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# CIV2226

## Design of Concrete & Masonry

Structures Chapter 1, Textbook

## Dr. Barry Y. Bai

Lecture #1 (week 1)
23.07.2010

## Overview of reinforced concrete Overview of reinforced concrete

• Concrete • Find the position in tension,
- Brittle • Calculate the amount of steel
- Weak in tension while strong reinforcement
in compression
• Steel • Is the structure strong enough ?
- Ductile • Is the structure stiff enough?
- Used to carry tension (and
compression)
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P P

## Where we should put steel bars?

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Cantilever Beam Simply Supported Beam
Reinforcement is to
be placed at
A. bottom
B. top
T
C. middle T

Continuous Beams
A

T
B

Prestressed Concrete
Overview of reinforced concrete • Normal reinforced concrete: cracks under normal service
• Main reinforcement conditions (no adverse effect on safety, but on durability and
• Secondary reinforcement (stirrups or ligatures) appearance)
• Bond between the reinforcement and adjacent concrete • Prestressed concrete: Tendon is tensioned and therefore
(end anchorage) concrete is stressed in compression. When external loads in
tension act, cracking can be postponed or prevented.
• Concrete cover (protect steel against corrosion)

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Prestressed Beams Loads and Actions LL
• Action: any agent, such DL
foundation movement or
which may act on a
structure.

## • Load combinations: See AS 1170 or HB 2.2-2003 p23

• Action effects: the forces and moments, deformations, • Load path: How the externally applied loads are transferred
cracks and other effects, which are produced in a through the member and into its supports
structure or in its component members by an action.

## • Bending moment diagram (BMD)

• Shear force diagram (SFD)

C
C

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## Load Path in Arch Ancient Structures

A. Pure compression
B. Pure tension
C. Bending in the
middle
D. Shear