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“PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK”

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TOWARDS

PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT

(Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India)

(Equivalent to MBA)

ACADEMIC SESSION

2009-11

SUBJECT-POM

Under the Guidance of: Submitted By:

Prof. S.K DUBEY Manisha Agarwal (BM-09100)

Associate Professor(Operation) Nikhil Singh (BM- 09124)

IMS, Ghaziabad Noopur Verma (BM-09131)

Nupur Sharma (BM-09132)

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

C-238, BULANDSHAHR ROAD,

LAL QUAN, PB NO: - 57,GHAZIABAD -201009.


DECLARATION

We hereby declare that all the information that has been collected, analyzed and documented
for the project is authentic possession of us.

We would like to categorically mention that the work here has neither been purchased nor
acquired by any other unfair means. However, for the purpose of the project, information
already compiled in many sources has been utilized.

(MANISHA AGARWAL)

(NIKHIL SINGH)

(NOOPUR VERMA)

(NUPUR SHARMA)

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this is a report on “PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE


MACBOOK” submitted by Manisha Agarwal, Nikhil Singh, Noopur Verma, Nupur
Sharma as a part of the PGDM curriculum for the third trimester. The work has been
undertaken and completed under the guidance of Prof. S.K.Dubey and is satisfactory.

Project Coordinator: PROF S.K.DUBEY


Date: 31-03-10

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES


GHAZIABAD

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CERTIFICATE

We hereby certify that content presented in the project entitled “PRODUCTION


PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK” in the partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the award of the degree of POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN
MANGEMENT from IMS GHAZIABAD is an authentic record of our own work,
carried out under the guidance of our project guide, Dr. S.K.DUBEY. The matter
embodied in the project has not been copied by us from any sources.

PLACE- GHAZIABAD Manisha Agarwal(BM-09100)


DATE : 31-03 2010 Nikhil singh(BM-09124)
Noopur Verma(BM-09131)
Nupur Sharma(BM-09132)

This is to certify that above statements made by the students are true to the best of
my knowledge.

PROF S.K.DUBEY

(Project coordinator)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Perseverance, inspiration and motivation have always played a key role in the
success of any venture. A successful and satisfactory completion of any project
is the outcome of the invaluable aggregate contribution of different persons
fully in radical direction, explicitly or implicitly.

Whereas vast, varied and valuable reading efforts leads to substantial


acquisition of knowledge via books and allied information sources. True
expertise excludes from collateral practical works and experiences.

Words have never seemed as inadequate as now, when we are


endeavoring to express our heartfelt gratitude at the culmination of the project,
to all those made it possible. Even the best effort is waste without proper
guidance and advice. We highly solicit to PROF. S.K.DUBEY for launching
us into this foray and for giving time-to-time suggestion and their valuable
guidance, co-operation, inspiration and keen supervision to our project.

Last but not the least; we are grateful to God, our Parents, Elders and
Friends for encouraging us to take up this challenging task.
PREFACE

The primary objective of this report is to provide the insight into the core of
PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK and an understanding of
Production process of Apple MacBook & its importance in relation to Quality of its
products and why it has an edge over other laptop making companies.

We hope that the report has made the text interesting and lucid. In writing this
report, we have benefited immensely by referring to many publications and articles.
We express my gratitude to all such authors and publishers.

Any suggestions to improve this report in contents or in style are always


welcome and will be appreciated and acknowledged.

  6 
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ABSTRACT
‘APPLE’ the American multinational company that designs and manufactures
consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. The company's
best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the ipod, the iphone and
the ipad. As of January 2010 the company operates 284 retail stores in ten countries,
and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. Apple has
established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. Apple doesn’t
simply make a statement. It lives it by ensuring that its employees understand the
vision and strive to reach it. Apple is popular for the quality of its products. The
quality of its product is resultant of its unique manufacturing process.

Earlier Apple used to manufacture a thin, bowl-shaped shell that has an internal
skeleton to hold the internal parts together in MacBook Pro. Now it uses the material
machined from the aluminum block, which is collected and recycled. Jobs noted that
the new MacBooks "are the industry’s greenest notebooks.”
The environmentally friendly LED backlit display also offers other advantages; it
turns on instantly when the display is opened as there is no warm up time required by
a conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlight.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO TOPIC PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 10
2. History of Apple 11
3. Products of Apple 16
4. About Mac Book 22
5. Apple Debuts new 15” MacBook Pro 25
6. Apple unveils new 13” MacBook 28
7. Manufacturing process of Apple’s MacBook 32
8. Conclusion 37
9. References 39

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INTRODUCTION

Apple Inc. is an American multinational company that designs and manufactures


consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. The company's
best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the ipod, the iphone and
the ipad. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media
browser; the ilife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iwork suite of
productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut
Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; and Logic
studio, a suite of audio tools. As of January 2010 the company operates 284 retail
stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are
sold.

Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 and incorporated


January 3, 1977, the company was called Apple Computer, Inc. For its first 30 years,
but dropped the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company's
ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional
focus on personal computers. Apple has about 35,000 employees worldwide and had
worldwide annual sales of US$42.91 billion in its fiscal year ending September 26,
2009. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to
its distinctive advertising campaign. Unique reputation of Apple includes a customer
base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States.
Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in
2008 and in the world in 2008, 2009, and 2010.

“Man is the creator of change in this world. As such he should be above systems
and structures, and not subordinate to them.”

Apple lives in this vision through the technologies it develops for consumers
and corporations. It strives to make its customers masters of the products they have
bought. Apple doesn’t simply make a statement. It lives it by ensuring that its
employees understand the vision and strive to reach it. It has put systems in place to
enable smooth customer interaction. It has put objectives in place to continuously
move forward; implemented strategies to fulfill these objectives; and ensured that the
right marketing; financial and operational structures are in place to apply the
strategies.

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HISTORY OF APPLE

Apple computer was founded by Steve Jobs with 21 years and Stephen G. Wozniak
with 26 years in Palo Alto/California in 1976. As many other company legends in the
USA everything started in a garage where the technique freaks developed and
produced the first operating Apple I computer circuit board. The first buyer of 50
Apple I circuit boards was Paul Terrel, owner of the Byte shop for computer systems.
Steve Wozniak is an engineer, Steve Jobs a businessman. Steve Wozniak therefore
put the first computers together, he had gained experience at Hewlett-Packard with
the construction of pocket calculators and a computer with keyboard and coloured
monitor screen. Steve Jobs concentrated on the business part.

Pre-foundation- Before Steve Wozniak co-founded Apple, he was an electronics


hacker. As a kid, Wozniak would become so engrossed in mathematical ponderings
his mother would have to shake him to bring him back to reality. Steve Jobs and Steve
Wozniak were outcasts while they were in high school; by 1975, each had dropped
out of college (Reed College and UC Berkeley, respectively). Wozniak found a job at
Hewlett-Packard and helped his friend Steve Jobs design video games for Atari.
The Apple I:- Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had been friends for some time, having
met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old
Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a
machine and selling it. Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who
said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came fully assembled. The
owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he would order 50 of the machines and pay
US$500 each on delivery. Jobs then took the purchase order that he had been given
from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic parts distributor, and
ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer.

The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the
display system, whereas many machines had no display at all. This was not like the
displays of later machines, however; text was displayed at a terribly slow 60
characters per second. However, this was still faster than the teletypes used on
contemporary machines of that era. The Apple I also included bootstrap code on
ROM, which made it easier to start up. Finally, at the insistence of Paul Terrell,
Wozniak also designed a cassette interface for loading and saving programs, at the

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then-rapid pace of 1200 bit/s. Although the machine was fairly simple, it was
nevertheless a masterpiece of design, using far fewer parts than anything in its class,
and quickly earning Wozniak a reputation as a master designer. Eventually 200 of the
Apple I's were built.

The Apple II:- Many of the design features of the I were due to the limited amount of
money they had to construct the prototype, but with the income from the sales he was
able to start construction of a greatly improved machine, the Apple II; it was
presented to the public at the first West coast computer Faire on April 16 and April
17, 1977. On the first day of exhibition, Jobs introduced Apple II to a Japanese
chemist named Toshio Mizushima who became the first authorized Apple dealer in
Japan.

The main difference internally was a completely redesigned TV interface,


which held the display in memory. Now not only useful for simple text display, the
Apple II included graphics, and, eventually, color. Jobs meanwhile pressed for a
much improved case and keyboard, with the idea that the machine should be complete
and ready to run out of the box. This was almost the case for the Apple I machines
sold to The Byte Shop, but one still needed to plug various parts together and type in
the code to run BASIC. The Apple II was released in 1977 and became the computer
generally credited with creating the home computer market. Millions were sold well
into the 1980s. A number of different models of the Apple II series were built,
including the Apple IIe and Apple II GS, which could still be found in many schools
as late as 2005.

The Apple III:- By the early 1980s, Apple Computer faced increasing competition
While the Apple II was already established as a successful business-ready platform
because of Visicalc, Apple was not contented. The Apple III (Apple 3) was designed
to take on the IBM PC in the business environment.

The Apple III was a relatively conservative design for computers of the era.
Unfortunately, the physical design of the case was not sufficient to cool the
components inside it. By removing the fan from the design, the Apple III was prone to
overheating. This caused the integrated circuit chips to disconnect from the
motherboard. Customers who contacted Apple customer service were told to "drop
the computer on the desk", which would cause the ICs to fall back in to place.

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Thousands of Apple III computers were recalled and, although a new model
was introduced in 1983 to rectify the problems, the damage was already done.

The Apple IPO:- On December 12, 1980, Apple launched the Initial Public Offering
of its stock to the investing public. When Apple went public, it generated more capital
than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more
millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. Several venture capitalists
cashed out, reaping billions in long-term capital gains. The business of the meeting
had been planned (or choreographed) so that the voting could be staged in 15 minutes
or less. In most cases, voting proxies are collected by mail and counted days or
months before a meeting. In this case, after the IPO, many shares were in new hands.

Xerox PARC and the LISA:- In December, 1979, Steve Jobs and a group of Apple
Computer engineers toured the Xerox PARC laboratories and witnessed Xerox’s
research into the GUI as demonstrated on the Alto Computer. It was this moment that
Steve Jobs realized that the future of computers was in the GUI, rather than the
standard text-based interface. Apple Computer's engineers did not come up with the
LISA interface overnight. In fact, the first iteration of the soon-ubiquitous WIMP
interface was a poorly-drawn picture of a floppy disk. It was only after months of
usability testing and work that Apple settled on the LISA interface of windows and
icons.

The Lisa was introduced in 1983 at a cost of US$9,995. Because of the high
price, it failed to penetrate the market, however it was a useful proof of concept.

The release of Macintosh and the 1984 commercial:- The Mawas announced to the
press in October 1983, followed by an 18-page brochure included with various
magazines in December. Its debut, however, was announced by a single national
broadcast of the now famous US$1.5 million television commercial, "1984". It was
directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super bowl XVIII on
January 24, 1984, and is now considered a "watershed event" and a "masterpiece."
1984 used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated
by her white tank top with a Picasso-style picture of Apple’s Macintosh computer on
it) as a means of saving humanity from "conformity" (Big Brother). These images
were an Allusion to George Orwell's noted novel, nineteen eighty four, which
described a dystopian future ruled by a televised "Big Brother."

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It came bundled with two applications designed to show off its interface: Mac
write and Mac Paint. Although the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic
following, it was too radical for some, who labeled it a mere "toy". Because the
machine was entirely designed around the GUI, existing text-mode and command
driven applications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten; this
was a challenging undertaking that many software developers shied away from, and
resulted in an initial lack of software for the new system. In April 1984 Microsoft's
Multi Plan migrated over from MS-DOS, followed by Microsoft Word in January
1985. In 1985, Lotus software introduced Lotus Jazz after the success of Lotus 1-2-3
for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop. Apple introduced Macintosh Office
the same year with the lemmings add, infamous for insulting potential customers. It
was not successful.

While it did briefly license some of its own designs, Apple did not allow other
computer makers to "clone" the Mac until the 1990s, long after Microsoft dominated
the marketplace with its broad licensing program. By then, it was too late for Apple to
reclaim its lost market share and the Macintosh clones achieved limited success
before being axed after Steve Jobs returned to Apple Computer in 1997.

The AppleII family of 1980s:- Apple now had two separate, incompatible platforms:
the Apple II, an affordable, expandable home computer, and the Apple Macintosh, the
closed platform for professionals. John Gruber, among others, has speculated that this
platform incompatibility was the main reason the Macintosh did not share the initial
commercial success which was experienced by the Apple II in the late 1970s.
However, by the mid - 1980s, the Apple II was now competing with the IBM PC and
its clones, and a new energy was focused upon marketing the Macintosh.

The Mac family:- The original model evolved into the Mac Plus in 1986 and
spawned the Mac SE and the Mac II in 1987 and the Mac Classic and Mac LC in
1990. Meanwhile, Apple attempted its first portable Macs: the failed Macintosh
Portable in 1989 and then the more popular PowerBookin 1991, a landmark product
that established the modern form and ergonomic layout of thelaptop. Popular products
and increasing revenues made this a good time for Apple. MacAddict magazine has
called 1989 to 1991 the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.

On February 19, 1987, Apple registered the "Apple.com" domain name,

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making it one of the first hundred companies to register a .com address on the nascent
Internet.

The early mid 1990s:- Apple's response to the PC threat was a profusion of new
Macintosh lines including Quadris, Centris, and Performa. Unfortunately, these new
lines were marketed poorly. For one, there were too many models, differentiated by
very minor graduations in their tech specs. The excess of arbitrary model numbers
confused many consumers and hurt Apple's reputation for simplicity. Apple's retail
resellers like Searsand comp USA often failed to sell or even competently display
these Macs. Compounding matters was the fact while the machines were cheaper than
a comparable PC (counting all the things built in which had to be added to the 'bare
bones PC') the poor marketing gave the impression that the machines were more
expensive. In addition to computers, Apple has also produced consumer devices. In
1993, Apple released the Newton, an early PDA. Though it failed commercially, it
defined and launched the category and was a forerunner and inspiration of devices
such as Palm Pilot and Pocket PC.

1998-2001: Apple’s Renaissance:- The imac, ibook, and Power Mac G4 and the
AirPort product series, which helped popularize the use of wireless LAN technology
to connect computers to networks. In 2001, Apple introduced MAC OS X, an
operating system based on NEXT's NEXT Step and the Free BSD kernel. In May
2001, after much speculation, Apple announced the opening of a line of Apple retail
stores. In October 2001, Apple introduced its first iPod portable digital audio player.
On January 10, 2006, the first Intel-based machines, the iMac and MacBook Pro,
were introduced. They were based on the Intel Core Duo platform. This introduction
came with the news that Apple will complete the transition to Intel processors on all
hardware by the end of 2006, a year ahead of the originally quoted schedule.

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PRODUCTS OF APPLE

iPod:- The iPod is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple and
launched on October 23, 2001. The product line-up includes the hard drive-based
iPod classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the video-capable iPod Nano, and the
compact iPod Shuffle. The iPhone can function as an iPod but is generally treated as a
separate product. Former iPod models include the iPod Mini and the spin-off iPod
Photo(since reintegrated into the main iPod Classic line). iPod Classic models store
media on an internal hard drive, while all other models use flash memory to enable
their smaller size (the discontinued Mini used a MicroDrive miniature hard drive). As
with many other digital music players, iPods can also serve as external data storage
devices. Storage capacity varies by model, ranging from 2GB for the iPod Shuffle to
160GB for the iPod Classic.

iTunes:- Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music to the devices from
computers using certain versions of Apple Macintosh and Microsoft windows
operating systems. For users who choose not to use Apple's software or whose
computers cannot run iTunes software, several open source alternatives to iTunes are
also available. iTunes and its alternatives may also transfer photos, videos, games,
contact information, e-mailsettings, Web bookmarks, and calendars to iPod models
supporting those features.

iMac:- The iMac is a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and
built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings
since its introduction in 1998, and has evolved through four distinct forms. In its
original form, the iMac G3, the iMac was gum-drop or egg-shaped with a CRT
monitor, mainly enclosed by colored, translucent plastic. The second major revision,
the iMac G4, moved to a design of a hemispherical base containing all the main
components and an LCD monitor on a freely moving arm attached to the top of the
base. The iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components immediately behind
the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple
metal base. The current iMac shares the same form as the previous models, but is now
thinner and uses anodized aluminum and black-bordered glass for its case.

In October 2009, Apple released a refresh of the iMac line. An LED backlit
16:9 widescreen was introduced in 21.5" and 27" models, replacing the 20" and 24"

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16:10 aspect ratio screens of the previous generation. The 27" models also have a
digital video input port to allow the system to serve as a display for other systems or
devices. Video card options entirely switched to ATI, save for the standard onboard
Nyidia card in the base model. The iMac's processor selection saw a significant
increase. Existing Core 2 Duo technology offered speed bumps in the lower models,
and Intel's new Core i5 and Core i7 chips are now available in the high end model,
signifying the first quad-core iMac. Default RAM has also been increased across the
iMac range. With the advent of larger screens, Apple doubled the number of memory
slots from two to four. Consequently, the maximum memory capacity was also
doubled (to 16GB).

iBook:- The iBook is a line of discontinued laptop computers sold by Apple Inc.
between 1999 and 2006. The line was targeted at the consumer and education
markets, with lower specifications and prices than the PowerBook, Apple's higher-end
line of laptop computers.

Three distinct designs of the iBook were introduced during its lifetime. The
first design, known as the "Clamshell", was a significant departure from portable
computer designs at the time due to its shape, bright colors, incorporation of a handle,
and wireless networking. Two years later, a second line abandoned the original form
factor in favor of a more conventional rectangular design. In October 2003, the third
design added a Power PC G4 chip and a slot-loading drive. The iBook was a
commercial success. The line continually received processor, memory, hard disk
upgrades, and new colors. Fire Wire and video out were later added. The design was
discontinued in May 2001, in favor of the new "Dual USB" iBooks. Vestiges of
design ideas first adopted in the iBook G3 can be still be seen today: moving interface
ports from the back to the side and leaving them uncovered, and integrated wireless
networking.

Apple replaced the iBook line with the Mac Book in May 2006 during Apple’s
transition to Intel processors.

Power Mac G4:- The Power Mac G4 is a series of personal computers that were
designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple between 1999 and 2004. They use the
Power PC G4(PPC74xx) series of microprocessors. The original Apple Power Mac
G4, code name "Yikes!", was introduced at the Seybold conference in San Francisco

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on August 31, 1999, with 400 MHz, 450 MHz and 500 MHz configurations available.
In October 1999, Apple was forced to postpone the 500 MHz due to poor yield of the
500 MHz chips. In response, Apple “speed dumped” the processor speed in each
configuration by 50 MHz but caused some controversy by not decreasing the price of
the machines.

The design was updated at the Mac World Expo New York on July 19, 2000;
the new revision included dual-processor 450 MHz and 500 MHz versions, and a low-
end single CPU 400 MHz model. It was also the first personal computer to include
gigabit Ethernet as standard. Most people saw this revision as a stopgap release,
because higher clocked G4s were not available; the G4’s Motorola XPC107
“Grackle” PCI/Memory controller prevented the G4 from hitting speeds higher than
500 MHz. The dual 500 MHz models featured DVD-RAM optical drive. Zip drives
were optional on all models. These models also introduced Apple's proprietary Apple
Display Connector video port.

Apple's marketing name for this series is the Power Mac Gigabit Ethernet. The
code name was Mystic.

iWork:- iWork is an office suite of desktop applications created by Apple for the
Mac OS X and iPhone OS operating systems. The first version of iWork, iWork '05,
was released in 2005. The suite originally bundled Keynote, a presentation program
which had previously been sold as a standalone application, and Pages, a combined
word processing and page layout application. In 2007, Apple released iWork '08,
which contained a new spreas sheet application, Numbers. iWork also includes access
toiWork.com, a beta service that allows users to upload and share documents online
with others, who can download them and give feedback. iWork integrates with
existing applications from Apple's iLife suite through the Media Browser, which
allows users to drag and drop music from iTunes , movies from iMovie, and photos
from iPhoto and Aperture directly into iWork documents.

Although iWork is billed by Apple as "a successor to Apple Works", it does


not replicate the functionality of AppleWorks's database and drawing tools.

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iWork Version Keynote Version Pages Version Numbers Version Release Date
iWork '05 2.0 1.0 -- 1/22/2005
iWork '06 3.0 2.0 -- 1/10/2006
iWork '08 4.0 3.0 1.0 8/7/2007
iWork '09 5.0 4.0 2.0 1/6/2009

iPad:- The iPad is the second tablet computer developed by Apple Inc., after the
Newton. Announced on January 27, 2010, it is part of a device category between a
smartphone and a laptop computer. Similar in functionality to a larger and more
powerful iPhone or iPod Touch, it runs a modified version of the same operating
system(iPhone OS), with a user interface redesigned to take advantage of the larger
screen.

The iPad has a 9.7-inch (25 cm) LED blacklit multi-touch display with a pixel
resolution of 1024×768, 16 to 64 gigabytes(GB) of flash memory, a 1-gigahertz
(GHz) Apple A4 processor, Bluetooth 2.1, and a 30-pin dock connector to sync with
iTunes and connect wired accessories.

Two models have been announced: one with 802.11 Wi-Fi and one with
802.11n Wi-Fi and 3G (which can connect to HSDPA cellular networks), and
Assisted GPS. Both models may be purchased with three different storage capacities.

As Apple's first device to use its iBookstore service and companion iBooks ebook
reading application, the iPad has been compared with Amazon's Kindle and Barnes &
Noble's Nook.

Like the iPhone, the iPad shares its name with existing products. The most
publicized is the Fujitsu iPad, a mobile multi-functional device sold to retailers to
help clerks verify prices, check inventory, and close sales. The Japanese company
Fujitsu introduced the iPAD in 2002, and the following year applied for the
trademark. But the firm found the mark was already owned by Mag-Tek. Fujitsu's
application was listed as "abandoned" in April 2009, and the ownership of the mark is
unclear. Fujitsu is consulting attorneys over what, if any, action it may take. On
March 26, 2010 Fujitsu transferred their US trademark on iPad to Apple.

iLife:- iLife is a suite of software applications developed by Apple for organizing,


editing, and publishing photos, movies, and music. The suite comprises five

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applications: iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, GarageBand, and iWeb, all of which run on the
Mac OS X operating system. The latest release, iLife '09, was announced on January
6, 2009, and is included with new Mac computers. The suite is also sold stand alone.

Components of iLife are iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, Garage band, iWeb and
Mobile Me Web Gallery.

Final cut studio:- Final Cut Studio is a professional video and audio production
suite for Mac OS X from Apple Inc., and a direct competitor to Avid Media
Composer in the high-end movie production industry. Final Cut Studio contains six
main applications and several smaller applications used in editing video.

Logic studio:- Logic Studio is a music production suite by Apple Inc. The first
version of Logic Studio was unveiled on September 12, 2007.

Macintosh:- The Macintosh or Mac, is a series of several lines of personal


computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was
introduced on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal
computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-
line interface.

Through the second half of the 1980s, the company built market share only to
see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted towards IBM PC
compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. Apple consolidated
multiple consumer-level desktop models into the 1998 iMac all-in-one, which was a
sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized. Current Mac systems are
mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. They are:
the aforementioned (though upgraded) iMac and the entry-level Mac mini desktop
models, the workstation-level Mac Pro tower, the MacBook, MacBook Air and
MacBook Pro laptops, and the Xserve server.

Production of the Mac is based on a vertical integration model in that Apple facilitates
all aspects of its hardware and creates its own operating system that is pre-installed on
all Mac computers. This is in contrast to most IBM PC compatibles, where multiple
sellers create hardware intended to run another company's operating software. Apple
exclusively produces Mac hardware, choosing internal systems, designs, and prices.
Apple does use third party components, however. Current Mac CPUs use Intel's x86
architecture; models from 1994-2006 used the AIM alliance's Power PC and models

  20 
from 1984-1994 used Motorola's 68k. Apple also develops the operating system for
the Mac, currently Mac OS X version 10.6 “Snow Leopord”. The modern Mac, like
other personal computers, is capable of running alternative operating systems such as
Linux, Free BSD, and, in the case of Intel-based Macs,Microsoft Windows. However,
Apple does not license Mac OS X for use on non-Apple computers.

Mac OS X:- Mac OS X is a series of operating systems and graphical user interfaces
developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. Since 2002, Mac OS X has been
included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9,
the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating
system since 1984.

Mac OS X, whose "X" represents the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part
of its brand identity, is a Unix-based graphical operating system, built on technologies
developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the
company in late 1996. Its sixth release, Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard", gained UNIX 03
certification while running on processors.

The first version released was Mac OS X server in 1999, and a desktop-oriented
version, Mac OS X v10.0"Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of Mac
OS X are named after big cats: for example, Mac OS X v10.6 is usually referred to by
Apple and users as "Snow Leopord". The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is
architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart, and includes tools to facilitate
management of workgroups of Mac OS X machines, and to provide access to network
services. These tools include a mail transfer agent, a Samba Server, an LDAP server,
a domain name server, and others. It is pre-loaded on Apple's Xserve server hardware,
but can be run on almost all of Apple's current selling computer models.

Apple also produces specialized versions of Mac OS X for use on four of its
consumer devices: the iPhone OS for the iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad, as well as an
unnamed version for the AppleTV.

  21 
ABOUT MAC BOOK

An LED-backlit display of brilliance:- (A 13.3 –inch glossy widescreen) The


moment you open your new MacBook, its glossy LED-backlit display greets you with
glorious, full-screen brightness and brings your photos, movies, and presentations
alive with luminous color. The widescreen resolution of 1280 by 800 pixels gives you
plenty of room to multitask, yet it’s compact enough to take anywhere. And the
display is greener than ever: power efficient, free of harmful toxins such as mercury,
and made of arsenic-free glass.

The longest lasting MacBook battery ever:- (upto 7 hours per charge, upto 1000
recharges.) Now take MacBook with you everywhere without worrying about
plugging in or even carrying your power adapter. Its built-in lithium-polymer battery
lasts up to 7 hours on a single charge,1 which makes it perfect for long flights, all-day
workshops, and marathon study sessions. Thanks to its advanced battery chemistry
and charging technology, the MacBook battery can be recharged up to 1000 times —
good for about five years of typical usage — and lasts nearly three times the lifespan
of typical notebook batteries.2 That makes for less waste. And that, in turn, makes for
one environmentally friendly battery.

Multi- Touch comes to MacBook:- (more room to navigate, more ways to interact.)
The first thing you might notice — or not notice — about the new MacBook Multi-
Touch trackpad is the button. The entire trackpad is the button, so you can click
anywhere on the touch-friendly glass surface. Not having a separate button also
makes for a larger trackpad surface, giving your fingers more room to move, click,
and gesture. And because the trackpad supports Multi-Touch gestures, you can use
one or more fingers to interact with your documents, images, and applications with
gestures such as two-finger scroll, pinch, swipe, and rotate. If you come from a right-
click world, you can configure a right-click area on the trackpad or simply press with
two fingers.

High performance comes standard:-


• Action hero:- With MacBook, you get an amazing consumer-level graphics
experience that’s great for popular 3D games like Spore, Call of Duty, and
Sims 3. The NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor provides an
outstanding everyday graphics experience with up to a 5x performance boost.3

  22 
Based on an advanced architecture, NVIDIA graphics deliver smooth,
responsive gameplay, so you can immerse yourself in game worlds that come
to life with rich color, fine detail, and fluid motion — all without sacrificing
battery life.
• Productivity expert:- With a fast 2.26GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processor,
MacBook breezes through everyday tasks such as emailing, web browsing,
and working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations in iWork or
Microsoft Office for Mac (sold separately). It also provides plenty of
horsepower for more processor-intensive activities such as retouching a photo
in iPhoto, editing an iMovie project, and composing a new song using
GarageBand, so you can make the most of the included iLife suite of
applications. It even runs Microsoft Windows at native speeds. Better still,
MacBook comes standard with 2GB of memory (with support for up to 4GB),
so you can run multiple applications smoothly and efficiently.
• Personal librarian:-Music, photos, and movies — not to mention your
documents and other files — start adding up. That’s why MacBook offers
plenty of storage space. It includes a large 250GB hard drive with options up
to a voluminous 500GB, so you can take it all with you.

MagSafe and more. Much more:-


• Even the power cord is an innovation:-The MagSafe Power Adapter has a
magnetic connection instead of a physical one. So if someone happens to trip
over the power cord while you’re working, they won’t send your new
MacBook flying off a table or desk. Instead, the cord breaks cleanly away,
without damage to either the cord or the system. As a bonus, you can tell if
your MacBook is fully charged when the LED on the connector changes from
amber to green.
• Burn CDs and DVDs:- MacBook comes standard with a built-in SuperDrive.
What makes it super? You can enjoy your favorite DVD movies and music
CDs. You can burn your own CDs or DVDs to back up data or create your
own music mixes. Or you can use the included iDVD software to burn
Hollywood-style iMovie creations then watch them on a DVD player.
• Wireless that works:-Connect to the Internet at fast speeds anywhere thanks
to the built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n Wi-Fi.5 Like everything else about a

  23 
Mac, joining Wi-Fi networks couldn’t be simpler. If you’ve previously
connected to a network, your Mac automatically logs you in so you can
immediately email, surf the web, or video chat.6 Have a phone, headset,
keyboard, or mouse with Bluetooth wireless technology? They can all connect
to your MacBook courtesy of built-in Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR technology — and
it remembers all your devices, too.
• Ports with possibilities:- With MacBook, you get easy plug-and-play support
for your digital devices including your digital camera, printer, external hard
drive, mouse, and keyboard — not to mention your iPhone and iPod. Just
connect them to one of the handy ports. Want to expand your workspace? Use
the new Mini DisplayPort to connect an Apple LED Cinema Display to extend
your MacBook desktop. Or connect a projector to show your work on the big
screen. MacBook also includes a Gigabit Ethernet port, a headphone jack that
doubles as an audio-in port, and a convenient lock slot so you can keep your
MacBook secure.
Video Chat with anyone:-

• Built-in iSight camera:- Cleverly integrated — almost hidden — at the top of


the MacBook display is an iSight camera that takes photos and shoots video.
Use it with the built-in microphone and the included iChat software, so you
can be anywhere without actually being there. Video chat with up to three of
your friends, share a video with your mom, or give a presentation to a client.5
Use your iSight with Photo Booth to take quick pictures and add fun photo
effects. Or use it with QuickTime X to record a video and share it to iTunes,
MobileMe, or YouTube with just a click. Best of all, there’s no need to waste
valuable primping time installing software or configuring the camera. Like
everything Mac, iSight just works, right out of the box.

  24 
APPLE DEBUTS NEW 15" MACBOOK PRO
Apple revealed details of its redesigned 15-inch MacBook Pro, including a new
unibody construction, far more powerful NVIDIA graphics, Display Port output, a
new glass touchpad with multitouch gestures, and a revised appearance with
similarities to the iMac.
Construction and Ports

Apple detailed a new "unibody" construction method for the MacBook Pro that
improves upon the current model's thin aluminum shell, reinforced with an internal
frame. The new design is patterned after the MacBook Air released in January,
although it appears similar to the MacBooks.

The new construction employs half the structural parts of the former "discrete"
MacBook Pro design but provides a case that is stronger, torsionally rigid, 5.5 pounds
light, and 0.95 inches thin. It features a MacBook Air-style keyboard recessed into the
frame. All I/O ports are located on left side, including: MagSafe, Gigabit Ethernet,
Firewire 800, Dual USB 2.0, Mini Display Port (HDMI could not drive a 30"
display), Analog/digital audio in and out, ExpressCard 34 slot, and a side-mounted
battery indicator light.

Graphics and Display

The MacBook Pro includes a new NVIDIA graphics architecture which combines a
NVIDIA CPU-supporting chipset and graphics processor on one die. Originally
designed for desktops, Apple worked with NVIDIA to develop a mobile version for
the MacBook Pro, the company said.

This new technology allow users to switch between the NVIDIA GeForce
9400M integrated graphics processor for better battery life and the more powerful
NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT discrete graphics processor for higher performance.

The GeForce 9400M integrated chipset has 16 parallel graphics cores, delivers
54 gigiflops of graphics performance, while the 9600M GT has 32 cores and 125
gigiflops of processing power. The 9400M is rated for 5 hours of battery, while the
9600M GT provides 4 hours.

The graphics chips also power a new "instant on" 15.4-inch LED display that

  25 
is 30 percent more efficient with brighter, high intensity colors.

Multi-touch Glass Trackpad

The new MacBook Pro also features a new 39 percent larger multi-touch trackpad that
supports additional gestures and acts as a single button. The glass surface of the
trackpad promises less friction for "silky-smooth travel." The new trackpad supports
virtual software buttons, as well as one- to four-fingered multitouch gestures:

• two finger pinch and rotate


• three finger slides
• four fingers bring up Exposé and app switching
New Battery Cover and Easy Access

The new battery cover provides easy access to the hard drive bay, which supports
both a standard mechanical hard drive and a new solid state drive option. Locking the
system with a security cable also locks the cover on the battery and drive.

Side-mounted Battery Indicator Light

The MacBook Pro's new side-mounted battery indicator light means users won't have
to turn the machine upside down to see the status of their notebook's battery if the
machine is not powered on.

Optical Disc Drive, Backlit Keyboard, iSight, Latch and More

The optical drive is located on right edge. It provides a DVD burner but does not
support Blu-ray. Jobs said "Blu-ray is a bag of hurt. I don’t mean from the consumer
point of view. It’s great to watch movies, but the licensing is so complex. We’re
waiting until things settle down, and waiting until Blu-ray takes off before we burden
our customers with the cost of licensing."Meanwhile, the new MacBook Pro will
continue to supply a backlit keyboard, sudden motion sensor, stereo speakers, iSight
camera, mic, and now supply a magnetic latch like the MacBook Air rather than a
physical latching mechanism.The new design features rounded, tapered edges without
the series of screws that hold the top bezel to the frame as in earlier designs. There are
several screws on the bottom of the machine.

  26 
MacBook Pro Configurations

The 2.4 GHz, 15-inch aluminum MacBook Pro will sell for $1,999 and include/The
2.53 GHz aluminum MacBook Pro is priced at $2,499 and includes::

15.4-inch widescreen LED-backlit 1440 x 900 glossy display;2.4 Ghz/2.53


Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo with 3MB shared L2 cache;1066 MHz front-side
bus;2GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM, expandable to 4GB;NVIDIA GeForce
9400M integrated graphics;NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT discrete graphics
with 256MB GDDR3 video memory;250GB serial ATA hard drive running at
5400 rpm, with Sudden Motion Sensor;a slot-load 8X SuperDrive with
double-layer support (DVD±R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW) optical drive;Mini
DisplayPort for video output (adapters sold separately);built-in AirPort
Extreme 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1+EDR;Gigabit
Ethernet port;built-in iSight video camera;two USB 2.0 ports;one FireWire
800 port;ExpressCard/34 expansion card slot;one audio line in and one audio
line out port, each supporting both optical digital and analog;glass Multi-
Touch trackpad and illuminated keyboard; and 85 Watt MagSafe Power
Adapter.

Build-to-order options for the MacBook Pro include a 2.8 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo
processor, the ability to upgrade to 4GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM, 250GB 7200
rpm, 320GB 5400 rpm or a 320GB 7200 rpm hard drive, a 128GB solid state drive,
Mini DisplayPort to DVI Adapter, Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI Adapter (for
30-inch DVI display), Mini DisplayPort to VGA Adapter, Apple USB Modem, Apple
Remote, Apple MagSafe Airline Adapter and the AppleCare Protection Plan.

  27 
APPLE UNVEILS NEW 13" MACBOOK

Apple on Tuesday unveiled its next-generation 13-inch MacBook, which includes a


new unibody construction, more powerful NVIDIA graphics, Display Port output, a
new glass touchpad with multitouch gestures, and a revised appearance nearly
identical to the new MacBook Pro.

Construction

Apple detailed a new "unibody" construction method for the MacBook that improves
upon the current model's plastic shell, reinforced with an internal frame. The new
design is patterned after the MacBook Air released in January and is extremely
similar to that of the new MacBook Pro.The new construction provides a case that is
stronger, torsionally rigid, 4.5 pounds light, and 0.95 inches thin. It features a
MacBook Air-style keyboard recessed into the frame. All I/O ports are located on left
side, including: MagSafe, Gigabit Ethernet, Dual USB 2.0, Mini Display Port,
Analog/digital audio in and out, and a side-mounted battery indicator light.

Graphics

The new MacBook line features the powerful new NVIDIA GeForce 9400M, a
revolutionary new 3D integrated graphics processor that features 16 parallel
processing cores and delivers up to five times the 3D graphics performance as
previous MacBook and MacBook Air designs. Apple has worked together with
NVIDIA on this groundbreaking graphics processor and is the first to bring it to
market in the new MacBook family.

Multitouch Glass Trackpad

The new MacBook also features a new 39 percent larger multitouch trackpad that
supports additional gestures and acts as a single button. The glass surface of the
trackpad promises less friction for "silky-smooth travel." The new trackpad supports
virtual software buttons, as well as one- to four-fingered multitouch gestures:

• two finger pinch and rotate

• three finger slides

• four fingers bring up Exposé and app switching

  28 
Optical Drive, Latch, and More

The optical drive is located on right edge. It provides a DVD burner but does not
support Blu-ray. Jobs said "Blu-ray is a bag of hurt. I don’t mean from the consumer
point of view. It’s great to watch movies, but the licensing is so complex. We’re
waiting until things settle down, and waiting until Blu-ray takes off before we burden
our customers with the cost of licensing."

The new notebooks continue to supply a backlit keyboard, sudden motion sensor,
stereo speakers, iSight camera, mic, and magnetic latch.

New Battery Cover and Easy Access

The new battery cover provides easy access to the hard drive bay, which supports
both a standard mechanical hard drive and a new solid state drive option. Locking the
system with a security cable also locks the cover on the battery and drive.

Side-mounted Battery Indicator Light

The MacBook's new side-mounted battery indicator light means users won't have to
turn the machine upside down to see the status of their notebook's battery if the
machine is not powered on.

MacBook Configurations

The 2.0 GHz, 13-inch aluminum MacBook will sell for $1,299 and include/The 2.4
GHz aluminum MacBook is priced at $1,599 and includes:13.3-inch widescreen
LED-backlit 1280 x 800 glossy display; 2.0 Ghz/2.4 Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo with 3MB
shared L2 cache;1066 MHz front-side bus; 2GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM,
expandable to 4GB; NVIDIA GeForce 9400M integrated graphics; 160GB serial
ATA hard drive running at 5400 rpm, with Sudden Motion Sensor; a slot-load 8X
SuperDrive with double-layer support (DVD±R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW) optical
drive;Mini DisplayPort for video output (adapters sold separately); built-in AirPort
Extreme 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1+EDR; Gigabit Ethernet
port;built-in iSight video camera;two USB 2.0 ports; One audio line in and one audio
line out port, each supporting both optical digital and analog;glass Multi-Touch
trackpad; and 60 Watt MagSafe Power Adapter.

  29 
Build-to-order options for the MacBook include the ability to upgrade to 4GB 1066
MHz DDR3 SDRAM, a 250GB 5400 rpm, 320GB 5400 rpm hard drive, a 128GB
solid state drive, Mini DisplayPort to DVI Adapter, Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link
DVI Adapter (for 30-inch DVI display), Mini DisplayPort to VGA Adapter, Apple
USB Modem, Apple Remote, Apple MagSafe Airline Adapter and the AppleCare
Protection Plan.

In addition, Apple said the existing white plastic MacBook will continue to be sold
for $999.

UNIQUE FEATURES OF NEW 15” MACBOOK PRO.

Along with all the other technology of Apple, there is quite a bit of time devoted to
showing off the innovative manufacturing process in the new 15″ MacBook Pro.
Previous versions of the MacBook Pro were made from pressed aluminum parts held
together with screws and fitted with plastic gaskets to cover the seams. The new
MacBook Pro enclosure is milled from a single “brick” of aluminum. This approach
allows for a seamless enclosure with no visible screws and a few other innovative
features.

Apple is referring to this new approach as a unibody enclosure. They employ


CNC machines to carve the unibody from a solid block of metal that starts out
weighing 2.5lbs and ends up as a .25lb top enclosure. The other 90% of the original
piece is recovered during the manufacturing process and recycled to make new
aluminum blocks. The result is a thinner and lighter enclosure that is simultaneously
stronger and stiffer.

The aesthetics are affected as well. Gone are the screws along the side and the
opening for the sleep light to shine through the case is actually perforated by laser so
that it’s virtually invisible to the naked eye. The only breaks along the edge of the
new MacBook Pro are from the various ports on the left, the superdrive slot on the
right, and the IR port on the front.

The screws holding the top case and the bottom together are found along the
back edge and underneath the new access door along the front. The new access door
covers the battery and the hard drive. The battery is not part of the bottom case
anymore and is entirely covered by the access door. Because the battery is otherwise

  30 
covered by the access door, the battery indicator lights are visible through
perforations in the side of the enclosure. This gives the new MacBook Pro a very
clean look along the bottom as well.

Improvements to the manufacturing process go beyond the new unibody


construction. Apple has also dropped a number of harmful chemicals by using LED
backlighting (no Mercury) and removing BFR and PVC from the logic board, cables
and connectors. The unibody enclosure also means fewer extraneous bits and pieces
to hold the enclosure together that would have gone to a landfill before. The
packaging has also been reduced by 37%, which means less paper products and
decreased environmental impact from transportation. The significance of all these
changes is a new laptop that is almost entirely recyclable and has earned the highest
rating of EPEAT Gold.

  31 
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF APPLE’s MACBOOK

Apple's new MacBook and MacBook Pro feature precision unibody enclosures milled
from an extruded block of aluminum, allowing them to get even thinner while
retaining rigid durability and a stronger, cleaner, and more polished design. Here's a
detailed overview of the process.

Jonathan Ive, Apple’s senior vice president of Industrial Design, noted that,
"Traditionally notebooks are made from multiple parts. With the new MacBook,
we’ve replaced all of those parts with just one part—the unibody. The MacBook’s
unibody enclosure is made from a single block of aluminum, making the new
MacBook fundamentally thinner, stronger and more robust with a fit and finish that
we’ve never even dreamed of before.”

CNC Unibody Fabrication :- The previous MacBook Pro uses a thin, bowl-shaped
shell that has an internal skeleton to hold the internal parts together. The top bezel
lays on top and is screwed in place on the sides and back edge. These pieces allow for
some tolerance, requiring plastic gaskets to fit the components together snugly.
The new 15" MacBook Pro, along with its nearly identical 13.3" MacBook
version, start with an extruded block of aluminum that is carved out using CNC or
"computer numerical control" machines in a process used by the aerospace industry to
build mission critical, high precision components.
The process starts with raw aluminum, selected for its favorable strength to
weight ratio and the flexibility it offers in processing and the flexibility it offers in
processing.

  32 
Extruded aluminum sheets are cut into blocks that undergo 13 separate milling
operations.

Apple uses CNC to precision cut keyboard holes from the face of the slab (below
top), mill out the "thumbscoop" that provides enough of a recession to open the
display lid comfortably without putting too much pressure on the lid, machine out
complex patterns from the inside (below middle) and perforate the speaker grill holes
using lasers (below bottom).

  33 
A portion of the front edge is milled thin enough that a laser can be used to micro-
perforate the metal to allow light from the sleep indicator LED to pass through the
metal. When the sleep indicator is off, the metal appears to be solid. Apple has
already used this process on the MacBook Air and the Bluetooth Keyboard that
shipped last fall alongside the aluminum iMac.

Once the inside is precision cut (below top) leaving a design that is, as Ive observed,
"in many ways more beautifully internally than externally", the edges are rounded and
polished (below bottom).

  34 
The environmentally-friendly recycled bits:- The material machined from the
aluminum block is collected and recycled. Jobs noted that the new MacBooks "are the
industry’s greenest notebooks.”
Apple says the entire new MacBook line meets stringent Energy Star 4.0,
EPEAT Gold and RoHS environmental standards, and leads the industry in the
elimination of toxic chemicals by containing no brominated flame retardants, using
only PVC-free internal cables and components, and using energy efficient LED-
backlit displays that are mercury-free and made with arsenic-free glass.

  35 
Glass-faced, LED backlit display:- The environmentally-friendly LED backlit
display also offers other advantages; it turns on instantly when the display is opened
as there is no warm up time required by a conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp
backlight.
It also requires less energy, allowing for 30% better efficiency while providing
a brighter, more vivid display, or in the words of Bob Mansfield, Senior Vice
President of Mac Hardware, "what you notice as a customer is that the color has a lot
more pop."
Unlike the existing MacBook Pro, which houses the display recessed into an
aluminum frame, the new design fits the display into a thinner lid and the entire inside
face of the panel is covered with a single glass panel similar to the face of the iPhone,
with a black margin around the display (below).

  36 
CONCLUSION

The previous MacBook Pro uses a thin, bowl-shaped, pressed metal shell that has a
metal formed internal skeleton to hold the internal parts together. The top bezel lays
on top and is screwed in place on the sides and back edge. These pieces allow for
some tolerance, requiring plastic gaskets to fit the components together snugly.

The new 15" MacBook Pro, along with its nearly identical 13.3" MacBook
version, start with an extruded block of raw aluminum, selected for its favorable
strength to weight ratio and the flexibility it offers in processing and finishing.

Starting with an aluminium extrusion is an excellent strategy often used to


reduce machining times. Extrusion can produce a pre-finished section in almost any
shape which is then cut to length before the detailed machining work is performed.
This eliminates the need to 'block out' an aluminium billet before finish machining.

In the Macbook process, waterjet cutters are used to slice up the extrusions
and to quickly remove the areas where it woudl be milled right through such as where
the keyboard fits. The aluminium extrusion is then carved out using high speed CNC
or "computer numerical control" machining in a process used by the aerospace
industry to build mission critical, high precision components. The aluminium
extrusion undergoes 13 separate milling operations.

Apple uses high speed CNC machining to precision cut keyboard holes from
the face of the slab, mill out the "thumbscoop" that provides enough of a recession to
open the display lid comfortably without putting too much pressure on the lid, and
machine out complex patterns from the inside.

Now comes the part where the lasers are used. Laser drilling is used to create
micro-perforations in the aluminium that light can pass through but are practically
invisible to the human eye.

Laser drilling has limitations on how deep it can penetrate, so a portion of the
front edge is milled thin enough that the laser can be used to micro-perforate the metal
to allow light from the sleep indicator LED to pass through the metal. When the sleep

  37 
indicator is off, the metal appears to be solid. Apple has already used this process on
the MacBook Air and the Bluetooth Keyboard that shipped last year alongside the
aluminium iMac.

Once the inside is precision CNC machined it leaves a design that is in many
ways more beautiful internally than externally. The component is finished by
automated deburring, edge rounding and polishing.

The environmentally friendly recycled bits:- The material machined from the
aluminium block (swarf) is collected and recycled. Jobs noted that the new MacBooks
"are the industry’s greenest notebooks.

Apple says the entire new MacBook line meets stringent Energy Star 4.0,
EPEAT Gold and RoHS environmental standards, and leads the industry in the
elimination of toxic chemicals by containing no brominated flame retardants, using
only PVC-free internal cables and components, and using energy efficient LED-
backlit displays that are mercury-free and made with arsenic-free glass.

What advantages are there to manufacturing from a solid aluminium billet using CNC
machining?

Carving out of aluminum eliminates the need to bend the metal and create weak spots
or microfolds and rifts.

There are no seams in the final product, so it is smooth.

Screws aren’t needed to tie the products together.

The shell is one piece of metal so it is super light, super strong and super cheap.

You can be a whole lot more creative with the design when you are machining it
rather than pressing metal.

As Peter Oppenheimer said at the recent earnings call, this innovation is something
"Apple's competitors won't be able to match for some time to come. We expect the
process to drive down the prices of MacBooks over the next few years and at the
same time allow Apple to continue to lead in the innovation department. Design
changes should come much more rapidly with rapid prototyping."

  38 
REFERENCES

BOOKS REFERRED:-

• Mahadevan,B. (2009), ‘Operations Management- Theory and


Practice’, Pearson Publications

• Aswathapa,K. (2008), ‘Production and Operations Management’

WEBSITES REFERRED:-

• http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/08/10/14/apple_details_new_macbook_
manufacturing_process.html
• http://gizmodo.com/5063227/how-the-macbooks-are-carved-out-of-solid-
aluminum
• http://www.apple.com/macbook/design.html
• http://digg.com/apple/Apple_details_new_MacBook_manufacturing_process
• http://www.manufacturelink.com.au/news/view/apple-macbook-
manufacturing-process.aspx

  39 

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