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1) Acknowledgement
2) Certficate
3) Abstract
4) Introduction
5) Concept
6) About Project
7) Hardware Part
8) Circuit Diagrams
9) Component Description

a) Resistors
b) Capacitor
c) Diode
d) Light emitting diode
e) Transistor
f) Battery
g) Crystal oscillator
h) Power supply
i) Relay
j) Transformer
k) Microcontroller (8051/8052)
l) Infrared remote control
m) Photodiode
n) Phototransistor

10) Software part

a) Transmitter program
b) Receiver program

11) Bibliography
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The HomeAutomation is a wireless home automation system that
is supposed to be implemented in existing home environments,
without any changes in the infrastructure. HomeAutomation let
the user to control the home from his or her computer and assign
actions that should happen depending on time or other sensor
readings such as light, temperature or sound from any device in
the HomeAutomation network.


This report is describing our group project in the Ubiquitous

Computing course. It is containing the design process of the
project, starting with brainstorming we had to get the final
product idea and finishing with the prototyping within home alike
environment. The original problem was to design and implement
a larger ubiquitous computing project into a home environment.
The report is describing what kind of design process, hardware
and software have been used to build up the prototype for that
product design that we had chosen as our final goal.

Most advanced home automation systems in existence today
require a big and expensive change of infrastructure. This
means that it often is not feasible to install a home
automation system in an existing building. The
HomeAutomation is a wireless home automation system that
is supposed to be implemented in existing home
environments, without any changes in the existing
infrastructure. HomeAutomation lets the user to control his
home from his or her computer. In the computer program the
user can create actions what should happen with electrical
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devices in the network depending on the sensors sensing

surrounding environment.

Every HomeAutomation box is a stand-alone device. It is
connected to the mains and controls the power outlet of the
electrical device that is plugged into it. There will be a
receiver and transmitter in each of the box, so they can
exchange information with the master (a computer). People
can control power supply of electrical devices in order to
create an interactive home environment to facilitate the
control without changing any home appliance. People can
enjoy the high technology and simplicity modern life style.
Each device will be with standard setup and while adding it
into network; it can be given an address and tasks to do. All
the setting will be easily resettable to default value, so people
can move the devices between different electrical devices
and networks. HomeAutomation boxes will be put into
different rooms at home, depending on the needed
functionality. Various different sensors could be attached to
the boxes. The sensors are used as triggers for actions, that
user can set up in the computer program.
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Home automation systems, or smart home technologies, are
systems and devices that can control elements of your home
environment — lighting, appliances, telephones, home security
and mechanical, entry and safety systems.

Home automation systems can be operated by electricity or a

computer chip using a range of different types of switches. A
simple device, such as a light can be activated by a signal from a
motion detector, or can be part of a computerized home
automation system. As a very basic definition, we tend to refer to
home automation as anything that gives you remote or automatic
control of things around the home.


Home automation (also called domotics) may designate an

emerging practice of increased automation of household
appliances and features in residential dwellings, particularly
through electronic means that allow for things impracticable,
overly expensive or simply not possible in recent past decades.
The term may be used in contrast to the more mainstream
"building automation," which refers to industrial settings and the
automatic or semi-automatic control of lighting, climate doors and
windows, and security and surveillance systems. The techniques
employed in home automation include those in building
automation as well as the control of home entertainment
systems, houseplant watering, pet feeding, "scenes" for different
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events (such as dinners or parties), and the use of domestic


Typically, it is easier to more fully outfit a house during

construction due to the accessibility of the walls, outlets, and
storage rooms, and the ability to make design changes
specifically to accommodate certain technologies. Wireless
systems are commonly installed when outfitting a pre-existing
house, as they obviate the need to make major structural
changes. These communicate via radio or infrared signals with a
central controller.
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Home automation can:

 Increase your independence and give you greater control of

your home environment.
 Make it easier to communicate with your family.
 Save you time and effort.
 Improve your personal safety.
 Reduce your heating and cooling costs.
 Increase your home’s energy efficiency.
 Alert you audibly and visually to emergency situations.
 Allow you to monitor your home while you are away.


 The operating system (for example, a computer, security
system, a telephone or electricity).
 The device being operated (for example, a light or furnace)
 The interface, or link, between the user and the device. An
interface can be a button, a keypad, a motion sensor and so
on. For example, a thermostat equipped with a computer
chip can be controlled by an interface such as a push button,
which sends a signal to the furnace to adjust the
temperature for different times of the day and night.
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 Remote control

Remote control gives you the convenience of controlling

lighting, appliances, security systems and consumer
electronics from wherever you happen to be at the time,
like your couch, car or even in your bed. There are several
different "methods" of controlling devices remotely.

 Automatic control

Automatic control adds even more convenience by making

things happen automatically, without any effort being
necessary. Examples include having your lights turn on at
dusk and off at your desired time, having your whole home
theater turn on and tune to the desired station after one
press of a button on your remote.


 Simple, small and handy remote control made up of IC 556

( or two IC 555)
 Micro-controller(89c51) based receiving unit
 Multi functional, programmable receiving unit
 Application specific programming of micro-controller for
industrial purpose
 It's multi functional unit so can be attached to any
 It can be used in industries to control/operate any
application/device remotely
 It can be used in homes/offices to operate any appliance
remotely like fan, bulb, air cooler, table lamp etc.
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It is a multi channel IR remote control so you can perform not just

single but many functions with this remote control. Micro-
controller 89c52 is used in receiver part so its programmable
remote control. You can program it to perform specific task or for
specific application. Some applications that I have developed are
"remote control for home appliances", "remotely operated dc
motor controller", “remotely operated stepper motor controller".
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 Remote control
 Receiving circuit
 Power supply
 Microcontroller unit
 Relay circuit
 Fire alarm system

List of things control by system

 Appliances

• Fan
• Tubes
• A.C.
• T.V.
• Sockets
• Lightings

 Doors and windows

 Blinds/Curtains
 Water
 Fire and life safety
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Block diagram of home automation system

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A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a
voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric
current passing through it in accordance with ohm's law:

V = I*R

Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic

circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical
resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as
resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as

The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the

tolerance, maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other
characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and
inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below
which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current
flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical
resistance depends upon the materials constituting the resistor as
well as its physical dimensions; it's determined by design.

Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as

well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or
terminals) are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be
physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their


The ohm (symbol: ω) is a si-driven unit of electrical resistance,

named after George Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and
submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm
(1x10−3), kilohm (1x103), and megohm (1x106).
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Theory of operation
Ohm's law

The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship

specified in ohm's law:

V = I*R

Ohm's law states that the voltage (v) across a resistor is

proportional to the current (i) through it where the constant of
proportionality is the resistance (r).

Series and parallel resistors

Resistors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential

difference (voltage). To find their total equivalent resistance (req):

The parallel property can be represented in equations by two

vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) to simplify equations. For two

The current through resistors in series stays the same, but the
voltage across each resistor can be different. The sum of the
potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. To find
their total resistance:
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A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series can

be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other.
For instance,

However, many resistor networks cannot be split up in this way.

Consider a cube, each edge of which has been replaced by a
resistor. For example, determining the resistance between two
opposite vertices requires additional transforms, such as the y-δ
transform, or else matrix methods must be used for the general
case. However, if all twelve resistors are equal, the corner-to-
corner resistance is 5⁄6 of any one of them.

The practical application to resistors is that a resistance of any

non-standard value can be obtained by connecting standard
values in series or in parallel.

Power dissipation
The power dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of
a resistor network) is calculated using the following:

All three equations are equivalent. The first is derived from joule's
first law. Ohm’s law derives the other two from that.

The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the

power over time:
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If the average power dissipated is more than

the resistor can safely dissipate, the resistor may depart from its
nominal resistance and may become damaged by overheating.
Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the
resistor to a point where it burns out, which could cause a fire in
adjacent components and materials. There are flameproof
resistors that fail (open circuit) before they overheat dangerously.

Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same
as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use. Air
circulation and proximity to a circuit board, ambient temperature,
and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly.
Rated power dissipation may be given for an ambient
temperature of 25 °c in free air. Inside an equipment case at 60
°c, rated dissipation will be significantly less; if we are dissipating
a bit less than the maximum figure given by the manufacturer we
may still be outside the safe operating area, and courting
premature failure.

Resistor Color Code Chart

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A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component
consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric
(insulator). When a potential difference (voltage) exists across the
conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field
stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the
conductors. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow
separation between large areas of conductor; hence capacitor
conductors are often called plates.

An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value,

capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the
electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference
between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates
passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and
leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric
has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow

of direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, to
filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies,
and for many other purposes. They are used in resonant circuits
in radio frequency equipment to select particular frequencies
from a signal with many frequencies.

Theory of operation
A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-
conductive region. The non-conductive substance is called the
dielectric medium, although this may also mean a vacuum or a
semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the
conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and
isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from an
external electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and
opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric
contains an electric field. The capacitor is a reasonably general
model for electric fields within electric circuits.
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An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant

capacitance c, defined as the ratio of charge ±q on each
conductor to the voltage v between them:

Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor,

causing the capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is
defined in terms of incremental changes:

In si units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of

charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the

Energy storage

Work must be done by an external influence to move charge

between the conductors in a capacitor. When the external
influence is removed, the charge separation persists and energy
is stored in the electric field. If charge is later allowed to return to
its equilibrium position, the energy is released. The work done in
establishing the electric field, and hence the amount of energy
stored, is given by:

Current-voltage relation

The current i(t) through a component in an electric circuit is

defined as the rate of change of the charge q(t) that has passed
through it. Physical charges cannot pass through the dielectric
layer of a capacitor, but rather build up in equal and opposite
quantities on the electrodes: as each electron accumulates on the
negative plate, one leaves the positive plate. Thus the
accumulated charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of
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the current, as well as being proportional to the voltage (as

discussed above). As with any antiderivative, a constant of
integration is added to represent the initial voltage v (t0). This is
the integral form of the capacitor equation,

Taking the derivative of this, and multiplying by c, yields the

derivative form,

The dual of the capacitor is the inductor, which stores energy in

the magnetic field rather than the electric field. Its current-
voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in
the capacitor equations and replacing c with the inductance l.

D.C. Circuits

A simple resistor-capacitor circuit demonstrates charging of a


A series circuit containing only a resistor, a capacitor, a switch

and a constant dc source of voltage v0 is known as a charging
circuit. If the capacitor is initially uncharged while the switch is
open, and the switch is closed at t = 0, it follows from Kirchhoff’s
voltage law that
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Taking the derivative and multiplying by c, gives a first-order

differential equation,

At t = 0, the voltage across the capacitor is zero and the voltage

across the resistor is v0. The initial current is then i(0) =v0 /r. With
this assumption, the differential equation yields

Where τ0 = rc is the time constant of the system.

As the capacitor reaches equilibrium with the source voltage, the

voltage across the resistor and the current through the entire
circuit decay exponentially. The case of discharging a charged
capacitor likewise demonstrates exponential decay, but with the
initial capacitor voltage replacing v0 and the final voltage being

A.C. circuits

Impedance, the vector sum of reactance and resistance,

describes the phase difference and the ratio of amplitudes
between sinusoidally varying voltage and sinusoidally varying
current at a given frequency. Fourier analysis allows any signal to
be constructed from a spectrum of frequencies, whence the
circuit's reaction to the various frequencies may be found. The
reactance and impedance of a capacitor are respectively
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Where j is the imaginary unit and ω is the angular velocity of the

sinusoidal signal. The - j phase indicates that the ac voltage v =
z*i lags the ac current by 90°: the positive current phase
corresponds to increasing voltage as the capacitor charges; zero
current corresponds to instantaneous constant voltage, etc.

Note that impedance decreases with increasing capacitance and

increasing frequency. This implies that a higher-frequency signal
or a larger capacitor results in a lower voltage amplitude per
current amplitude—an ac "short circuit" or ac coupling.
Conversely, for very low frequencies, the reactance will be high,
so that a capacitor is nearly an open circuit in ac analysis—those
frequencies have been "filtered out".
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Parallel plate model

Dielectric is placed between two conducting plates, each of area A

and with a separation of d.

The simplest capacitor consists of two parallel conductive plates

separated by a dielectric with permittivity ε (such as air). The
model may also be used to make qualitative predictions for other
device geometries. The plates are considered to extend uniformly
over an area A and a charge density ±ρ = ±q/A exists on their
surface. Assuming that the width of the plates is much greater
than their separation d, the electric field near the centre of the
device will be uniform with the magnitude e = ρ/ε. The voltage is
defined as the line integral of the electric field between the plates

Solving this for c = q/v reveals that capacitance increases with

area and decreases with separation

The capacitance is therefore greatest in devices made from

materials with a high permittivity.
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Several capacitors in parallel.

For capacitors in parallel

Capacitors in a parallel configuration each have the same

applied voltage. Their capacitances add up. Charge is
apportioned among them by size. Using the schematic
diagram to visualize parallel plates, it is apparent that each
capacitor contributes to the total surface area.

For capacitors in series

Several capacitors in series.

Connected in series, the schematic diagram reveals that the

separation distance, not the plate area, adds up. The capacitors
each store instantaneous charge build-up equal to that of every
other capacitor in the series. The total voltage difference from
end to end is apportioned to each capacitor according to the
inverse of its capacitance. The entire series acts as a capacitor
smaller than any of its components.
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Capacitors are combined in series to achieve a higher working

voltage, for example for smoothing a high voltage power supply.
The voltage ratings, which are based on plate separation, add up.
In such an application, several series connections may in turn be
connected in parallel, forming a matrix. The goal is to maximize
the energy storage utility of each capacitor without overloading it.


Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems.

They are so common that it is a rare electrical product that does
not include at least one for some purpose.

Energy storage

A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its

charging circuit, so it can be used like a temporary battery.
Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to maintain
power supply while batteries are being changed. (This prevents
loss of information in volatile memory.)

Conventional electrostatic capacitors provide less than 360 joules

per kilogram of energy density, while capacitors using developing
technologies can provide more than 2.52 kilojoules per kilogram.

In car audio systems, large capacitors store energy for the

amplifier to use on demand. Also for a flash tube a capacitor is
used to hold the high voltage. In ceiling fans, capacitors play the
important role of storing electrical energy to give the fan enough
torque to start spinning.

Pulsed power and weapons

Groups of large, specially constructed, low-inductance high-

voltage capacitors (capacitor banks) are used to supply huge
pulses of current for many pulsed power applications. These
include electromagnetic forming, Marx generators, pulsed lasers
(especially tea lasers), pulse forming networks, radar, fusion
research, and particle accelerators.
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Large capacitor banks (reservoir) are used as energy sources for the exploding-
bridgewire detonators or slapper detonators in nuclear weapons and
other specialty weapons. Experimental work is under way using banks of
capacitors as power sources for electromagnetic armor and electromagnetic
railguns and coilguns.
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Power Conditioning

A 10,000 microfarad capacitor in a trm-800 amplifier

Reservoir capacitors are used in power supplies where they

smooth the output of a full or half wave rectifier. They can also be
used in charge pump circuits as the energy storage element in
the generation of higher voltages than the input voltage.

Capacitors are connected in parallel with the power circuits of

most electronic devices and larger systems (such as factories) to
shunt away and conceal current fluctuations from the primary
power source to provide a "clean" power supply for signal or
control circuits. Audio equipment, for example, uses several
capacitors in this way, to shunt away power line hum before it
gets into the signal circuitry. The capacitors act as a local reserve
for the dc power source, and bypass ac currents from the power
supply. This is used in car audio applications, when a stiffening
capacitor compensates for the inductance and resistance of the
leads to the lead-acid car battery.

Power factor correction

In electric power distribution, capacitors are used for power factor

correction. Such capacitors often come as three capacitors
connected as a three phase load. Usually, the values of these
capacitors are given not in farads but rather as a reactive power
in volt-amperes reactive (var). The purpose is to counteract
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inductive loading from devices like electric motors and

transmission lines to make the load appear to be mostly resistive.
Individual motor or lamp loads may have capacitors for power
factor correction, or larger sets of capacitors (usually with
automatic switching devices) may be installed at a load center
within a building or in a large utility substation.

Suppression and coupling

Signal coupling

Because capacitors pass ac but block dc signals (when charged

up to the applied dc voltage), they are often used to separate the
ac and dc components of a signal. This method is known as ac
coupling or "capacitive coupling". Here, a large value of
capacitance, whose value need not be accurately controlled, but
whose reactance is small at the signal frequency, is employed.


A decoupling capacitor is a capacitor used to protect one part of a

circuit from the effect of another, for instance to suppress noise
or transients. Noise caused by other circuit elements is shunted
through the capacitor, reducing the effect they have on the rest
of the circuit. It is most commonly used between the power
supply and ground. An alternative name is bypass capacitor as it
is used to bypass the power supply or other high impedance
component of a circuit.

Noise filters and snubbers

When an inductive circuit is opened, the current through the

inductance collapses quickly, creating a large voltage across the
open circuit of the switch or relay. If the inductance is large
enough, the energy will generate a spark, causing the contact
points to oxidize, deteriorate, or sometimes weld together, or
destroying a solid-state switch. A snubber capacitor across the
newly opened circuit creates a path for this impulse to bypass the
contact points, thereby preserving their life; these were
commonly found in contact breaker ignition systems, for instance.
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Similarly, in smaller scale circuits, the spark may not be enough

to damage the switch but will still radiate undesirable radio
frequency interference (rfi), which a filter capacitor absorbs.
Snubber capacitors are usually employed with a low-value resistor
in series, to dissipate energy and minimize rfi. Such resistor-
capacitor combinations are available in a single package.

Capacitors are also used in parallel to interrupt units of a high-

voltage circuit breaker in order to equally distribute the voltage
between these units. In this case they are called grading

In schematic diagrams, a capacitor used primarily for dc charge

storage is often drawn vertically in circuit diagrams with the
lower, more negative, plate drawn as an arc. The straight plate
indicates the positive terminal of the device, if it is polarized (see
electrolytic capacitor).

Motor Starters
In single phase squirrel cage motors, the primary winding within
the motor housing is not capable of starting a rotational motion
on the rotor, but is capable of sustaining one. To start the motor,
a secondary winding is used in series with a non-polarized starting
capacitor to introduce a lag in the sinusoidal current through the
starting winding. When the secondary winding is placed at an
angle with respect to the primary winding, a rotating electric field
is created. The force of the rotational field is not constant, but is
sufficient to start the rotor spinning. When the rotor comes close
to operating speed, a centrifugal switch (or current-sensitive relay
in series with the main winding) disconnects the capacitor. The
start capacitor is typically mounted to the side of the motor
housing. These are called capacitor-start motors, which have
relatively high starting torque.

There are also capacitor-run induction motors which have a

permanently-connected phase-shifting capacitor in series with a
second winding. The motor is much like a two-phase induction
P a g e | 30

Motor-starting capacitors are typically non-polarized electrolytic

types, while running capacitors are conventional paper or plastic
film dielectric types.

Signal processing
The energy stored in a capacitor can be used to represent
information, either in binary form, as in drams, or in analogue
form, as in analog sampled filters and ccds. Capacitors can be
used in analog circuits as components of integrators or more
complex filters and in negative feedback loop stabilization. Signal
processing circuits also use capacitors to integrate a current

Tuned circuits
Capacitors and inductors are applied together in tuned circuits to
select information in particular frequency bands. For example,
radio receivers rely on variable capacitors to tune the station
frequency. Speakers use passive analog crossovers, and analog
equalizers use capacitors to select different audio bands.

The resonant frequency f of a tuned circuit is a function of the

inductance (l) and capacitance (c) in series, and is given by:

Where l is in henries and c is in farads.

Most capacitors are designed to maintain a fixed physical
structure. However, various factors can change the structure of
the capacitor, and the resulting change in capacitance can be
used to sense those factors.

Changing the dielectric:

P a g e | 31

The effects of varying the physical and/or electrical characteristics

of the dielectric can be used for sensing purposes. Capacitors with
an exposed and porous dielectric can be used to measure
humidity in air. Capacitors are used to accurately measure the
fuel level in airplanes; as the fuel covers more of a pair of plates,
the circuit capacitance increases.

Changing the distance between the plates:

Capacitors with a flexible plate can be used to measure strain or
pressure. Industrial pressure transmitters used for process control
use pressure-sensing diaphragms, which form a capacitor plate of
an oscillator circuit. Capacitors are used as the sensor in
condenser microphones, where one plate is moved by air
pressure, relative to the fixed position of the other plate. Some
accelerometers use mems capacitors etched on a chip to
measure the magnitude and direction of the acceleration vector.
They are used to detect changes in acceleration, e.g. as tilt
sensors or to detect free fall, as sensors triggering airbag
deployment, and in many other applications. Some fingerprint
sensors use capacitors. Additionally, a user can adjust the pitch of
a theremin musical instrument by moving his hand since this
changes the effective capacitance between the user's hand and
the antenna.
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In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that
conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually
refers to a semiconductor diode, the most common type today,
which is a crystal of semiconductor connected to two electrical
terminals, a p-n junction. A vacuum tube diode, now little used, is
a vacuum tube with two electrodes; a plate and a cathode.

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric

current in one direction (called the diode's forward direction)
while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse
direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic
version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called
rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct
current, and extract modulation from radio signals in radio

However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this

simple on-off action, due to their complex non-linear electrical
characteristics, which can be tailored by varying the construction
of their p-n junction. These are exploited in special purpose
diodes that perform many different functions. Diodes are used to
regulate voltage (zener diodes), electronically tune radio and T.V.
receivers (varactor diodes), generate radio frequency oscillations
(tunnel diodes), and produce light (light emitting diodes).

Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The

discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German
physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor
diodes, called cat's whisker diodes were made of crystals of
minerals such as galena. Today most diodes are made of silicon,
but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes

Semiconductor diodes
A modern semiconductor diode is made of a crystal of
semiconductor like silicon that has impurities added to it to create
P a g e | 33

a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers

(electrons), called n-type semiconductor, and a region on the
other side that contains positive charge carriers (holes), called p-
type semiconductor. The diode's terminals are attached to each
of these regions. The boundary within the crystal between these
two regions, called a pn junction, is where the action of the diode
takes place. The crystal conducts conventional current in a
direction from the p-type side (called the anode) to the n-type
side (called the cathode), but not in the opposite direction.

Another type of semiconductor diode, the Schottky diode, is

formed from the contact between a metal and a semiconductor
rather than by a p-n junction.

Current–voltage characteristic
A semiconductor diode’s behavior in a circuit is given by its
current–voltage characteristic, or i–v graph (see graph at right).
The shape of the curve is determined by the transport of charge
carriers through the so-called depletion layer or depletion region
that exists at the p-n junction between differing semiconductors.
When a p-n junction is first created, conduction band (mobile)
electrons from the n-doped region diffuse into the p-doped region
where there is a large population of holes (vacant places for
electrons) with which the electrons “recombine”. When a mobile
electron recombines with a hole, both hole and electron vanish,
leaving behind an immobile positively charged donor (dopant) on
the n-side and negatively charged acceptor (dopant) on the p-
side. The region around the p-n junction becomes depleted of
charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator.

However, the width of the depletion region (called the depletion

width) cannot grow without limit. For each electron-hole pair that
recombines, a positively-charged dopant ion is left behind in the
n-doped region, and a negatively charged dopant ion is left
behind in the p-doped region. As recombination proceeds more
ions are created, an increasing electric field develops through the
depletion zone which acts to slow and then finally stop
recombination. At this point, there is a “built-in” potential across
the depletion zone.
P a g e | 34

If an external voltage is placed across the diode with the same

polarity as the built-in potential, the depletion zone continues to
act as an insulator, preventing any significant electric current flow
(unless electron/hole pairs are actively being created in the
junction by, for instance, light. See photodiode). This is the
reverse bias phenomenon. However, if the polarity of the external
voltage opposes the built-in potential, recombination can once
again proceed, resulting in substantial electric current through
the p-n junction (i.e. Substantial numbers of electrons and holes
recombine at the junction).. For silicon diodes, the built-in
potential is approximately 0.6 v. Thus, if an external current is
passed through the diode, about 0.6 v will be developed across
the diode such that the p-doped region is positive with respect to
the n-doped region and the diode is said to be “turned on” as it
has a forward bias.

Figure: I–V characteristics of a p-n junction diode (not to scale).

A diode’s I–V characteristic' can be approximated by four regions

of operation (see the figure at right).

At very large reverse bias, beyond the peak inverse voltage or

piv, a process called reverse breakdown occurs which causes a
large increase in current (i.e. a large number of electrons and
holes are created at, and move away from the pn junction) that
usually damages the device permanently. The avalanche diode is
deliberately designed for use in the avalanche region. In the zener
diode, the concept of piv is not applicable. A zener diode contains
a heavily doped p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the
P a g e | 35

valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the

n-type material, such that the reverse voltage is “clamped” to a
known value (called the zener voltage), and avalanche does not
occur. Both devices, however, do have a limit to the maximum
current and power in the clamped reverse voltage region. Also,
following the end of forward conduction in any diode, there is
reverse current for a short time. The device does not attain its full
blocking capability until the reverse current ceases.

The second region, at reverse biases more positive than the piv,
has only a very small reverse saturation current. In the reverse
bias region for a normal p-n rectifier diode, the current through
the device is very low (in the µa range). However, this is
temperature dependent, and at sufficiently high temperatures, a
substantial amount of reverse current can be observed (ma or

The third region is forward but small bias, where only a small
forward current is conducted.

As the potential difference is increased above an arbitrarily

defined “cut-in voltage” or “on-voltage” or “diode forward voltage
drop (vd)”, the diode current becomes appreciable (the level of
current considered “appreciable” and the value of cut-in voltage
depends on the application), and the diode presents a very low

The current–voltage curve is exponential. In a normal silicon diode

at rated currents, the arbitrary “cut-in” voltage is defined as 0.6
to 0.7 volts. The value is different for other diode types —
schottky diodes can be rated as low as 0.2 v and red or blue light-
emitting diodes (LEDs) can have values of 1.4 v and 4.0 v

At higher currents the forward voltage drop of the diode

increases. A drop of 1 v to 1.5 v is typical at full rated current for
power diodes.

Shockley diode equation

P a g e | 36

The Shockley ideal diode equation or the diode law (named after
transistor co-inventor William Bradford Shockley, not to be
confused with tetrode inventor Walter h. Schottky) gives the i–v
characteristic of an ideal diode in either forward or reverse bias
(or no bias). The equation is:


I is the diode current,

Is is the reverse bias saturation current,

Vd is the voltage across the diode,

Vt is the thermal voltage, and

N is the emission coefficient, also known as the ideality

factor. The emission coefficient n varies from about 1 to 2
depending on the fabrication process and semiconductor
material and in many cases is assumed to be approximately
equal to 1 (thus the notation n is omitted).

The thermal voltage vt is approximately 25.85 mv at 300 k, a

temperature close to “room temperature” commonly used in
device simulation software. At any temperature it is a known
constant defined by:

Where k is the Boltzmann constant, t is the absolute temperature

of the p-n junction, and q is the magnitude of charge on an
electron (the elementary charge).

The Shockley ideal diode equation or the diode law is derived with
the assumption that the only processes giving rise to the current
in the diode are drift (due to electrical field), diffusion, and
thermal recombination-generation. It also assumes that the
P a g e | 37

recombination-generation (r-g) current in the depletion region is

insignificant. This means that the Shockley equation doesn’t
account for the processes involved in reverse breakdown and
photon-assisted r-g. Additionally, it doesn’t describe the “leveling
off” of the i–v curve at high forward bias due to internal

Under reverse bias voltages (see figure 5) the exponential in the

diode equation is negligible, and the current is a constant
(negative) reverse current value of −is. The reverse breakdown
region is not modeled by the Shockley diode equation.

For even rather small forward bias voltages (see figure 5) the
exponential is very large because the thermal voltage is very
small, so the subtracted ‘1’ in the diode equation is negligible and
the forward diode current is often approximated as
P a g e | 38

A light-emitting diode (led) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs
are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly
used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component
in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern
versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared
wavelengths, with very high brightness.

The led is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is

forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine
with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of
photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of
the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is
determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. A led is
usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical
components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in
reflection. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light
sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime,
improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater
durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive
and require more precise current and heat management than
traditional light sources. Current led products for general lighting
are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of
comparable output.

They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for

traditional light sources in automotive lighting (particularly
indicators) and in traffic signals. Airbus uses led lighting in their
a320 enhanced since 2007, and Boeing plans its use in the 787.
The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays
and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are
useful in advanced communications technology.
P a g e | 39

 Efficiency: LEDs produce more light per watt than
incandescent bulbs. Their efficiency is not affected by shape
and size unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes.
 Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color without the
use of color filters that traditional lighting methods require.
This is more efficient and can lower initial costs.
 Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm2) and are
easily populated onto printed circuit boards.
 On/off time: LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red
indicator led will achieve full brightness in microseconds.
LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster
response times.
 Cycling: LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are
subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps
that burn out more quickly when cycled frequently, or hid
lamps that require a long time before restarting.
 Dimming: LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-
width modulation or lowering the forward current.
 Cool light: in contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate
very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to
sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as
heat through the base of the led.
P a g e | 40

 Slow failure: LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time, rather

than the abrupt burn-out of incandescent bulbs.
 Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One
report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life,
though time to complete failure may be longer. Fluorescent
tubes typically are rated at about 10,000 to 15,000 hours,
depending partly on the conditions of use, and incandescent
light bulbs at 1,000–2,000 hours.
 Shock resistance: LEDs, being solid state components, are
difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent
and incandescent bulbs which are fragile.
 Focus: the solid package of the led can be designed to focus
its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require
an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable
 Toxicity: LEDs do not contain mercury, unlike fluorescent

 Some fluorescent lamps can be more efficient.
 High initial price: LEDs are currently more expensive, price
per lumen, on an initial capital cost basis, than most
conventional lighting technologies. The additional expense
partially stems from the relatively low lumen output and the
drive circuitry and power supplies needed.
 Temperature dependence: led performance largely depends
on the ambient temperature of the operating environment.
Over-driving the led in high ambient temperatures may
result in overheating of the led package, eventually leading
to device failure. Adequate heat-sinking is required to
maintain long life. This is especially important when
considering automotive, medical, and military applications
where the device must operate over a large range of
temperatures, and is required to have a low failure rate.
P a g e | 41

 Voltage sensitivity: LEDs must be supplied with the voltage

above the threshold and a current below the rating. This can
involve series resistors or current-regulated power supplies.
 Light quality: most cool-white LEDs have spectra that differ
significantly from a black body radiator like the sun or an
incandescent light. The spike at 460 nm and dip at 500 nm
can cause the color of objects to be perceived differently
under cool-white led illumination than sunlight or
incandescent sources, due to metamerism, red surfaces
being rendered particularly badly by typical phosphor based
cool-white LEDs. However, the color rendering properties of
common fluorescent lamps are often inferior to what is now
available in state-of-art white LEDs.
 Area light source: LEDs do not approximate a “point source”
of light, but rather a lambertian distribution. So LEDs are
difficult to use in applications requiring a spherical light field.
LEDs are not capable of providing divergence below a few
degrees. This is contrasted with lasers, which can produce
beams with divergences of 0.2 degrees or less.
 Blue hazard: there is a concern that blue LEDs and cool-
white LEDs are now capable of exceeding safe limits of the
so-called blue-light hazard as defined in eye safety
specifications such as ansi/iesna rp-27.1-05: recommended
practice for photo biological safety for lamp and lamp
 Blue pollution: because cool-white LEDs (i.e., LEDs with high
color temperature) emit proportionally more blue light than
conventional outdoor light sources such as high-pressure
sodium lamps, the strong wavelength dependence of Raleigh
scattering means that cool-white LEDs can cause more light
pollution than other light sources. The international dark-sky
association discourages the use of white light sources with
correlated color temperature above 3,000 k.

In electronics, the basic led circuit is an electric power circuit used
to power a light-emitting diode or led. It consists of a voltage
source powering two components connected in series: a current
P a g e | 42

limiting resistor, and an led. Optionally, a switch may be

introduced to open and close the circuit. The switch may be
replaced with another component or circuit to form a continuity

The led used will have a voltage drop, specified at the intended
operating current. Ohm's law and Kirchhoff’s circuit laws are used
to calculate the resistor that is used to attain the correct current.
The resistor value is computed by subtracting the led voltage
drop from the supply voltage, and then dividing by the desired led
operating current. If the supply voltage is equal to the LED's
voltage drop, no resistor is needed.

Simple led circuit diagram

Simple resistance formula for optimum

brightness of the led
The formula to calculate the correct resistance to use is:


 Power supply voltage (vs) is the voltage of the power supply

e.g. a 9 volt battery.
 Led voltage drop (vf) is the voltage drop across the led
(typically about 1.8 - 3.3 volts; this varies by the color of the
led) 1.8 volts for red and its gets higher as the spectrum
increases to 3.3 volts for blue.
P a g e | 43

 Led current rating (if) is the manufacturer rating of the led

(usually given in mill amperes such as 20 ma)

Analysis using Kirchhoff’s laws

The formula can be explained considering the led as a

resistance, and applying the kvl (r is the unknown quantity):

The name is transistor derived from ‘transfer resistors’ indicating
a solid state semiconductor device. In addition to conductor and
insulators, there is a third class of material that exhibits
proportion of both. Under some conditions, it acts as an insulator,
and under other conditions it’s a conductor. This phenomenon is
called semi-conducting and allows a variable control over electron
flow. So, the transistor is semi conductor device used in
electronics for amplitude. Transistor has three terminals, one is
the collector, one is the base and other is the emitter, (each lead
must be connected in the circuit correctly and only then the
transistor will function). Electrons are emitted via one terminal
and collected on another terminal, while the third terminal acts as
a control element. Each transistor has a number marked on its
body. Every number has its own specifications.

There are mainly two types of transistor (i) NPN & (ii) PnP

NPN transistors:
When a positive voltage is applied to the base, the transistor
begins to conduct by allowing current to flow through the
P a g e | 44

collector to emitter circuit. The relatively small current flowing

through the base circuit causes a much greater current to pass
through the emitter / collector circuit. The phenomenon is called
current gain and it is measure in beta.

Pnp transistor:
It also does exactly same thing as above except that it has a
negative voltage on its collector and a positive voltage on its

Transistor is a combination of semi-conductor elements allowing a

controlled current flow. Germanium and silicon is the two semi-
conductor elements used for making it. There are two types of
transistors such as point contact and junction transistors. Point
contact construction is defective so is now out of use. Junction
triode transistors are in many respects analogous to triode
electron tube.

A junction transistor can function as an amplifier or oscillator as

can a triode tube, but has the additional advantage of long life,
small size, ruggedness and absence of cathode heating power.

Operation of pnp transistor:-

A pnp transistor is made by sand witching two pn germanium or
silicon diodes, placed back to back. The centre of n-type portion is
extremely thin in comparison to p region. The p region of the left
is connected to the positive terminal and n-region to the negative
terminal i.e. pn is biased in the forward direction while p region of
right is biased negatively i.e. in the reverse direction as shown in
fig. The p region in the forward biased circuit is called the emitter
P a g e | 45

and p region on the right, biased negatively is called collector.

The centre is called base.

The majority carriers (holes) of p region (known as emitter) move

to n region as they are repelled by the positive terminal of battery
while the electrons of n region are attracted by the positive
terminal. The holes overcome the barrier and cross the emitter
junction into n region. As the width of base region is extremely
thin, two to five percent of holes recombine with the free
electrons of n-region which result in a small base current while
the remaining holes (95% to 98%) reach the collector junction.
The collector is biased negatively and the negative collector
voltage aids in sweeping the hole into collector region.

As the p region at the right is biased negatively, a very small

current should flow but the following facts are observed:-

 A substantial current flows through it when the emitter

junction is biased in a forward direction.
 The current flowing across the collector is slightly less than
that of the emitter, and
 The collector current is a function of emitter current i.e. with
the decrease or increase in the emitter current a
corresponding change in the collector current is observed.

The facts can be explained as follows:-

As already discussed that 2 to 5% of the holes are lost in

recombination with the electron n base region, which result in a
P a g e | 46

small base current and hence the collector current is slightly

less than the emitter current.

The collector current increases as the holes reaching the collector

junction are attracted by negative potential applied to the

When the emitter current increases , most holes are injected into
the base region increasing the collector current. In this way
emitter is analogous to the control of plate current by small grid
voltage in a vacuum triode

Hence we can say that when the emitter is forward biased and
collector is negatively biased, a substantial current flows in both
the circuits. Since a small emitter voltage of about 0.1 to 0.5 volts
permits the flow of an appreciable emitter current the input power
is very small. The collector voltage can be as high as 45 volts.

The transistor as a switch

When used as an ac signal amplifier, the transistors base biasing
voltage is applied so that it operates within its "active" region and
the linear part of the output characteristics curves are used.
However, both the npn & pnp type bipolar transistors can be
made to operate as an "on/off" type solid state switch for
controlling high power devices such as motors, solenoids or
lamps. If the circuit uses the transistor as a switch, then the
biasing is arranged to operate in the output characteristics curves
seen previously in the areas known as the "saturation" and "cut-
off" regions as shown below.

Transistor curves
P a g e | 47

The pink shaded area at the bottom represents the "cut-off"

region. Here the operating conditions of the transistor are
zero input base current (ib), zero output collector current (IC)
and maximum collector voltage (vce) which results in a large
depletion layer and no current flows through the device. The
transistor is switched "fully-off". The lighter blue area to the
left represents the "saturation" region. Here the transistor
will be biased so that the maximum amount of base current
is applied, resulting in maximum collector current flow and
minimum collector emitter voltage which results in the
depletion layer being as small as possible and maximum
current flows through the device. The transistor is switched
"fully-on". Then we can summarize this as:

 Cut-off region - both junctions are reverse-biased, base

current is zero or very small resulting in zero collector
current flowing, and the device is switched fully "off".
 Saturation region - both junctions are forward-biased, base
current is high enough to give a collector-emitter voltage of
0v resulting in maximum collector current flowing, the
device is switched fully "on".

An example of an NPN transistor as a switch being used to

operate a relay is given below. With inductive loads such as relays
or solenoids a flywheel diode is placed across the load to dissipate
the back emf generated by the inductive load when the transistor
switches "off" and so protect the transistor from damage. If the
load is of a very high current or voltage nature, such as motors,
heaters etc, then the load current can be controlled via a suitable
relay as shown.
P a g e | 48

Transistor switching circuit

The circuit resembles that of the common emitter circuit we

looked at in the previous tutorials. The difference this time is that
to operate the transistor as a switch the transistor needs to be
turned either fully "off" (cut-off) or fully "on" (saturated). An ideal
transistor switch would have an infinite resistance when turned
"off" resulting in zero current flow and zero resistance when
turned "on", resulting in maximum current flow. In practice when
turned "off", small leakage currents flow through the transistor
and when fully "on" the device has a low resistance value causing
a small saturation voltage (vce) across it. In both the cut-off and
saturation regions the power dissipated by the transistor is at its

To make the base current flow, the base input terminal must be
made more positive than the emitter by increasing it above the
0.7 volts needed for a silicon device. By varying the base-emitter
voltage vbe, the base current is altered and which in turn controls
the amount of collector current flowing through the transistor as
previously discussed. When maximum collector current flows the
transistor is said to be saturated. The value of the base resistor
determines how much input voltage is required and
corresponding base current to switch the transistor fully "on".

Example no. 1.

For example, using the transistor values from the previous

tutorials of: β = 200, IC = 4ma and ib = 20ua, find the value of
P a g e | 49

the base resistor (rb) required to switch the load "on" when the
input terminal voltage exceeds 2.5v.

Example no. 2.

Again using the same values, find the minimum base current
required to turn the transistor fully "on" (saturated) for a load that
requires 200ma of current.

Transistor switches are used for a wide variety of applications

such as interfacing large current or high voltage devices like
motors, relays or lamps to low voltage digital logic IC's or gates
like and gates or gates. Here, the output from a digital logic gate
is only +5v but the device to be controlled may require a 12 or
even 24 volts supply. Or the load such as a dc motor may need to
have its speed controlled using a series of pulses (pulse width
modulation) and transistor switches will allow us to do this faster
and more easily than with conventional mechanical switches.

Digital logic transistor switch

The base resistor, rb is required to

limit the output current of the logic gate.

How batteries work
P a g e | 50

A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to

electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells; each
voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a
conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell
includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions
(negatively-charged ions) migrate, i.e. The anode or negative
electrode; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the
electrode to which cations (positively-charged ions) migrate, i.e.
The cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that
powers the battery, reduction (addition of electrons) occurs to
cations at the cathode, while oxidation (removal of electrons)
occurs to anions at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each
other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Many cells
use two half-cells with different electrolytes. In that case each
half-cell is enclosed in a container, and a separator that is porous
to ions but not the bulk of the electrolytes prevents mixing.

Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by

its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior
of the cell. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the
emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta. Therefore, if the
electrodes have emfs and , then the net emf is ; in
other words, the net emf is the difference between the reduction
potentials of the half-reactions.

The electrical driving force or across the terminals of a cell is

known as the terminal voltage (difference) and is measured in
volts. The terminal voltage of a cell that is neither charging nor
discharging is called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf
of the cell. Because of internal resistance, the terminal voltage of
a cell that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-
circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is charging
exceeds the open-circuit voltage. An ideal cell has negligible
internal resistance, so it would maintain a constant terminal
voltage of until exhausted, then dropping to zero. If such a cell
maintained 1.5 volts and stored a charge of one coulomb then on
complete discharge it would perform 1.5 joule of work. In actual
cells, the internal resistance increases under discharge, and the
open circuit voltage also decreases under discharge. If the
P a g e | 51

voltage and resistance are plotted against time, the resulting

graphs typically are a curve; the shape of the curve varies
according to the chemistry and internal arrangement employed.

As stated above, the voltage developed across a cell's terminals

depends on the energy release of the chemical reactions of its
electrodes and electrolyte. Alkaline and carbon-zinc cells have
different chemistries but approximately the same emf of 1.5
volts; likewise nicd and nimh cells have different chemistries, but
approximately the same emf of 1.2 volts. On the other hand the
high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium
compounds give lithium cells emfs of 3 volts or more.
P a g e | 52

What are crystal oscillators?
Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency
determining element is a quartz crystal. Because of the inherent
characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be
held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. Temperature
compensation may be applied to crystal oscillators to improve
thermal stability of the crystal oscillator.

Crystal oscillators are usually, fixed frequency oscillators where

stability and accuracy are the primary considerations. For
example it is almost impossible to design a stable and accurate
LC oscillator for the upper H.F. and higher frequencies without
resorting to some sort of crystal control. Hence the reason for
crystal oscillators.

The frequency of older ft-243 crystals can be moved upward by

crystal grinding.

I won't be discussing frequency synthesizers and direct digital

synthesis (dds) here. They are particularly interesting topics to be
covered later.

A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the

mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric
material to create an electrical signal with a very precise
frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time
(as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for
digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio
transmitters and receivers. The most common type of
piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator
circuits designed around them were called "crystal oscillators".

Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens

of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. More than two billion (2×109)
crystals are manufactured annually. Most are small devices for
consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios,
P a g e | 53

computers, and cell phones. Quartz crystals are also found inside
test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal
generators, and oscilloscopes.

A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or
ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern
extending in all three spatial dimensions.

Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a

crystal, with appropriate transducers, since all objects have
natural resonant frequencies of vibration. For example, steel is
very elastic and has a high speed of sound. It was often used in
mechanical filters before quartz. The resonant frequency depends
on size, shape, elasticity, and the speed of sound in the material.
High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple,
rectangular plate. Low-frequency crystals, such as those used in
digital watches, are typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. For
applications not needing very precise timing, a low-cost ceramic
resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal.

When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be

made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an
electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as
piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz will
generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and
this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal
behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor, capacitor and
resistor, with a precise resonant frequency. (see rlc circuit.)

Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its
size change in such a way that the frequency dependence on
temperature can be very low. The specific characteristics will
depend on the mode of vibration and the angle at which the
quartz is cut (relative to its crystallographic axes).[7] therefore, the
P a g e | 54

resonant frequency of the plate, which depends on its size, will

not change much, either. This means that a quartz clock, filter or
oscillator will remain accurate. For critical applications the quartz
oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled container, called
a crystal oven, and can also be mounted on shock absorbers to
prevent perturbation by external mechanical vibrations.
P a g e | 55

Electrical model

Electronic symbol for a piezoelectric crystal resonator

Schematic symbol and equivalent circuit for a quartz crystal in an


A quartz crystal can be modeled as an electrical network with a

low impedance (series) and a high impedance (parallel)
resonance point spaced closely together. Mathematically (using
the Laplace transform) the impedance of this network can be
written as:

P a g e | 56

Where s is the complex frequency (s = jω), ωs is the series

resonant frequency in radians per second and ωp is the parallel
resonant frequency in radians per second.

Adding additional capacitance across a crystal will cause the

parallel resonance to shift downward. This can be used to adjust
the frequency at which a crystal oscillator oscillates. Crystal
manufacturers normally cut and trim their crystals to have a
specified resonance frequency with a known 'load' capacitance
added to the crystal. For example, a 6 pf 32 kHz crystal has a
parallel resonance frequency of 32,768 Hz when a 6.0 pf
capacitor is placed across the crystal. Without this capacitance,
the resonance frequency is higher than 32,768 Hz.

Resonance modes
A quartz crystal provides both series and parallel resonance. The
series resonance is a few kilohertz lower than the parallel one.
Crystals below 30 MHz are generally operated between series and
parallel resonance, which means that the crystal appears as an
inductive reactance in operation. Any additional circuit
capacitance will thus pull the frequency down. For a parallel
resonance crystal to operate at its specified frequency, the
electronic circuit has to provide a total parallel capacitance as
specified by the crystal manufacturer.

Crystals above 30 MHz (up to >200 MHz) are generally operated

at series resonance where the impedance appears at its minimum
and equal to the series resistance. For these crystals the series
resistance is specified (<100 ω) instead of the parallel
capacitance. To reach higher frequencies, a crystal can be made
to vibrate at one of its overtone modes, which occur at multiples
of the fundamental resonant frequency. Only odd numbered
overtones are used. Such a crystal is referred to as a 3rd, 5th, or
even 7th overtone crystal. To accomplish this, the oscillator
circuit usually includes additional LC circuits to select the wanted

Temperature effects
P a g e | 57

A crystal's frequency characteristic depends on the shape or 'cut'

of the crystal. A tuning fork crystal is usually cut such that its
frequency over temperature is a parabolic curve centered around
25 °c. This means that a tuning fork crystal oscillator will resonate
close to its target frequency at room temperature, but will slow
down when the temperature either increases or decreases from
room temperature. A common parabolic coefficient for a 32 kHz
tuning fork crystal is −0.04 ppm/°c².

In a real application, this means that a clock built using a regular

32 kHz tuning fork crystal will keep good time at room
temperature, lose 2 minutes per year at 10 degrees Celsius above
(or below) room temperature and lose 8 minutes per year at 20
degrees Celsius above (or below) room temperature due to the
quartz crystal.
P a g e | 58

In alternating current the electron flow is alternate, i.e. the
electron flow increases to maximum in one direction, decreases
back to zero. It then increases in the other direction and then
decreases to zero again. Direct current flows in one direction only.
Rectifier converts alternating current to flow in one direction only.
When the anode of the diode is positive with respect to its
cathode, it is forward biased, allowing current to flow. But when
its anode is negative with respect to the cathode, it is reverse
biased and does not allow current to flow. This unidirectional
property of the diode is useful for rectification. A single diode
arranged back-to-back might allow the electrons to flow during
positive half cycles only and suppress the negative half cycles.
Double diodes arranged back-to-back might act as full wave
rectifiers as they may allow the electron flow during both positive
and negative half cycles. Four diodes can be arranged to make a
full wave bridge rectifier. Different types of filter circuits are used
to smooth out the pulsations in amplitude of the output voltage
from a rectifier. The property of capacitor to oppose any change
in the voltage applied across them by storing energy in the
electric field of the capacitor and of inductors to oppose any
change in the current flowing through them by storing energy in
the magnetic field of coil may be utilized. To remove pulsation of
the direct current obtained from the rectifier, different types of
combination of capacitor, inductors and resistors may be also be
used to increase to action of filtering.

Need of Power Supply

Perhaps all of you are aware that a ‘power supply’ is a primary

requirement for the ‘test bench’ of a home experimenter’s mini
lab. A battery eliminator can eliminate or replace the batteries of
solid-state electronic equipment and the equipment thus can be
operated by 230v A.C. mains instead of the batteries or dry cells.
Nowadays, the use of commercial battery eliminator or power
supply unit has become increasingly popular as power source for
P a g e | 59

household appliances like transceivers, record player, cassette

players, digital clock etc.

Use of diodes in rectifiers:

Electric energy is available in homes and industries in India, in the

form of alternating voltage. The supply has a voltage of 220v
(rms) at a frequency of 50 Hz. In USA, it is 110v at 60 Hz. For the
operation of most of the devices in electronic equipment, a dc
voltage is needed. For instance, a transistor radio requires a dc
supply for its operation. Usually, this supply is provided by dry
cells. But sometime we use a battery eliminator in place of dry
cells. The battery eliminator converts the ac voltage into dc
voltage and thus eliminates the need for dry cells. Nowadays,
almost all-electronic equipment includes a circuit that converts ac
voltage of mains supply into dc voltage. This part of the
equipment is called power supply. In general, at the input of the
power supply, there is a power transformer. It is followed by a
diode circuit called rectifier. The output of the rectifier goes to a
smoothing filter, and then to a voltage regulator circuit. The
rectifier circuit is the heart of a power supply.


Rectification is a process of rendering an alternating current or

voltage into a unidirectional one. The component used for
rectification is called ‘rectifier’. A rectifier permits current to flow
only during the positive half cycles of the applied ac voltage by
eliminating the negative half cycles or alternations of the applied
ac voltage. Thus pulsating dc is obtained. To obtain smooth dc
power, additional filter circuits are required.

A diode can be used as rectifier. There are various types of

diodes. But, semiconductor diodes are very popularly used as
rectifiers. A semiconductor diode is a solid-state device consisting
of two elements is being an electron emitter or cathode, the other
an electron collector or anode. Since electrons in a semiconductor
diode can flow in one direction only-from emitter to collector- the
P a g e | 60

diode provides the unilateral conduction necessary for

rectification. Out of the semiconductor diodes, copper oxide and
selenium rectifier are also commonly used.

Full wave rectifier

It is possible to rectify both alternations of the input voltage by

using two diodes in the circuit arrangement. Assume 6.3 v rms
(18 v p-p) is applied to the circuit. Assume further that two equal-
valued series-connected resistors R are placed in parallel with the
ac source. The 18 v p-p appears across the two resistors
connected between points ac and cb, and point c is the electrical
midpoint between a and b. Hence 9 v p-p appears across each
resistor. At any moment during a cycle of vin, if point a is positive
relative to c, point b is negative relative to c. When a is negative
to c, point b is positive relative to c. The effective voltage in
proper time phase which each diode "sees" is in fig. The voltage
applied to the anode of each diode is equal but opposite in
polarity at any given instant.

When a is positive relative to c, the anode of d1 is positive with

respect to its cathode. Hence d1 will conduct but d2 will not.
During the second alternation, b is positive relative to c. The
anode of d2 is therefore positive with respect to its cathode, and
d2 conducts while d1 is cut off.

There is conduction then by either d1 or d2 during the entire

input-voltage cycle.

Since the two diodes have a common-cathode load resistor rl, the
output voltage across rl will result from the alternate conduction
of d1 and d2. The output waveform vout across rl, therefore has
no gaps as in the case of the half-wave rectifier.

The output of a full-wave rectifier is also pulsating direct current.

In the diagram, the two equal resistors r across the input voltage
are necessary to provide a voltage midpoint c for circuit
P a g e | 61

connection and zero reference. Note that the load resistor rl is

connected from the cathodes to this center reference point c.

An interesting fact about the output waveform vout is that its

peak amplitude is not 9 v as in the case of the half-wave rectifier
using the same power source, but is less than 4½ v. The reason,
of course, is that the peak positive voltage of a relative to c is 4½
v, not 9v, and part of the 4½ v is lost across r.

Though the full wave rectifier fills in the conduction gaps, it

delivers less than half the peak output voltage that results from
half-wave rectification.

Bridge rectifier
A more widely used full-wave rectifier circuit is the bridge
rectifier. It requires four diodes instead of two, but avoids the
need for a centre-tapped transformer. During the positive half-
cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes d2 and d4 are conducting
and diodes d1 and d3 are non-conducting. Therefore, current
flows through the secondary winding, diode d2, load resistor rl
and diode d4. During negative half-cycles of the secondary
voltage, diodes d1 and d3 conduct, and the diodes d2 and d4 do
not conduct. The current therefore flows through the secondary
winding, diode d1, load resistor rl and diode d3. In both cases, the
current passes through the load resistor in the same direction.
Therefore, a fluctuating, unidirectional voltage is developed
across the load.

The rectifier circuits we have discussed above deliver an output
voltage that always has the same polarity: but however, this
output is not suitable as dc power supply for solid-state circuits.
This is due to the pulsation or ripples of the output voltage. This
should be removed out before the output voltage can be supplied
to any circuit. This smoothing is done by incorporating filter
networks. The filter network consists of inductors and capacitors.
The inductors or choke coils are generally connected in series
P a g e | 62

with the rectifier output and the load. The inductors oppose any
change in the magnitude of a current flowing through them by
storing up energy in a magnetic field. An inductor offers very low
resistance for dc whereas; it offers very high resistance to ac.
Thus, a series connected choke coil in a rectifier circuit helps to
reduce the pulsations or ripples to a great extent in the output
voltage. The fitter capacitors are usually connected in parallel
with the rectifier output and the load. As, ac can pass through a
capacitor but dc cannot, the ripples are thus limited and the
output becomes smoothed. When the voltage across its plates
tends to rise, it stores up energy back into voltage and current.
Thus, the fluctuations in the output voltage are reduced
considerable. Filter network circuits may be of two types in

Choke input filter

If a choke coil or an inductor is used as the ‘first- components’ in
the filter network, the filter is called ‘choke input filter’. The d.c.
along with ac pulsation from the rectifier circuit at first passes
through the choke (l). It opposes the ac pulsations but allows the
dc to pass through it freely. Thus ac pulsations are largely
reduced. The further ripples are by passed through the parallel
capacitor c. But, however, a little nipple remains unaffected,
which are considered negligible. This little ripple may be reduced
by incorporating a series a choke input filters.

Capacitor input filter

If a capacitor is placed before the inductors of a choke-input filter
network, the filter is called capacitor input filter. The d.c. along
with ac ripples from the rectifier circuit starts charging the
capacitor c. To about peak value. The ac ripples are then
diminished slightly. Now the capacitor c, discharges through the
inductor or choke coil, which opposes the ac ripples, except the
dc. The second capacitor c by passes the further ac ripples. A
small ripple is still present in the output of dc, which may be
reduced by adding additional filter network in series.

Circuit diagram
P a g e | 63
P a g e | 64

Relay is a common, simple application of electromagnetism. It
uses an electromagnet made from an iron rod wound with
hundreds of fine copper wire. When electricity is applied to the
wire, the rod becomes magnetic. A movable contact arm above
the rod is then pulled toward the rod until it closes a switch
contact. When the electricity is removed, a small spring pulls the
contract arm away from the rod until it closes a second switch
contact. By means of relay, a current circuit can be broken or
closed in one circuit as a result of a current in another circuit.

Relays can have several poles and contacts. The types of contacts
could be normally open and normally closed. One closure of the
relay can turn on the same normally open contacts; can turn off
the other normally closed contacts.

Relay requires a current through their coils, for which a voltage is

applied. This voltage for a relay can be d.c. low voltages upto 24v
or could be 240v A.C.

A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control

of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is
operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets
of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a
relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the
P a g e | 65

input circuit, it can be considered, in a broad sense, to be a form

of electrical amplifier.

These contacts can be either normally open (no), normally closed

(nc), or change-over contacts.

Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when the relay is

activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It
is also called form a contact or "makes" contact. Form a contact is
ideal for applications that require switching a high-current power
source from a remote device.

Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is

activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is
also called form b contact or "break" contact. Form b contact is
ideal for applications that require the circuit to remain closed until
the relay is activated.

Change-over contacts control two circuits: one normally-open

contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal.
It is also called form c contact.

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an

electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other
operating principles are also used. Relays find applications where
it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where
several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays
were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal
coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another.
Relays found extensive use in telephone exchanges and early
computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can
handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor
is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with
no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to
perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating
characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used
to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern
electric power systems these functions are performed by digital
instruments still called "protection relays".
P a g e | 66

Basic design and operation

A simple electromagnetic relay, such as the one taken from a car
in the first picture, is an adaptation of an electromagnet. It
consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke,
which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a
movable iron armature, and a set, or sets, of contacts; two in the
relay pictured. The armature is hinged to the yoke and
mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. It is held in
place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is
an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two
sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set
is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts
depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a
wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity
of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and
the circuit track on the printed circuit board (pcb) via the yoke,
which is soldered to the pcb.

When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting

magnetic field attracts the armature and the consequent
movement of the movable contact or contacts either makes or
breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts
were closed when the relay was de-energized, then the
movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and
vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil
is switched off, the armature is returned by a force,
approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed
position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is
also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are
manufactured to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this
is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application,
this is to reduce arcing.

When the coil is energized with direct current a diode is often

placed across the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing
magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a
voltage spike dangerous to circuit components. Some automotive
relays already include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively
a contact protection network, consisting of a capacitor and
P a g e | 67

resistor in series, may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to

be energized with alternating current (ac), a small copper ring can
be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates
a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull
on the armature during the ac cycle.

By analogy with functions of the original electromagnetic device,

a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state
switching device. To achieve electrical isolation an optocoupler
can be used which is a light-emitting diode (led) coupled with a
photo transistor.

Relays are devices which allow low power circuits to switch a

relatively high current/voltage on/off. For a relay to operate a
suitable pull-in & holding current should be passed through its
coil. Generally relay coils are designed to operate from a
particular voltage often its 5v or 12v.

The function of relay driver circuit is to provide the necessary

current (typically 25 to 70ma) to energize the relay coil.


Figure shows the basic relay driver circuit. As you can see an npn
transistor bc547 is being used to control the relay. The transistor
is driven into saturation (turned on) when logic 1 is written on the
port pin thus turning on the relay. The relay is turned off by
P a g e | 68

writing logic 0 on the port pin.

A diode (1n4007/1n4148) is connected across the relay coil; this

is done so as to protect the transistor from damage due to
the back emf generated in the relay's inductive coil when the
transistor is turned off. When the transistor is switched off the
energy stored in the inductor is dissipated through the diode &
the internal resistance of the relay coil.

As you can see we have used a pull up resistor at the base of the
transistor. At8951/52/55 has an internal pull up resistor of 10k so
when the pin is pulled high the current flows through this resistor
so the maximum output current is 5v/10k = 0.5ma, the dc current
gain of bc547 is 100 so the maximum collector current we can get
is 0.5ma x 100 = 50ma, but most of the relays require more than
70ma-130ma current depending on the relay that we have
used, 0.5ma of base current is not suitable enough for turning on
the relay, so we have used an external pull up resistor. When the
controller pin is high current flows through the controller pin i.e.
5v/10k=0.5ma as well as through the pull up resistor. We have
used 4.7k pull up resistor so 5v/4.7k=1.1ma so maximum base
current can be 0.5ma + 1.1ma=1.6ma i.e. Collector current
=1.6ma x 100 = 160ma which is enough to turn on most of the

this relay driver circuit is to be used only with controllers for using
this circuit with other digital IC's like lm 555 use a resistor should
be used between that IC's output & the base of transistor. No
need of pull up resistor in that case.

Relays are used to and for:

 Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in

some types of modems or audio amplifiers,
P a g e | 69

 Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in

the starter solenoid of an automobile,
 Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution
lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection
 Isolate the controlling circuit from the controlled circuit when
the two are at different potentials, for example when
controlling a mains-powered device from a low-voltage
switch. The latter is often applied to control office lighting as
the low voltage wires are easily installed in partitions, which
may be often moved as needs change. They may also be
controlled by room occupancy detectors in an effort to
conserve energy,
 Logic functions. For example, the Boolean and function is
realized by connecting normally open relay contacts in
series, the or function by connecting normally open contacts
in parallel. The change-over or form c contacts perform the
xor (exclusive or) function. Similar functions for nand and
nor are accomplished using normally closed contacts. The
ladder programming language is often used for designing
relay logic networks.

• Early computing. Before vacuum tubes and transistors,

relays were used as logical elements in digital
computers. See arra (computer), Harvard mark ii, zuse
z2, and zuse z3.
• Safety-critical logic. Because relays are much more
resistant than semiconductors to nuclear radiation, they
are widely used in safety-critical logic, such as the
control panels of radioactive waste-handling machinery.

 Time delay functions. Relays can be modified to delay

opening or delay closing a set of contacts. A very short (a
fraction of a second) delay would use a copper disk between
the armature and moving blade assembly. Current flowing in
the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time,
lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a
minute) delay, a dashpot is used. A dashpot is a piston filled
with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly. The time period
P a g e | 70

can be varied by increasing or decreasing the flow rate. For

longer time periods, a mechanical clockwork timer is

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one
circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the
transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary
winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core,
and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding.
This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force
(emf) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called
mutual induction.
P a g e | 71

If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will

flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be
transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to
the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the
secondary winding (vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (vp),
and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary
(ns) to the number of turns in the primary (np) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus

allows an alternating current (ac) voltage to be "stepped up" by
making ns greater than np, or "stepped down" by making ns less
than np.

In the vast majority of transformers, the windings are coils wound

around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a
notable exception.

Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling

transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units
weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power
grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the
range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated
the need for transformers in some electronic circuits,
transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices
designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are
essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long
distance transmission economically practical.

Basic principles
The transformer is based on two principles: firstly, that an electric
current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and
secondly that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire
P a g e | 72

induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic

induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the
magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux
induces a voltage in the secondary coil.

An ideal transformer
An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Current
passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The
primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very
high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that most of the
magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary

Induction law
The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated
from faraday's law of induction, which states that:

Where vs is the instantaneous voltage, ns is the number of turns in

the secondary coil and φ equals the magnetic flux through one
turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular
to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the product of the magnetic
flux density b and the area a through which it cuts. The area is
constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of the
transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time
P a g e | 73

according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same

magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary
coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the
primary winding equals

Taking the ratio of the two equations for vs and vp

gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the

Ideal power equation

The ideal transformer as a circuit element

If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to

flow, electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to
the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly
efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary
circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If this
condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal the
outgoing power.

Pincoming = ipvp = poutgoing = isvs

Giving the ideal transformer equation

P a g e | 74

Transformers normally have high efficiency, so this formula is a

reasonable approximation.

If the voltage is increased, then the current is decreased by the

same factor. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the
square of the turns ratio. For example, if an impedance zs is
attached across the terminals of the secondary coil, it appears to

the primary circuit to have an impedance of . This

relationship is reciprocal, so that the impedance zp of the primary

circuit appears to the secondary to be .

Detailed operation
The simplified description above neglects several practical
factors, in particular the primary current required to establish a
magnetic field in the core, and the contribution to the field due to
current in the secondary circuit.

Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of

negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. When
a voltage is applied to the primary winding, a small current flows,
driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. The current
required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current;
since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero
reluctance, the magnetizing current is negligible, although still
required to create the magnetic field.

The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (emf)

across each winding. Since the ideal windings have no
impedance, they have no associated voltage drop, and so the
voltages vp and vs measured at the terminals of the transformer,
are equal to the corresponding emfs. The primary emf, acting as
it does in opposition to the primary voltage, is sometimes termed
the "back emf". This is due to Lenz’s law which states that the
P a g e | 75

induction of emf would always be such that it will oppose

development of any such change in magnetic field.

A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before
transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires.
Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate
proportional to the square of the current through the wire. By
transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore
low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward,
transformers enable economic transmission of power over long
distances. Consequently, transformers have shaped the electricity
supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely
from points of demand. All but a tiny fraction of the world's
electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by
the time it reaches the consumer.

Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to

step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low
voltage circuits they contain. The transformer also electrically
isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage.

signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of

amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record
players to the input of amplifiers. Audio transformers allowed
telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a
single pair of wires. A balun transformer converts a signal that is
referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to
ground, such as between external cables and internal circuits.

The principle of open-circuit (unloaded) transformer is widely

used for characterization of soft magnetic materials, for example
in the internationally standardized Epstein frame method
P a g e | 76



 compatible with mcs-51™ products

 8-bit microcontroller with 4k bytes flash
 4k bytes of in-system reprogrammable flash memory
 endurance: 1,000 write/erase cycles
 fully static operation: 0 Hz to 24 mhz
 three-level program memory lock
 128 x 8-bit internal ram
 32 programmable i/o lines
 two 16-bit timer/counters
 six interrupt sources
 programmable serial channel
 low-power idle and power-down modes

The at89c51 is a low-power, high-performance cmos 8-bit
microcomputer with 4k bytes of flash programmable and erasable
read only memory (perom). The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is
compatible with the industry-standard mcs-51 instruction set in-
system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By
combining a versatile 8-bit cpu with flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel at89c51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded
control applications and pinout.

The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be

P a g e | 77

The at89c51 provides the following standard features: 4k bytes of

flash, 128 bytes of ram, 32 i/o lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a

five vector two-level interrupt

architecture, full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator and clock

circuitry. In addition, the at89c51 is designed with static logic for
operation down to zero frequency and supports two software
selectable power saving modes. The idle mode stops the cpu
while allowing the ram, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt
system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the
ram contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip
functions until the next
P a g e | 78

Pin description

Vcc :-Supply voltage.


Port 0

Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain

bi-directional i/o port. As an
output port, each pin can
sink eight ttl inputs. When 1s
are written to port 0 pins,
the pins can be used as high
impedance inputs.

Port 0 may also be

configured to be the
multiplexed low order
address/data bus during accesses to external program and data
memory. In this mode p0 has internal pull-ups.

Port 0 also receives the code bytes during flash programming,

And outputs the code bytes during program

Verification. External pull-ups are required during program

Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional i/o port with internal pull-ups. The

port 1 output buffers can sink/source four ttl inputs. When 1s are
written to port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups
and can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 1 pins that are
externally being pulled low will source current (ail) because of the
internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes
during flash programming and verification.
P a g e | 79

Port 2

Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional i/o port with internal pull-ups. The

port 2 output buffers can sink/source four ttl inputs. When 1s are
written to port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups
and can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 2 pins that are
externally being pulled low will source current (ail) because of the
internal pull-ups.

Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from

external program memory and during accesses to external data
memory that use 16-bit addresses (movx @dptr). In this
application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s.
During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit
addresses (movx @ ri), port 2 emits the contents of the p2 special
function register.

Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control
signals during flash programming and verification.

Port 3

Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional i/o port with internal pull-ups. The

port 3 output buffers can sink/source four ttl inputs. When 1s are
written to port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups
and can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 3 pins that are
externally being pulled low will source current (ail) because of the
pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special
features of the at89c51 as listed below:

Port 3 also receives some control signals for flash programming

and verification.
P a g e | 80


Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the
oscillator is running resets the device.


Address latch enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the
program pulse input (prog) during flash programming. In normal
operation ale is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking
purposes. Note, however, that one ale pulse is skipped during
each access to external data memory.

If desired, ale operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of sfr

location 8eh. With the bit set, ale is active only during a movx or
movc instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting
the ale-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in
external execution mode.


Program store enable is the read strobe to external program

memory. When the at89c51 is executing code from external
program memory, psen is activated twice each machine cycle,
except that two psen activations are skipped during each access
to external data memory.
P a g e | 81


External access enable. Ea must be strapped to gnd in order to

enable the device to fetch code from external program memory
locations starting at 0000h up to ffffh. Note, however, that if lock
bit 1 is programmed, ea will be internally latched on reset. Ea
should be strapped to vcc for internal program executions.
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Oscillator characteristics
Xtal1 and xtal2 are the input and output, respectively, of an
inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip
oscillator, as shown in figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic
resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external
clock source, xtal2 should be left unconnected while xtal1 is
driven as shown in figure 2. There are no requirements on the
duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the
internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but
minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications
must be observed.

Idle mode
In idle mode, the cpu puts itself to sleep while all the on chip
peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The
content of the on-chip ram and all the special functions registers
remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be
terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset.

It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hard ware

reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from
where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal
reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to
internal ram in this event, but access to the port pins is not
inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a
port pin when idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following
the one that invokes idle should not be one that writes to a port
pin or to external memory.

Power-down mode
In the power-down mode, the oscillator is stopped, and the
instruction that invokes power-down is the last instruction
executed. The on-chip ram and special function registers retain
their values until the power-down mode is terminated. The only
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exit from power-down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the

sfrs but does not change the on-chip ram. The reset should not be
activated before vcc is restored to its normal operating level and
must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart
and stabilize.

Program memory lock bits

on the chip are three lock bits which can be left unprogrammed
(u) or can be programmed (p) to obtain the additional features
listed in the table below. When lock bit 1 is programmed, the logic
level at the ea pin is sampled and latched during reset. If the
device is powered up without a reset, the latch initializes to a
random value, and holds that value until reset is activated. It is
necessary that the latched value of ea be in agreement with the
P a g e | 84

current logic level at that pin in order for the device to function

Programming the flash

The at89c51 is normally shipped with the on-chip flash
memory array in the erased state (that is, contents = ffh) and

ready to be programmed. The programming interface accepts

either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage (vcc) program
enable signal. The low-voltage programming mode provides a
convenient way to program the at89c51 inside the user’s system,
while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with
conventional third party flash or eprom programmers. The
at89c51 is shipped with either the high-voltage or low-voltage
programming mode enabled. The respective top-side marking and
device signature codes are listed in the following table.

The at89c51 code memory array is programmed byte by byte in

either programming mode. To program any nonblank byte in the
on-chip flash memory, the entire memory must be erased using
the chip erase mode.
P a g e | 85

Programming algorithm:

before programming the at89c51, the address, data and control

signals should be set up according to the flash programming
mode table . To program the at89c51, take the following steps.

 Input the desired memory location on the address lines.

 Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines.
 Activate the correct combination of control signals.
 Raise ea/app. to 12v for the high-voltage programming
 Pulse ale/prog once to program a byte in the flash array or
the Lock bits. The byte-write cycle is self-timed and typically
takes no More than 1.5 ms.

Repeat steps 1 through 5, changing the address and data for the
entire array or until the end of the object file is reached.

Data polling:
The at89c51 features data polling to indicate the end of a write
cycle. During a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte
written will result in the complement of the written datum on
po.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data are
valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data polling
may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated.

The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the
dribs output signal. P3.4 is pulled low after ale goes high during
programming to indicate busy. P3.4 is pulled high again when
programming is done to indicate ready.

Program verify: if lock bits lb1 and lb2 have not been
programmed, the programmed code data can be read back via
the address and data lines for verification. The lock bits cannot be
P a g e | 86

verified directly. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by

observing that their features are enabled.

Chip erase: the entire flash array is erased electrically by using

the proper combination of control signals and by holding ale/prog
low for 10 ms. The code array is written with all “1”s. The chip
erase operation must be executed before the code memory can
be re-programmed.

Reading the signature bytes: the signature bytes are read by the
same procedure as a normal verification of locations 030h, 031h,
and 032h, except that p3.6 and p3.7 must be pulled to a logic
low. The values returned are as follows.

(030h) = 1eh indicates manufactured by Atmel

(031h) = 51h indicates 89c51

(032h) = ffh indicates 12v programming

(032h) = 05h indicates 5v programming

Programming interface
Every code byte in the flash array can be written and the entire
array can be erased by using the appropriate combination of
control signals. The write operation cycle is self timed and once
initiated, will automatically time itself to completion.

All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the

Atmel microcontroller series. Please contact your local
programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.
P a g e | 87


What is infrared?
Infrared is a energy radiation with a frequency below our eyes
sensitivity, so we can not see it even that we can not "see"
sound frequencies, we know that it exist, we can listen them.

Even that we can not see or hear infrared, we can feel it at our skin
temperature sensors.
When you approach your hand to fire or warm element, you will "feel"
the heat, but you can't see it. You can see the fire because it emits
other types of radiation, visible to your eyes, but it also emits lots of
infrared that you can only feel in your skin.

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength

between 0.7 and 300 micrometers, which equates to a frequency range
between approximately 1 and 430 THz.

Its wavelength is longer (and the frequency lower) than that of visible
light, but the wavelength is shorter (and the frequency higher) than
that of terahertz radiation microwaves. Bright sunlight provides an
irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this
energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, and 32
watts is ultraviolet radiation.
P a g e | 88

Infrared in electronics

Infra-red is interesting, because it is easily generated and doesn't

suffer electromagnetic interference, so it is nicely used to
communication and control, but it is not perfect, some other light
emissions could contains infrared as well, and that can interfere in
this communication. The sun is an example, since it emits a wide
spectrum or radiation.

The adventure of using lots of infra-red in tv/vcr remote controls

and other applications, brought infra-red diodes (emitter and
receivers) at very low cost at the market.

From now on you should think as infrared as just a "red" light.

This light can means something to the receiver, the "on or off"
radiation can transmit different meanings.

Lots of things can generate infrared, anything that radiate heat do

it, including out body, lamps, stove, oven, friction your hands
together, even the hot water at the faucet.

To allow a good communication using infra-red, and avoid those

"fake" signals, it is imperative to use a "key" that can tell the
receiver what is the real data transmitted and what is fake. As an
analogy, looking eye naked to the night sky you can see hundreds
of stars, but you can spot easily a far away airplane just by its
P a g e | 89

flashing strobe light. That strobe light is the "key", the "coding"
element that alerts us.

Similar to the airplane at the night sky, our T.V. room may have
hundreds of tinny IR sources, our body, the lamps around, even
the hot cup of tea. A way to avoid all those other sources, is
generating a key, like the flashing airplane. So, remote controls
use to pulsate its infrared in a certain frequency. The IR receiver
module at the T.V., VCR or stereo "tunes" to this certain
frequency and ignores all other IR received. The best frequency
for the job is between 30 and 60khz, the most used is around

So, remote controls use the 36khz (or around) to transmit

information. Infrared light emitted by IR diodes is pulsated at 36
thousand times per second, when transmitting logic level "1" and
silence for "0".

To generate a 36khz pulsating infrared is quite easy, more

difficult is to receive and identify this frequency. This is why
some companies produce infrared receives, that contains the
filters, decoding circuits and the output shaper, that delivers a
square wave, meaning the existence or not of the 36khz incoming
pulsating infrared.

It means that those 3 dollars small units, have an output pin that
goes high (+5v) when there is a pulsating 36khz infrared in front
of it, and zero volts when there is not this radiation.

A square wave of approximately 27us (microseconds) injected at

the base of a transistor, can drive an infrared led to transmit this
pulsating light wave. Upon its presence, the commercial receiver
will switch its output to high level (+5v).

If you can turn on and off this frequency at the transmitter, your
receiver's output will indicate when the transmitter is on or off.
P a g e | 90

Those IR demodulators have inverted logic at its output, when a

burst of IR is sensed it drives its output to low level, meaning logic
level = 1.

The T.V., VCR, and audio equipment manufacturers for long use
infra-red at their remote controls. My first color T.V. in 1976 used
an ultrasound (not infrared) remote control.

To avoid a Philips remote control to change channels in a

Panasonic T.V., they use different codification at the infrared,
even that all of them use basically the same transmitted
frequency, from 36 to 50khz. So, all of them use a different
combination of bits or how to code the transmitted data to avoid

Some standards were created. As illustrative material, we will

only show one of them, the one used by Philips, even that we can
cover the other ones in the future.

First of all, Philips adopted or created the rc5 standard that uses
fixed bit length and fixed quantity of bits.

Each time you press a button at the Philips remote control, it

sends a train of 14 bits, 1.728ms per bit, the whole train is
repeated every 130ms if you keep the button pressed

Each bit is sliced in two halves. The left and right half has
opposed levels. If the bit to be transmitted is one (1), its left side
is zero while its right side is one. If the bit to be transmitted is
zero (0), its left side is one while the right side is zero.
P a g e | 91

(this is the right logic, reversed from what you can see at the IR
receiver output.)

It means that the second half of the bit is actually the same
meaning of the bit to be transmitted, as you can see at the
shaded blue right side of the bit as on, means bit transmitted = 1.

If you want to measure the correct logic level directly from the
receiver output, you should measure at the first half of the bit.

The correct interpretation is that it changes level exactly at the

middle of bit time. At the IR receiver output a bit zero changes
level from low to up, while a bit one changes level from up to low.

There are a minimum quantity of incoming 27µs pulses to the

demodulator understand it is at the right frequency and then drop
its output. The quantity of pulses used at the Philips remotes are
32 pulses per each half of the bit, 64 pulses per bit. So, a bit "0"
to be transmitted it means 32 square pulses of 27µs each, then
32 x 27µs of silence. The bit "1" is the opposite, 32 x 27µs of
silence followed by 32 square pulses of 27µs.

Our job here will be to decode the receiving of the waveform at

the demodulator output. We could observe the direction of the
changing at the middle of the bit, if going down, means bit 0,
going up, and means bit 1. But it is easy to sample the middle of
the first half of the bit, so it directly tells us what is the bit state,
as we will see next in this text.

RC5 for Remote Control

What is RC5?

Most infrared remote controls communicate using an identical

Infrared carrier scheme. This IR is modulated at the transmitter by
a 36Khz, 38Khz or 40Khz square wave which in turn is
P a g e | 92

modulated/gated by the data stream of about 1Kbps. The

resulting signal is fed to one or more infrared emitters. The most
efficient pulse duty cycle is 50%.

The receiver circuit consists of a photodiode, a preamplifier, and a

demodulator circuit. This combination is commercially available
as the TEMIC IR receiver. The preamplifier contains a band pass
filter which limits the receiver’s sensitivity to about +/- 2 KHz,
near the centre frequency.

An AGC circuit adjusts the incoming level to the demodulator,

which explains the presence of a long leading pulse in many of
the protocols. This allows the receiver to stabilize its AGC circuit,
prior to the reception of the bit stream.

The output of the receiver is a binary bit stream, corresponding to

the original modulation signal at the transmitter. It is often an
open collector pull-down. Note that this signal is active low, so
that "ones" in terms of the carrier signal appear as "zeros" at the

Infrared Transmission

Normal infrared signal used by many remote controls has three

layers. Since there are no standard names for the three layers,
in this application note they are named as the IR carrier, IR
modulation, and the IR data.

The IR carrier is the media of transmission. Infrared appears just

above the color Red in the light spectrum. IR beam is invisible to
the human eye even though its behavior is same as visible light.

The IR modulation layer may have a modulation frequency

between 32Khz and 56KHz to suppress the effect of the ambient
P a g e | 93

light. The frequency selection is based on the IR receiver module.

The IR data layer is the serial data stream that is transmitted.

The RC5 code

The RC5 code set was developed by Phillips and allows 2048
commands to be transmitted divided into 32 addressable groups
of 64 commands each. The transmitted code consists of a 14 bit
data word of the following structure.

2 run-in bits to adjust the AGC level in the receiver IC

1 check bit
5 system address bits
6 command bits.
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The basic timing is derived from a 36KHZ oscillator. The code is

transmitted in biphase format. In this system, logic 1
is transmitted as a half bit time without signal, followed by a half
bit time with signal. Logic 0 has exactly the opposite structure.
Each half bit consists of 32 shorter pulses. Each transmitted bit
has a length of 1.778 msec, the shorter pulses have a pulse width
of 6.9444 usec on time and 20.8332 usec off time. A complete
data word has a length of 24.889 msec, and is always transmitted
completely. If the key is held pressed the code is repeated in
intervals of 64 bit times (i.e. 113.778 msec).

Bits are transmitted on a trailing edge.

Each RC-5 code word is 14 bits, in the following format: 2 start

bits, the first is always 1, the second is a field bit denoting
P a g e | 95

command codes 0-63 (logical 1) or 64-127 (logical 0). 1 control

bit which toggles after each key release and initiates a new
transmission (i.e., if you type 5, 5 on the first five this will be z, on
the second !z, to differentiate the second keystroke from just a
retransmission of the first), 5 system address bits for selecting
one of 32 possible systems listed in table 1. 6 command bits
representing one of the 128
possible RC-5 commands listed in the tables at the end of the

"Before transmission via the IR LED, the HIGH period of each

1.778ms symbol is modulated at 36 kHz with a duty factor of
0.25. Each half-symbol period which is HICH therefore contains
32 pulses with an on-time of 6.944us and a repetition period of

Infrared Receiver

This is a 3 pin device incorporating surface mount IC which has

the following blocks:

 Photo detector
 Preamplifier
 Filter
 Demodulator

The functional block diagram of the same is given below

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Two pins are for +5v supply and ground while the third pin is for
data output. The Infrared Receiver is designed for demodulating
the frequency of 30khz to 40khz, for example, TSOP1738 is
designed for demodulating frequency of 38khz which is used in
our project.

The IR receiver module receives the data sent by remote handset,

amplifies, demodulates and converts it to MCU compatible voltage
format and outputs it on its data output pin.

Available types for different carrier frequencies

Interfacing the keyboard to 8051 microcontroller

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The key board here we are interfacing is a matrix keyboard. This

key board is designed with a particular rows and columns. These
rows and columns are connected to the microcontroller through
its ports of the micro controller 8051. We normally use 8*8 matrix
keyboard. So only two ports of 8051 can be easily connected to
the rows and columns of the key board.

When ever a key is pressed, a row and a column gets shorted

through that pressed key and all the other keys are left open.
When a key is pressed only a bit in the port goes high. Which
indicates microcontroller that the key is pressed? By this high on
the bit key in the corresponding column is identified.

Once we are sure that one of key in the key board is pressed next
our aim is to identify that key. To do this we firstly check for
particular row and then we check the corresponding column the
key board.

To check the row of the pressed key in the keyboard, one of the
rows is made high by making one of bit in the output port of 8051
high. This is done until the row is found out. Once we get the row
next out job is to find out the column of the pressed key. The
column is detected by contents in the input ports with the help of
a counter. The content of the input port is rotated with carry until
the carry bit is set.

The contents of the counter is then compared and displayed in

the display. This display is designed using a seven segment
display and a BCD to seven segment decoder IC 7447.

The BCD equivalent number of counter is sent through output

part of 8051 displays the number of pressed key.

Circuit diagram of interfacing key board to 8051.

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The programming algorithm, program and the circuit diagram is

as follows. Here program is explained with comments.

Circuit diagram of interfacing key board to 8051.

Keyboard is organized in a matrix of rows and columns as shown

in the figure. The microcontroller accesses both rows and columns
through the port.

1. The 8051 has 4 i/o ports p0 to p3 each with 8 i/o pins, p0.0
to p0.7,p1.0 to p1.7, p2.0 to p2.7, p3.0 to p3.7. The one of
the port p1 (it understood that p1 means p1.0 to p1.7) as an
i/p port for microcontroller 8051, port p0 as an o/p port of
microcontroller 8051 and port p2 is used for displaying the
number of pressed key.
2. Make all rows of port p0 high so that it gives high signal
when key is pressed.
3. See if any key is pressed by scanning the port p1 by
checking all columns for non zero condition.
4. If any key is pressed, to identify which key is pressed make
one row high at a time.
5. Initiate a counter to hold the count so that each key is
6. Check port p1 for nonzero condition. If any nonzero number
is there in [accumulator], start column scanning by following
step 9.
7. Otherwise make next row high in port p1.
8. Add a count of 08h to the counter to move to the next row
by repeating steps from step 6.
9. If any key pressed is found, the [accumulator] content is
rotated right through the carry until carry bit sets, while
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doing this increment the count in the counter till carry is

10. Move the content in the counter to display in data field
or to memory location
11. To repeat the procedures go to step 2.
P a g e | 100

A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photo
detector. Photodiodes are packaged with either a window or
optical fiber connection, in order to let in the light to the sensitive
part of the device. They may also be used without a window to
detect vacuum UV or x-rays.

A phototransistor is in essence nothing more than a bipolar

transistor that is encased in a transparent case so that light can
reach the base-collector junction. The phototransistor works like a
photodiode, but with a much higher sensitivity for light, because
the electrons that are generated by photons in base-collector
junction are injected into the base, this current is then amplified
by the transistor operation. A phototransistor has a slower
response time than a photodiode however.

Principle of operation: -
A photodiode is a p-n junction or p-i-n structure. When light with
sufficient photon energy strikes a semiconductor, photons can be
absorbed, resulting in generation of a mobile electron and
electron hole. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion
region, these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in
field of the depletion region, producing a photocurrent.

Photodiodes can be used in either zero bias or reverse bias. In

zero bias, light falling on the diode causes a voltage to develop
across the device, leading to a current in the forward bias
direction. This is called the photovoltaic effect, and is the basis for
solar cells — in fact; a solar cell is just a large number of big,
cheap photodiodes.

Diodes usually have extremely high resistance when reverse

biased. This resistance is reduced when light of an appropriate
frequency shines on the junction. Hence, a reverse biased diode
can be used as a detector by monitoring the current running
through it. Circuits based on this effect are more sensitive to light
than ones based on the photovoltaic effect.
P a g e | 101

Avalanche photodiodes have a similar structure; however they are

operated with much higher reverse bias. This allows each photo-
generated carrier to be multiplied by avalanche breakdown,
resulting in internal gain within the photodiode, which increases
the effective responsively of the device.

Materials: -
The material used to make a photodiode is critical to defining its
properties, because only photons with sufficient energy to excite
an electron across the material's bandgap will produce significant

Materials commonly used to produce photodiodes:

Material Wavelength range (nm)

Silicon 190–1100
Germanium 800–1700
Indium gallium
Lead sulfide <1000-3500

Because of their greater bandgap, silicon-based photodiodes

generate less noise than germanium-based photodiodes, but
germanium photodiodes must be used for wavelengths longer
than approximately 1 µm.

Features: -
Critical performance metrics of a photodiode include: -

The ratio of generated photocurrent to incident light power,
typically expressed in a/w when used in photoconductive mode.
P a g e | 102

The responsivity may also be expressed as quantum efficiency, or

the ratio of the number of photo generated carriers to incident
photons, thus a unit less quantity.

Dark current
The current through the photodiode in the absence of any input
optical signal, when it is operated in photoconductive mode. The
dark current includes photocurrent generated by background
radiation and the saturation current of the semiconductor
junction. Dark current must be accounted for by calibration if a
photodiode is used to make an accurate optical power
measurement, and it is also a source of noise when a photodiode
is used in an optical communication system.

Noise-equivalent power
(N.E.P.) the minimum input optical power to generate
photocurrent equal to the rms noise current in 1 hertz bandwidth.
The related characteristic detectivity (d) is the inverse of N.E.P.,
1/nep; and the specific detectivity ( ) is the detectivity
normalized to the area (a) of the photo detector, . The
N.E.P. is roughly the minimum detectable input power of a

When a photodiode is used in an optical communication system,

these parameters contribute to the sensitivity of the optical
receiver, which is the minimum input power required for the
receiver to achieve a specified bit error ratio.

Applications: -
P-n photodiodes are used in similar applications to other photo
detectors, such as photoconductors, charge-coupled devices, and
photomultiplier tubes.
P a g e | 103

Photodiodes are used in consumer electronics devices such as

compact disc players smoke detectors, and the receivers for
remote controls in vcrs and televisions.

In other consumer items such as camera light meters, clock

radios (the ones that dim the display when its dark) and street
lights, photoconductors are often used rather than photodiodes,
although in principle either could be used.

Photodiodes are often used for accurate measurement of light

intensity in science and industry. They generally have a better,
more linear response than photoconductors.

They are also widely used in various medical applications, such as

detectors for computed tomography (coupled with scintillators) or
instruments to analyze samples (immunoassay). They are also
used in blood gas monitors.

Pin diodes are much faster and more sensitive than ordinary p-n
junction diodes, and hence are often used for optical

P-n photodiodes are not used to measure extremely low light

intensities. Instead, if high sensitivity is needed, avalanche
photodiodes, intensified charge-coupled devices or
photomultiplier tubes are used for applications such as
astronomy, spectroscopy, night-vision equipment and laser range
P a g e | 104

Phototransistors are solid-state light detectors with internal gain
that are used to provide analog or digital signals. They detect
visible, ultraviolet and near-infrared light from a variety of
sources and are more sensitive than photodiodes, semiconductor
devices that require a pre-amplifier. Phototransistors feed a
photocurrent output into the base of a small signal transistor. For
each illumination level, the area of the exposed collector-base
junction and the dc current gain of the transistor define the
output. The base current from the incident photons is amplified by
the gain of the transistor, resulting in current gains that range
from hundreds to several thousands. Response time is a function
of the capacitance of the collector-base junction and the value of
the load resistance. Photodarlingtons, a common type of
phototransistor, have two stages of gain and can provide net
gains greater than 100,000. Because of their ease of use, low cost
and compatibility with transistor-transistor logic (ttl),
phototransistors are often used in applications where more than
several hundred nanowatts (nw) of optical power are available.

Selecting phototransistors requires an analysis of performance

specifications. Collector current is the total amount of current that
flows into the collector terminal. Collector dark current is the
amount of collector current for which there is no optical input.
Typically, both collector current and collector dark current are
measured in milliamps (ma). Peak wavelength, the wavelength at
which phototransistors are most responsive, is measured in
nanometers (nm). Rise time, the time that elapses when a pulse
waveform increases from 10% to 90% of its maximum value, is
expressed in nanoseconds (ns). Collector-emitter breakdown
voltage is the voltage at which phototransistors conduct a
specified (nondestructive) current when biased in the normal
direction without optical or electrical inputs to the base. Power
dissipation, a measure of total power consumption, is measured
in milliwatts (mw).
P a g e | 105

Other performance specifications for phototransistors include

spectral range, fall time, acceptance angle, and operating

Phototransistors vary in terms of mounting and features. Surface

mount technology (smt) adds components to a printed circuit
board (pcb) by soldering component leads or terminals to the top
surface of the board. Typically, the pcb pad is coated with a
paste-like formulation of solder and flux. Elevated temperatures,
usually from an infrared oven, melt the paste and solder the
component leads to the pcb pads. Through hole technology (tht),
another commonly used mounting style, mounts components by
inserting component leads through holes in the board and then
soldering the leads in place on the opposite side of the board. In
terms of features, some phototransistors include a cutoff filter
that blocks visible light. Others have an anti-reflective coating to
improve light detection. Devices with a rounded dome lens
instead of a flat lens are also available.
P a g e | 106

Program for remote control (transmitter) unit
keyport equ P2 ;Keypad port connected here

col1 equ P2.0 ;Column 1

col2 equ P2.1 ;Column 2

col3 equ P2.2 ;Column 3

col4 equ P2.3 ;Column 4

keyval equ 30H ;To store key number

pressed bit 0H ;Flag


mov keyport,#0FH ;Make rows as o/p and col as i/p



mov keyval,#0 ;reset the number

mov keyport,#7FH ;make Row1 low

acall read_col ;read columns

P a g e | 107

jb pressed, done ;check if flag is set

mov keyval,#4 ;if not then read next row

mov keyport,#0BFH ;make Row2 low

acall read_col ;read columns

jb pressed, done ;check if flag is set

mov keyval,#8 ;if not then read next row

mov keyport,#0DFH ;make row3 low

acall read_col ;read columns

jb pressed, done ;check if flag is set

mov keyval,#12 ;if not read row4

mov keyport,#0EFH ;make row4 low

acall read_col ;read columns


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read_col: ;read columns routine

clr pressed ;reset the flag

jb col1, nextcol ;check if first key is pressed

jnb col1,$ ;if yes then wait for key release

setb pressed ;set the flag


nextcol: ;read col2

jb col2, nextcol1 ;check if second key is pressed

jnb col2,$ ;if yes then wait for key release

inc keyval ;its key number 2

setb pressed ;set the flag


nextcol1: ;read col3

jb col3, nextcol2 ;check if third key is pressed

jnb col3,$ ;if yes then wait for key release

inc keyval ;its key 3

inc keyval
P a g e | 109

setb pressed ;set the flag


nextcol2: ;read column 4

jb col4, exit ;check if fourth key pressed

jnb col4,$ ;if yes then wait for key release

inc keyval ;its key 4

inc keyval

inc keyval

setb pressed ;set the flag


exit: ;if no key is pressed

clr pressed ;clr the flag

clr keyval ;reset the number


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Program for receiving circuit

VAR1 equ r7

TEMP equ 10H

COUNT equ 11H

ADDR equ 12H

CMD equ 13H

FLIP bit 00H

TOG bit 01H

IR equ P3.2 ;IR Receiver connected to this pin

SW1 equ P1.0 ;Switch 1 connected here

SW2 equ P1.1 ;Switch 2 connected here

SW3 equ P1.2 ;Switch 3 connected here

SW4 equ P1.3 ;Switch 4 connected here

SW5 equ P1.4 ;Switch 5 connected here

SW6 equ P1.5 ;Switch 6 connected here

SW7 equ P1.6 ;Switch 7 connected here

SW8 equ P1.7 ;Switch 8 connected here

SWport equ P1 ;Port at which switches are

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org 00H

mov SWport,#00H

mov sp,#50H

clr TOG


jb IR,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#100

djnz VAR1,$

mov c,IR

mov FLIP,c
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clr A

mov COUNT,#5


mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#4

djnz VAR1,$

mov c,IR

rlc a

djnz COUNT,fadd

mov ADDR,A

clr a

mov COUNT,#6


mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255
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djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#255

djnz VAR1,$

mov VAR1,#4

djnz VAR1,$

mov c,IR

rlc a

djnz COUNT,fcmd


mov CMD,a

mov a,ADDR

cjne a,#00,nvalid

mov a,TEMP

cjne a,CMD,valid


ljmp main


clr a

mov c,FLIP

rlc a

mov TEMP,a
P a g e | 114

clr a

mov c,TOG

rlc a

cjne a,TEMP,valid1

sjmp nvalid


mov c,FLIP

mov TOG,c

mov a,CMD

clr c

cjne a,#1,skip1 ;Check for SW1

jb SW1,isset1

setb SW1

ljmp main


clr SW1

ljmp main


cjne a,#2,skip2 ;Check for SW2

jb SW2,isset2

setb SW2
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ljmp main


clr SW2

ljmp main


cjne a,#3,skip3 ;Check for SW3

jb SW3,isset3

setb SW3

ljmp main


clr SW3

ljmp main


cjne a,#4,skip4 ;Check for SW4

jb SW4,isset4

setb SW4

ljmp main


clr SW4

ljmp main

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cjne a,#5,skip5 ;Check for SW5

jb SW5,isset5

setb SW5

ljmp main


clr SW5

ljmp main


cjne a,#6,skip6

jb SW6,isset6

setb SW6

ljmp main


clr SW6

ljmp main


cjne a,#7,skip7

jb SW7,isset7

setb SW7

ljmp main

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clr SW7

ljmp main


cjne a,#8,skip8

jb SW8,isset8

setb SW8

ljmp main


clr SW8

ljmp main


cjne a,#0CH,exit

mov SWport,#00H

ljmp main


ljmp main

P a g e | 118

The HomeAutomation could be developed further by making it
more stable and put more effort on the visual design of the
product. We could reduce the size of the product by replacing the
power supply module and Arduino microcontroller with much
smaller pieces. All the devices could be equipped with IR receiver
to control the electrical devices at home that support the IR
communication. More sophisticated actions and scenarios can be
created with this. IR commands enable larger variety for
controlling electrical devices that only the power outlet. A lot of
improvements could be done in the computer program as well. It
should be more customizable for an end user and it should have
some password protection for security reasons. It would be also
nice to make it web-based so that users can control their home
P a g e | 119

HomeAutomation is undeniably a resource which can make a
home environment automated. People can control their electrical
devices via these HomeAutomation devices and set up the
controlling actions in the computer. We think this product have
high potential for marketing in the future. At the moment the
components are a bit to high to be able to produce these devices
for a interesting price.
P a g e | 120


1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistance
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistor
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode
6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_oscillator
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer
1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_8051

1 http://www.8052.com/book

1 http://www.vishay.com/docs/82030/82030.pdf