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LCCI International Qualifications

Advanced Business
Calculations
Level 3

Model Answers
Series 4 2009 (3003)

For further Tel. +44 (0) 8707 202909


information Email. enquiries@ediplc.com
contact us: www.lcci.org.uk
Advanced Business Calculations Level 3
Series 4 2009

How to use this booklet

Model Answers have been developed by EDI to offer additional information and guidance to Centres,
teachers and candidates as they prepare for LCCI International Qualifications. The contents of this
booklet are divided into 3 elements:

(1) Questions – reproduced from the printed examination paper

(2) Model Answers – summary of the main points that the Chief Examiner expected to
see in the answers to each question in the examination paper,
plus a fully worked example or sample answer (where applicable)

(3) Helpful Hints – where appropriate, additional guidance relating to individual


questions or to examination technique

Teachers and candidates should find this booklet an invaluable teaching tool and an aid to success.

EDI provides Model Answers to help candidates gain a general understanding of the standard
required. The general standard of model answers is one that would achieve a Distinction grade. EDI
accepts that candidates may offer other answers that could be equally valid.

© Education Development International plc 2009

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without prior written permission of the Publisher. The book may not be lent, resold, hired out or
otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover, other than that in which it is
published, without the prior consent of the Publisher.

Page 1 of 9
QUESTION 1

Natalia deposits £45,000 in a bank account at 3% per annum simple interest.

(a) How much interest will Natalia have earned after 2 years and 3 months?
(3 marks)

Natalia deposits a further £45,000 in another account at 2.85% per annum compound interest, also
for a period of 2 years and 3 months. Interest is added annually and at the end of the period, and is
calculated as compound interest throughout.

(b) How much less interest will Natalia have earned from this account than from the simple interest
account?
(5 marks)

Natalia invests a further amount at compound interest of 3.1% per annum for 3 years. At the end of
the period, the amount (principle plus interest) is £30,137.60.

(c) Calculate the sum initially invested.


(3 marks)

(d) Calculate the rate of simple interest that would give the same interest on this initial amount over 3
years.
(3 marks)

(Total 14 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 1

(a) 2 years + 3 months = 2.25 years

Interest = PRT/100 = £45,000 x 2.25 x 3 / 100 = £3,037.50


Number of years
(b) Amount = Principle x (1 + percentage rate)
2.25
Amount = £45,000 x (1.0285) = £47,937.15

Interest = £47,937.15 – £45,000 = £2,937.15

Less than simple interest by: £3,037.50 - £2,937.15 = £100.35


3
(c) Initial investment = £30,137.60 / (1 + 0.031) = £27,500

(d) Interest = £30,137.60 - £27,500 = £2,637.60

Rate of simple interest = 100 x £2,637.60 / (3 x £27,500) = 3.2%

3003/4/09/MA Page 2 of 9
QUESTION 2

Andy buys unit trusts and invests for income. He invested £50,000 in a unit trust with an offer price of
£125 per unit, and sold the units after 5 years at £162 per unit. During this period he received income
from the units of £6,200. This income was not reinvested in units.

(a) Calculate

(i) the number of units purchased (2 marks)

(ii) the excess of income over expenditure (3 marks)

(iii) the percentage yield per annum represented by this figure. (2 marks)

Beatrice buys unit trusts and invests for growth.


She bought 2,200 units at a price per unit of £69, plus an initial charge of 5%.

(b) Calculate the total cost of the units including initial charge.
(3 marks)

Beatrice invested her income from the units in purchasing more of the same units.
5 years later, the number of units had grown to 2,532, and the total value of the units was £215,220.

(c) Calculate

(i) the price per unit at this time (2 marks)

(ii) the percentage increase per annum in the price per unit. (2 marks)

(Total 14 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 2

(a) (i) Number of units purchased = £50,000 / £125 = 400

(ii) Increase in value = 400 x (£162 - £125) = £14,800

Total = £14,800 + £6,200 = £21,000

(iii) Yield per annum = £21,000 / (£50,000 x 5) = 0.084 = 8.4%

(b) Cost of units before charge = 2,200 x £69 = £151,800

Total cost = 1.05 x £151,800 = £159,390

(c) (i) Price per unit = £215,220 / 2,532 = £85

(ii) Increase per annum in unit price = 100% x (£85 - £69) / (£69 x 5) = 4.6%

3003/4/09/MA Page 3 of 9
QUESTION 3

Product P has variable costs per unit of product of £150, and fixed costs of £1,952,000 per period.
Unit costs of production during a trading period are as follows:

£
Components 57
Labour 80
Production overheads 75
Distribution expenses 60

The cost of components varies directly with the number of units produced.
60% of the labour costs vary directly with the number of units produced.
The production overheads do not vary irrespective of how many units are produced.

(a) Calculate the percentage of distribution expenses that vary directly with the number of units
produced.
(4 marks)

(b) Calculate the fixed costs per unit.


(2 marks)

(c) Calculate the number of units produced in the trading period.


(2 marks)

Product P breaks even on production and sales of 12,800 units per period.

(d) Calculate the selling price of product P.


(3 marks)

(e) Calculate the total cost of production at break even.


(2 marks)

(Total 13 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 3

(a) Variable labour costs per unit = 60% x £80 = £48

Variable distribution costs per unit = £150 – (£57 + £48) = £45

Variable distribution costs percent = 100% x £45/£60 = 75%

(b) Fixed costs per unit = £57 + £80 + £75 + £60 - £150 = £122

(c) Number of units produced = £1,952,000/£122 = 16,000 units

(d) Contribution per unit = £1,952,000/12,800 = £152.50

Selling price = Variable cost + contribution = £150 + £152.50 = £302.50 per unit

(e) Total cost of production at break even = (12,800 x £150) + £1,952,000 = £3,872,000

3003/4/09/MA Page 4 of 9
QUESTION 4

A retailer’s balance sheet at the end of a trading year shows current assets of £35,260 and current
liabilities of £17,200.
The current assets include stock of £12,040, bank account of £7,700, cash of £532 and an amount
owed by debtors.

(a) Calculate:

(i) the amount owed by debtors (2 marks)

(ii) the acid test ratio. (3 marks)

(b) State whether or not you would judge the liquidity of the business to be healthy.
(1 mark)

(c) Give a reason for your answer to (b).


(1 mark)

The stock held at the start of the trading year was £10,750, and the net purchases during the year
were £138,030.

(d) Calculate:

(i) the average stock held (2 marks)

(ii) the cost of goods sold (2 marks)

(iii) the rate of stockturn. (2 marks)

(Total 13 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 4

(a) (i) Amount owed by debtors = £35,260 – (£12,040 + £7,700 + £532) = £14,988

(ii) Current assets – stock = (£35,260 - £12,040) = £23,220

Acid test ratio = Current assets – stock = £23,220 = 1.35


current liabilities £17,200

(b) Yes, the liquidity is healthy.

(c) The acid test ratio is above the recommended ratio of 1. The business can pay its liabilities
without selling stock.

(d) (i) Average stock held = ½ x (£12,040 + £10,750) = £11,395

(ii) Cost of goods sold (CoGS) = stock at start + net purchases - stock at end

= £10,750 + £138,030 - £12,040 = £136,740

(iii) Rate of stockturn = CoGS = £136,740 = 12 times


average stock £11,395

3003/4/09/MA Page 5 of 9
QUESTION 5

Colin is considering whether to invest in an investment project with an initial cost of £550,000 and an
estimated revenue return of £150,000 per annum for 5 years.

He uses the following table of discounting factors:

Discounting factor
Year 1 0.901
Year 2 0.812
Year 3 0.731
Year 4 0.659
Year 5 0.593

(a) Calculate the net present value of the project.


(4 marks)

(b) Advise Colin whether the project is a worthwhile investment at the discount rate used.
(1 mark)

(c) Calculate the discount rate used.


(2 marks)

(d) Explain what the net present value calculated in (a) represents.
(1 mark)

At a discount rate of 10% the project has a net present value of £18,500.

(e) Calculate the internal rate of return of the project.


(3 marks)

(Total 11 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 5

(a) Present value of revenue = £150,000 x (0.901 + 0.812 + 0.731 + 0.659 + 0.593)

= £150,000 x 3.696 = £554,400

Net present value of project = £554,400 - £550,000 = £4,400

(b) The project is a worthwhile investment.

(c) Discount rate is given by (1 / 0.901) = 1.11

Discount rate = 1.11 – 1 = 0.11 = 11%

(d) The positive net present value in (a) means that the project is expected to earn more than 11%.

(e) Internal rate of return = 11% x £18,500 – 10% x £4,400 = 11.3%


£18,500 - £4,400

3003/4/09/MA Page 6 of 9
QUESTION 6

The following information relates to bankruptcy A:

Available for unsecured creditors £39,900


Owed to unsecured creditors £95,000
Total assets as a percentage of total liabilities 60%

(a) Calculate:

(i) the rate in the pound paid to unsecured creditors (2 marks)

(ii) the amount paid to an unsecured creditor who is owed £11,000 (2 marks)

(iii) the amount owed and paid to secured creditors. (3 marks)

The following information relates to bankruptcy B:

Total assets £34,502,791


Total liabilities £53,086,205
Owed to secured creditors £29,500,000

(b) Calculate the amount owed to unsecured creditor C who is paid £1,072.20.
(4 marks)

(Total 11 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 6

(a) (i) Rate in the pound = £1 x £39,900 / £95,000 = £0.42

(ii) Paid to unsecured creditor who is owed £11,000 = 0.42 x £11,000 = £4,620

(iii) Let amount owed to secured creditors be S

Total assets = £39,900 + S

Total liabilities = £95,000 + S

(39,900 + S) / (95,000 + S) = 0.6

39,900 + S = (95,000 + S) x 0.6 = 57,000 + 0.6S

Owed and paid to secured creditors = (57,000 – 39,900) / (1 – 0.6) = £42,750

(b) Assets available for unsecured creditors = £34,502,791 - £29,500,000 = £5,002,791

Amount owed to unsecured creditors = £53,086,205 - £29,500,000 = £23,586,205

Owed to unsecured creditor C = £1,072.20 x (£23,586,205 / £5,002,791) = £5,055

3003/4/09/MA Page 7 of 9
QUESTION 7

Equipment E is depreciated over a period of 7 years, with an initial cost of £65,000 and an estimated
scrap value after 7 years of £2,000.

The depreciation is calculated separately by two methods, the equal instalment method and the
diminishing balance method.

Calculate:

(a) using the equal instalment method, the percentage of the initial cost to be written off each year.
(3 marks)

(b) using the diminishing balance method, the rate of depreciation.


(4 marks)

(c) the year in which the two methods give amounts of depreciation that are closest to each other.
show your working.
(3 marks)

(d) using the diminishing balance method, the amount of depreciation in year 7.
(2 marks)

(Total 12 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 7

(a) Equal instalment method:

Amount to be written off each year = (£65,000 - £2,000) / 7 = £9,000

Percentage to be written off each year = 100% x £9,000 / £65,000 = 13.85%

(b) Diminishing balance method:

Scrap value as a fraction of initial cost = £2,000 / £65,000 = 0.03076923

7
Over one year = 0.03076923 = 0.608158

Rate of depreciation = 1 - 0.608158 = 0.39%

(c) Depreciation in each year using the equal instalment method = £9,000

Depreciation in each year using the diminishing balance method:

Year 1 0.39 x £65,000 = £25,350

Year 2 0.39 x (£65,000 - £25,350) = £15,463.50

Year 3 0.39 x (£65,000 - £25,350 - £15,463.50) = £9,432.74

Year 4 0.39 x (£65,000 - £25,350 - £15,463.50 - £9,432.74) = £5,753.97

Depreciation by the two methods is closest in year 3.

(d) Using the diminishing balance method, depreciation in year 7


6
= £65,000 x 0.61 x 0.39 = £1,306.04

3003/4/09/MA Page 8 of 9
QUESTION 8

An index of production has the following values, based on year 2005 = 100.

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008

Index 100 112.5 90.0 99.0

(a) Explain the change that occurred between 2005 and 2008.
(3 marks)

(b) Write the indices for 2007 and 2008 as a chain base index.
(3 marks)

(c) Calculate the percentage change in production from 2006 to 2008.


(4 marks)

The production in 2004 was 20% lower than in 2005.

(d) Calculate the index for 2005, with 2004 as the base year.
(2 marks)

(Total 12 marks)

MODEL ANSWER TO QUESTION 8

(a) Production fell by 1%.

(b) 2007: Chain base index = 100 x 90 / 112.5 = 80

2008: Chain base index = 100 x 99 / 90 = 110

(c) Index for 2008 based on 2006 as 100 = 100 x 99 / 112.5 = 88

Percentage change in production = (88 – 100)% = -12%

(d) Index for 2005 = 100 / 80% = 125

3003/4/09/MA Page 9 of 9 © Education Development International plc 2009


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3003/4/09/MA Page 10 of 9 © Education Development International plc 2009