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Puerto Princesa City

Health Care 2
February 2, 2009
ALCÁNTARA, Eduardo L., BSN 2nd Year N1-St. Dominic

Submitted to: Ms. Jasmin A. Rocamora, R.N.


1. Based on the film, define Epidemiology.

Based on the film, Epidemiology can be defined as where, when ,

how the disease occurred, who are the people are affected and the
number their number and what is/are the reason of the disease and
how deadly the disease is and what are the ways on how to prevent it.
The disease started in Zaire, where it was discovered on the monkeys
in the year 1992. It occurred or spread through the monkey (Zaire)
who’s has been traded in a US Pet shop. And through the mouth, nose
and skin contact with the monkey, the people were infected and the
spread of the Ebola virus started.

2. How dose case finding and disease surveillance aid or help

in solving the disease outbreak?

Case finding and disease helps or aids in solving the disease

outbreak through identifying or giving vital data and informations to
the authority. It gives us data about the specific place where the
disease started, the people and the population that’s affected by the
outbreak and what kind of intervention to stop its widespread.
It also increases the people’s awareness of the disease on how
deadly it is. It makes everyone aware on how to stop its progress and
know what the other needed and important precautions are.

3. Explain the chain of infection.

The infectious agent is a Biological Agent in the name of Motaba
Ebola virus. It started out in Motaba, Zaire. After the development of
this microbial organism it thrives and reproduces in the White-fronted
Capuchin Monkey which is the Carrier of the disease. The
microorganism leaves the Carrier through the Nose or Mouth by
transferring in the methods of airborne or contact with the Carrier. It
will infect the person through the mouth, nose or through the skin
contact and the humans will be the susceptible host.

INFECTIOUS AGENT (Biological Agent - Motaba Ebola Virus)

A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. The greater the organism's
virulence (ability to grow and multiply), invasiveness (ability to enter tissue) and
pathogenicity (ability to cause disease), the greater the possibility that the organism
will cause an infection. Infectious agents are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
RESERVOIR/CARRIER (a White-fronted Capuchin Monkey)
A place within which microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. For example,
microorganisms thrive in human beings, animals, and inanimate objects such as
water, table tops, and doorknobs.

PORTAL OF EXIT (Nose, Mouth, Skin)

A place of exit providing a way for a microorganism to leave the reservoir. For
example, the microorganism may leave the reservoir through the nose or mouth
when someone sneezes or coughs. Microorganisms, carried away from the body by
feces, may also leave the reservoir of an infected bowel.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION (Airborne or Contact)

Method of transfer by which the organism moves or is carried from one place to
another. The hands of the health care worker may carry bacteria from one person to

PORTAL OF ENTRY (Mucus, breaks in the skin)

An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. Portals include body
orifices, mucus membranes, or breaks in the skin. Portals also result from tubes
placed in body cavities, such as urinary catheters, or from punctures produced by
invasive procedures such as intravenous fluid replacement.


A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying, and
resulting in infection. The host is susceptible to the disease, lacking immunity or
physical resistance to overcome the invasion by the pathogenic microorganism.

4. Illustrate or explain the procedure used during the disease


The procedures used during the disease outbreak:

a. Disease surveillance - which the spread of disease is
monitored in order to establish patterns of progression. The
main role of disease surveillance is to predict, observe, and
minimize the harm caused by outbreak, epidemic, and
pandemic situations, as well as increase our knowledge as
to what factors might contribute to such circumstances. A
key part of modern disease surveillance is the practice of
disease case reporting.
b. Identification or studying the place of infection and
the people infected – in order we can determine who
needs the prioritization.
c. Isolation of the infected persons – to avoid further
infections to other persons.
d. Taking the blood samples – to know any changes in the
blood of the client and determine the speed of the infection
of the microorganisms.
e. Injection – to lessen or prevent the widespread through
the serum.
f. Burning of the dead and infected bodies – to stop the
disease outbreak.

5. Give examples of the 3 levels of prevention.

Primary Prevention

Providing specific protection against disease to prevent its occurrence

is the most desirable form of prevention. Primary preventive efforts spare the
client the cost, discomfort and the threat to the quality of life that illness
poses or at least delay the onset of illness. Preventive measures consist of
counseling, education and adoption of specific health practices or changes in


a. Mandatory immunization of children belonging to the

age range of 0 – 50 months old to control acute
infection diseases.

b. Minimizing contamination of the work or general

environment by asbestos dust, silicone dust, smoke,
chemical pollutants and excessive noise.

Secondary Prevention

It consist of organized, direct screening efforts or education of the public to

promote early case finding of an individual with disease so that prompt
intervention can be instituted to halt pathologic processes and limit disability.
Early diagnosis of a health problem can decrease the catastrophic effects that
might otherwise result for the individual and the family from advanced illness
and its many complications.

a. Public education to promote breast self-examination,
use of home kits for detection of occult blood in stool
specimens and familiarity with the seven cancer
danger signals.

b. Screening programs for hypertension, diabetes.

Uterine cancer (pap smear), breast cancer
(examination and mammography), glaucoma and
sexually transmitted disease.

Tertiary Prevention

It begins early in the period of recovery from illness and consists of such
activities as consistent and appropriate administration of medications
to optimize therapeutic effects, moving and positioning to prevent
complications of immobility and passive and active exercise to
prevent disability. Continuing health supervision during
rehabilitation to restore an individual to an optimal level of
functioning. Minimizing residual disability and helping the client learn to live
productively with limitations are the goals of tertiary prevention. (Pender,

6. Identify the function of Nurse in Epidemiology.

The Nurse is so important in Epidemiology. He or she works as a
Researcher or Co-researcher. He or she does the following duties:

• Provides the community with stimulation necessary for a wider or

more complex study or problems.
• Enforce community to do prompt and intelligent reporting of
epidemiologic investigation of disease.
• suggest areas that need research (by creating dissatisfaction)
• participate in planning for the study in formulating procedures
• assist in the collection of data
• helps interpret findings collectively
• act on the result of the research