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Reviewer in Management II

4 Forces that Affects Organizational Behaviour

1. People

People are the thinking, living, and feeling beings that interact as they work for the
achievement of organizations’ goals/ objectives

2. Structure

Organizational structures to identify the tasks of each people in the organization.

3. Technology

Technology allows workers to perform much better work but needs to have a balance
between technical and social system

4. Environment

The external environment such as government, other organizations, family and others that
is interrelated with the job and output of the organization

Basic Concept / Idea of Human Behavior

1. Individual Differences

A person is a distinct individual. The individual is the starting point with which an
organization operates. Hence, he should be given all opportunities to develop fully because the
success of the organization is dependent upon the kind of individuals who comprise it.

2. Perception

It is the unique way in which an individual perceives, organizes and interprets with his eyes
on the things around him. Workers perceive their work environment differently for variety of
reasons. Management must learn to expect perceptual differences among the people and learn to
accept them as emotional beings and adopt appropriate solutions.

3. A whole person

When a person is hired it is not only because of his brains but as a whole, person possessed
with certain characteristics. Personal home life and breeding of a person is not totally separate
from workplace. The manager should develop the person to the fullest to contribute to the vision
and mission of the organization.

4. Desire for Involvement

Everybody has the necessary capabilities to perform certain task. The management should
provide opportunities for a meaningful involvement of workers.

5. Motivated Behaviour

Motivation is necessary to the operation of the organization toward task performance. The
Management should motivate its employees by showing the workers how certain jobs will increase
their need for fulfilment.
6. Value of Persons

People are the most important to control in an organization. Therefore, they deserve to be
treated with respect and dignity. They should be given preferential value for their skills and
abilities with opportunities for development.

Personality Characteristics in Organization

1. Locus of Control

An individual’s generalized belief about internal control (self-control) versus external control
(control by the situation or by others)

Internal locus control person have high job satisfaction, job involvement and they will
exercise control in their work environment

External locus control person prefer to work in a structured setting, may be more reluctant
to participate in decision making.

2. Generalized self-efficacy

A generalized belief about one’s own capabilities to deal with the events and challenges in

• High generalized self-efficacy person have more confidence in their job-related

abilities and other personal resources (energy, influence over others).

• Low generalized self-efficacy person often feel ineffective at work and may express
doubt in performing new tasks

Ex. A salesman with high self-efficacy may have confidence in his ability to meet customer
expectations, but does not necessarily blame himself for all lost sales.

3. Self- Esteem

An individual’s general feeling of self-worth.

• High self-esteem person have positive feelings about themselves, recognizes their
strength and weaknesses and believes that strength is more important than
weaknesses. They perform better and are more satisfied with their job.

• Low self-esteem person view themselves negatively. They are strongly affected by
what other people think of them.

Managers should encourage employees by giving appropriate challenges and opportunities

for success.

4. Self- Monitoring

The extent to which people base their behaviour on cues from other people and situations.

• High self-monitor person pay attention to what are the expectations of others and
respond easily to organizational culture because of flexibility.

• Low self-monitor person is “I am who I am”

5. Positive/ Negative Affect

• Positive affect person focuses on the positive aspects of themselves, other people and
the world in general. They produce positive team affect that leads to more cooperation
and less conflict. An asset in work settings.

• Negative affect person emphasize the negative in themselves, others and the world.
They report more work stress.


The Person
• Skills and
Job Satisfaction
• Personality
• Perception
• Attribution
What is the root word of Motivation?

• “Movere” a Latin word

• Attitudes
What is the meaning of this root word?

• “To move”

What is Motivation?

• Values
The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behaviour

• Ethics
An internal process that makes a person move toward a goal

About the way a person thinks and then acts on what is important to them.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


Self-actualization – personal growth & fulfilment

Esteem Needs – achievement, status, responsibility, reputation

Belongingness & Love Needs – family, affection, relationships, work group


Security & Safety Needs – protection, security, safety, law

Physiological needs: basic life needs- air, food, drink, shelter, sleep, sex

Theory X and Theory Y

By Douglas McGregor
Also called, “the managed man”

Theory X

• Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and
need to be closely controlled.

• Assumed that motivated by lower-order needs (physiological & security/safety needs)

• Managerial role is to coerce and control workers based on these assumptions

Theory Y

• Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, accept and actually seek out
responsibility, and consider work to be a natural activity

• Assumed that motivated by higher-order needs

• Managerial role is to develop potential in employees and help them release that potential
toward common objectives based on these assumptions

McClelland’s Need Theory

1. Need for Achievement “n- ACH”

• Persons who seek excellence in performance, enjoys difficult and challenging goals and
competitive in work activities

• Characteristics of Individual:

1. Person wants challenge and a good chance for success

2. Like to receive feedback on their progress

3. Comfortable working on individual tasks and activities that they control

2. Need for Power “n-POW”

• Concerned with making an impact on others, desire to influence others and control people
and events

• Distinction:

Socialized power – used for collective well-being of the group. A constructive force in the

Personalized power – used for personal gain of individual. Disruptive and destructive in the

3. Need for Affiliation “n-AFFIL”

• Concerned with establishing and maintaining warm, close, intimate relationships

with other people. Emphasize is on friendship and companionship

• These people are team players.

Classical Conditioning

Demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov

• Learning by association

Ex. Associate things with connections or pairings. Listening to a certain song makes a person feel
sad, but it is not the song that makes the person sad. The song has been paired with the loss of a
loved one.

3 Functions of Goal Setting

1. Increasing Work Motivation and Task Performance

• Goals are often used to increase employee effort and motivation, which in turn improve
task performance.

2. Reducing Role Stress of Conflicting and Confusing Expectation

• Improved role clarity leads to improved communication between Managers and employees

• Important to reduce role stress connected with conflicting and confusing expectations.

3. Improving the accuracy and validity of performance evaluation

• Improve the planning through developing operational plans in support of the corporate
goals and assessment on how employees or departments perform their expected job.

• The best method is Management by Objectives (MBO)

• MBO involves joint goal setting between employees and managers

Important Aspects of Performance Motivation

Performance Appraisal

• The best method is Management by Objectives (MBO)

• MBO involves joint goal setting between employees and managers

Major Uses of Performance Appraisal

1. Feedback to employee
• Response or informing employee on how well they are performing.

2. Self-development

• Employees learn about their strengths and weaknesses thus begin self-improvement

3. Reward Systems

• Form as bases for incentives.

4. Personnel decisions

• Employers/ managers can evaluate the employees’ talents, ability and weaknesses

5. Timing and development

• Managers can measure the skills that is lacking so that new or revised training programs
can be develop

Reviewer in Filipino I


• Ito ang pangunahing kasangkapan ng komunikasyon.

• Dito naipapahayag ng mga tao ang kanilang isipan, saloobin at damdamin sa isa’t isa.

• May sari-sariling wika ang bawat lahi; Iba-ibang lahi, iba-ibang wika.

Barayti ng Wika

• Ang Pilipinas ay may sariling wika, bagamat may kinikilalang Wikang Pambansa may iba-iba
pa rin wika ang ginagamit ayon na rin sa pagkakaiba ng kapaligiran, pinagmulan at
kakanyahan ng bawat isa.

• At dahil dito masasabing ang Wikang Pambansa ay may iba’t ibang barayti.

Narito ang ilang halimbawa na ginamitan ng Barayti ng Wika:

• “Nalalaglag ang mga dahon sa kani-kanilang kapanahunan”

• Nanay, pupunta kami sa eskwelahan?

• Aatend ka ba sa debut ni Marichu?

Mga Paraan ng Pagpapahayag

Ang pagpapahayag ay nagiging maayos, maganda at mabisa sa pamamagitan ng iba’t ibang

paraan, at ang mga ito ay ang sumusunod:

1. Paglalarawan

2. Paglalahad

3. Pagsasalaysay

4. Pangangatwiran


Ang paglalarawan ay may layunin na makabuo ng malinaw na larawan sa isipan/imahinasyon

ng mambabasa o tagapakinig.

Sa paglalarawan dapat isaalang-alang ang mga sumusunod na hakbang:

1. Pagpili ng paksa o bagay na ilalarawan.

2. Pagbuo ng isang batayang larawan.

3. Pagpili ng sariling pananaw.

4. Kaisahan (unity).

5. Pagpili ng mga bahaging isasama.

2 Uri ng Paglalarawan

1. Karaniwan o obhektibong pagalalarawan

• ito ay naglalayong makabuo ng malinaw na larawan sa isipan ng nakikinig o

2. Masining na Paglalarawan

• Sa paraang ito ng paglalarawan napupukaw ang guni-guni ng mga mambabasa o


Mga kasangkapan sa Malinaw na Paglalarawan

1. Wika – ito ang mahalagang kasangkapan sa pagbuo ng larawan sa isipan ng mambabasa o


2. Maayos na mga detalye – sa pamamagitan nito nagiging maayos ang daloy ng imahinasyon
ng nakikinig at bumabasa.

3. Pananaw ng Naglalarawan – ang naglalarawan ay may kani-kaniyang pananaw, kaya

masasabing ang kagandahan ng paglalarawan ay depende sa mga taong tumitingin at
nagpapahalaga dito.

4. Isang kabuuan o impresyon - ito ay ang kabuuang paksa hatid ng nilalaman sa



Ang paglalahad ay may layunin gumawa ng isang malinaw na pagpapaliwanag tungkol sa

isang bagay, hagap, katotohanan at iba pang saklaw ng karunungan ng tao.

Mga Uri ng Paglalahad

1. Pagbibigay ng katuturan.

2. Sanaysay.

3. Pagbibigay ng instruksyon kung paano ang paggawa ng isang bagay.

4. Ang Ulat.

Mga Bahagi ng Simpleng Ulat

1. Panimula – sa bahaging ito binabanggit ang layunin ng ulat at kinalap na mga


2. Katawan ng ulat – dito nakalahad ang pagsusuri, ang mga mahahalagang pangyayari at

3. Kongklusyon at rekomendasyon – dito ay binabanggit ang mga natuklasan batay sa sariling

pasya at nararapat gawin upang mapabuti ang kondisyon ng isang bagay o pangyayari.

Mga Paraan ng Pagpapaliwanag Kung Naglalahad

1. Pag-iisa-isa – paraan ng paglalahad ng isang kalagayan sa pamamagitan ng paghahanay

ng mga pangyayari.

2. Pagbibigay ng Halimbawa – ito ay paraan upang madaling maunawaan o makumbinsi

ang mambabasa o tagapakinig.

3. Pagbabahagi-bahagi – ito ay ginagamit upang bigyan linaw ang pangunahing salik

kaugnay ng ginawang paglalahad.
4. Paghahambing – ito ay ang pagpapalitaw ng pagkakaiba at pagkakatulad ng katangian ng
tao, bagay o pangyayari.

5. Sanhi at Bunga – sa paraang ito napapalinaw ay ang “bakit at ano” sa pahayag o

pangyayari, dito ay madaling nakikintal ang isipan sa pangyayari.

6. Pagsusuri – ito ay ang pagsuri sa salik na nakaapekto sa sitwasyon at ang pagkakaugnay-

ugnay ng mga ito.



• Layunin ng pagsasalaysay ang magkwento o mag-ugnay-ugnay ng mga pangyayari .

• Layunin din nito ang magbigay ng aliw at magpalipas oras.

Maaaring pagkunan ng paksang isasalaysay ang mga sumusunod:

1. Sariling karanasan na maaaring malungkot o masaya

2. Nakita at napanood

3. Napakinggan o narinig

4. Nabasa

5. Likhang-isip

Ang pagsasalaysay ay maaaring gawin sa dalawang paraan

1. Pagsulat

2. Pagbasa

Mga katangian ng pagsasalaysay

1. May maganda at mabuting pamagat

2. May mahalagang paksa o diwa

3. May wasto o maayos na pagkakasunud-sunod ang mga pangyayari

4. May kaakit-akit na simula

5. Kasiya-siya ang wakas

May maganda at mabuting pamagat

Dapat na ang pamagat ay nakaaakit sa mga babasa at makikinig

• Ang mabuti, maganda, at kaakit-akit na pamagat ay dapat:

a. Maikli

b. May orihinalidad at di-karaniwan

c. Hindi katawa-tawa

d. Lumilikha ng pananabik
May mahalagang paksa o diwa

Ang kahalagahan ng diwa ng inyong isasalaysay ay dapat na isaalang-alang kung magsasalaysay.

Maging mahalaga lamang ang isang paksa kung ito ay magiging kapaki-pakinabang. At dapat
kapulutan ito ng aral.

May wasto o maayos na pagkakasunud-sunod ang mga pangyayari

Ang karaniwang pagsasalaysay ay nag-uumpisa sa simula ng mga pangyayari na sinusundan ng

gitna at pagkatapos ay wakas ng pangyayari

May kaakit-akit na simula

Ang unang pangungusap ng pagsasalaysay ay dapat kaakit-akit o makalikha ng pananabik sa

babasa o makikinig upang makawili sa kanya at magpatuloy siya sa pagbabasa o pakikinig

Kasiya-siya ang wakas

Ang wakas ng isang pagsasalaysay ay kailangang sumunod agad sa kasukdulan ng pangyayari.

Kung paanong hindi dapat na maging maligoy ang simula ay gayun din ang wakas upang maging
kasiya-siya sa babasa o makikinig. Dapat na ang wakas ay nagkikintal ng isang impresyon sa isip
ng babasa upang magkaroon ito ng bisa


• Ito ay isang paraan na nagpapatunay sa isang paniniwala

• Luyunin nito ang manghikayat o kumumbinse

• Ang pangangatwiran ay maaring masamahan ng paglalarawan, paglalahad, at

pagsasalaysay sapagkat ang mga nabanggit ay tumutulong sa paghihikayat at

Mga Hakbangin sa Pangangatwiran

1. Dapat alam kung anong paksa ang nangangailangan ng pangangatwiran

2. Kailangang malaman ang pagsusuri ng isang proposisyon upang sa gayon ay maangkupan ng

mabubuting mga argumento

3. Dapat pag-aralan ang paraan ng pangangatwiran upang makatipon ng mga gagamiting

katibayan sa pagbuo ng argumento

4. Pag-aralan at suriin ang mga argumento at ang mga ebidensya

Tatlong Paraan ng Pangangatwiran

1. Paraang lohikal na maaaring isagawa sa istilong pagtutulad

• Ang pagpapahayag na ginagamit na batayan ay nagkakatulad sa ilang mga bagay.

Halimbawa: Ang pahayag na “ Ang kapalaran ng tao ay tulad ng gulong na patuloy sa pag-

2. Paraang Patiyak o Paraang Induktibo

• Ang pagpapahayag ng katwiran sa paraang ito ay mula sa maliit na kaisipan o detalye

patungo sa malaking kaisipan o kabuuang kaisipan.

Halimbawa: “May Kahirapan ang Buhay Sa Kasalukuyan”

3. Paraang Pasaklaw o Paraang Deduktibo

• Ito naman ang kabaligtaran ng patiyak. Dito ang pagpapahayag ng pangangatwiran ay
mula sa malaking kaisipan patungo sa paghahati-hati nito sa maliit na kaisipan

Halimbawa: “Krimen: Bunga ng mga Suliraning Pang-kabuhayan”

Ang mga proposisyon bilang paksa ng pangangatwiran

Ano ang proposisyon? Ito ay isang paninindigan sa anyo ng pangungusap na nagsasaad ng mga
bagay na maaring tutulan o panigan, kaya nagiging paksa ng pagtatalo. Ang proposisyon ay
pinatutunayan sa pamamagitan ng mga argumento

Tatlong Uri ng Proposisyon

1. Pangyayari

• Ito ay paninidigan sa katunayan o kabulaanan ng isang bagay na makatotohan.

Halimbawa: “Nagkaroon ng lihim na kumperensiya ang mga Pangulo ng iba`t ibang samahang
pangmag-aaral sa di malamang mga dahilan”

2. Kahalagahan

• Ang paninindigan dito ay kahalagahan ng isang bagay tulad kung tayo ay nangangatwiran
at bumubuo ng mga argumento na nagtatanggol sa kabuuan ng isang bagay, isang palakad
o isang pagkilos

Halimbawa: “Ang pakikiisa ng mamamayan sa pamahalaan ay mahalaga upang malutas ang mga
suliranin ng ating lipunan”.

3. Patakaran

• Ito ang paninindigang karaniwang ginagamit sa pampublikong pagtatalo. Ito ang isang
proposisyong ngahaharap ng isang paraan ng pagkilos o isang binalak na solusyon ng isang
suliranin. Karaniwang gumagamit ang proposisyon ito ng salitang dapat

Halimbawa: “Dapat Alisin ang mga Dyip at Palitan ng mga Bus”

Ang isang mahusay na Proposisyon ay dapat:

1. Napapanahon ang Paksa

2. Walang kinikilingan

3. Nagtataglay ng isa lamang ideya para sa isang argumento

4. Maari itong patunayan ng mga ebidensya

5. Malinaw at tiyak

6. Ito ay nag-aanyaya ng isang pagtatalo