial pretreatment facilities,

Among the most troublesome types of material that would enter a wastewater treatment plant if they were not removed in the screenings are rags and pieces of string. These items enter wastewater by way of household fixtures. Consequently, the quantity is independent of the type of collection system.

Screenings will normally contain about 80 percent moisture and weigh approximately 960 kg/rna (60 Ib/cu ft). In the case of screenings removed by fine screens, the moisture content may be greater than

80 percent. .

HandHng of Screenings

The design of any wastewater treatment plant is not complete unless the handling



of screenings, including ultimate disposal, is considered in light of applicable air, water, and solid waste regulations. The handling steps most commonly employed, alone or in combinatinn, are grinding, comminution, anaerobic digestion, incineration, and burial.

Methods available for transporting the variety of sizes and shapes of screenings removed from the wastewater to further processing are covered refuse cans, belts, or pneumatic ejectors. Open storage or uncovered conveyor ·be1t;s are undesirable because they may become fly and insect breeding sites, If conveyor belts are to be used, they should be kept as short as possible for sanitary as well as economic reasons. Pneumatic ejectors are not satisfactory when the screenings contain excessive amounts of rags or sticks.

As previously noted, a bar screen installation may be equipped with a grinder that returns the mascernted screenings to the wastewater flow. In the case of a comminuter, the screenings remain in the wastewater flow, In both cases, screenings are removed in the primary settling phase of the treatment process and become part of the primary sludge volume, subject, in most cases, to lin aerobic digestion. Screenings, because they generally are largely organic in nature, are amenable to anaerobic digestion provided they are finely ground, In a few instances, ground coarse screenings are mixed directly with primary sludge rather than returned to the wastewater How, Primary sludge handling is discussed in detail in Chapter 24,

The incineration of screenings removed from the wastewater flow is another handling method employed, Most often the screenings are mixed with other treatment plant solids when incineration.is employed at the plant site. In other instances screenings are hauled from the plant site and mixed with municipal refuse for burning at the municipal incinerator, Normally, the volume of screenings is so small in relation to the volume of other solids to be incinerated that their impact on the incinerator ~ design is negligible. The separate incineration of screenings re-


moved from the wastewater How is sometimes practiced at larger plants. Although a number of smaller plants in the past have been provided with incinerators for screenings, this method of disposal has, for the most part, been abandoned.

Coarse screenings as removed me water soaked, and must be drained thoroughly before they are burned. They usually require more heat to drive olf sufficient moisture so that they will burn than there is fuel value in the screenings, Therefore, in some larger plants coarse screenings have been dewatered in centrifuges or in presses prlor to incineration to save fuel,

As discussed earlier, coarse screenings will contain approximately 80 percent moisture and weigh on the average 9ao kgJm~ (aO lh/eu ft). The organic material in such an average cubic metre will contain approximately 2.4 GJ (65 000 Btu! cu It) and it will take about 2.0 GJ 1mB (55 000 Btu! cu ft) to evaporate the moisture. If it is assumed that the incinerator will operate at 50 percent efficiency (only 1,2 GJ of the 2.4 GJ available), then 1.6 GJ/mB (45000 Bturcu ft) would have to be supplied by outside fuel. At 0.02 GJ/ml (500 Btu/ em ft) of digester gas, more than 80 m" (npproximately 3 100 cu ft) gns would be required as the supplementary fuel for each rnD of screenings,

If an incinerator also serves as a waste gas burner, it becomes an economical means of screenings disposal, Usually, under such considerations, the energy supplied by gas wasted will size the incinerator, To hold maintenance to a reasonable level, the incinerator should have approximately 1 rna of volume for every 125 kJl s (1 cu ft for each 3,33 Btu/ s).

To avoid odor problems, alI exhaust gas temperatures must be 67S·C (1250'F) or greater, The auxiliary fuel requirements can be reduced sharply if the furnace air supply is preheated. It may be possible to use waste beat from the exhaust stack to preheat the air supply.

In the screenings handling chain there always remains a solid waste for disposal. This solid waste may be the raw screenings or the incinerator residue if screen-

ings [Ire burned, The most common disposal medium is the land, The design engineer should become familiar with applicable state and federal statutes pertaining to land disposal requirements, If a landflll away from the plant is to be used, handling and transportation facilities should be provided in accordance with the law.

Land disposal of screenings is particularly well suited for small to medium sized plants because the quantity of screenings is relatively small.


1, "Upgrading Existing Wastewllter Tnntment Plants." U. S, EPA, Technology Transfer, WllShlngton, D. C. (1974),

2. GinIlvcn, M, E" and WIttenmyer, J. D., "The Hydrnsieve Dewnhlring Screen-Design and ApplicntiOllS." DesIgn Seminar, Atlanm, Ga., U. S, EPA, Technology Tmosfer, WashIngton, D, C, (11l72).

3, L)'OlIDl, B" Eitel!, G., and McAlooo, '1'., "Tertiary Treatment Ilt Metro ChIcago by Means of Rapid Sand Filtration IlDd Mlcrostralnees." Jour. Watur Poll. Contral Fad., 41, 2, 247 (11l69),

4. Diaper, E. W, I., "Tertiary Treatment by Mlcrostrnining," Waler and Sew, Workr, 115, G, 202 (1969),


5. Bodien, D. G., and R. L. Stenbtu'g, ~MicrostmJolng Effectively Pollshes Activated Sludge Plant EHIueot." Water and Wades Eng., 3, 9, 79 (1966).

6. Isaac, p, C. G" and HIbberd, R. L., "The Use of M!crostrnioers and Sand Filters for Ter-

.tInry Treatment." Watar RBI., G, 465


7, Diaper, E, W. J., '''I'ertilUY Treatment by Mlcrostrnioing-Case Hlstories." Water & Sew Works, 119, B, 42 (1973).

B, "Suspended Solids Removal." U. S. EPA, Teclmology Transfer, Wn.sblogton, D. C. (11l75),

9. "Screenlng/Flomtion Treatment of Comblnad Silwer Overflows," U, S, EPA, Wllter Pollution Contral Res, Series 11020 FDC 01/72. Wnshillgmn, D, C, (1972).

10. Diaper, E, W. J., and Glover, G. E" "Mlcrostrllinlllg of Cllmbined Sewer Overflows." Jour. Watsr Poll. Control Fed., 43, 10, 2101 (1971),

11. Ewing, L., Ewing Engineering Co., kiter of Oot:. IB, 1974, to D. B. Drawbaugh.

12. "Recommended Standards for Sewage Works," Oreat Lakes-Upper Mississippi River Board of Slate Saoitnry Engineera, Health Education Service, Bo~ 7283, A1bllDY, N. Y. (1971).

13. Metcalf and Eddy, Ine., "Wn.stewater Engineering, Collection, Treatment, Disposlll." McGraw-Hill, New York, N. Y. (1972).


Chapter 9

Grit Removal

134 Types of Grit Removal Devices Velocity-Controlled Grit Removal Aerated Grit Removal Constant-Level Short Term Sedi-

mentation Tanks

140 Location Considerations 140 Hydraulic Considerations Flow

Velocity Control

Differential Sedimentation Relationship Between Hydraulic

Subsidence, Detention, and Surface Area



Bottom Scour

145 Quantity and Composition of Grit 146 Handling of Grit

149 Grit Disposal

149 References

Grit removal units were origin lilly used almost exclusively in plants treating wastewaters conveyed by combined sewer systems. However, from experience it has been found that considerable material that can be classified as grit is also present in wastewater conveyed by separate sewer systems. Therefore, as the trend toward increased mechanization of wastewater treatment plants has continued, greater consideration has been given to equipment protection with the result that it is now common practice to provide grit removal at all treatment plants,

Wastewater grit materials are characterized as non-putresolble, having a subsiding velocity substantially greater than that of organic putrescible solids, and generally discrete as opposed to Hocculent in nature. Materials falling into these categories are particles of sand, gravel, other minute pieces of mineral matter, and non-putrescible organics such as coffee grounds, fruit rinds, and seeds.

Grit is removed from a wastewater system to protect moving mechanical equip-


ment from abrasion and abnormal wear; to reduce conduit clogging caused by deposition of grit particles in pipes or channels, particularly at changes in direction; and, to prevent loading of the treatment works with basically inert matter that might interfere with the operation of treatment units, such as siltation of anaerobic digesters or aeration tanks. Conversely, volatile con-

tent of sludges will be increased. I' \'ll.1 t ... c·~., ,:,Types Of Grit Removal Devices ':1 '. ".

The quantity and' composition of grit and its effect on treatment units are important considerations in the choice of removal methods and equipment. The choice of grit removal methods may also be dictated by such factors as head loss requirements, space requirements, topographic conditions, the types of equipment used in other parts of the plant, and economic considerations.

The many different types of wastewater grit chambers that have been used dilfer primarily in the methods of velocity COD' trol and grit removal.1-U Tbey can be divided into three basic types: velocity controlled, aerated, and constant-level short term sedimentation tanks. These are discussed in the following subsections. The process of sludge degritting is covered in Chapter 24,

Velocity·Controlled Grit Removal

The first attempts at velocity control were through the use of multiple channels. Through-put wastewater velocities were controlled manually or through overllow devices by cutting additional channels in and out of operation as the How increased or decreased. Because the multiple-channel approach was not an efficient method of control, a control section H-tO on the downstream side of the channel was employed to vary the depth of How in the channel as the volume changed, thus providing relatively uniform velocities through a wide range of Bow (Figure 9.1).


lENGTH PF CHAt.!BEll----~




FIGURE g.1. Double chamber grit collector; (a) plan, (b) longitudinal section.

tively uniform velocities through II wide range of How (Figure 9.1).

A proportional weir, such as the Sutro weir, is frequently used as a control device (see a following subsection, ''Hydraulic Considerations"). These weirs are adaptable for use with rectangular channels where sufficient head is available to permit the sill or crest of the weir to be kept above the downstream water surface elevation. In the design of the Sutro weir velocity eontrol device, the sill of the weir frequently is located 150 to 300 mm (6 to 12 in.} above the grit channel invert. This not only providesfor grit storage, but also pre· vents the scouring out of previously settled grit particles. A Sutro weir has the advantages of accurately maintaining an average velocity and of enabling relatively simple grit chamber construction, Its disadvantages consist of causing bottom cham-

her velocities to be greater than the top velocity, and of loss of velocity control under any weir submergence condition. A similar type of weir can be designed for channels having other than rectangular cross sections.

Control devices of rectangular cross sections are particularly suitable where the grit channel cross section is parabolic in shape, or approaches a parabolic shape," A Parshall Burne is such a rectangular control section and can be used 1C for grit chambers of rectangular cross section. As with the Sutro weir typo of velocity control device, the sill of the Parshall Hume usually is located 150 to 300. mm (6 to 12 ln.) above the grit channel invert to provide for grit storage and prevent the scouring and resuspension of settled grit particles, A Parshall Burne olfersthe advantages of a relatively unifonn cross-sectional velocity,



How measurement, and ease of installation with prefabricated forms, Disadvantages consist of a drop in the channel invert that varies with channel size and a loss of accurate velocity control with Il. submergence of more than 70 percent. An attractive feature associated with some rectangular control sections is the capability of controlling section width to suit field conditions,

Venturi sections are also used as velocity control devices. Because their use is limited, they will not be. discussed in this chapter.

Normally the velocity controlled grit chamber is mechanically cleaned, with manual cleaning used only infrequently. It is generally recommended that mechanically cleaned grit chambers be used for flows greater than 3 BOO maid (1 mgd). This limiting flow. will vary with the circumstances of each particular wastewater treatment plant.

Generally two grit chambers should be provided. In this way grit removal is still provided when the operator takes a chamber out of service for cleaning or mechanism repair. Each chamber may be designed conservatively for the design maximum How. A manually cleaned grit chamber is often used as 11 by-pass for II mecbanicnIly cleaned grit chamber where only one mechanical unit is provided.

The mechanism in a mechanically cleaned grit chamber cnn be operated by an adjustable time clock. The unit should also be designed so that it can be operated manually. Because of abrasion, it is desirable to avoid having the mechanical cleaning mechanism moving continuously, although there are occasions when this may be necessary,

Static Screen Grit Removal

Fixed fine screens have been used recently to provide removal of inorganic solids along with screenings (Chapter B). A static screen with 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) openings can remove all grit particles larger than 60 mesh; however, haad loss is greater than that encountered in conventional grit removal devices,


eot- IL
I I--:J
-BVl'au :il
L: I,- '>= Cenlrifugnl Grit Removal

Centrifugal force is used to separate grit from organics in these units (Chapter 24), The waste is dischnrged into the degritter so that the How is properly introduced into the How pattern provided by the circulating mechanism. The circulator imparts a .!low of liquid in the upper pnrt of the basin and

.pmduees a vortex and rotating pattern of How. The vortex causes the grit to be brought to the center of the basin where the grit falls into a rake or screw mechanism for removal.

Aerated Grit Removal

The pump discharging the slurry to the grit remover is an integral part of the centrifugal degrittiog process. The volume of the pumped slurry and the resultant pressure [usually not greater than 1.5 percent concentration by weight and 70 to 80 kN 1m2 (10 to 12 psi), respectively] of the degritter are criticnl and are specified by the manufacturer.

The aerated grit chamber has been widely used in recent years,15-0l IUs similar to a standard spiral-flow aeration tank with air diffusers (usually, swing diffusers are used) located on one side of the tank, 0.6 to 0,9 m (2 to 3 ft) above the tank bottom. The higher setting is used when grit collection equipment is furnished below the diffusers. A typical aerated grit chamber (Figure 9-2) is n versatile unit process as it can also be used for chemical addition, mixing; and flocculation ahead of primary treatment

When the wastewater flows into the aerated grit chamber, the grit particles will tend to settle to the bottom at rates dependent on size, specific gravity, lind the velocity of roll in the tank. The rate of air . diffusion and the tank shape govern the rate of roll and thereby the size of particle of a given specill.c gravity that will be removed. The diffused air is used essentially as 11 method of velocity control that is quite flexible and suitable to varying field conditions, in addition to requiring only a minimum of head loss through the unit.

The heavier particles with their corresponding higher settling velocities drop to the bottom, whereas the lighter organic






FIGURE 9·2, Aerated grit chamber inlet and outlet arrangement.


particles are suspended by the roll and eventually carried out of the tank The heavier particles that settle on the bottom of the tank are moved hy the spiral How of the water across the tank bottom and are transported into the hopper, The grit separation region of the chamber, just above or adjacent to the grit collection trough, depending on the chamber design, requires special design consideration,

If chamber hydraulics are not adequately controlled, poor chamber performance will result At some full-scale aerated grit chamber installations where hydraulics were not completely controlled, the following problem areas were indicated:

1. A high percentage of organic matter was found in the removed grit.

2. Grit removal efficiencies were low.

3. Pertodically abnormal grit loads occurred on the collection equipment

Some of these problems were overcome by placing a longitudinal baffle near the grit collection trough.

The aerated grit chamber is almost always designed with mechanical grit removal equipment. This type of grit cham-

ber offers many advantages over more conventional methods. Some of these are:

1. The wastewater may be freshened by the air, which could lead to some additional removal of 55 and DOD.

2. There is minimal bead loss through the grit chamber.

3. By controlling the rate of aeration, a grit of relatively low putrescible organic content can be removed.

4. It is theoretically possible to preferentially remove all grit Iarger than a desired size if a constant specific gravity is assumed. There are limitations on removal, however, because of variations in particle size, shape, and specific gravity,

5. The same efficiency of grit removal is possible over a wide How range.

6, It can be used by skimming, for grease removal purposes.

If an aerated grit chamber is to attain all of the listed advantages, the design engineer must keep the following recommendations in mind:

1. Air rates should be in the range of 4.6 to 12.4 II s per metre of tank length (3



to 8 cfm/ft), although lower rate ranges [1.5 to 7.7 l/m's (1 to 5 cfm/ft] have been used. The higher rates should be used with tanks of large cross-section, for example, greater than 3.6 m (12 ft) deep. In addition, provision should be made to vary the air flow.

2. Detention times of 1 to 3 min at maximum How rates have been used for grit removal, although 3 min detention times genernlly are necessary for good removal. However, if the aerated grit chamber is to be used for pre aeration pr to remove grit less than 0.2 mm in diameter, longer detention times should be provided.

3. Design of the aerated grit chamber, particularly with reference to the inlet and outlet, must be such as to prevent short circuiting. -The inlet to the chamber should introduce the wastewater directly into the circulation pattern caused by the air diffusion. The outlet should be at a right angle to the inlet, and consideration given to installing a bafHe near the outlet.

4. In the design of the tank, care should be taken to avoid producing "dead spaces." The tank geometry is nll important with respect to the location of wideband air diffusion, sloping tank bottom, grit hopper, and fitting the grit collector equipment into the tank structure.

5, If an aerated grit chamber is much longer than it is wide, a transverse baffie should be considered. Length to width ratios of 2:5 to 5:1 are desirable.

6, In some aerated grit chambers, the instnllation of longitudinal or transverse bafHes have improved grit removal.

Constant-Level Short Term Sedimentation Tanks

The first grit chambers were simply settling tanks (Chapter 16) in which both grit and henvy organic solids alike settled out. These were called detritus tanks since they contained both grit and organic matter. Detritus tanks are still used today, but the grit and organic solids are separated by mechanical means before their removal (Figure 9-3). The hydraulics in detritus tanks are controlled by adjustable deHec-


tors that insure a relatively uniform velocity across the entire tank. In this manner the grit is distributed across the tank. As with aerated grit chambers, the hend loss is relatively small across detritus tanks.

The lighter organic matter may be. removed before, during, or after removal of the settled material from the tank in one of the following ways:

1. The resuspension of organic material by air diffusion.

2. The removal of the organic material in a grit washer.

3. The resuspension of the organic solids through the action of the conveyor that is removing the detritus from the tank.

4. The separation of the grit and organic material by pumping the detritus to a cyclone-type separator (Chapter 24).

AB discussed earlier, the detritus style grit chamber is one of the oldest forms of grit removal tank It is still widely used today and its proponents list the following advantages:

( a) since it is designed on an area basis, it can remove 95 percent of all grit greater than the size selected for removal. This will occur regardless of feed composition, providing the How does not exceed the maximum design flow;

( b) the grit removed from the unit will be washed and drained with not more than 3 percent by weight of putreseible organics; ( c) there is no need to provide a uniform velocity in the grit cbamber at variable flows; and,

(d) since all bearings and wearing parts are above wnter, there is no deterioration of equipment cnused by the abrasive action of grit.

Disadvantages of detritus tanks are:

( a) it is difficult to obtain uniform distribution of flow using deHector vanes over the wide ranges of flows experienced in most plants; and

( b) in the shallow [less than 0.9 m (3 ft] tanks commonly employed," grit can be lost by the agitation of the rake arm as it passes in front of the effiuent weir.


I \




Z 1
~ S

In designing the detritus tnnk the engineer need only consider the size particle to be removed by settling and the maximum flow rate. These two considerations determine the area required for the unit. The depth of flow should be such that the flow is non-turbulent, with an additional 150 to 250 mm (6 to 10 in.) of depth to allow for the raking mechanisms.

Location Considerations

The desirability of locating grit chambers ahead of mechanical equipment is obvious, and in the past "preliminary treatment" devices have generally been installed in the order of coarse bar screen, grit chamber, bar screen and/or comminuting device, and pumping equipment, if any. The location of screens and/or comminuting devices ahead of grit chambers has been advocated to reduce the effect of rags and other gross particles on the mechanical equipment in grit chambers (Chapter 8). In recent years there has been It tendency on the part of the design engineer to follow this pattern, particularly where grit chambers are mechanized.

One frequently encountered variation provides only a coarse bar screen as protection for the pumping equipment, with grit chambers and additional screens or comminutors following the pumps. This design is often adopted in situations where incoming sewers are at such depth as to make the location of grit chambers ahead of pumping equipment undesirable, from the viewpoint of economics, access, and the difBculty of elevating grit.

The arrangement of the grit chamber or chambers, in relation to the inlet and outlet transition sections, plays an important part in the elimination of eddy currents or uneven distribution of flow, particularly in long, narrow grit channels. When diffused air or other mechanical devices produce pnsitive currents of flow within the tank, it is desirable to introduce the wastewater Ilow in a manner compatible with the established direction of flow.

Consideration should be given to designing grit chambers to provide safe access to the chamber and, where mechanical



equipment is involved, to all functioning parts. Access by stairway is essential for units located in deep pits. Care must be taken not to overlook the need for manipulating drain valves, weir plates, and stop gates. When grit chambers are indoors, adequate ventilation and moisture control are necessary.

Hydraulic Considerations

Hydraulic parameters are extremely important in the design of grit removal units. Hydraulic considerations that have a major bearing on grit removal efficiency are covered in the following subsections.


As in the case of screen design, wastewater flow extremes must be known so that the grit chamber(s) may be designed to remove grit at all flows. Since praeticnlly all unit sizes of grit chambers are selected to perform best within a certain range of flows, successful operation is dependent on a design that is based on proper flow values. Velocity controlled grit chambers using proportional weirs, Parshall Humes, Or other fixed control sections are particularly sensitive in this respect. Aerated grit chambers and detritus grit chambers are designed on a peak flow basis and, therefore, performance is independent of Ilow. Consequently, the USB of an aerated grit chamber or a detritus tank provides more uniform grit removal over a wider range of flow than do the velocity controlled type grit chambers.

Velocity Control

In a non-aerated grit chamber, control of velocity within the effective length of a grit chamber is provided through the use of a control section. To perform its function this control section will vary the crosssectional area of How in the channel in direct proportion to the How. For example, to maintain a velocity of 0.3 mls (1 fps}, the flow cross-section, A, must equal 0.3 m~ (3 sq ft) when the volume of How, Q, equals 0.09 mBls (3 cis). When Q drops, to 0.07 m~ Is (2.5 cis), the flow cross section, A, must drop to 0.23 m' {2.5



FIGURE 9-4. Elements of (a) proportional and (b) Sutro weirs (see text for explanation of symbols).

sq It). In channels with streight side walls, capacity by selecting suitable dimensions this reduction in the flow cross section is for either a or b and h. The remaining accomplished by varying the depth of flow .variable, i.e., either a or b, then may be directly as Q. Control sections such as the determined by substitution in the approSutro weir and the proportional weir ac- printe equation. On determination of both complish this purpose very satisfactorily. a and b, t may be calculated for any value

When comparing the proportional weir of y.

and the Sutro weir (Figure 9-4), tbe only The design of each of the weirs is based difference is that the proportional weir has on the relationship" that a weir with both sides curved and the Sutro weir has width inversely proportional to the square one side curved and the other straight. To root of height of that point above the crest determine the Bow characteristics when will have a theoretical discharge exactly using a Sutro weir as a control device, the proportional to the head. The simple form

following equations may be used: of this curve would result in the breadth of

( 2 ) the weir approaching infinity as the bead

x = b 1 - ;;: tan-l -Gft. (1) approached Zero. Since this is not practical,

the base is limited to a convenient dimen-

Q = b...[2r;g (h + i a) (2) sian and, for a small height, the cross see-

Ql = ib .,f2g [(/I + a)1 - lJl] (3) tion is rectangular. For water the minimum

desirable height, a, for this rectangle has been reported ~~ to be 3.2 mm (0.13 in.). For wastewater this dimension should be substantially greater to prevent fouling of the weir, and a minimum of 25 mm (1 in.) is suggested. Although the maximum height of the rectangular section of the weir may be governed by the allowable width of the weir, it is important to note that, in deriving the original formulas,'8 the assumption was made that the flow level constantly exceeded the top of the rectangular portion. In practice, when the surface of flow remains within the reo-


a and b = constants typical of the weir, y = liquid height,

t = weir width at liquid surface, h = weir height,

g' = gravitational acceleration,

Q = total Sutro weir discharge, and Q1 = discharge through rectangular

portion of Surra weir.

The discharges for a proportional weir would be simply twice that given by Equations 2 and 3. These formulas are used to determine the shape of a weir of a specilled




tangular section of the weir, true velocity control is not being achieved.

Other limitations on the accuracy of the proportional or the Sutro weir involve the need for a grit-storage area. In most cases the crest of the weir will be at least 100 mm ( 4 In.}, and usually about 310 mm (12 in.), above the bottom of the chamber of such storage, In the case of mechanically cleaned chambers, some depth is needed for the operation of conveying equipment.

In each instance, during the time that wastewater is being displaced in the storage area, velocities will be somewhat lower than calculated. In practice it is common to adjust the crest of the weir in the fIeld to obtain the best results under observed conditions, It is, therefore, highly desirable that provisions be made in the design for facilitating the adjustment of weir elevation. In designing the weir installation it is also essential that the discharge from the weir be unrestricted. Any variation from a "free-fall" condition will seriously affect the efficiency of control.

To this point, discussion involves discharge through a proportional weir, or similar device, in wbich Q is a simple function of channel depth (head) such that Q = khn, where k and n are constants. The width, w, of such a grit chamber must be 50 chosen that

Q = kiln = V h~ wdh (4)

if such a velocity control device is to result in a constant velocity of flow through the grit chamber. Camp 11 bas shown that such a condition is satisfied when;


In the case of velocity control by a proportional weir, Q = kh and n = 1. Then, w = k/V, which is equal to a constant, and the channel cross section must be rectangular.

On the other hand, if flow is controlled by a throat (Parshall Flume);


where n = 3/2. And:

w = 3/2 (kbh'/'/V), (7)

will settle, and thus are important factors in the design of a grit chamber. Commonly used design factors are based on grit having a speciflc gravity of 2.65 and 11. wastewater temperature of IS.SoC (60°F). Analysis of grit as removed in various locations shows a variation in specific gravity of from 1.3 to 2.7.

In most cases, the rational design of grit chambers has been based on removing grit over and above 0.20 mm (65 mesh) in diameter, Grit particles of this size and larger have been determined to cause the most trouble in II wastewater treatment plant. However, some instances warrant designing for the removal of grit particles of a smaller size if this size grit would be present in significant quantities,

Hazen's report •• on subsidence of quartz sand having a specific gravity of 2.65 and 0.1 to 1.0 mm in size has been a basis for grit-chamber design. Unfortunately, little work has been done to determine the actual subsiding velocity of particles of grit having specillc gravity values of less than 2.65, However, Stokes' law may be applied insofar as the calculations of the effect of different specific gravities are concerned. This law has been applied to calculate subsiding values for particles having a speciflc gravity of 2.0 and 1.5.'1 Table 9-1 II shows the observed settling velocity of quartz particles having a specific gravity of 2,65 as reported by several investigators,'o. " .•• and illustrates the effect of speciflc gravity


w = 3/2 (Q/hV)



This is the equation of a parabola, and, therefore, the channel cross section must he parabolic or so nearly parabolic as to result in good velocity control.

A channel cross section approaching a parabola can be conveniently accomplished by sloping the sides of the chamber to a narrower width at the bottom, a design that has advantages in providing for easier grit removal. An adjustable weir is also available that permits selecting the optimum velocity for grit removal on the basis of actual operation.

In large plants, where multiple units are used and where the ratio of maximum to minimum flows is not too great, velocity control is often maintained by varying the number of grit chambers in service at any one time.

The principles of velocity control as discussed above involved the use of some type of control section, that is, a weir or similar device to control the velocity. In aerated grit chambers, velocity control has usually been accomplished by the use of compressed air, although mechanical aerators have been used in a few installations. At present there are no simple equations by which the principles of velocity control in an aerated grit chamber can be described. Therefore, the design engineer should rely on the recommendations of manufacturers of this type of equipment. A manufacturer's recommendations are usually based on test results and experiences at several WHerent locations,

Differential Sedimentation

Differential sedimentation is a successful mechanism for the removal of grit because of the difference in the rate of settling of organic putrescible solids and particles of grit

The size and specific gravity of grit particles, as wen as the temperature of the wastewater, affect the rate at which solids

NDtn: rt X 0.3048 = m i gpd/sq It X 0.0408 = m'!rn',d.


on required grit-chamber surface area. Liquid temperatures of 15.5°C (60°F)

have been assumed. .

The preceding values illustrate the Importance of both particle size and specific gravity in grit-chamber design. Application of various temperature values to Hazen's formula would indicate little effect on the settling characteristics between the range of, say, 4.4 to 27·C (40 to 80°F).

In the process of "differential settling," there are actually two processes at work.~" The fIrst is caused by the WHerent speciflc gravities of the organics and inorganics which cause different settling velocities, The second process is that of ''bottom scour," which is effective in separating any organics that settle with the grit to the bottom of the chamber. This latter process is covered more fully later in this chapter.

Relationship Between Hydraulic Subsid. enee, Detention, and Surface Area

Efficiency of grit removal can be expressed as the percentage of grit removal over and above a minimum-sized particle. A grit chamber designed to remove 100 percent of the smallest grit particles would also remove all grit particles larger than this. To obtain a 100 percent removal of the smallest grit particles theoretically would require that the detention time in the tank be equal to the time required for the minimum-sized particle to reach the tank bottom, starting from the surface at

TAllLE 9-1. Theoretical Mnrlmum Overflow Rates for Grit Chmnbers

She of Grit Pnrtlcl. Sottllng Volueltr .r Qu.,1l: Portlel .. Thee re U en 1 Mulrnum Pormr.dbl. ovo,nuw
(SpodBc Grovlt)· 2.651 In W.ttr, Jnm not. for Su~.t.ntJolly Compl.t.
Rernnval, ~nd /IQ fl
Appro!lmQilil Dlameree. Hn!en lU"hordl KJv.1I .nd Spotln. Sp.cifie Sp •• lfic
M .. n mm Lund A'VIi!nl.ue gravJty Bravlty B",vl'y
2.65 a.o i.s
--- ---
20 0.83 16.7 ]5.7 ... 16.2 174,500 105,800 52,900
2B 0.59 12.2 12.6 ]0.9 11.9 128,000 77,600 38,800
35 0.42 8.7 8.4 7.3 8.1 87,000 52,800 28,400
48 0.30 6.] 6.7 5.5 6.1 65,500 39,600 19,800
60 0.25 5.1 5.7 . " 5.4 58,000 35,200 17,600
65 0.21 4.1 5.1 3.7 4.3 46,300 28,000 14,000
80 0.18 3.7 4.11 ' " 3.8 40,900 24,800 12,400
100 0.15 3.0 3.2 2.5 3.0 32,300 19,600 9,BOO (6)



the tank inlet. From this relationship it also can be shown that the subsidence velocity of the smallest particle to he removed must equal the surface settling rate to obtain a theoretical 100 percent removal of particles equal or greater in size. For conservative calculations of particle removal, it may be assumed that there is no sedimentation in the influent and efHuent zones of turbulence.

The previous information Simply points out the fact that in the absence of turbulence, detention and hydraulic subsidence of grit particles are dependent on the surface area of the grit chamber.


Turbulence of flow could be important in reducing efficiencies of grit chambers. Care therefore must be taken in designing transition sections, such as approach channels, and inlet and outlet devices to minimize this factor,

It bas been determined 'that Stokes' law is applicable when the Reynolds number is less than 0,5; a slight modification of the law makes it of value for Reynolds numbers that are greater than 1 000. However, for the range between these limits, a varying coefficient of drag must be introduced. Unfortunately, grit chambers involve 'Reynolds numbers in this range, namely 1 to 10, A curve has been developed by Fair and Geyer· that allows a relatively easy solution, For example, if a sphere of specific gravity 2.65, diameter 0.20 mm, and in a wastewater at 20°C (6B"F) is allowed to settle, this curve would 'give a settling velocity of 2,53 emf s. This velocity corresponds to an overflow rate of 2200 m1/m:'d (53000 gpd/sq ft},

Since non-aerated grit chambers require laminar flow (true streamline flow) for effective settling to be accomplished, careful consideration should be given to inlet lind outlet turbulence. If turbulence cannot be overcome in the design of these locations, it should be assumed that there is no settling in the influent and efH.uent zonas, and the theoretical length of the grit chamber should he increased accordingly.



Coalescence of particles probably does not affect sedimentation in grit chambers to any appreciable degree because of the relatively shallow depth and short detention time, andbecause of the nature of the material,

Bottom Scour

Bottom scour is Il particularly important factor affecting grit-chnmber efficiency. Camp U has shown that the scouring prn-: cess itself determines the proper velocity of How through the unit This may be explained by the fact .that there is a critical How velocity, V •• over which particles of a particular size and density. Once settled, may again be placed in motion and reintroduced into the stream flow, An expression has been derived Df for the movement of granular materials by a flowing stream. The critical velocity lit which particles of Il given size and specific gravity start to scour is given by:

V •... [(Ski 1) g (C. - 1}dJo.6 (9)


V •... critical velocity, cm/~

f .. friction factor, (0,03 for grit chambers),

k .. experimental coefficient, (0.06 for grit chambers),

g ... gravitational constant,

C •.. particle specific gravity, and d = particle diameter, ern.

Camp derived the following formula from the above Shields formula:

v. = 1.3 [(s - 1) dJO.i (10)


Vc .. critical velocity, fps

s ... particle specific gravity, and d .. particle diameter, rnrn.

Particle diameter, a, in Equations 9 and 10 refers to the diameter of the particle to be scoured.

From Equations 9 and 10, the critical velocity, V., for grit particles 0,2 mm in diameter and with a specific gravity of



I ~

2.65, is 0,23 mls (0,75 fps). In actual practice, designs are generally based on controlling the velocity of flow within the range of 0,2 to 0,4 m/s (0,75 to 1.25 fps), and as close to 0.3 m/s (1.0 fps) as possible.

To appreciate the importance of the effect of bottom scour on the operation of a grit chamber, it must be recognized that there will always be a certain amount of organic putrescible particles that will settle out with the grit. In periods of low flow this problem will be substantially worse than during periods of high How. Maintenance of velocities at approximately 0,3 m/s (I fps), however, will permit scouring of the grit and the removal from the bed of substantial quantities of organic putrescihle material.

In some non-mechanical grit chambers, engineers have provided removable partitions IlcrOSS the storage section of the channel, Dr a removable floor grating between the storage section and the flowthrough section, in an attempt to control scour. This plan would seem to have merit as a means of reducing grit carry-over where velocity control at high rates of flow is not satisfactory. Such facilities, on the other hand, would substantially reduce the grit washing effect of scour during normal flows,

Quantity and Composition of Grit

The quantity and composition of grit in wastewater streams will vary with the following considerations:

1. Type of collection system (separate or combined),

2, The percentage of the total system in the combined category, the types of inlets, catch basins, and maintenance provided, and the amount of storm water diverted at overflow points,

3, Types of street surfaces encountered and maintenance provided.

4. Relative area served (in addition to population) •

5. Climatic conditions (frequency of street sanding),

6. Sewer grades,


7, Construction and condition of sewer system.

8. Soil and groundwater characteristics,

9. Industrial wastes.

10, Relative use of household garbage grinders,

The significance of each of these bctors is obvious, For instance: unimproved streets will contribute more grit than paved streets; icy streets with frequent sanding will increase grit loadlngs tremendously; properly designed and adequately maintained catch basins in combined systems will relieve the grit load; as increased amounts of wastewater in combined sewers are diverted to the wastewater treatment plant, grit volumes will increase, particularly during heavy rainfalls; poor sewer grades will tend to collect grit solids, to be washed down to the plant in surges; sewers with deteriorating joints laid in fine sand and in the water table will tend to create grit problems; manhole covers located below street grade, particularly in the berm, will increase grit loadings; the number of commercial car wash rocks cnn increase grit loadings significantly; industrial wastes, highly concentrated and in large volumes, may change the character of grit completely from what might be expected normally; household garbage grinders can change the chnracteristics of grit significantly.

Unfortunately, there are no formulns by which the foregoing factors maybe evaluated properly to give a reliable estimate of anticipated grit quantities. In the absence of actual operating or laboratory datil, it still remains a matter of taking these factors for the community in question and comparing them against other communities where grit volumes are known,

All an example of the wide range of values encountered, reference need only be made to existing plant records, some of which claim as little as 2,5 mB/IO· ml of wastewater (0.33 cu ft of grit/mil gal) as an average, others recording an average quantity of as much as 176 roD/lOa ma (24 em ftfmil gal). These are averages, and do not reflect quantities of grit collected dur-



TABLE 9-IL V nrlntion In QUlUltitiea of Grit Removed During Wet Wenther and Periods of Averllge Flow

Grit Remeved
(cn It/mil pl) RnU.b ...
Muoldp.lIly tw~nmlll1 ..
mum end
Average Maximum n'lte.nlSe
dny dol'
BIIlUm.,., Md. 5.4 14.3 2.1
Banle Creek, MIch. IB.8 170.0 9.0
Beacon. N. Y. J.I IB.1 0.0
Blmlni.am. Ala. U.B O.B 1.0
CI ... lend, Ohl. (East) O.J 540.0 I BOO.O
Fort Doda;e, [ewa. az a.z [.0
G,..." nay, WI •• 7.0 7.6 1,[
If:nnellt. Pa. 5.7 B.I 1.4
kom u, I.d. I.J. ID.O 7.7
1.n Cm_, Who 2.7 S.7 2.1
Mu.k.~.n, MIch. La s.r 6.1
Rockford. tn. 6.B 16.0 2,J
Sp,lmllicld. Oblo 2.2 0.5 2.9
Vlrilol. a •• eh, V •• lA 7.5 J.I Not., cu It/mil JIIlI X MB - ml/IO' m'.

ing storm-How periods or the rate at which grit may be accumulated during the first few minutes of a heavy storm, Data accumulated by one grit-collector equipment manufacturer for some 20 installations show quantities of grit collected during periods of storm How ranging from 6 mB/ 10" mB of wastewater (0.8 .eu ftl mil gal) at Birmingham, Alabama, to 3900 m!JlO" mB (540 cu ft/mil gal) at Cleveland, Ohio's Easterly Plant, with maximum days at Cleveland being as high as 1800 times the average daily grit collection. These data are presented in Table 9_n.DIi No information is available concerning the effectiveness of grit removal equipment from those plants reporting. Moisture content and volatile solids in grit also vary considerably and depend on wastewater characteristics as well as the grit removal meehanism."

Since grit storage is essential in a grit chamber, the following design figures are suggested:

1. Storage of 74 to 220 mi/IO' m" (10 to 30 cu ft/mil gal) for combined systems.

2. Storage ofl5 to 74 ma /10· ma (2, to 10 cu ft/mil gal) for separate systems. The total grit storage volume would then be based On the frequency of removal from the grit chamber. Generally, in the case of combined sewers, grit quantities on the order of 90 ma/loa mD (12 eu ft/mil gal)


are not uncommon. In separate systems, the quantity of grit is usually less than 30 mD/10' mD (4 cu ft/mil gill).

Cautious use of available information is recommended. It is important to recognize the extreme variations in grit volume and quality that may be experienced. A generous safety factor should be used in calculations involving the actual storage, handling, or disposal of grit.

Handling of Grit

The design of any wastewater treabnent plant is not complete unless the handling of grit, including ultimate disposal, is considered in light of applicable air, water, and solid waste statutes. The grit removed from grit chambers may be almost as free from organic matter as the sand obtained from a gravel plant, or it may' contain a high percentage of organic matter. The method of disposal must take into account, then, not only the grit quantity but also the amount of the organic matter, especially that fraction that is easily putrescible.

The simplest method of grit removal in a manually cleaned chamber is by shovel and wheelbarrow. Although this method is feasible at smaller plants, in the larger plants 11 block and tackle suspended from a swinging boom may be used to reduce labor requirements. Another method of removal in larger chambers is a clamshell bucket mounted on a traveling bridge. Where automatic collectors are provided, they are usually conventional conveyortype equipment with buckets, plows, scrapers, screws, Or some combination of these (Figures 9-5, 9-6, and 9-7). In some Instances artificial velocities are created that, together with steep bottom slopes, tend to move settled grit to a central point for removal.

Grit removal from aerated chambers can be accomplished by tubular conveyors, bucket-type collectors, and air lift pumps. Although wear is a problem, tubular conveyors appear to produce a grit of better quality, that is, less organics, than buckettype collectors. This condition is caused by additional washing in the vertical rise


FIGURE 9-5. Rectangular grit removal unit, mechanical scraper, and settling tank.

of the tubular conveyor and by the better blending of the underwater equipment to the structure that results in uninterrupted tank geometry, Bucket-type collectors

cause dead spaces in which organic matter

could settle. .

Other grit removal methods used with aerated grit chambers include clam shell

FIGURE 9·6, Grit assembly with mechanical scraper.



FIGURE 9·1. Circular grit removal unit with conveyor.

bucket, water jet pump, screw conveyor, and grit pump.

In the case of SOme detritus tanks, the grit removal equipment can also serve as grit-washing equipment. Most of the screw-type grit conveyors, and particularly the reciprocating rake, provide a certain degree of grit-washing action by agitating the grit in the presence of wastewater.

Much of the grit may be organic, but if it is not putresclble it may be readily disposed. In a properly designed grit chamber, most of the putresclble solids will be removed since they are light and flocculent. The failure {o obtain effective separation in the grit chamber has led to the use in recent years of supplementary apparatus for washing the grit during or after removal. The use of grit washers is necessary for some' wastewaters, and it is desirable for a very clean grit. However, the load on the washer or the need for the washer may be eliminated in some instances if the chamber is operated or designed to function more effectively in removing putrescibles. The final washed grit should generally be free of putresclble matter. A maximum of 3 percent by weight of such material has been reeom- ' mended, although some of the fines may be lost in achieving this level.

Elevation of grit to overhead storage is often accomplished as an integral part of the collection process (Figure 9-8). Certain manufacturers of conveyor equipment provide a continuous chain and disk enclosed in a. pipe that both collects and ele-

FIGURE 9-8. Loading faciHties for trucks may be necessary ifJarge quantities of grit are anticipated.


vates grit to the point of discharge. Separate grit elevators are also used. These mny be the continuous chain-and-bucket, screw, jet pump, or, under favorable conditions, air-lift pumps. Screw type .elevators have been nbandoned in some instances because of the high maintenance costs. The replacement consists of a torque flow pump that pumps a grit slurry to a cyclone separator. The resulting grit is comparable to that produced by a dewatering screw.

Loading facilities for trucks may be necessary if large quantities of grit are anticipated. Such facilities usually consist of elevated grit storage bins with bottom gates througb which the trucks are loaded. Although difficulties have been experienced in getting the grit to Bow freely from such bins, this problem can be minlmized by applying air beneath the grit, by the use of vibrators, or by steep side slopes (greater than 75 deg). Facilities should be provided for the collection and disposal of drippings from the bottom gates. Another method that has been used is a clam shell bucket on a monorail leading either dlrectly from the chamber or from a storage bin at grade level.

Grit Disposal

The different methods of grit disposal include sanitary landfills, lagoons, and land spreading, In general, it is best to bury and cover the grit, as the residual organic content can still be a nuisance. Since grit has good structural stability, it will not cause problems with future use of the land. The grit may be combined with other waste solids from the treatment plant before disposal.

Grit that is to be disposed of in lagoons or by land spreading should contain less than 2 to 3 percent putrescible matter. Since grit often includes a greater percentage of putrescible matter than this, grit washing is frequently used to produce !l cleaner grit. For this reason, aerated grit chambers Or detritus tanks can be valuable unit processes since they both provide inherent grit washing, After washing, the


grit is normally suitable for lagoons or land spreading.

Grit can also be added to combustion units. When treated in this manner, the grit should be contained as much as possible to e1iminnte nuisance conditions. Handling of the grit from the point of removal to a combustion system may present some design problems. While .pneumatic conveying is possible, there are inherent problems with blockage of the conveyor and also with erosion. Generally, the conveying alr must he separated from the grit, as large quantities of air would not be acceptable to a combustion unit. While there are SOme problems using pneumatic transport, this method will cause separation and elimination of any organic matter from the grit. The grit then would be part of the ash from the incinerator and would usually be disposed of as land 1ill.

Whatever method of disposal is employed, however, the full spectrum of environmental conslderations (air, water, land, aesthetics) as well as cost effectiveness must be embodied in the final design.


1. Albrecht, A, E., "Aerated Grit Operation Dosign and Chamber," Water 6- Sew, Works, 114, 9, 331 (1967).

2, Berry, A. E., "Advances in Sewage nnd WIllIW Treatment." Eng. Jour., 43, B. 72 (1960). 3, Bloodgood, D, E., "Grlt ChnmbllIS-Thelt Function, Operation and Contro}." Watar 6- Sew. Works, 100, 8, 326 (1953).

4, Bloodgood, D. E" "Grit Chambers," Wafill' 6- Sew. Work.!, 1020, 12, 54S (1955).

S, Devlin, D. G., ''WllSreWDter Treatment Plant Design Experience at Vancouver, Brltish Columbia," Jour. Water Poll. Corlirol Fed., 40, 3,468 (1968).

B. Eliassen, R., and Coburn, D. F., "Versatility and Expnndabillty of Pretrantmeat," Jour. San. Dill., FrOG. Amer. 500. OM! EJl8r., 95, SA2, 299 (lHe9).

7. Escrltt, L. B., "Prellmlnury Treatment of Sewage," SUftJ8110r, Ill, 503 (1952).

8. Yuir, G, M" nnd Geyer, J, c, "Elemenl!l of Water Supply and Wastewater Dlspasel," John Wiley & Sons, Inc" New YIlIk, N. Y. (leSS).

9. Glfft, H. M., "How to Design a Grit Chamber." TIIP American City, 59, 7, B6 (1944). 10, Kivell, W. A. and Lund, N, B., "Grlt Removnl from Sewage." Water Works and Sewer(Ige, 87,4, 17f1 (1940).




11, Mucl.emnn, E, L., "Two Procedures for Grit Chnmber Design," Water liT Sew, Works, 104, 5, 271 (1957),

}2, Metcalf &: Eddy, Ine., "Wastewater Engineering Collection Treatment DIsposal." MeGrow-Bilr, New York, N, Y. (1972).

13, Vlln Kleeck, L, W" "Obsarvutions on Small Sewage Treatment Plant Designs." lour. Water Poll. Control FueL, 33, 2, 189 (l961).

14. Lee, M. nnd Babbitt, H. E" "Cllnstnnt Velocity Grit Chamber with Parshall Flume Contre1." Sew. Works [our., HI, 4, B46 (1945).

15. Ruo, N, S, L. and Chandraseknrnn, D~ "Outlet Weirs for Trapezoidal Grit Chnmbers," lour, Wator Poll. Co.otral Fud., 44, 3, 459 (1972),

is, Smith, E. G" "A Weir with Flow Proportional to Head." Eng, NUWof-Racord, 131, 5,72 (1943),

17, Cump, T. R., "Grit Chnmber Design." Saw.

Works Iour., 14, 2, 368 (1942).

lB, Grant, N., "Aerntlou Speeds Grit Removal," Eng. New&-Record, 142, 17, 56 (1949). 19, J alfe, T., "Alr in Sewage Treatment Plants,' Wator liT Sew. Works, 104, 2, 84 (1957).


20. Koppe, S, E., and Neighbor, J. B., "Some New Developments in Aeration. I, Pre-AerntlDn and Aerated Grit Chnmbers." Sew. and Ind. Wll.!lca, 23, 7, 833 (1951).

21. Neighbor, J. B.. and Cooper, T. W., "Design and Operation Criteria for Aerated Grit Chambers," Water liT SIIW. Works, 112, 12, 44B (1965).

22, Rettger, E. W .. "A Proporlionnl-Flow Weir."

Eng. News, 71, 26, 1409 (JWlB 25, 1914). 23, Prntt, E. A., .. Another Propostkmnl-Flow Weir; Sulro Weir (Letter to the Editor)." Eng. New, 72, 9, 4B2 (Aug. 27, 1914).

24. "Sewage Treatment Plant Design." Joint Amer. Soc. Civil Engr.-Water Poll. Contrel Fed. Manual, Water Poll, Control Fed., Washington, D. C. (1959).

25, Hazen, A., "On Sedimentation," Tram. Amer.

Soc. CIviL Engr., 53, 45 (Dec. 1904),

2B. Richards, R. B., "Velocity of Gnlena and Qunrtz Falling in Water." Tram. Amer. Imt, Mach. Engr., 3B, 210 (190B).

27, Rouse, B., "An Analysis of Sediment Trnrupnrtntinn in the Light of Fluid Turhu- . Ience," Sedimlllltation Dlv, U. S, Dept'. of Ag, (July 1939).

Chapter 10

151 Process Development 152 Design Considerations

Type3 at Flotation Systems Theon) at Operation Design Parameters

155 Application

157 Solids Handling 158 References

Process Development

Flotation is a unit process by which solid particles in liquid suspension become attached to microscopic air bubbles, giving the ·air-solids agglomerate buoyancy. Given the right conditions, the agglomerate will rise to the surface to join other particles and form a blanket that can be removed by mechanical means.

In wastewater treatment, flotation is used primarily to remove "light" 55 that have a tendency to float,t· as well as waste solids with a wide range of specific gravities. This chapter deals with the removal of light solids from wastewater, Sludge flotation is discussed in Chapter 25,

Depending on the surface properties of the solids, flotation may accomplish higher removals of light 5S than simple sedimentation, Once the S5 have been Hoated to the surface, a simple skimming operation can be used to collect and dispose of them.

Flotation is also applicable to the treatment of wastewaters having a significant amount of industrial waste containing high concentrations of £nely divided solids, l! This includes wastes from canneries, packing-houses, oll refineries, and laundries, It is particularly suited for treating wastewater containing scum-producing material, such as food processing waste, because the scum can be removed and handled more easily in a flotation unit than in a conventional settling tank, Flotation is also used to thicken waste activated sludge a and for the removal of algae from wastewater.vs


Flotation can be incorporated with wastewater treatment schemes in the following ways:

1. As a pretreatment unit ahead of primary sedimentation ( called "scalping"). Grit removal may be incorporated if desired.

2. As a primary treatment unit ahead of secondary treatment units,

3. For pretreatment of industrial waste prior to treatment of combined industrial and domestic waste.

4, As a unit process for removing specific suspended materials which are not readily removed by other processes,

5, For sludge thickening (Chapter 25),

In general, flotation units have the followmg advantages and disadvantages:


1, Grease, light solids, grit, and .heavy solids are removed all in one unit.

2, High overflow rates and low detention periods mean smaller tank sizes resulting in less space requirements and possible savings in construction costs,

3, Odor nuisance is minimized because of the short detention periods and the presence of dissolved oxygen in the effiuent.

4. In many cases, thicker scum and sludge are obtained from a flotation unit than by gravity settling and skimming,

5. The recovered solids may be reusable as II source of fuel,


1. The additiona1 equipment required results in operating costs that may be higher than for other solids-removal processes, primarily because of power, chemical, and maintenance considerations,

2. Flotation units generally do not give as effective treatment for all suspended matter as do gravity settling units.



3. Vacuum flotation units require 8. relatively expensive airtight structure capable of withstanding 230 mm (9 ia.) of mercury. Any leakage to atmosphere will affect performance adversely.

4. Operation may be difficult.

Design Considerations Types of Flotation Systems

Current wastewater treatment practices designed to achieve flotation of 5S involve two methods-gravity Rotation and dissolved air flotation (includes vacuum 110- tation). Gravity flotation is discussed in Chapter 16.

Dissolved air flotation consists oE pressurizing the wastewater flow with air at 1 to 3 atm and then releasing it to at-


;5 60 j:::


o [Q

Ul ..J

ui 50
















1.6 '2.0 2.4 2.B 3.2 3.4 3.8



FIGlffiE 10-1. Solids loading rate versus effiuent solids concentration. Note: Ibjsq ft/dny X 4.B83 = kg/m~ . d.




FIGURE I()'2. Principal components of a dissolved air Ootation unit include pressurizing pump, retention tank, pressure reducing valve, air injection equipment, and flotation tank.

mospheric pressure. When the pressure on the wastewater is reduced, the dissolved air, in excess of saturation at atmospheric pressure, is released in extremely fine bubbles.

The vacuum Ilotation modification consists of saturating the wastewater with air in an aeration tank and then applying Il partial vacuum. Under this vacuum the solubility of gas in liquid is decreased, and air is released from the solution as minute bubbles. Another method employed to saturate wastewater prior to applying a partial vacuum is to permit air to enter the suction side of the wastewater pump. Vacuum flotation is not used as frequently as dissolved air flotation because of the comparatively poorer efHuent quality and the difficulties of maintenance.

Theory of Operation

Development of 'Buoyant Forces:There are lit least two methods by which gas bubbles can be used to Increase the buoyancy of suspended solids: entrapment of the bubbles in the particle structure, and adhesion of the bubbles to the particle surface.

In the former case, as the gas bubbles rise toward the surface, the controlled turbulence in the inlet compartment causes contact between the solids. The floc, formed by the natural floc-forming properties of the material or by the chemicals that have been added, increases in size because of more contact with other solids. Eventually, a structure is formed that does not permit rising gas bubbles to pass

FIGURE 10-3. Dissolved air flotation separator,

through or around it. The buoyancy of the floc is continually increased as more gas bubbles are entrapped (nnd the Hoc. grows). and ultimately the floc is floated to the surface.

Adhesion of gas bubbles to the surface of the solids results from interfacial tension arising from intramolecular forces that exist at an interface between two phases. At some point, the buoyant force of the suspended particle and adhered gas bubble is sufficient to float the particle.

Use of Chemicals:-Cbemical additives can be used to induce or aid in the development of buoyant forces by the methods described above.

Inorganic chemicals such as alum, activated silica, and ferric chloride aid the flotation process by promoting flocculation (Chapters II and 12) . Increasing floc size facilitates the entrapment of rising air bubbles. Certain organic chemicals pro~ote flotation of 55 in wastewater by alterIng the surface properties of' the three phases involved, these being the solid phase ~s~ended matter), gas phase (air), and Ilquid phase (wastewater). These


alterations of surface properties result in changes to one or more of the Interfncial tensions existing and subsequent improvement in adhesion of the air bubbles to the suspended matter. Chemicals suitable for this purpose include amyl alcohol, pine oil, and cresy lic acid.

Design Parameters

The efficiency of removing S5 from wastewater by flotation depends primarily on ·the structure and surface properties of the particles. The method by which gas bubbles contact wastewater particles involves the adhesion and/or entrapment of the bubble. The dominating gas-particle contact mechanism depends On bubble size; interfacial tension between gas-solid and gas-liquid phases, characteristics of . the particles, such as density, charge, diameter, and surface urea; and interfacial tension between the solid and liquid phase. Because of the variability of these parameters from one wastewater to another, laboratory and pilot-plant testing is almost always required to determine design criteria. Details on laboratory test-



ing to arrive at design values for pilotplant testing are available m the literature.O' T Also, pilot dissolved air Rotation units are available for treatability studies from most manufacturers of Rotation equipment,

Factors affecting the design of Rotation systems include the feed solids concentration, quantity of air used, liquid loading rate, and particle rise velocity.

Use Df an air:solids ratio, A:S, frequently is made to develop design criteria for flotation systems. This ratio of the weight of the air and dry solids must be used in conjunction with specified aeration ,pressures to better define bubble rise rate and, ultimately, the capability of a quantity of pressurized, aerated water to cause particle Rotation.

The dimensionless weight ratio, A:S,

also can be correlated with effiuent 5S and float solids concentration," Flotation A:S moos of 0.01 to 0.20 have been used in pilot studies on raw wastewater and a waterwastewater mix with maximum S5 removal noted at A: S values of 0.03 to 0,05. Further ratio' increase resulted in an increase in terminal rise velocity of air bubble-particle aggregates, thus causing destruction of the aggregates and Hoat because of the shearing effects of turbulence.

The liquid loading or overflow rate is a design parameter that also must be CODsidered when designing S5 removal via flotation. Process efficiency decreases with increasing overflew rate, once maximum solids removal has been achieved. In practice, overflow rates (including recycle) vary from 0.7 to 2.7 l/m"s (1 to 4 galjsq'

CI"Wod Efllu~t




ChemlCtlI SoIUlltltl. MI~~illnd F~der

:l=JeUinlon Tank



FIGUl\E 10-4. Various degrees of tank pressurization are available, and depend

on the nature of the waste being removed. '










FIGURE 10-5. Both the (a) circular and (b) rectangular dissolved air Ilotation units have skimmer devices to remove the Boating solids.

ft/min). S Higher rates may be used for special applications.

It is important to be familiar with the flotation characteristics of a particular waste. The operating variables (air:solids ratio, hydraulic loading rote, 'and solids loading rate) will have a varying effeot on equipment performance (Figure 10-1). Pilot plant Or laboratory testing is generally necessary to develop reliable specific

plant design. '


Principal components of a dissolved air flotation unit include apressurizing pump,

retention tank, pressure-reducing valve, air-injection equipment, and a fiotation tank (Figures 10-2 and 10-3). Various degrees of tank pressurization are available, depending on the nature of the waste being removed. Materials with low speciflo gravities can be removed with partial pressurization of the waste How, while some discrete fibers and particles will require the introduction and release of a maximum

",quantity of air. Where preliminary chemical addition is necessary to aid in floc formation, it may be desirable to introduce air injection via a pressurized eHluent recycle stream, This technique is employed



TABLE 10-L Operating Criteria for TWD Dlssolved Air Fioto.t1on Pilot Studies


2 11 0.1:0.2

Stocl<ton. Sunnyvale.

Cnlil. C.lII.

Inlluent JlOII' role, gpm Recycle, %

Recycle flow rate, gpm Areo. for clarification, sq It Area. for thickening, sq It Volume, gal

Recycle pressurization, psig Air rate, sclm

Surface loading rate," gpm sq ft Hydraulic residence time," min Air:soUds ra tlo

29 33 10

14.5 !l.5 650 35--60

0.36 2.7 17

30 27

8 15 21.7 117


• Ineludlng recycle.

Note: gpm X 0.0631 = 115; sq ft X 0.0929 = m'; g:lI X 3.785 = 1; psi X 6.89 ~ kN/m';cfm X 0.02B = rnl/mini gpm/sq ft X 0.68 = I/m'·s.

to aid flocculation ahead of flotation (Figure 10-4).

Compressed air is added to the influent wastewater stream under a pressure of 170 to 340kN/m' (25 to 50 psig) and the entire flow is held in the retention tank to allow the air time to dissolve in the wastewater. Generally, a few minutes is required for this to be accomplished. The wastewater then flows through the pressure reducing valve to the flotation tank. Under the reduced pressure, the air is released from the wastewater in fine bubbles.

Flotation tanks are available commercially in circular and rectangular units (Figure 10-5). Wastewater depth varies from about 1 to 3 m (3 to 10 It).

The first full-scale installation of a dissolved air Rotation unit for ss removal was at a Ll, mRI s (24 mgd) facility treating combined wastewater overflows only," In pilot studies conducted in conjunction with this facility,· 55 removal by the dissolved air flotation unit.' wits found to vary from 62 percent with no chemical addition .to 90 percent with alum addition (0,9 mgjmg influent TSS). Polymer addition was found to be less effective than alum addition, Increasing the recycle ratio from 2.0 to 120 percent resulted in a 10 percent increase in ss removal (to 78 percent). Although no attempt was made to explain the increased solids removal with increased re-


circulation rate, it is suspected that particle characteristics of the recycled solids may have changed to promote slightly better flotation. Optimum A: S ratio was found to be approximately 0.05.

In two other pilot studies,lb, u test units were operated (Table 10-1) to demonstrate removal of ss from industrial-domestic wastewater and to develop design criteria for full scale algal solids removal units, Suspended solids removal for the two dis- if solved air flotation pilot studies averaged a)

72 to 75 percent when alum doses ranging J pP/. from 75 to 22.5 mg/l were added. Removals increased to an average of 80 to B7 r} percent 55 when an alum dose of 100 to • {:J: 250 mgjl was used in conjunction with

pH adjustment. Overflow rates of 1.3 to

1.B ljm"s (1.9 to 2.7 gal/sq £t/ruin) were

used and detention times varied between'

11 and 22 min. pH was controlled with

acid addition. For One pilot study, 1IOn6 ~"r(. WIlS reduced from approximately 45 mg/l to5mg/1.

Vacuum Flotatiom-For the vacuum modification of dissolved air flotation, the equipment consists of a cylindrical tack, with a cover, in which a constant vacuum of approximately 230 rom (9 In.) oE mercury is maintained. Auxiliary equipment ' includes an aeration tank for saturating the wastewater with air, a short period detention tank for removal of large air bubbles, vacuum pumps, and scum and sludge pumps.

V acuum tank equipment is available commercially in sizes ranging from 3.7 to 18.2 m (12 to 60 ft) in diameter, The water depth in the tank is fixed at about 3 m (10 ft) with a vacuum equivalent to 230 mm (9 in.) of mercury. For proper flotation treatment, the air requirements are between 0.18 and 0.31 I of I1ir per 1 of wastewater (0.025 and 0.05 cu ft/gal) , Overflow rates vary, ranging from 2.4 to 4.8 l/m~'s (3.5 to 7.0 gal/sq ft/min) depending on the purpose of the unit. At the lower rate the equivalent of primary treatment is approached. At the higher rate the unit is used for scum and grit removal ahead of primary sedimentation.

Only limited performance data lite


FIGURE 10.6. Flotation tank with skimming mechanism.

available on vacuum flotation units. These data indicate about 50 percent removal of ether-soluble material (grease) . Suspended solids reductions vary from 35 to 55 percent at surface loading of 1.9 to 2.8 ljm" s (2.B to 4.1 gal/sq ft/min). BOD reduction at the' same loadings compares very closely with that for primary settling basins (that is, 17 to 35 percent). At a higher surface loading the llOD and ss red~ction decreases rapidly.U,ll

Solids Handling

The floating material is continuously removed by a traveling skimming mechanism (Figure 10.6). One manufacturer furnishes a revolving mechanism equipped with an inner fixed blade and an outer hinged blade attached to two skimming arms. As the Hoat is formed, it is continuously swept to the tank periphery and automatically discharged into the scum trough. The speed of rotation is variable, thus making it possible to vary the mois-ture content of the flout, Another manufacturer furnishes a mechanism equipped with four arms extending radially from the drive shaft. Steel skimmer blades with neoprene wipers are attached to the arm by pivots and can he adjusted both horizontally and vertically, The blades pull the Roat up the face of the ramp and dis-

charge it into a-trough from which it is removed through the Roat draw-off connection. Adjustable liquid-level and skimming-blade height make it possible to select the optimum position of the liquid level in relation to the float collection ramp, and the skimmer position relative to the float level. Skimming devices in rectangular tanks move scum to one end of the tank for removal. Most flotation units are equipped with features to collect and remove coarse solids that cannot be removed ·by flotation as well as other settleable solids during periods of plant difficulty when the air for flotation may not be available, Design for such solids removal is similar to that for sedimentatfon tanks (Chapter 16).

For vacuum flotation units, the tank is equipped with sludge removal and scum removal mechanisms. The floating material is continuously swept to the tank periphery and automatically discharged into the scum trough. Scum characteristics are enough like those of primary sludge so that the same pumps and criteria for pipes used for handling scum are used for sludge. However, air entrainment in the top sludge may pose special problems. Centrifugal pumps may tend to become air bound and suffer from cavitation. Scum is usually pumped to a digester or other-



wise disposed of in the same manner as raw sludge (Chapters 5 and 24). Where significant quantities of mineral oils are pres ent, the scum is not easily digested and special means 9f disposal, such as burying or incineration, are employed.


1. Metcolf and Eddy, Inc., "Wastewater Engineering: Collection, Trentment, DlsposnL" McGrnw-Hl11 Book ce, New York, N. Y. (1972).

2. Vrnblik, E. R., "Fundamental Principles of Dissolved-Air Flotn,tion of Industrin] Wastes." Proe. 14th Ind. Wa.rto Collf., Purdue Un!v., Ext Ser, 104, 743 (1959).

::I. "Process Design Manunl for Sludge Hnndllng and DisposnL" U. S. EPA, Technology Transfer, Washington, D. C. (1974).

4. Van Vuuren, L. R. J., and Vnn Duuren, F.

A., "Removal of Algae from Wnsre Water Maturation Pond EHluent." Jour. Water PolL Control Fed., 37, 9, 1256 (11l65).

5. Vnn Vuuren, L. R. J., at at.. "The Flotntion of Algae in Water Reclamntion." IIlt'L lour. Air Water POl/utioA, 9, 823 (11l65).


6. Rohlich, G. A., Ind. Engr. Chem~ 40, 304 (1954).

7. Ecken£elder, W. W ~ Jr., lit al., "Studies on . Dissolved Air FIomtion of Biological Sludges." In "J3iologlcal Treatment of Sewage." J. McCabe and and W. W. Eekenfelder [Eds.], Vol. 2, Relnhold PublIshing Corp., New York, N. Y. (1958).

B. Rich, L. G., "Unit Oparntions of Sanitary Engineering." John Wiley IUld lj()ll5, Inc., New York, N. Y. (1961).

9. Levy, R. L., White, R. L., and Shea, T. G., "Treatment of Combined and Row S6Wages with the Dissolved Air Flatatinn Process." Water Res., 6, 1487 (11l7S).

10. ''Upgrading Lagoons," U. S. EPA, Technology Traosfer Seminnr Publicntion, WashIngton, D. C. (1973).

11. Slone, R. W., Pnrker, D. S., and Cotteral, J.

A., "Upgrading Lagccn Emuent for Best Pmcticnble 'Ireatment," Jour. Water Pan. Control FeeL, 47, 8, 2019 (1975).

12. Mays, T. J., "Vecnatnr Operations at Santu Marin." Sew. and Ind. Wrmea, 25, 10, , 1228 (1953 ).

13. Logan, R P., "Scum Removal by Vaeuatnr at Palo Alto." Sew. and Ind. Wastru, 21, 5, 799 (1949).

Chapter 11

Chemical Treatment






159 Introduction

History and Overview Obiectives

Definition of Terms

1BO Coagulation Introduction Coagulants

Coagulant Aids (Flocculants) Sludge Consideration.!l

176 Phosphorus Precipitation Introduction Precipitants

Sludge Considerations

183 pH Adjusbnent


Neutralization of Acidity Neutralization of Alkalinity

189 Nutrient Addition 190 Rapid Mixing Introduction Mixer Types Fluid Regimes

Design Conslderation.!l

196 Chemical Feed Systems Introduction

Dry Feed

Solution Feed

200 References

Introduction History and Overview

The use of chemicals in the treatment of domestic wastewaters is not a new concept Reports of chemical treatment date hack to 1740 with extensive use of chemicals to aid sedimentation having been used in Europe since the late 1800's. By .1934, wastewater treatment plants in 34 U. S. cities were using chemical precipitation. Chemical use in wastewater declined in this country during World War II and for some years thereufter because of varying costs and limited availability of chemicals. With higher soluble organic removal requirements for secondary treatment, biological treatment gained favor, since chemicals were of

limited use in the removal of soluble organics. Research over the past decade in the area of physical-chemical treatment processes, and widespread recognition of the need for nutrient (phospborus and nitrogen) removal from ef!l.uents have resulted in a resurgence in the use of chemicals in wastewater treatment Today numerous treatment plants are being designed and operated using chemicals for nutrient removal, sludge conditioning, and promotion of better sedimentation or flotation.


Many chemicals in various forms are applied in wastewater treatment. Table 11-1 lists chemical compounds and their respective applications in wastewater treatment. Chemicals used for sludge preparation are discussed in Ohapter 25.

For all practical purposes, applications for chemicals in treatment of domestic wastewaters fall into six categories: (a) coagulation and flocculation, o'r aiding of sedimentation, (b) precipitation or Insolubilization of dissolved substances, (G) pH adjustment, (d) nutrient addition to biological systems, (B) disinfection, and (f) conditioning of wastewater sludges for digestion or mtration. This chapter will be concerned with categories ( a) through ( d). (Disinfection and sludge conditioning are discussed in Chapters 20 and 25, respectively. ) In addition, II. discussion of rapid mixing is included since that unit operation is employed in many chemical treatment flow sheets. Flocculation and sedimentation, processes closely related to chemical treatment and its effectiveness, are covered in detail in Chapters 12 and 16.

Definition of Terms Oaagulatlom-c-Ccagulaticn is defined lIS destabilization by particle charge neutrali-. zation and initial aggregation of colloidal



and finely divided suspended matter by inorganic coagulants.

Congulnnt:""':'An Inorganio compound that acts to destabllize a colloidal suspension and causes a Hoc to form.

Coagulant Mdl-Also called a flccculant. Organic water soluble polyelectrolytes or inorganic substance used to assist or modify the effects of coagulants.

Flocculation:~Flocculntion is the agglomeration of coagulated colloidal and finely divided suspended matter by physical mixing or ehemicalcoagulant aids, In biological wastewater treatment where coagulation is not used, agglomeration may be accomplished biologically,

Precipilationl-In chemical reactions, precipitation is the phenomenon that uceurs when a dissolved substance in n liquid passes out of solution into solid form as the result of a chemical reaction.

The completion of reactions in the coagulation or precipitation processes is almost instantaneous after the chemicals are dissolved fully. The precipitates first

TAllLE U-L Some Chemicals and Their Principal Uses in Wastewllter Trautment


Prindpal u ••

Actlv~t.d .lUea. SlO,Aluminum aramcalum sulfate.

Al,(SO.l.· (NHo},so.·11H,O Aluminum .ulfnte [.lum), Als(SOol,·XlI,o

AmmDlIla ['QunD,anhydrou.).

NIl, Dr NH,OH Ammnnlum !lull.te, (NH,hSO s :

Bentonite clay

C&lcIum hydro:dd •• Ca(OH),


Carbon dloxlde, CO.

ChlDrilUlted rerrou. oulf.te tCb!onnolO!d Coppe,..). Fe.(SO,)o·l'eCIo

Forri. cltIoride. FeCIo Dr

F.Ch·~H.O Ferric oullate.

F .. (SO,,,.l{H,o HYdrochlDric add, HCI

Nitric acid. HNO,

C'.IIlI.UGn aid Co.;ul.tlon

ConBulllUoR. phosphorus


Nutrient addlUDD

AcUvuUon or lUi"" Caugulout ald. weishUnl


COIlI\llaU.n. neutrnllratlan, ph •• phortlll ptodpltollDn

R.ecarbDJUlLlDn~ .outmll:oUDn CaallllaUon

Ph",phoric hold. HoPQ, Polyeie<trolyte5 [pDlym .... ) Sodium .Iumlnat., NnoAhCli

Sodium corbonal e, No,eO. Sodium bydroxlde

(CoWIU. Badlll. N.OH S\Ilfurfe odd


formed by the chemical reactions are crystals of molecular size. The initial growth or increase in size of these colloidal crystals and coagulated solids is caused by charge reduction and Brownian movement. Additional growth is a result :of gentle but turbulent stirring of the suspension (Hocculation).



The chemicals involved in coagulation are known as coagulants or coagulant aids. Coagulants are simple electrolytes that are water soluble, low molecular weight inorganic acids, bases, or salts. By increasing the electrolyte concentration in the wastewater, the electrical double layer surrounding each particle is compressed. The magnitude of repulsive interaction between . particles is reduced, thereby destabilizing the suspension. Iron, aluminum, and calcium salts are the most effective coagulants. Coagulation also can be enhanced by organic polyelectrolytes (coagulant aids or Ilocculants ), so called because they are long chain organic molecules possessing the properties of polymers and of electrolytes. These coagulant aids promote further agglomeration of coagulated solids through charge neutralization, bridging;' or synergism, but primarily through interparticle bridging. Choices of specific coagulants and coagulant aids depend on the nature of the solid-liquid system to be separated. Salt content and pH affect the surface charges of suspended solids. The signs, magnitudes, and distribution of these surface charges strongly influence the type and quantity of coagulant to be used. The coagulants most commonly employed in treatment of domestic wastewater include lime [Ca( OHh], alum [Ah( SO~)a], ferric chloride (FeCIB), ferrous sulfate (FeSO,). ferric sulfate [(Fe:S04)o], and sodium aluminate (NaAlO~). The coagulant aids include activated silica, bentonite clay, and the polyelectrolytes.

'Iheoryi=-The complexity of the coagulation process is a result of the various simultaneous mechanisms and reactions that occur when a coagulant is added to the




aqueous system, Therefore, while general ranges for chemical dosages may be set forth from stoichiometric considerations, ultimate determination of optimum dosages must be accomplished by more empirical methods. The use of the standard jar test (empirical determination) together with the measurement of zeta potential (theoretical determination) are the two procedures that may be followed for optimization of coagulant dosages.

Coagulation Dosage Detetmination;- 1. Zeta potential. The stability of colloidal suspensions of the type encountered in wastewater treatment is largely caused

...... by electrostatic repulsive forces between particles. The stability of the suspension is generally a function of the magnitude for the repulsive forces, or particle charge. It follows that the reduction of the repulsive forces between particles will encourage coagulation.

The double layer theory is generally accepted for characterizing the electrical charge phenomenon in colloidal suspensions. Simply stated, each particle carries a charge at its surface, and is surrounded by a sheath of ions of opposite charge (counter ions) beld close by electrostatic forces. For particles suspended in wastewater, the particle surface charge is usually negative. This charge mny arise through ionization of atoms at the particle surface, or from adsorption of ions, particularly hydroxide ions, from the water. The close layer of counter ions moves through the aqueous phase with the particle and is referred ill as the bound layer. Agitation in the water causes a second diffuse layer of counter ions to form, extending from the bound layer out into the bulk solution. The consequence of this double layer surround.ing each particle is an electrostatic potential that decreases in intensity with distance from the particle surface, At some distance from the particle, the potential is reduced to zero. This distance defines the "zero influence" of the charged particle. The so-called "zeta potential" is simply that electrostatic potential that exists at the


plane of shear separating the bound from the diffuse layers.

Zeta potential .may be defined theoretically. The equation is not nnrmally used because of the difficulty associated with the determination of its various fae. tors: Rather, approximate values of zeta potential may be determined by measurement, A sample of the suspension is placed in a plastic cell under a microscope, lind as voltage is applied to each end of the cell, the charged particles migrate ·to the terminal of opposite charge, By measuring

. particle velocity, knowing the applied electrode voltage, and referring to a calibration curve, the zeta potential may be determined. Zeta potential is usually expressed as millivolts (mV).

Zeta potential, and hence the electrostatio repulsive forces between particles, may be reduced by adjusting the' pH of the system toward the iscelectric point, or by adding ions of opposite charge to the system. Addition of coagulants (positive ions) decreases the magnitude of the zeta potential in wastewaters, thereby decreasing the stability of the suspension. The valence of the counter ions is quite important insofar as effectiveness of zeta potential reduction is concerned. A trivalent ion may be as much 1lS 1 000 times as effective as a monovalent ion. This is the reason that the aluminum and ferric salts are such effective coagulants. Addition of cations also decreases the thickness of the electrical double layer associated with each particle, allowing van der Wnals forces to overcome the electrostatic repulsive forces. Therefore, it is not necessary to reduce the zeta potential to zero for good coagulation to occur. Good coagulation has been found experimentally to occur at .zeta potential values ranging from 0 to -10 m V. An example of typical data produced when zeta potential data are correlated with data from alum coagulation jar tests is shown in

Figure Ll-L .

Zeta potential is a useful parameter for determining coagulant dosage. However, it should not be used independently to optimize dosages since good coagulation may occur at coagulant concentrations not










FIGUlI.E 11·1. Zeta potential measurements correlated to typical alum coagulation jar test results.

necessarily sufficient to neutralize the zeta potential completely. Also, coagulation of wastewaters 1S a complex phenomenon involving other mechanisms in addition to electrical charge reduction, such as bridglog and nucleating.

2. Jar test The jar test is the most widely used method to determine coagulant dosages and associated parameters. The obj ective of the test is simply to simulate the plant-scale coagulation-flocculation process in the laboratory, From theoretical considerations or experience, the range of pH and coagulant dosages that will approximate the dosages required for optimum operating conditions are detennined.

Simple jar tests cannot perfectly simulate conditions in a full scale flocculation or clnrification-Hocculation process, and such tests usually indicate higher dosage requirements than actually will be needed in practice. The information obtained from the


jar test usually is sufficient:, however, for sizing of chemical feed equipment.


. ..., Lime:-

shipped in 23 to 415 kg (50 or 100 lb) moisture-proof multiwalled bags. 10 most large plants bulk shipments of quicklime are preferred. Bulk lime is stored dry, inside or out, 10 air-tight concrete or steel bins . Hopper vibration is usually provided to prevent arch formation. In smaller plants where lime consumption is less than a carload per month, bagged hydrated lime is preferred. In dry storage, deterioration is not serious for periods as long as a year. Regarding particle sizes, quicklime is available in several sizes but hydrated lime is available only as a fine powder (passes 200 mesh sieve). Table lI-II gives shipping data and physical characteristics of the various lime forms.

Lime may be conveyed' mechanically by screw conveyors or bucket conveyors, or pneumatically. Where humidity is high, air slaking of quicklime will take place in pneumatic conveyors because of atmospheric moisture. It is recommended that chutes and hopper sides for handling bulk quicklime have a minimum slope of 55· to assure flow since the angle of repose for quicklime is 30· to 40·. Equipment for mechanical handling of quicklime is generally constructed of mild steel while pneumatic equipment is constructed of rubber and steel pipe.

When slaking is done at the treatment plant, slakers of the pug mill type or detention type are used. The detention slaker produces a lime slurry of about 10 percent Ca( OH)2 while the pug mill type produces a paste of about 36 percent. This paste must be diluted to permit flow through pipes to the point of application. Detention slakers use a water:lime ratio in the range of 3.5 lb water:l Ib lime. Heat is given off during the slaking process and the temperature of the slaking mixture normally will rise to about 82°C (IBO"F). The required slaking time varies with the source of lime. Fast slaking limes will complete the reaction 10 3 to 5 min, but low quality limes may take as long as 60 min. In the latter case some beat input may be necessary. Hot water or steam may be used for this pllllJose. There are detailed procedures for slaking tests available

1. Uses. Lime hlstorically has been favored as a "fust step" aid to sedimentation because of its lower unit costs relative to other mineral salts, Lime promotes coagulation by increasing wastewater pH and reacting with aIkaIlnity and phospborus iIi the wastewater, forming the precipitants calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxyapatite, and magnesium hydroxide. Magnesium hydroxide precipitation may begin at pH 'values greater than 9.5 but is not complete until pH 11.0.

2. Types and handling considerations. Chemical lime is produced through the controlled calcination of high quality limestone at high temperature. The product, known as quicklime, consists principally of calcium oxide (CnO) with lesser quantities 500 of magnesium oxide. High calcium quicklime contains 0.5 to 2.5 percent magnesium oxide, and dolomitic quicklime contains 35 to 40 percent magnesium oxide. For purposes of wastewater treatment, quicklime must be converted to the hydrated fonn [Ca(OH)2]' Hydrated lime may be obtained from commercial sources, or produced at the treatment plant by slaking the quicklime. The slaking process involves the addition of sufficient water 10 special equipment to hydrate the quicklime. Depending on the type of quicklime used and the hydrating conditions employed, the amount of water chemically combined varies as follows:

( a) higb calcium bydrated lime; high calcium quicklime produces a hydrated lime consisting of 72 to 74 percent CaD and 23 to 24 percent water, and

( b) dolomitic hydrated lime; under normal hydrating conditions only the calcium oxide fractions of dolomitic quicklime hydrates, producing a hydrated lime consisting of 46 to 4B percent CaD, 33 to 34 percent MgO, and 15 to 17 percent water. Lime can be purchased in bulk in railroad car or truckload lots. It is also


from the American Water Works Assoolation.1 These provide for determination of slaking time, best initial water temperature, and optimum water:lime ratio for lime to be used. Such tests should be conducted prior to selection of a slaker,

After slaking, the lime slurry is diluted if necessary and transferred to a slurry holding tank equipped with a mechanical mixer. When commercial hydrated lime is used at the plant, a dry lime feeder and dissolver must be provided prior to the slurry holding tanks. Generally, dissolvers for dry lime feeders are designed to provide 3 to 5 min detention time when forming a 6 percent slurry at maximum required feed rate. Lime slurry is transferred from the slurry holding tanks to a mixing tank where it Is mixed with the wastewater and the coagulation reaction takes place. Control of lime feed may be automated. For this purpose a pH sensor is installed in the reaction tank and connected to an automatic dosage controller on the lime slurry feeder.

3. Chemistry. Lime reacts with alkalinity and phosphorus in the wastewater to form the precipitates calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxyapatite, and magnesium hydroxide:

Ca+2 + HCOI + OH-~

CaCO,! + H20 (1)

5 Ca+2 + 4 OH- + 3 HP04-~ ------+ Ca5(OH} (P04)a! + 3 HIO {2}

MgH + 2 OH- -I- Mg {OHM (3) The precipitating compounds act as coagulants, removing turbidity as they settle. Magnesium hydroxide is a gelatinous precipitate that will remove colloidal solids as it settles, but these same gelatinous properties adversely affect sludge thlekenlng and dewatering. The second of the above equations results in the removal of soluble phosphorus from the wastewater, Phosphorus removal, another application of lime, is covered in a later section of this chapter.

4. Dosages and removals. The lime dose required to achieve a given pH and tor-







I: :::I d eUJ



•• C a 00.-1 CN..,®

®@J@J ....

r,(J101.fl,.t.... .-1_·0








. 9



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@J'" ",®

_N 00 00




j ~









:a Ul

}!_ .il' II s ,!l;!i ~x l!l..t: l:i e




"---~---t------------------------------------------I ~~ II" 0 II

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Ux II :s t:ii Uo • Z

'" III


o ..,







o til DU 1:1



bidity removal is primarily a function of wastewater alkalinity, Therefore, the most accurate evaluation of coagulation requirements may be made through the performance of a jar test on a representative sample of the specific wastewater.

5. Calcining. Lime sludge may be thickened, dewatered, and calcined to convert the calcium carbonate to re-usable lime. GenernlIy, calcining for reuse is economical only in larger plants where £lows are greater than 38 000 m~/d (10 mgd). Although some investigators have reported that the slaking characteristics of lime deteriorate after it is calcined for reuse, other experiences have not shown this elIect.1


1. Uses. Alum is the commonly used name for aluminum sulfate [AlJl(SO~)s'14 H20]. It is widely used in water treatment practice but is also an excellent coagulant for removing suspended solids from do-

" mestic wastewater.

When a coagulant such as alum (or the iron salts) is to be incorporated in a new plant design, or used to improve BOD, suspended solids, and phosphorus removal in an existing plant, the question invariably arises as to where in the process £Iowsheet the chemical should be added. As a general rule, where no flash mix tanks are provided, alum should be added at a point where turbulence is ,present to insure rapid mixing. It is advantageous to build some flexibility into the plant design with respect to points of chemical addition, since this aspect may significantly affect process effieleney and economy, Addition of alum directly to an aeration tank will not adversely alIect the biological process, but

TABLE ll-m. Strengths Qf Commerclnlly Avnilnble Alwn

nOli. B.u m ~ Alu .. Co .... D.""lty D(\t~Y,"
'iDAhO, [lb/JIllII
32.2 7.2 10.72 4.6
36.4 8.3 ILlS 5.4 Note: Ib/gal X 0.12 ~ kg/I.


TABLE U-IV. Soma PhySical CharacteristiC!! ofDzy Alwn

of several forms of dry alum are given in Table ll-IV.

Liquid alum is shipped in railroad tank cars of 23 000 to 38000 1 (6 000 to 10 000 gal) capacity, or in tank trucks of 13 000 to 19000 I (3500 to 5000 gal) oapacity. Storage tanks at the treatment plant generally are provided with a capacity of from 1.2 to 2. times the shipment quantity, or hold at least 10 days' requirement of chemical, whichever is larger. Compressed air at 210 leN/m' (30 psig) maximum is required to unload tank cars. The liquid alum tank trucks are usually self-loading by means of a pump or compressor mounted on the tractor and It 50 mm (2 in.) rubber hose.

Because liquid alum crystallizes at about -15"C (5°F), storage tanks for cold c1imate applications are best Installed indoors. If it is necessary to erect storage facilities outdoors in colder regions, tanks should be provided with heating coils, electric heating cable trueing, and insulation to maintain temperatures above 7°C (45"F).

Dry alum is shipped in 45 kg (100 lb) multi-wnll paper bags, or in bulk, in covered hopper cars, or pneumatic truck transports. Hopper cars are of 45-metric ton ( 50-ton) capacity. Minimum storage silo capucity at the plant site should be sufficient to hold 10 days' requirement, or 90 metric tons ( 100 tons), whichever is greater. The pneumatic truck transports have a capacity of 18 metric tons and minimum storage capacity at the plant should be 36 metric tons. While th'e truck transports are usually self-unloading, the railroad car shipments will require mechanical or pneumatic equipment at the plant for unloading.

When dry alum is ohosen for use at the plant, it is generally dissolved prior to feeding to the treatment process. This is simply because it is easier to closely control chemical dosage through valves or adjustable rate pumps than through dry feeders. Lower chemical consumption, which at larger plants may give sizeable cost savings, can be realized. As previously stated, dry alum is noncorrosive, but in solution it becomes acidic. Therefore, dry feeders


Alum Ch .... lofl.U ..

Approx. ecmposltien AI.O. content


Insolubles Hygroscopic



Weight (Ib/cu ft):

Lump Ground Rice Powdered

Angle of repose (npprox.):

Ground Rice Powder

Solubility Db 'Blum (17% AI,O.l/gal water]: 3Z"F


!DO of

AI.(SO,).·14 H.O 17% (minimum) 0.75% (maximum) 0,5% (maxlmum) Very slightly Lump, ground, rice

powder Ivory white

60-70 63-76 52-62 38-45

38-45 deg 33-38 deg 65 deg

7.9 8.4 9.1

Note: IbJcu ft X 16 = leg/m'; gal X 3.785 = L

some build-up of aluminum compounds in the recirculated sludge may be expected.

2. Types and handling considerations.

Alum is available from chemical manufacturers in both liquid and dry form. Liquid alum is an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate and is generally available commercially in two strengths (Table Unn,

Liquid alum is a true solution containing less than 0.2 percent insolubles. Dry alum is a pale greenish- to cream-colored, powdered, granular, or lump material that dissolves in water to produce a solution with a pH of approximately 3.5 at 1 percent; The grade of dry alum used by the majority of water and wastewater plants is a mixture of standard ground alum and ones. In general, ground alum is easy to feed as it does not bulk or arch in hoppers. It is non-corrosive. The ones themselves are known as powdered alum. Powdered alum is generally not desirable for use in wastewater treatment since it is dusty and difficult to feed. Some physical properties


may be of standard construction, but any portion of the equipment in contact with solutions should be constructed of corrosion resistant materials.

The decision whether to use liquid or dry alum in a particular plant applleation is influenced by several factors. Generally, liquid alum costs less than dry alum. However, distance from the source of supply must be considered since in liquid form approximately 1 ton of water is being shipped with each ton of effective coagulant, and the freight cost is paid by the user. Also, capital costs associated with liquid alum are somewhat greater (storage and bandling), especially in colder climates where insulation must be considered. As a guideline, a plant that uses 180 kg/d (400 lbl day) or less of alum should use the bagged dry product since liquid alum cannot be justified on an economic basis at these low quantities.

3. Chemistry. When alum is added to wastewater in the presence of alkalinity, the following hydrolyzing reaction occurs:

Ah(S04)a + 6 HCO~-----T

2 Al(OHht + 3 SOr + 6 COal (4)

The aluminum hydroxide Hoc is a voluminous, gelatinous precipitate that, in the process of growing, enmeshes and adsorbs colloidal particles, providing clariJlcation. Consumption of hydroxyl ions in the water will result in a decrease in the alkalinity. In cases where the natural alkalinity of the wastewater is inadequate for the alum dosage, the pH must be increased by the addition of sodium or calcium bicarbonate, soda ash, caustic soda, or hydrated lime. With the addition of these compounds, one or more of the following reactions takes place:

Ab(SO,). + 3 Ca{HCO;),----T

2 Al(OH)~l + 3 CaSO, + 6 co.r (5)

AI!(S04h + e NaHCO.----T

2 Al(OH):l + 3 NaSO, + 6 COIl (6)

Ab(S04h + 3 NaiCO. + fi HIO----T

2 Al (OH).l + 3 CO:i '

+ 3 Na%SO, + fi H+ (1)



A!,{SOc). + 6 NaOH-----+

2 Al(OH)a! + 3 Na~SOc (8) Alz(SOc)1 + 3 Ca(OH),-----+

2 A! (OHM + 3 csso, (9)

As the above reactions indicate, the sulfate ion, carbon dioxide, and hence pH depression, are by-products of alum addition,

4. Dosages and removals, Theoretical reactions describing the intemctions of aluminum sulfate with the natural constituents of various wastewaters are influenced by many factors, Sucb reactions serve as a general guide for calculating dosage requirements, but laboratory jar tests are recommended for dosage determination,

As a general rule, Equations 5 through 9 can be used to roughly calculate the following quantitative relationships:

1 mgtl of alum reacts with;

0,50 mg/! natura! alkalinity [as CaCOI], 0,33 mg/! 85% quicklime [as CaO],

0,39 rng/! 95% hydrated lime [as

Ca(OHhJ, and

0.54 mg/J soda ash [as Na1C01].

Alum also reacts with soluble phosphorus to form aluminum phosphate according to the following reaction:

Alz (SO,); + 2 PO,"-----+

2 AlP04 + 3 50,- (10)

As previously indicated, phosphorus removal is the suhject of another section within this chapter, but attention is called to the above reaction because it competes with the foregoing hydrolyzing reactions for available alum. Hence congulation dosage requirements calculated strictly from stoichiometric considerations may be an underestimate if phosphorus precipitation is not accounted for. The general pH range in whicb best coagulation with alum occurs is pH 5.5 to B.O while phosphorus precipitation with alum occurs best in the pH range 5,5 to 6,5. However, for a particular wastewater, the optimum coagulation may be within a much narrower pH range that :is best determined by laboratory jar tests.


Sodium Alwninnte:-

1. Uses. Sodium aluminate (Na~A1~Ot) is an alternate source of the aluminum ion, In wastewater treatment the principal application of thls chemical has been for phosphorus precipitatioil and not for coagulation; therefore little data exists relative to the use of sodium aluminate for suspended solids removal. However, in the water treatment field sodium aluminate has been used more, and data have been presented supporting the use of sodium aluminate in place of alum as an important coagulant. The cost of sodium aluminate is about 80 percent greater than that of alum, therefore, equivalent treatment must be obtained with lower dosages to make sodium aluminate eeonomically justifiable. The best method by which to determine the applicability of sodium alu- . minate to a given wastewater is through the use of comparative laboratory jar tests whereby the results achieved with sodium aluminate may be compared to those of the other coagulants.

2. Types and handling considerations.

Sodium aluminate is available commercially in both liquid and dry forms. The dry powder form should be stored away from sources of moisture and should not be stored longer than about six months. The liquid form should be protected from carbon dioxide absorption during storage, Commercial dry sodium aluminate consists of 24 to 33 percent aluminum, and the liquid form has II.D aluminum content of 0,21 to 0.27 kgfl (I.B2 to 2.27Ib/gal).

Liquid sodium aluminate is very viscous and resistant to Bow, At low temperatures, heating to 21°C (70°F) may be required to insure flow through feed lines.

3. Chemistry. The mecbanism by which sodium aluminate achieves coagulation is similar to the previously discussed hydrolysis reactions occurring with the addition of aluminum sulfate. The hydrolysis results in the formation of the gelatinous and readily settleable aluminum hydroxide precipitate which readily enmeshes surrounding colloidal solids. The reactions are as


NalAbO. + 4 HiD-----+

2 NaOH + 2 Al(OH)1 (l1a)

2 NaOH + Ca(HCDI)~---t

CaCO, + Na~CDD + 2 HIO (llb)


Na!AltO, + Ca(HCO,h + 2 H10---t

2 Al(OHh + CaCO; + NalC01 (11c)

Sodium aluminate is an alkaline material and will cause some rise in pH when added to wastewater, This pH rise can be significant depending on wastewater characteristics and may constitute a problem in cases where sodium aluminate is to be fed to the primary settling basins prior to biological treatment. The magnitude of pH change should be determined in the laboratory before sodium aluminate is incorporated in a How sheet.

4, Dosages and removals, Dosage requirements for sodium aluminate are similar to alum. In general, dosages in the range of 75 to 150 mgtl will he required, In wastewater treatment, dosage more often is determined by phosphorus removal requirements than by coagulation considerations.

Ferric Chloride 1-

1. Uses,' Ferric chloride is one of three iron compounds used in wastewater treatment as a coagulant Like alum, ferric


chloride concomitantly precipitates soluble phosphorus (discussed in a later section).

2. Types and handling considerations.

Ferric chloride is available commercially in three forms-liquid, anhydrous (not generally used), and hydrated crystal. The anhydrous form is granular while the crystalline form is irregular lumps. Liquid ferric chloride is a dark brown solution of FeCla in water (20 to 45 percent FeCIa). Table ll-V shows chnmcteristlcs of the three forms of ferric chloride.

Anhydrous ferric chloride is shipped in BB and 160 kg (150 and 350 lb) capacity steel drums. Since ferric chloride is very hygroscopic, the drum openings are .fitted with air-tight gaskets to prevent moisture absorption during shipping and storage. Unopened drums of anhydrous ferric chloride may he stored in a dry area for a reasonable length of time. When possfble it is recommended that the entire drum be used when opened. Otherwise drums should be opened only in dry areas and closed tightly as soon as possible. Spilled anhydrous ferric chloride will absorb water from the air quickly and form a solution that is strongly acidic and therefore very corrosive.

Because of the hygroscopic and corrosive properties of anhydrous ferric chloride, it is recommended that stock solutions be prepared for use in the treatment process. Stock solutions should contain from 20 to 40 percent ferric chloride. When the chemical


TABLE II-V. Chnrncteristlc8 of Ferric Chloride

Farm of F<trle Chloride
Anhydrau, Cry.1II1 Uquld
Composition FeCl, FeCI,·6 H,Q 30-46" Be
FeCI; content 9&-97% 60% 20-45%
Fe content 33--33.3% 20.5% 1-15.4%
Form Granular Lump Solution
Color Green-black Yellow Yellow-brown
Weight 8HO Ib/cu ft 60-64Ib/cu ft 11.2-12.4 Ib/gal
Hygroscopic Very Very -
Melting point 577aF 98,6-102.2 aF 14"F:I;
Heat of solution and
hydrolysis, Btu/lb 353 38.2 - Note: Btu/lb X 2.326 = kJ/kg:lb/cu ft X 16 = kg/m'j 0.555 (aF_32) = ·C.





F.,,!< ChI"~d e, $


As a general rule storage facilities at the plant should be sized to hold at least one and one-half times the quantity received in a single shipment The storage tank must be corrosion-resistant

Ferric chloride is always fed as a solution since its hygroscopic nature is not compatable with the use of dry feeders. Changes in temperature cause varying viscosity and specific gravity of ferric chloride.

3. Chemistry. Theoretical considerations with respect to coagulation with ferric chloride are very similar to those of aluminum sulfate. The iron salt reacts with the natural alkalinity of the wastewater to form a hydroxide precipitate that coagulates suspended and colloidal material. Two representative formulas are as follows:


FIGURE 11-2. Temperature rise associated with mnking solutions of anhydrous fer-ic chloride up to 40 percent.

goes into solution it releases beat; therefore, tanks for making stock solutions must be constructed to resist both heat and corrosion. The temperature rise that results from making solutions in concentrations up to 40 percent is depicted in Figure 11-2.

The strength of Iiquid ferric chloride shipped to the treatment plant will vary seasonally. In temperate climates the FeCIs concentration will be approximately 39 percent in winter and 45 percent in summer. It is advantageous to ship the maximum possible strength to minimize the freight cost for water. The controlling factor, however, is crystallization of the solution. The tendency to crystallize is inversely proportional to temperature. Hence, higher strength solutions must be transported and stored at higher temperatures. Table 11-VI shows average crys-

TABLE ll-VI. Average CryatnllimUon Temperlltures for Vnrio11!l FeITlc Chloride Strengths


7 14 21 28 36 42 48 S5

A • .,..so CryotalU .. tlon Temperature, .p

39 40 41 42 43 44 4S 46

Note: 0.555 ('F-32) ~ ·C.


tallization temperatures for various ferric chloride solution strengths.

The size of the solution tank will depend on usage requirements. In any case, the solution tank should be large enougb to hold at least Il 12 h supply of ferric chloride solution, and sized to enable the anhydrous material to be dissolved in full drum units. Care should be taken to minimize the production of dust when pouring ferric chloride as injury to skin, eyes, or throats of workmen may result All forms of ferric chloride stain badly.

Ferric chloride in the crystal form is shipped in 45 kg (100 lb) kegs or 180 or 200 kg (400 or 450 lb) drums. Storage should be in a cool dry place at less than 3S·C (100"F) to prevent melting of the solids. Again it is recommended that contniners be emptied completely when opened. Handling considerations for anhydrous ferric chloride apply to the crystalline form with the exception that no appreciable heat is given off when crystalline ferric chloride is dissolved.

Liquid ferric chloride is shipped in rubber lined tank cars and tank trucks. The tank cars may carry from 15 000 to 88 000 1 ( 4 000 to IS 000 gal) while the tank trucks may deliver S 000 to 10 000 I (.2 000 to 5 000 gal) depending on truck weight regulations. The chemical is unloaded at the plant by application of air pressure which must be available at the unloading site.

2 FeCh + 3 Ca(HC03h----+

2 Fe(OHh! + 3 CaCl! + 6 COt (12)

FeC(~ + 3 NaOH ----+

Fe(OH)3 + 3 NaC! (13)

4. Dosages and removals. As is the case for other coagulants, requirements for optimum coagulation may be in excess of stoichiometric levels. 1£ natural alkalinity is not sufficient it may be necessary to add alkalinity in forms such as lime or soda ash to the wastewater. In addition, the dosage with ferric chloride will result in some pH depression of the wastewater. This effect will vary with coagulant dosage and wastewater characteristics.

Ferrio Sulfnte;-

1. Uses. Ferric sulfate compounds are similar in many respects to ferric chloride from the handling, storage, and stolchiometric points of view. However, its application is less widespread fhan is the use of ferric chloride.

2. Types and handling considerations.

Commercial ferric sulfate [F&.!(S04)o-X H~O] is marketed in 45 kg (100 lb) moisture-proofed bags, ISO kg (400 lb) llber drums, and in bulk in steel hopper cars. SOme physical characteristics of two commercially available forms are shown in Table ll-VII.


TABLE U-VIT. Chnrncteristics of Ferric Sulfllte

pQ.fD.m~t.~r Fe.(SO,h·J H,o F",lso,)c·llhO
F",(SO,h "".Iont 68% 7~~ min
Foe .... +- content IB.5f 21
Fe+-+ mntent .1+0 mu. 3.3%
Alumina {:~
Woter In,olubl .. Y ..
Weight [111/0. It) Mto74 7R to gil
Colar R.ddl,I\..;",y Gruyhh·whlle
HYlroscollle Sllghtly S!lghtlv
Form Grunu!ar Gmnuhtr Because the commercial forms are partially hydrated they are only slightly hygroscopio and thus are generally easy to transport, feed, and dissolve. However, in humid environments some caking will occur. Handling of bulk shipments is usually best accomplished by mechanical equipment such as screw conveyors, since air conveying requires more equipment maintenance, especially in damp climates. Ferric sulfate generally is stored in open bins since the water absorbed will form a protective crust at the surface, preventing moisture from penetrating the stored ferric sulfate. Closed bins lind dehumidilled air may be necessary, however. Since ferric sulfate in the presence of moisture will stain, precautions similar to those discussed for feme chloride should be followed.

Although fed dry, ferric sulfate is best put into solution before feeding to the treatment process to provide closer dosage control and avoid caking problems that might occur with dry feeders. Care must be taken not to dilute ferric sulfate solutions to less than 1 percent to prevent hydrolysis that results in the deposition of ferric hydroxide. Like ferric chloride, ferric sulfate solutions are corrosive.

3. Chemistry. Theoretical considerations of ferric sulfate are analogous to those discussed for ferriC! chloride, The ferric sulfate molecule reacts with alkalinity present in the wastewater to form the ferric hydroxide precipitate which in turn attaches to suspended and colloidal solids as it settles. The stoichiometric equations are similar to those set forth for ferric chloride (Eq nations 12 and 13) with the sulfate ion substituted for the chloride ion.



Natural alkalinity may hllve to be supplemented to provide optimum coagulation, As with the other coagulants discussed in this section, optimum ferric sulfate dosages are best determined by laboratory jar tests.

4. Dosages. Feed solutions are usually made up at a watenchemlcal ratio of 2:1 to 8:1 on a weight basis, The usual ratio is 4: 1 and a 20 min detention time is recommended to insure complete solution. Dry feed to the solution chamber is generally continuous, Also, because heat of hydration helps dissolve the product, the addition of dissolving water should be restricted to avoid lowering the temperature of the salt in the dissolving chamber.

Ferrous Sulfnter-«

1, Uses, Ferrous sulfate, also referred to as copperas, is similar to ferric chloride from the handling, storage, and stoichiometric points of view. Its use is limited, however,

2, Types and handling considerations, Ferrous sulfate (FeS04,7 H20), is available in granular form in bags, barrels, and bulk. The product has 11. bulk density of approximetely 1 000 kg/mD (62 to 66 Ibl cu ft), Dry ferrous sulfate cakes at storage temperatures above 20·C (68"F) and oxidizes and hydrates further in moist air. Ferrous sulfate should be stored in a dry area, and care should be taken to control dust which can cause staining and is an irritant to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Ferrous sulfate forms an acidic solution, and precautions similar to those described for ferric sulfnte should be followed concerning storage, feeding, and transporting, Ferrous sulfate in the granular form may be dry fed using gravimetric or volumetric feeding equipment; or the chemical may be fed as a solution,

3. Chemistry, The mechanism for coagulation with ferrous sulfate, like ferric chloride, is n reaction with the allrnlinity of the wastewater, or with added aIktilinity in a form such as lime, However in the case of ferrous sulfate, ferrous hydroxide is formed, If dissolved oxygen in the wastewater is Dot sufficient, aeration may


be required. If the ferrous hydrcride is not oxidized, high iron residuals in the efBuent from the process will result. This residual iron then may be oxidized atsome point further in the process, or in the receiving watercourse, resulting in Iron-preeipltation and a reddish color in the water. Representative reactions involved in coagulation with ferrous sulfate are as follows:

FeSO. + Ca{HEOah - .

Fe{OHh! + caSO.! + 2 CO! (t4)

FeSO, + Ca(OHh-

Fe(OHh! + caSO.ij_ (15)

4Fe(OHh+Os+ 2 I-hO-

4 Fe (OH)at (t6)

4 FeS04 + 4 Ca(HCOih + O2 ---+

4 Fe(OH); + 4 caSo, + 8 CO~ (17)

Ferrous sulfate may be oxidlzed before being introduced to the treatment process by chlorination or aeration, In the case of chlorination, ferrous sulfate and chlorine are reacted in solution, using sufficient chlorine to convert nIl ferrous ions to the ferric state, The use of chlorinated copperas obviates the necessity for the.oxidation of ferrous hydroxide, which depletes the dissolved oxygen of the wastewater, Aeration of ferrous sulfate may be slower and less efficient than oxidation via chlorination. In. general, because of the extra osidattve step involved, the use of iron salts in the ferrous state for coagulation purposes is not recommended unless local conditions, for example, the availability of waste pickle liquor from local industry, ID'e such that a significant cost saving over the trivalent mineral salts can be realized.

4, Dosages and removals, The optimum chemical: water ratio for continuous dissolving is BO gil (0.5 Ib/gal} with a detention time of 5 min in the dissolver,

Coagulant Aids (Flocoulants)


1. Uses, The efficiency of coagulants often can be enhanced through the USB of coagulant aids, The polyelectrolytes, or

polymers as they also are known, are available in anionic, cationle, and nnnionio form, and comprise the principal coagulant aid in use today. In many cases the precipitates or floes formed by the hydrolyzing metal coagulants, such as alum, ferric chloride, or by lime, are slow to settle, Addition of the proper polye1ectro1yte genernlly improves settling efficiency substantially,

2. Types and handling considerations, Poly electrolytes are available in liquid or dry form. For the dry form, bulk densities range from 130 to 980 kg/m& (8 to 61 lh/cu ft) depending on the polyelectrolyte and the packing, Flow characteristics are influenced by particle size, shape, and density, with caking and hopper bang-up possibilities for several polyeleetrolytes, Time needed to disperse the chemical into a colloidal suspension varies from 15 min to 2 h. Recommended maximum concentrations range from 0.1 to 4 percent. SpeciIlc gravity is approximately one, Because polymer solutions are non-Newtonian, pressure drops generally are estimated using a modified form of the Poissuille equation. The actual pressure loss for a polymer feed system based 00 non-Newtonian How may be only 10 to 20 percent of the pressure drop calculated assuming Newtonian flow.'

Dry polymers must be put in solution for efficient use. Most suppliers offer recommendations on the dissolving and feeding of their polymers, These long chain molecules are difficult to dissolve and, because of the great diverslty in their characteristics, no one scheme f01' dissolving and feeding of polyelectrolytes is considered satisfactory in all applications. Perhaps the simplest lind most widely used system in wastewater treatment applications is the dissolving tank with mixer and metering pump (F.igure 11-3),1 Generally, the higher the molecular weight of the compound the longer the detention time required in the dissolving tank. The dissolving" tank should be sized according to the recommendation of the manufacturer with respect to the strength of the polymer solution lind the dissolving time





FIGURE 11-3. Dissolving tank with mixer and metering pump.

requirements of the particular polyelectrolyte.

Because dry polyelectrolytes dissolve more slowly than inorganic salts, provision is sometimes made for wetting the powder prior to introduction into the dissolving tank. This is to prevent formation of gellike particles or "fish eyes" that result when particles of polymers adhere to one another when their surfaces are not wetted completely, Pre-wetting of the polymer may be accomplished by incorporating 11. mixing funnel to uniformly sift the polymer powder to the dissolving tank (Figure 11-4).~ High speed mixing which could shear the polymer molecule and reduce effectiveness should be avoided,

Aqueous solutions of polyelectrolytes have a specific gravity range, at room temperature, of 1 to 1.25, Dilution ratios may vary from 4:1 to 10:1. pH's may range from 3 to 11.5,

Reforea polymer feed system is designed, specifications should be established. These include: specific trade name and type of polymer, concentration required and amount to be fed, chemical and pbysical characteristics of polymer, required dissolving time, and type of feed control for polymer,

3, Chemistry, Poly electrolytes are 11ig11 molecular weight organic chains with functional groups at intervals along the chain, Since the ionic groups may be charged positively or negatively, the polyelectrolyte molecule may carry an overall



WATER 5UPP/.~!"",==r;::::::)1_~





FIGURE 11-4. Polymer prewetting incorporating a mixing funnel prior to the dissolving tank.

positive or negative charge. PolyeleetroIytes therefore are classified as anionic, cationic, or non-ionic. The compound may he of natural or synthetic origin.

The success of a particular polyelectrolyte in a given application will depend on many factors including: size, density, end charge of particles to be flocculated: pH of dissolution of the polymer. Extensive jar testing is recommended in connection with selections of the polyelectrolyte.

The ability of polyelectrolytes to enhance flocculation is attributed to the electrostatic forces associated with the molecules, and to a "bridging effect" whereby the long chain polymer molecules provide bridges to link suspended solids particles to form longer Hoes. The ultimate size of these Hac particles is limited by the shear forces arising from turbulence effected by mixing. Experience has shown the anionic polymers to be most effective in aiding primary settling and in conjunction with the aluminum or iron salts. The cationic species generally are applied in the conditioning of sludges for dewatering, but in some cases aid metal salt coagulation and settling of the wastewater.

4. Dosages. Polyelectrolytes are used in low concentrations, with flnal concentration of the chemical in the wastewater stream less than 1 mgtl in almost all cases. An overdose can re-stabilize solids, malting them extremely difficult to settle out.



1. Uses. Bentonite clays are useful for promoting improved coagulation of dilute colloidal suspensions. Bentonite is more commonly used in treatment o£ domestic water supplies but also has applications in wastewater treatment.

2. Types and handling considerations.

Bentonite clays are a natural mineral form of coagulant aid. The clay is almost always used in conjunction with a coagulant such as the metal salts. Bentonite mlly be fed by conventional dry feeders but, to avoid operational problems, should be stored in a dry environment since it swells on absorbing moisture. Bentonite is available in multiwalled paper bags or in bulk.

3. Chemistry. Wastewater with little turbidity may not coagulate as rapidly as wastewater with moderate turbidity. Adding a colloid of like charge to the natural turbidity increases the critical mass of the colloidal suspension. This increases the effectiveness of the metal coagulants as particle kinetics and partiele-coagulant probability of contact increase. Occasionally, adding bentonite may decrease the coagulant dosage requirements. by improving particle kinetics. Bentonite also may increase the density of coagulated particles, promoting more rapid settling. This effect is known as weighting.

4. Dosages. Bentonite dosages generally








is commercially available in 41° Be and 42.2" Be solution strengths. The 410 Be grade contains B.9 percent Na~O, 2B.7 per" cent Si02, and 62.4 percent H20. The 42.2" Be grade contains 9.16 percent Na~O, 29.5 percent Si02, and 61.3 percent H20. Both weigh approximately 1.4 kg/l (11.6 to 11.7 lb/gal), Both grades are available in 3.B, 19, or 210 I (1, 5, or 55 gal) drums, or in bulk in ton trucks and tank cars. If storage of large quantities of sodium silicate is required, ordinary steel tanks are quite satisfactory for this purpose. Starrange from 3 to 20 mg/l, but jar testing is age tanks exposed to the weather should recommended to determine dosage. be insulated or heated so as to prevent the

temperature of the tank contents from fill 1-

Activated Silica 1- ing below -4"C (25"F).

1. Uses. Another coagulant aid, used Accessory equipment generally required

in conjunction with the inorganic eoagu- in preparing and feeding activated silica lants or with polyelectrolytes, is activated sols includes Hushing equipment, mixing silica. Activated silica has the ability to tanks, storage or feeding tanks, and an toughen Hoc through Iouic and electronic aging tank

bond formation, and thus form a crass 3. Chemistry. Activated silica sol is linking network that bridges larger par- made by diluting sodium silicate with ticles and enmeshes smaller ones. water and by adding (with vigorous mix-

2. Types and handling considerations. ing) a predetermined quantity of reacting Activated silica cannot be purchased as chemical to neutralize all or part of the such but must be made at the point of nlkallnity in the sodium silicate. The application by suitably reacting a solution eholce of reactant usually depends on of sodium silicate with acid-producing speclflc requirements and conditions. compounds such as chlorine, sulfur di- The partinlly-neutmlized solution is then oxide, carbon dioxide, aluminum sulfate, .uged to permit the growth of submicron, ammonium sulfate, sulfuric acid, or so- 'activated,' silica particles. The aged soludium bicarbonate. Continuous activation tion next is diluted with water to a lower systems may employ chlorine, sulfur di- silica concentration to produce a stable sol oxide, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. and to prevent an undesirable gel Icrma-

Sodium silicate, Na20(SiO~la.22' com- tion. Either batch or continuous methods manly termed water glass, is an opaque, of preparation may be chosen ( Figures alkaline, and extremely viscous liquid. It 11-5 and 1l·6),~ but concentration and ag-

FIGURE 11-5. Typicnl batch system for feeding sodium silicate.




FlGURE 11·6, Typical continuous method for feeding sodium silicate.



ing times will depend on the type of re- Sludges from wastewater treatment pro- actnnt and method used. Aging times for cesses that include chemical additions hatch systems usually vary from I to 2 h, may be handled by any of the convenwhile' sols made by continuous methods tional methods including anaerobic digesmay be sufficiently aged in as little as . tion, vacuum filtration, and incineration. 1 min. '.,: However, ~lud.Kl!_~nQilifl!!,ip._g_ character-

4. Dosages. Activated silica sols have istics win be changed according to the a negative electrical charge, and when in- chemical control of the sludge. Vacuum traduced into water attract positively filter yields, for example, may be enhanced charged substances. Dosages for treating by lime present in sludge. The gelatindomestic wastewaters typically vary be- ous properties of the aluminum hydroxide tween 5 and 25 mgll as Si02• floc, on the other hand, result m somewhat lower filter yields when alum is present in a sludge. A typical comparison is shown in Tnble ll-VIII, where sludge production and filter yields are shown for a conventional activated sludge process operating with ( a) no chemical treatment, (b) lime addition to the primary setting tank, and (c) alum addition to the aeration tanks.

As shown in Table U-VIII, the use of lime or alum may result in a 50 percent increase in sludge solids produced per volume of wastewater treated. However, dewnterability as measured by filter yield was improved in the case of the lime sludge while the alum evidently interfered with dewaterability. Other data indicate no significant handling or conditioning problems for sludges from processes incorporating ferric chloride.

The handling of sludges containing products of chemical coagulation poses no special problems. The design engineer must be aware, however, of the greater solids production that results from chemical usage and the impact of the greater solids loading on handling and conditioning unit processes (Chapter 25). The varying characteristics of the different chemical sludges

TAllLE ll-VID. compnrlson of FlltElI' YieldS for also I'S II. factor in the design of condition-

Different Chemical Additions

ing equipment. Laboratory fllterability

tests can be useful in this respect.

Sludge Considerations

'The application of lime or metallic salts at various points in a wastewater treatment plant creates new and additional sludges. Depending on the point of chemical addition, increased amounts of primary or secondary sludges may be realized. The ratio of primary to secondary sludge will be affected by chemical usage. For example, if lime or a mineral salt is added to the primary settling tank, Hoc production and solids capture will be increased and, since more primary sludge will be produced, the primary: secondary ratio will be increased. The additional solids loading effected by chemical sludges must be considered in the design of sludge handling and treatment facilities. Lime usage can result in as much as 200 percent increase in sludge solids for disposal over that produced in strict biological treatment, but a 50 to 100 percent increase is more typical Metallic salts are often used at lower dosage rates, and the increase in sludge production associated with these chemicals generally has been reported in the range of 25 to 50 percent.

Chemical Addition
Mi •• d Solid •• Fm.rYI.ld.
Siudlo. % ton./mllial Ih/Io/lq It
Mot.1 OD'C Sollrl,
5.11 (mg/l)
NOlle - 6.2 0.8 5.2
Lime 125 11.6 1.2 7.2
Alum 150 5.7 1.2 4.6 Phosphorus Precipitation Introduction

Phosphorus is an essential element in the metabolism of organic matter. Its presence in a treatment plant is essential to the proper functioning of biological waste

Not~: Ib/mil gal X 0.119 = mg/I; lb/~q It x 4.883 = kg/lll~.


treatment processes. However, when present in excess it can create a pollution problem in the receiving body of water by causing excessive growths of rooted and/or Hoating aquatic plants. These plants (a) may cause diurnal fluctuations in the dissolved oxygen level of the water and thus discourage the growth of game fish, (b) can clog a stream or river, making it undesirable for recreation and increasing the changes of Hooding, (D) can cause taste and odor problems in water supplies, and (d) die and dec ay, thus placing a continuing load on the oxygen resources of the stream and perhaps causing an air-pollution problem for the nearby population.

Forms and Sources of Phosphorus:Phosphorus may occur in the form of organic phosphorus found in organic matter and cell protoplasm, as complex inorganic phosphates (polypbosphates) such as those used in detergents, and as soluble inorganic orthophosphate (POl- )-the final breakdown product in the phosphorus cycle, and the form in which phosphorus is most readily available for biological use or for

precipitation by a metal salt. .

When considering removal of phosphorus from a wastewater treatment plant, the form and solubility of this nutrient are important. Phosphorus enters a wastewater treatment plant in all three forms. During the treatment process most of the organic and the complex phosphates revert to morgan Ic orthophosphate. In wastewater that bas been treated by biological processes, most of the phosphorus will be soluble, although a small amount of insoluble organic phosphorus may be present in th~ form of cell protoplasm. In wastewater that has had the phosphorus removed by chemical precipitation, most of the effluent phosphorus will be in the insoluble- form (calcium, aluminum, or iron phosphates). Practice has shown that insoluble phosphorus compounds generally do not release phosphorus in other units of the treatment plant or in the receiving body of water. The amount of orthophosphate discharged in the effiuent of municipal trickling BIter plants without


chemical precipitation has been estimated at approximately 24 mg/l PO. (8 mg/I P).G

Phosphorus Requirements: - In wastewater treatment, phosphorus is essential only in biological treatment processes. For activated sludge, the required minimum Bona:P ratio has been estimated as IDO;l, with similar ratios expected for other biological processes. Municipal wastewater has a BOD in the range of 175 to 250 mg/l and a phosphorus content of 8 to 12 mg/l, This phosphorus content is in the excess of nutrient requirements for aerobic biological treatment.

Phosphorus Removal:-Present wastewater treatment plant methods for phosphorus removal may be part of the primary Of secondary treatment processes or a tertiary treatment process. Physicalchemical removal techniques include chemical precipitation and flocculation followed by sedimentation, flotation, or Bltrntion (Chapters 16, 10, and 11, respectively.) Biological processes account for relatively little phosphorus removal. Chemical processes, covered in the following su bsections, include precipitation with lime, alum, sodium aluminate, and fenic chloride.


The precipitation of phosphorus generally req uires the addition of a coagulant aid (llocculant) as well as a co agulant, '. T Four coagulants typically used for phcsphorus removal are lime, alum, sodium aluminate and ferric chloride. Coagulant aids are covered in a previous subsection.


1. Chemistry. In addition to its reliction with alkalinity, Ilme relicts with orthophosphate to precipitate hydroxyapatite. This reaction may be represented approximately as:

5 Ca+t + 4 OH- + 3 HP04~----I

Ca50H{POlh! + 3 H~O (18) The theoretical molar Ca:P ratio is 5:3. Equation 18 is considered representative but is not exact since the apatite precipitate is variable in composition. The Ca:P mole ratio may vary from 13 to 2.0. The



0 1
<;~ ----
a _.'
; ,
, ;
6 , 1
\ I
Xp 9
2/ \ <,
0 7 o


1 DO 200 300 400 500


FIGURE 11-7. Typical phosphorus reo moval curve. (InHuant phosphorus concentration of 10 mg/I as P assumed).

solubility of hydroxyapatite decreases rapidly with increasing pH; and, in general, phosphate removal increases with increasing pH. Essentially all orthophosphate is converted to the insoluble form at pH greater than 9.5. The actual pH that will be required to precipitate II given amount of phosphate, and the amount of lime addition that will he required to raise the pH to the desired level, will vary with the specific wastewater composition. These parameters should he determined by laboratory jar tests. A typical curve showing phosphorus removal as a function of lime dosage is shown in Figure 11-7.

The chief variable that affects phosphorus removal by lime is wastewater alkalinity. Unless a high pH is used, waters with low alkalinity (150 mgjl or less) form II poorly settleable floc. This is caused by the low fraction of dense' CaCOa precipitate. Sufficient quantities of CElCOu act as a coagulant aid-the presence of which greatly enhance settling of the hydroxyapatite. With high alkalinity wastewater a pH of 9.5 to 10 can result in excellent phosphorus removal.

Magnesium hardness also can affect the efficiency of phosphorus removal. At the higher pH range magnesium hydroxide is precipitated according to the reaction:

Mg++ + Ca(OHh ~

Mg(OH)~ + Ca+t (19)


This reaction begins at approximately pH 9.5 and is complete at pH 11. The magnesium hydroxide precipitate is gelatinous and will remove line suspended solids as it settles. However, these same gelatinous properties also have resulted in problems with dewatering of wastewater sludges.

Since chemical requirements comprise the principal operational cost associated with phosphorus removal, chemical dosages are critical to process economy. It is important to realize that the lime dosage required to reach a set eHluent phosphorus level is, for all practical purposes, independent of influent phosphorus concentration. The degree of phosphorus removal is a function of pH. Lime requirements to reach the required pH correlate more closely with wastewater alkalinity than any other variable. In the case of other' phosphorus precipitants ( alum or ferric salts), the chemical requirements are proportional to influent phosphorus concentration. Phosphorus removal is decidedly non-stoichiometric with all chemicals, however.

2. Process train considerations. There are various lime precipitation schemes for the removal of phosphorus (Figure 11-8). Lime may be added before the primary sedimentation tank in n biological treatment plant Because an excessively high pH would interfere with the biological process, lime addition to the primary sedimentation tank ahead of an activated sludge system is limited to 11 pH of about 9.0, with an 80 percent phosphorus insolubilization approximately the best achievable. It is not unusual for 2 to 3 mg!l of P to remain soluble at this limited pH. Additional phosphorus removal, if necessary, may be achieved by using aluminum or iron addition in the aeration tanks Or Bnal sedimentation tank. The use of lime in primary treatment has the added beneflt that organic and suspended solids removal efficiencies in the primary sedimentation tank will be increased,thereby decreasing the load on the aeration system.

A second alternative is lime treatment following biological treatment. Phosphorus removal from the secondary efRu-






FIGURE 11-8. Compilation of the various lime precipitation schemes for the removal of phosphorus.

ent assures that there will be adequate phosphorus to meet the needs of the biological lIoc under aeration. In addition, the biological system breaks down many of the complex phosphates to the orthophosphate form which is more readily precipitated by chemical treatment, However, pH of the returned sludge could of-

feet biological treatment and should be considered.

The lime treatment system may be of the one-stage or two-stage type. Typical process Howsheets for one- and two-stage treatment systems are shown in Figures 11-9 and 11-10. The choice of process depends on the degree of phosphorus re-

FIGURE 11-9. Single stage lime treatment system.



FIGURE H-IO. Two stage lime treatment system.

moval required, the nlkalinity of the wnstewater, and lime reealeination considerations. Generally when high percentages of phosphorus removal are required, or wastewater alkalinity is low, a high process pH will be required. For high phosphorus removal efficiencies, the twostage process should be employed since it (Chllpter 13) will allow recovery of calcium carbonate sludge for recalcination. Another important reason for using twostage removal is to allow better control of clnrificlltion. With low alkalinity waters, there can be difficulty in settling the sludge in the first stage even at high pH. The second stage sedimentation tank, with its dense calcium carbonate preelpltate, can help eliminate solids carry-over. A variation of the two-stage process involves recirculation of the settled sludge from the second stage to the mixing tank prior to first-stage settling. The recirculated sludge acts as a weigbting agent and is especially effective for low alkalinity wastewaters (less than 150 mg/I as CaCOa).

3. Dosages and removals. Lime precipitntion of phosphorus may require Bltratian to ensure continuous compliance with eBIuent requirements. Even at II process pH as high as 11.4, some residual phospborus may appear in the effiuent. Although high pH values ensure that virtually all phosphorus is insolubilized, eBIuent total phosphorus is determined by sus-


pended solids removal efficiency. In cases where the precipitate Hoc is difficult to settle, media flltration (Chapter 17) can insure an extremely high degree of sus-' pended solids and phosphorus removal.


1. Chemistry, Phosphorus may be precipitated from wastewater by chemical reaction with most of the mineral salt co-

. agulants discussed earlier in this chapter.

These include the various salts of iron and aluminum. The principal source of aluminum for use in phosphorus precipitation is alum. The reaction involved is:

Alx(SO~k14 H20 + 2 P04·~

2 AIPO,! + 3 SO,- + 14 n.o (20)

The sulfate ion remains in solution and there is a slight depression in pH. From Equation 20, the weight ratio of alum to phosphorus is calculated to be 9.6:1 (0.87 A1:1.0 P). Greater amounts of alum will be required in practice because of side reactions with wastewater alkalinity (Table ll-IX).

The solubility of the aluminum phosphate molecule is a function of pH. The most efficient chemical usage may be at a process pH near the range of minimum solubility, apprOximately 5,5 to 6.5 (Table ll-X). Since alum usage results in a small pH depression, and most existing treatment systems operate at a near neutral wastewater pH, addition of alum auto-

matically will result in a pH in the range of minimum aluminum phosphate solubility. However, caution must be exercised when the mineral is used following a lime treatment process since higher solubility at a bigher pH may result in excessive alum requirement.

2. Process train consideration. There:is much flexibility in the location of chemical application points. Alum addition may be before the primary settling tank, in the aeration tank, or following aeration before final sedimentation.

Alum addition before the primary settling tank provides additional suspended solids nod organic removals concomitantly with phosphorus precipitntion. These removals, however, come as a result of reactions that may compete with soluble phosphorus for available alum, and the dosage requirements to reach a given phosphorus residual therefore are Increased. In addition, some polyphosphates, which are more difficult to treat, are present in the raw wastewater,

Providing alum addition in the activated sludge aeration tank allows the usage of the mixing already provided for that system. The best point of addition for alum in an activated sludge plant may be in the effiuent channel of the aeration basin which carries mixed liquor to the final settling basin, The turbulence in this channel provides adequate mbdng for the chemical.

The addition of alum after the blologlcal system takes advantage of the stabilizadon of the wastewater during which the complex phosphates are hydrolyzed to the more readily reacted orfhophosphate form, Figure 11-11 shows data that de-

TABLE ll-IX. RntiOB of Alum to Phosphorus for Alum Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

AI:P RatiD
P lIoauclion Alum:P.
lI"'Iur"d, % W<l~hlRaU.
Mol.RaUD Wolqht R.U.
75 1.38: 1 1.2: 1 13: 1
85 1.72: 1 1.5: 1 16:1
9S 2.3:1 2.0:] 22:1 CHEMlCAL TREATMENT

TABLE u-r, S~luh!uty of Aluminum Phosphate versus pH


0.03 0.01 0.3

Approxlmnle SoluhlUly of AlPo •• m~11

S 6 7

pict the effect of point of addition on the molar effectiveness of added aluminum.

3. Dosages and removal. The starting point for the determination of chemical dosages for alum and the other mineral precipitants is based on the stoiclrlometry of the reactions involved. In the case of lime, the degree of phosphorus removal is directly dependent on pH of the system. For the aluminum and iron salts, phosphorus removal efficiency varies directly with chemical dosage up to the point where the mole requirements (molecular weight in grams of 8.I!y particular compound) for phosphate precipitation and for side reactions have been satisfied. Since the optimum dosages cannot be calculated readily because of the ambiguity of the

o UJ l.D 11] 4,D ~.D MOW of ~L1JMII~UM ADUEO,,,,"CLi Il'II'UAL TOTALS[):WBU ~IID!I!'110nUS

FIGUlIE 11-11. Inlluence of point of addition on pbosphorus removal with aluminum.



FIGURE U-12. Typical phosphorus reduction with alum •.

reactions involved, the laboratory jar test can be used (Figure 11-12) to determine actual chemical requirements.

Sodium AIuminate:-Most of the discussion concerning phosphorus precipitation with aluminum sulfate is applicable for the other mineral precipitants. There are some differences, however, and they are set forth in the following discussion.

1. Chemistry. Sodium aluminate can serve as II source of aluminum for the precipitation of phosphorus. The granular trihydrate is one commercial form of sodium aluminate and the reaction for phosphorus precipitation is:

Na~AII04 + 2 POl' + 41-[!0-------4

2 AIPOd + 2 NaOl-l + e on- (21)

In contrast to alum which reduces pH, addition of sodium aluminate results in a slight rise in pH. Therefore, usage of this chemical may be indicated where waste- . water pH is already low and further depression is to be avoided. From Equation 21, a sodium aluminate-phosphorus weight ratio of about 3.6: 1 can be calculated. In practice, side reactions will cause greater amounts to be required,

2. Dosages and removals. Generally, experience has shown performance of sodium aluminate to be somewhat inferior to that of alum, based on equivalent Al:P mole ratios. Typical curves for a moderately alkaline wastewater comparing tbe ph asp hams removal achieved by the two chemicals is shown in Figure 11-13. The








FIGURE 11-13. Comparison of the effectiveness of alum and sodium aluminate on phospborus removal.


effect illustrated, however, is not universally applicable to all wastewater, and laboratory jar tests are recommended for comparative evaluation of the two aluminum compounds.

Ferric Chloride:-Both ferric and ferrous iron compounds can be used in the chemical precipitation of phosphorus. Ferric chloride is the most commonly employed iron compound for this purpose and is the only one discussed.

1. Chemistry. The dominant reaction is believed tabe similar to that between the phosphate ion and alum:

FeCh·6 H20 + PO~"-------4

FePO~ + 3 CI- + 6 HIO (22)

Equation 22 indicates that a 1:1 mole ratio of drcnrphosphcrus is required. This corresponds to a Fe:P weight ratio of 1.B:1. Just as in the case of alum, greater amounts of ferric chloride are required to fuIB.ll the requirements of reactions with alkalinity. The alkalinity reactions are necessary since the wellflocculating ferric hydroxlde precipitate greatly aids the settling of the colloidal ferric phosphate.

2. Dosages nnd removals. Experience has shown that efficient phosphorus removal requires the stoichiometric amount of iron to be supplemented by at least 10 mg/l of iron for hydroxide formation. Typically, the iron requirements for munlejpal wastewaters are 15 to 30 mg/] as Fe (45 to 90 mgtl as FeCla) to provide phosphorus reduction of 85 to 90 percent. Dosages will vary with the phospborus concentration of the inlluent. The optimum pH range for iron precipitation. of phosphorus may be in the range of 4.5 to 5.0. However, signlflcant pbosphorus removal is obtained at pH values of 1 and somewhat above,

Both the aluminum and iron salts, when used as phosphorus precipitants, result in dissolved solids increases in the plant effluent. In those cases of poor solids capture the ferric iron may impart a slight reddish color to the eHluent.


Sludge Considerations

See the sludge handling section in "Coagulation," this chapter.

pH Adjustment


One of the most common types of chemical treatment employed in domestic wastewater treatment facilities is pH adjustment. Wastewaters that are excessively acidic or excessively alkaline are objectionable in collection systems, treatment plants, and natural streams. Removal of excess acidity or alkalinity by chemicnl treatment to provide a final pH approximately equal to 7.0 is called neutralization. Most eHluents must be neutralized to pH 6 to 9 before discharge, pH adjustment, frequently used for coagulation and phospborus precipitation, is simply the raising or lowering of a pH to II. more desirable value.

The materials and methods used fur pH adjustment are selected on the basis of overall cost, since material costs vary widely and equipment needs for the different chemicals depend on the method selected. The volume, kind, and quantity of acid or alkali to be neutralized Or partially removed are also factors in deciding which chemical agent to use.

Alkaline reagents used to treat acidic wastes vary in the quantity of acid they are capable of neutralizing. For comparison each alkali can be assigned a "basicity factor," defined here as the weight of II specific alkali equivalent in acid neutralizing power to a unit weight of ·calcium oxide (CaO). Basicity factors for the more common alkaline reagents are shown in Table ll-XI. To use Table li-Xl properly, the neutralizing capacity as well as solubility of the reagent must be considered when comparing alkaline reagents. Also, there is no direct correlation between pH and acidity. To either adjust the pH of, or neutralize, an acidic process waste stream by the addition of an alkaline reagent, requires the development of a titration curve.' From the titration curve the acidities, as mg/l OaCOo, are determined



TAlILE ll~xr. NeutrBlizntlDo Factors fDr the More Common .Alknlinll nnd Atld Reagents

To N.utmll .. ene m~/l N'UtmlliutiDU l'''''lor.
Ch...,loal Fomul. Addlty or All:ullnlty A.uumlnl 100% PurllV
(E.,,,,,,,,,«I .. CaCO.) of All CompouDds
R.qul .... 1 (mill)
Calcium carbonate CaCO. 1.0 1.0/0.56 ~ 1.786
Calcium oxide CaD' 0.560 0.56/0.56 = 1.000
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH), 0.740 0.74/0.56 = 1.321
Magnesium oxide MgO D.403 0.403/0.56 = 0.720
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH). 0.583 0.583/0.56 = 1.041
Dolomitic quicklime [(CaO) •.• (MgO)o .• ] 0.497 0.497/0.56 = 0.888
Dolomitic hydmted time I[Ca(OHhl; •• [Mg(OHh],.~1 0.617 0.677/0.56 = 1.209
Sodium hydroxide NaOH 0.799 0.799/0.56 ~ 1.427
Sodium carbonate ·NII.CO. 1.059 1.059/0.56 = 1.891
Sulfuric acid HoSO, 0.98 0.98/0.56 = 1.750
Hydrochloric acid Hel 0.72 0.72/0.56 = 1.285
Nitric acid HNO. 0,63 0.63/0.56 = 1,125 for any desired pH level. Finally. to determine the amount of base required to neutralize an acidic process waste stream to a pH of 7.0. the acidity, as mgjl CaCOo, at the pH 7.0 endpoint must be known. The concentration factors .for the various nlkaline reagents shown above can then be used to design neutralization systems for the respective reagents.

Neutralization of Acidity

There rue many acceptable methods for neutralizing or adjusting over-acidity in a. raw waste Dr process waste stream. These include mixing acid and alkaline wastes so that the net aHect is a near neutral pH; passing acid wastewaters through beds of· limestone (providing that metal snits, sulfuric, or hydrofluoric acids, which coat the limestone, are not involved); mixing acid wastes with lime slurries or dolomitic lime slurries; and adding the proper amounts of concentrated caustic soda (NaOH), or soda ash (Na~COa) to acid wastewaters.

Only the third and fourth methods are used in domestic wastewater treatment facilities; these will be discussed. Mixing acid and alkaline wastes is generally not possible in municipal facilities, and the use of limestone beds requires bed replacement-a serious drawback. The frequency of limestone bed replacement will depend on the quantity and quaUty of the


acid wastes being passed through the bed. When there are extremely high acid loads, foaming may occur, especially when organic matter is also present in the waste.

IJme Alknlies:-The most common lime alkalies used for acid neutralization lind pH adjustment are high calcium lime or quicklime (CaD), hydrated or slaked lime [Cat OH)~], and dolomitic limes, which are mixtures or compounds of calcium and magnesium oxides Or hydroxides,

Oxides of calcium and magnesium are considerably less expensive than sodium alkalies and are used more widely. They are only moderately soluble in water, and slurry, Because of their limited solubility, contact with the waste stream must be maintained for an appreciable period of time, with agitation, for the required reactions to occur. Many calcium salts formed by the neutralization reactions are insoluble and form coatings over the unreacted lime particles, thereby stopping the reaction before the reagent is completely used. The insolubility of the products leads to the formation of 11 considerable volume of sludge that must be settled or fllteredand then either reclaimed or disposed. The formation of this sludge, however, also may entrain organic or colloidal material, thus acting as a coagulant and acllieving more than just neutrallzu-

tion alone. This effect has been discussed in detail in a preceding section of this chapter. The subsection on lime precipitation of phosphorus also should be read for additional information.

Sodium .A1kulicsl-Caustic soda {NIIOH) and soda ash (Na~COa) are the two major sodium alkalies of interest. Both are highly soluble in water; thus, bandling and feeding are convenient and readily adaptable to automatic control. Their reaction with an acidic waste stream. is rapid.

With most acids, sodium alkalies produce soluble neutral salts and far less sludge than other neutralizing alkaline reagents. This advantage is offset by the much higher cost of sodium alkalies. Caustic soda is a stronger alknli than soda ash and can be used to produce high pH levels in II waste stream. However, either alkali is suitable for the removal of free acidity. Caustic soda is available in the anhydrous form or in solutions of various concentrations. Soda ash is purchased as a dry granular material, Sodium hydroxide requires precautions in handling to avoid contact burns. Soda ash is a mild alkali and some precautions also must be taken in its handling and use. Sodium alkalies require precautions in handling to avoid contact burns (caustic soda is especially corrosive to skin tissue).

Anhydrous caustic soda is available but generally is not considered practical in water and wastewater treatment application lind will not be discussed.

1. Caustic soda. Important in the design of a oaustic soda system are the nature of liquid caustic soda solutions ( viscosity, vapor pressure, concentration, solubility, solidification temperature. heat evolved during mixing), shipping, unloading, storage, transmission (piping), and feed system.

(a) Nature of liquid caustic soda solutions. Liquid caustic soda is produced and shipped in principal concentrations oE 50 percent and 73 percent-the percentages denoting the approximate content of NIIOH. Both solutions solidify at dellnitely different temperatures, thus neces-


sitatlog certain variations in methods of unloading, handling, and storage.

The concentration of liquid CIlUStiO soda most commonly employed contains approximately 50 percent actual NaOH, and will vary from 48 to 52 percent. It is approximately 50 percent heavier than water, having specific gravities of 1.53 to 1.47 in the temperature range from 10 to 100°C (50" to 212°F), respectively. Because the actual NaOH concentration in commercial 50 percent sodium hydroxide solutions may vary as high as 52 percent, storage tanks, when required, should be kept at temperatures above 21"C (70"F). At 16·C (aO"F). the 50 percent grade will contain 0.78 kg NaOH for each litre of caustic soda solution (6.54 Ib/gal).

( b ) Shipping caustic soda. Both 50 percent and 73 percent liquid caustic soda can be delivered in bulk quantities by tank car and tank trucks. Shipments by rail are in well-insulated 30 000- or 38000-1 ( 8 DOD- or 10 DOO·gal) tank cars. lined with a caustic resistant material that protects the caustic soda from contamination in transit. Most cars are equipped with steam coils for heating. Bulk shipments of liquid caustic soda by truck are available in 11 000- or 13 000-1 (3 000- or 3500- gal) capacities. Since trucks normally are used only for deliveries within 300 km (200 miles) of a production point, coils for steaming are not required.

(c) Unloading caustic soda solutions.

Most tank cars in liquid caustic service may be unloaded either through !l bottom discharge nozzle or through the dome 'by means of an interior siphon pipe extending to a depression in the bottom of the car. Through the bottom discharge the solution may flow by gra.vity to a pump, or directly to the storage tank either with or without the aid of air pressure. For unloading through the interior siphon pipe, air pressure is commonly used.

When unloading caustic liquor, proper precautions and safety measures should be observed. Because a 50 percent caustic soda solution begins to freeze at about 12"C (54 "F) and 73 percent caustic soda solution begins to freeze at about 62" C







FIGURE 11·14. Typical caustic soda feed system.

(144'F), steaming, normally at a maximum pressure of 170 kN/m' (25 psig) , may be necessary to aid in tank car unloading. For ease of unloading, the temperature of the caustic soda should be above 21'C (70"F) in "50 percent" cars and above 77"C (170°F) in "73 percent" cars.

(d) Storage of caustic soda. Normally, vertical cylindrical steel tanks, which minimize heating, insulation, and field erection problems, are used for storing liquid caustic soda, usually as a 50 percent solution. Where storage tanks are located indoors, limited head room or the presence of other equipment may dictate the use of prefabricated horizontal tanks, usually limited to no more than 76 000-1 (20 000- gal) capacity.

( e) Piping and accessories. Because of the heat and corrosive nature of caustic soda, transfer lines, fittings, pumps, heat exchangers, and feed lines should be selected carefully.

(f) Caustic soda feed system. Further'


dilution of liquid caustic soda below the storage strength may be desirable for feeding by volumetric feeders. A typical feeding system is shown in Figure 11-14.

2. Sodium carbonate (soda ash).

The three forms of sodium carbonate that occur when mixed with water are the monohydrate, heptnhydrate, and decahydrate compounds. The solid form is the only compound commercially available.

Sodium carbonate monohydrate, Na,COB'H20, contains 85.48 percent Na=COo, and 14.52 percent water of crystallization. It separates as small crystals from saturated aqueous solutions above 35°C (9aOF). It loses water on heating and its solubility decreases slightly with increasing temperature.

Sodium carbonate heptahydrate, Na:rCOs'7 H20, contains 45.7 percent Na~COa and 54.3 percent water of crystallization.

Sodium carbonate deeahydrate, Na!!COa ·10 H20, commonly called washing soda, contains 37.06 percent NaaCOa and 82.94 percent water of crystallization. It may be crystallized from saturated aqueous solutions below 32°C (90°F) and above -zoe (2B"F) or by wetting soda ash with the calculated quantity of water in this temperature range. The crystals readily efliuoresce in dry air principally forming the monohydrate.

Important in the design of a sodium carbonate system are the nature of the sodium carbonate solutions (viscosity, concentration, solubility, crystallization, heat of fonnation), shipping, storage, transmission, and feeding.

(a) Nature of sodium carbonate solutions. When sodium carbonate or the monohydrate is dissolved in water, heat is developed. When the heptahydrate or deeahydrate is dissolved heat is absorbed. The quantity of heat evolved or absorbed is dependent on the coaeentratlon of the solution. The solubility of sodium carbonate in water varies with temperature. The density of sodium carbonate solution decreases with increasing temperature.

( b) Shipping soda ash, Commercial soda ash is available packaged in 45 kg (100 Ib) bags, or in bulk by truck, hopper

car, or barge. Bulk transport by rail is the more widely used mode of shipment. Hopper cars range in size from 57 mB (2000 cu it) holding 32 Mg (70000 lb) of light soda ash or 64 Mg (140000 Ib) of dense soda ash, to over 140 m' (5000 cu ft) holding up to 81 Mg (180 000 lb) of light or 91 Mg (2.00 000 Ib) of dense soda ash. Most hopper cars are unloaded by gravity.

( c) Unloading soda ash. Handling

bagged soda ash is best done by conveyor Or on pallets using fork lift trucks. Handling bulk soda ash can be accomplished by gravity conveying pneumatic, or vacuum systems.

For large quantities of soda ash, bins or bunkers are used. The bin can be filled by means of one or a system of open-bottomed screw conveyors, arranged longitudinally across the top, that will act to load it progressively from one end toward the other. The cover or roof of the bin should be tight. Dust control for the entire conveying system may be provided at the bin.

(d) Storage of soda ash. Commercial soda ash contains approximately 99.2 percent Nn2COa when shipped. The accepted commercial standard for soda ash is expressed in terms of the equivalent sodium oxide, Na20, content. One hundred percent NIl2COa contains 58.5 percent Nn20 on a weight percentage basis. Thus, 99.2 percent soda ash is equivalent to 58.0 percent Na~O.

When soda ash is to be stored as a slurry, it is frequently convenient to pump it directly through a pipeline from the unloading point to the storage tank. Slurries containing 35 to 40 percent ss by weight (50 to. ao percent total soda ash) can be pumped. Ten to 20 percent is the

more usual concentration used. .

Weak solutions, containing 5 to 6 percent dissolved soda ash, may be handled the same as water. Strong solutions, in the 2.0 to 32 percent range, require special care (preventing hent losa) to avoid crystallization.

Bagged soda ash should not be stored in a damp or humid place, Excessive air


circulation in the storage area should be avoided. If bagged soda ash is to be stored for extended periods under adverse conditions, the stack of bags should be covered by a tightly :£tting impermeable sheet. Large quantities of bulk soda generally are stored in steel bins or bunkers, Bins generally are built longer than they are wide.

Arching, bridging, or chimneying is sometimes encountered when storing light soda ash. This may be overcome by installing electric or pneumatic vibrators mounted on the outside of the bin bottom just above the outlet The use of vibrators is not recommended with dense soda ash.

A slurry storage system consists basically of a tank, means for slurrying the bulle soda ash and transferring it to storage, and means for reclaiming solution from the tank and replenishing it with water.

One of the most important requirements for successful operation of a slurry storage system is maintaining an operating temperature above 9ae (4S0F) for a 10 percent slurry and 2,3ac (74°F) for a 20 percent slurry. Cooler temperatures in the slurry bed may result in the formation of the heptahydrate and decnhydrate forms, which are difficult to redissolve. Water used for operating the system is preferably preheated. Heating coils may be immersed in the bottom of the slurry tank. If the slurry tank is located outdoors, insulating it also may be necessary.

( s) Piping and accessories. Pipelines carrying strong soda ash solutions [30 to 32 percent at 32°C (90°F) minimum] should be insulated. Where the use point is distant from the storage tank and the use rate is low or intermittent, the pipeline may be constructed as a continuous loop, with most of the solution being recirculated

back to the storage tank. .

Soda ash will precipitate insoluble compounds from hard water. If bard water is used for slurry and solution handling, undesirable sealing may result

(f) Soda ash feed system. For continuous feeding of dry soda ash, volumetric, gravimetric, or loss-in-weight gravimetric mechanical feeders may be used.