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EE301- Generation & Transmission

Transmission Line 1

Instructed by: Ms. I. T. Hettiarachchi Name: Chamara D. V. G


Index No: 050055P
Field: EE
Date of per: 22nd may 07’
Calculations
Data given for transmission line
-3 phase 50 Hz TL of 25 Km
-constants per phase are
R = 0.3 W/ Km
L = 2.0 W/ Km
C= 0.256 mF/ Km
The line is to supply a load of 50 MW at unity power factor, the line voltage being 132 kV.
Scalar factors:
Voltage Scale 1000 : 1
Current Scale 200 : 1

Finding A, B, C, D parameters theoretically.

r = (0.3 x 25)/5
= 1.5 W
l = (2 x 25)/5
= 10 mH
c = (0.256 x 25)/ 0.2
= 32 mF

Propagation constant: γ = (r + jωl )( g + jωc) ω=100π ω=2πn

γ = (1.5 + j × 2π × 50 ×10 × 10 −3 )(0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 ×10 −6 )


γ = − 0.0316 + 0.0151 j
γ = 0.035∠154.48
γ = 0.187∠77.2

Characteristic impedance:
r + jωl
Zo =
g + jωc
1.5 + j × 2π × 50 × 10 × 10 −3
Zo =
0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 × 10 −6
Zo = 312.5 − 149.2 j
Zo = 346.3∠ − 25.52
Zo = 18.6∠ − 12.76
Then we can find A, B, C, D parameters by

Es = Er cosh(γL) + IrZo sinh(γL) = AEr + BIr


Er
Is = Ir cosh(γL) + sinh(γL) = CEr + DIr
Zo

A = cosh(γL)
A = cosh(0.187 × 2)
A = 1.071∠0

B = Zo sinh(γL)
B = 18.6∠ − 12.76 × sinh(0.187 × 2)
B = 7.12∠ − 12.76

1
C= sinh(γL)
Zo
1
C= sinh(0.187 × 2)
18.6∠ − 12.76
C = 0.021∠12.76

D = A by above equation
D = cosh(0.187 × 2)
D = 1.071∠0

Finding A, B, C, D values using experimental values

Open Circuit Test


Ir = 0
E = AEr + BIr
I = CEr + DIr
then we can obtain
Eoc = AEr
Ioc = CEr
Eoc =A = Zoc
Ioc C

W= R/Z VocIoccos(ϕoc-θ)
Z=(R2 + (1/ωc)2)1/2
Z=(11.32x103)2+ (1/(8πx 10-6))
Z=41.37 kΩ
Cos(ϕoc-θ) = (5x41.37x103)/(11.32x103x75x0.9)
Cos(ϕoc-θ)=0.27
(ϕoc-θ)=cos-1(0.27)
(ϕoc-θ)=74.360
Zoc= (75V/0.9 A) ∠74.36 0
Zoc= 83.33 ∠74.36 0

Short Circuit test

Er = 0
Es = BIr
Is = DIr
E cs =B = Z cs
I cs D

50 MW
Rated current of the model = = 1.1A
3 x132kVx 200
W = Z sc I sc cos Φ
5
cos Φ = = 0.86
5.29 x1.1
Φ = 30.68 0
5.29
Z sc = ∠30.68 0 = 4.81∠30.68 0 Ω
1.1

AD − BC = cosh 2 (γL) − sinh 2 (γL) = 1


AD − BC = 1

A B
Z oc − Z sc = −
C D
Z
Z oc − Z sc = oc2
A
Z oc
A2 =
Z oc − Z sc
83.33∠74.36 0
A=
83.33∠74.36 0 − 4.81∠30.68 0
A = 1.02∠ − 1.19 0

D = 1.02∠ − 1.19 0

A
C= = 0.012∠ − 75.55 0
Z oc
B = DxZ sc = (1.02∠ − 1.19 0 ) x(4.81∠ − 30.68 0 ) = 4.91∠29.49 0
Discussion

Practical value and theoretical values are not similar. But it should be so. That error
happened due to,
• The used transmission line model did not match the actual case.
• Used capacitor banks didn’t promise the marked values.
• We used analog meters to take the readings and hence when sometimes actual reading
smaller than smaller measurements it affects to result.
• Per unit values that we calculated were not constant throughout the line.