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Research Methodology

Cooper & Schindler (2004) Business Research Methods.
New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Co.
Other Reference
1. Best, John W, : Research In education, Prentice hall of
India, New Delhi
2. Wolf Howard K and P.R Pant: “Social Science Research
& Thesis Writing”, Research Division, Kirtipur
3. Goode William J,and Paul K Hatt: “ Methods in Social
Research”, Megraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd
4. Research Methodology:, Kothari
Chapter 1: Introduction
1. Meaning and Importance of Research
2. Classification of Research
3. Research in engineering functions.
4. The research process
5. Research as a scientific Process
6. When not to conduct a research
7. Ethical Issues Governing research functions

Meaning & Definition
™ Research is composed of re and search which indicate
search again & again to meet meaningful objectives.

™ The dictionary meaning of research is careful study or


™ Social Research is systematic study & investigation of

social issues & problems to find out some things about
that issue which is useful to society.

™ The systematic study/research composed of many

activities i.e. rectify the social issues or problems,
collection of information with clearly defined steps,
analysis of data, presenting data, etc.

Defined by Authors
z According to kurt lewin (1988)
Social Research is systematic method of exploring, analyzing,
conceptualizing social life in order to extend, correct or verify
knowledge aid in the construction of theory or in the practice of an

z According to John W.Best (2002)

Research may to defined as systematic and objective analysis and
recording of controlled observations that may lead to development of
organizations, principles & possibility ultimate control of events.

z According to Kothari (2002)

Research is an systematic investigation to find solution to a problem.

z Cooper & Schindler (2003)

Research in any organization is the inquiry carried out to provide
information for solving problem.
Defined by Authors

z According to Fred N. kerlinger(2004)

Scientific research is systematic controlled, empirical &
critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about
the presumed relations among the natural phenomenon.

z According to Wolf & Pant (2005)

Research activities are deigned to discover knowledge
aid in answering specific questions or issues.

The Research
¾ is direct towards the solutions of the problems.

¾ is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.

¾ demands accurate observations & description.

¾ involves gathering new data from primary or frost hand

sources or using existing data for a new purpose.

¾ requires expertise and courage necessary to carry out

investigation, search the related literature & to understand &
analyze the data gathered.

¾ involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems.

Types of Research

Fundamental Research Applied Research

Research related to verify Research which is associated

existing theories, refining, with specific problem & have
modification or restating the immediate practice application.
theories or interpreting new It aims at finding out a solution
theories. for an immediate problem
faced by a society.

Characteristics of good research
¾ The purpose of research should be clearly defined & common
concepts are used.

¾ The procedural design of research should be carefully planed to

estimate their effect upon finding or to yield results that one set in

¾ Data should be adequate & authentic for analysis & the method of
analysis used should be appropriate.

¾ The reliability & validity of the data should the checked carefully.

¾ Conduction should be confined, justified by the data of research and

be limited to those for which it can provide with an adequate basis.

¾ Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is

experience has a good reputation in research.
Importance of Research
¾ To generate new knowledge-explore the reality.

¾ To describe the phenomenon under investigation.

¾ To frame verifiable generalization and understanding that

explain how the variable involve in the situation behave.

¾ To generate more knowledge & understanding of the

phenomenon that occur & to build theories based on
research result.

¾ To refine the existing method & to develop new & more

effective method design & procedure.

Quality of Good Research


Research in Engineering Functions

Apply the established theories Engineering. Activities

Theories/Assumptions Engineering

Improve Performance

Identify Problems

Finding of Research Research

Research Process
Rectify problem & identify the variables causing it or related
with it.

Go through exiting knowledge on the issue or reference

Construct models or to formulate research questions or

hypothesis for testing.

Collect & analyze the facts, evidence or information to identify

the interrelationship between or among variables.

Build theories or understand & generalize the phenomenon or

throw insights into the problem under investigation to analyze
predict & control the situation.

Presenting the result/writing report. 13

Research Process
Turn your idea into a research question

Review the literature

Design the study and develop your methods

Writing your research proposal

Issues about funding

Obtain ethical and Trust approval

Collect and collate the data

Analyze the data and interpret findings

Reporting and dissemination

When not to Conduct Research

The expected outcomes of the research is;

zAlready established / identify
zNot useful for society/ human being
zMay have negative impact to society.

Ethical issues governing research
¾ Every research requires the consent from the researcher

¾ Almost all research guarantees the participants confidentiality -- they are

assured that identifying information will not be made available to anyone who
is not directly involved in the study

¾ Principle of anonymity which essentially means that the participant will remain
anonymous throughout the study -- even to the researchers themselves

¾ Researchers have had to deal with the ethical issue of a person's right to
service / right to live

¾ Researchers should aware about the social and legal issues , importance of
research and impact of the ongoing research in society

¾ Researcher should not involved for a research works if it’s expected outcome
may be harmful for society/ Human being/ countries.