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DAVID NUTT, 57-59 Long Acre. DULAU & Co., 37 Soho Square.
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & Co., St. Dunstan's Hoxise, Fetter
Fleet Street.Lane,

31 Union Square. 254 Fifth Avenne. 25 Park Place.
BOSTON. C. A. KOEHLER & Co., 149A Tremont Street.

The method of Craapey-Otto-Sanar is my own private property,
having been acquired by purchase from the authors. The text-books
made after this method are incessantly improved. All rights, espe-
cially the right of making new editions, and the right of translation
for all languages, are reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impres-
sions will be prosecuted according to law. I am thankful for com-
munications relating to these matters.
Heidelberg. Julius Orroos.

Persian, the Italian of the East, has long been

recognised as one of the most euphonious, expressive
and important of Oriental languages. Unfortunately,
however, to most Englishmen who have spent any
time in India, Persian is known only in its antique
form and pronunciation, which are still in large
measure retained on the Afghan frontier and in other
parts of India. This prevents the student from being
intelligible to the natives of Persia, should
he for any
reason find it desirable to visit that country. The
writer's own experience enables him to speak with
some little authority on this subject. Having studied
and learnt to speak Persian in the Panjab, he found,
on endeavouring to enter into conversation with Shir-
azts in Bombay, that he was almost if not quite
unintelligible to them, since many of the words,
phrases and idioms he had learnt from the pages of
Sa'di and other classical Persian authors have become
obsolete and have been superseded by others in the
modern language as spoken in Persia itself. It was
as if a foreigner, having discovered some corner of
the world in which English was still spoken by the
learned, just as it occurs in the Elizabethan writers
and with the pronunciation of that distant day, had
learnt the language from them and then tried to con-
verse with the English people of to-day. His conver-
sation would seem at once stilted and vulgar, and it
would amuse everyone with whom he came in contact.
The Civil and Military authorities in England
and India now, however, seem to have begun to grasp
the fact that Indian Persian is somewhat like what
the French of 'Stratford atte Bowe' was in olden times,
and to feel the desirability of favouring the study of
the language as actually spoken in Persia itself. In

order, to assist in the attainment of this

object, the Publisher of this Series of Conversation
Grammars (the 'Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method') has done me
the honour to entrust me with the preparation of the
present volume, which I trust will prove useful to
students and will not be found unworthy of a place
among the many excellent Handbooks on other lan-
guages which have rendered the Series so well known
in many lands.
The aim of this Volume is to provide the Student
with a thoroughly practical and up-to-date Introduction
to the study of the Modern Persian Language. There-
fore everything obsolete has, whenever it could not
be profitably omitted, been admitted only in such a
manner as to shew clearly the changes which have
occurred in the language in process of time, and to
warn the student against using too antiquated words
and employing modes (') of expression which are not
now used, or are used in a different sense.
A residence of more than seven years in Persia
itself (in addition to many years' previous study of
the language) and conversation with all classes of the
people have, I trust, in some slight degree, fitted me
for the task which I have been invited to undertake.
I am much indebted to Aqa Mirza Asadu'llah of Is-
fahan, who has carefully revised the Persian Text of
the Stories contained in this Grammar, and has also
been consulted about every matter of importance. My
sincere thanks are due to the Rev. C. H. Stileman
M. A., the Secretary of the C. M. S. Persia Mission,
for his great kindness in going carefully through the
MS. of this Grammar with me, and for the many

1 The
danger of this is well illustrated by the narrative
of what actually occurred to a learned Orientalist who had
studied Persian in the Panjab and then happened to be tra-
velling in Persia. Handing his horse's bridle to a native servant
he said, 'Asp i mdra hidftyat kun.' He doubtless meant to say
'Lead my horse' in Modern Persian 'Asbamrtt jildu bikun' :
but what he actually did say denoted 'Guide my horse in the
way of salvation'. The Persian's surprise at the commission
with which he was entrusted is more easily imagined than
valuable suggestions he has made. Coming from such
a careful and accurate student of the language as he
is, these have been of great service
to me.
The Reading Lessons subjoined at the end of
this book are taken in part from the Sad Hikaydt,
and in part from the Journal of the late Shah's Third
Visit to Europe. The former book is well known, in
India especially; but its style is somewhat antiquated,
and not a few of the words used in it are now ob-
solete. I have therefore had it rewritten by Mirza
Asadu'llah, with the object of bringing its style and
phraseology into complete accord with the best mo-
dern standard. The first sixteen Stories are given as
Exercises in the Grammar itself, in the usual print-
ing type; and the rest, to the end of Story 34,
are lithographed in the Naskh charakter in the Read-
ing lessons. The style in which the Shah's Journal
is composed, at once free and elegant, may be said
to have now become the model for such compositions
in Persian. The extracts from it are given in the
Nasta'liq character. Until the Student can read these
Extracts freely, he should not attempt to read the
Persian Letters contained in Appendix F. The Shikas-
teh hand in which they are for the most part written
is somewhat difficult to decipher, and the Key should
here be carefully consulted by the Learner, in order
to test his success in solving the enigmas which will
plentifully present themselves in this part of his
course of study. These Letters are a selection from
those actually received from various Persian friends.
The variety of the handwriting has been carefully
reproduced, but the necessity of obliterating certain
proper names etc. has produced some erasures here and
there in them, for which the reader's indulgence is
requested. It will be noticed that the Reading Les-
sons are paged as is usual in Persian books, and
begin at the end of the Volume.
It is unnecessary to add to the bulk of this
volume by appending a Persian-English Vocabulary,
as Palmer's Smaller Persian-English Dictionary will
supply all that the beginner will require. The ad-

vanced student will find Steingass' Persian Dictionary

It remains for me to acknowledge my obligations
to Ibrahim's, Forbes' and Dr. Rosen's Persian Gram-
mars, from which I have borrowed useful suggestions,
though I have ventured to differ from them whenever
accuracy required.
The system of transliteration adopted is an exact
one, and this will enable the student, without any
sacrifice of accuracy, to dispense with the Persian
character in the first few Exercises and thus to learn
something of the language before beginning to read
the Persian type, a method which experience has
shewn to be very useful and profitable. The Persian
character is, however, used in the reproduction of
these Lessons in the Key. The English of the passages
for translation into Persian has, it will be observed,
an Oriental colouring, as it is a translation from the
Persian original given in the Key. Many of the histor-
ical passages are taken (with a few slight alterations
and simplifications) from Mirza Hairat's Persian Ver-
sion of Sir John Malcolm's History of Persia.

Bedford. W> St. Clair-Tisdall.

Preface Ill
Persian Paradigms IX

Introduction: Letters, Pronunciation, Consonants, Vowels;

other orthographical signs: Letters not found in pure
Persian words, 128 1
Beading Exercise 13

First Part.
Elements of Persian Grammar.
First Lesson: Nouns and Adjectives 14
Second Lesson: Nouns and adjectives continued; Ifafeh . . 18
Third Lesson: Use of -ru, -i etc 24
Fourth Lesson: Personal Pronouns 29
Fifth Lesson Numerals
: 34
Sixth Lesson: Relative and Interrogative Pronouns ... 41
Seventh Lesson: The Reflexive Pronoun 47
Eighth Lesson: Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections . 53
Ninth Lesson Language of the Common People
: .... 60
Tenth Lesson The Verb in General Active Voice Tenses
: : :

from the Infinitive 66

Eleventh Lesson: The Verb, Active Voice continued] Tenses
from the Root (Imperative) 73
Twelfth Lesson: The Verb continued: Auxilaries: Tenses of
Rare Occurrence 81
Thirteenth Lesson: Passive Voice: Order of Words in a
Sentence; Oratio Recta and Oratio Obliqua 94
Appendix to the 13 th Lesson: Irregular Verbs 103
Fourteenth Lesson: The Causative Verb: Compound and
Prepositional Verbs 108
Fifteenth Lesson: Defective, Impersonal and Contracted
Verbs 116
Sixteenth Lesson: Use of Tenses of the Verb . 122

Second Part.
The Arabic Element in Persian: Compound Words: Idioms:
Government of Verbs. Page
Introductory Observations on Arabic Words in Persian 129
. .

Seventeenth Lesson: Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives 131


Eighteenth Lesson: Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. . 137
Nineteenth Lesson: Irregular and Double Plurals . . . 14-P
Twentieth Lesson: Voices of the Regular Arabic Trili-
teral Verb IF
Twenty-first Lesson: Arabic Verbal Forms continued: Verbs
with Feeble Radicals etc 1

Twenty-second Lesson: Formation of Arabic Derivative

Nouns and Adjectives It

Twenty-third Lesson Formation of Persian Derivative


Nouns, Adjectives and Adverbs 16 l '

Twenty-fourth Lesson Persian Compound Nouns and Ad-


jectives 177
Twenty-fifth Lesson: Turkish Compounds: Use of Iztifeh
as a Relative Pronoun 183
Twenty-sixth Lesson: Government of Verbs simple and
compound 188

Twenty-seventh Lesson: Certain Persian Idioms .... 194

Twenty-eighth Lesson: Parsing 201
Twenty-ninth Lesson: Notes on Polite Conversation . . 204
Thirtieth Lesson: Some Persian Proverbs . . 208

Appendix A: Arabic Phrases in constant use in Persian 215

Appendix B : Arabic Calendar 217
Appendix C: The Siydq Method of Reckoning 219
Appendix D: Money, Weights and Measures . . . . . 220
Appendix E: Itineraries 222
Appendix F: Persian Letters 225

English-Persian Vocabulary 249

Reading Lessons (paged afresh from the end of the book).

1. From the Sad Hikdyat 1

2. From the Shah's Third Journey to Europe 24


1. The Persian Language is written from right

to left. Its Alphabet consists of the 28 Arabic letters
with the addition of four others required to express
sounds (P, ch, z, g) not recognised in Classical Arabic,
- in all 32. These with the Transcription of each
used in this Grammar are given in the following Table.


Pronunciation of consonants. 3

ends the word. In most Arabic MSS. the dot of the

final nun placed not in the middle but at the right
hand corner of the letter. This is sometimes the case
with the dots of final o and also. Hence it is clear
that even these letters have really only one form each.
The only letters which have no final flourish are j I

i j J j j ^ k. All but the two last of these nine letters

are incapable (except in the Shikdsteh or broken hand)
of being united with the letter which may immediately
follow in the same word.
3. There are several different varieties of the
Persian character. The most important of these are
the Naskh, the Nastdliq, and the Shikdsteh.* The first
and second of these are used in lithographing books,
while the third is a running hand commonly used in
letter-writing. But they are all mere varieties of the
character given in the Table above.

Too much attention cannot be paid to the ac-
quisition of a correct pronunciation. This is perhaps
of more importance than is even grammatical accuracy.

I. Consonants.
All the letters in the Table are considered
to be consonants, though in practice we may say that

I, j and t are often used as vowels. They are, how-

ever, never called such, but are known as the weak
because their sound so readily melts into that
of the vowel which immediately precedes them.
5. The sound of most of the letters is suffi-

ciently indicated in the Table, though some call for

further elucidation. Alif has properly the sound of the
smooth breathing in Greek, i. e. the sound of the hiatus

Specimens of all three are given in this Grammar. The


Reading Lessons to the end of the Stories are in Naskh, and the
rest in Nasta'lfq. The letters are in Shikdsteh. Printing from
metal types is still rare in Persia, most hooks being lithographed.
Hence the student will find a knowledge of all three kinds of
script necessary.
i Pronunciation of consonants.

heard between two words, the former of which ends

and the latter begins with a vowel, as lie eats. Alif
has this sound when it begins a word, and also when
in Arabic words adopted into Persian it is found in
the middle of a word with a hamzeh ( )
above it, as
in ^ol". Otherwise Alif has the sound of a ( 8).
Initial Alif isnot generally indicated in transcription,
it being understood that whenever a Persian or Arabic
word in transcription begins with a vowel, in the
original it begins with Alif. Thus we transcribe ^jl,
'A'dab, politeness, ddab, and 'Isfahan (jl^-l) is trans-
cribed Isfahan. In Persian the 'Ain (?-} has exactly the
same sound as the initial Alif, the strongly guttural
sound which the letter has in Arabic never being
heard. Vav is the English v except under the cir-
cumstances mentioned in 9. After in Persian
words the j almost always silent; when
is is the
case a dot is placed under the v in transcription, as
jji-, Khvud. 'self, but _>y-, Rhud, 'helmet'.
Ye (^) is
y when it begins a syllable, it is also strictly speak-
ing y when it ends the syllable (vide 10).$ In
the latter case, if g follows U or the ye is very

slightly pronounced and may even be omitted, as ^U

jay, 'place': btguy, 'speak', often written and pronoun-
ced ja, bigu. But should the ye follow luimzeli, as in ^*U
'a place', the second syllable begins with hamzeh and
the ye is pronounced i (vide 19).

6. Te and Ta and 1} have one and the same

sound in Persian, which is that of the Italian formed ,

by placing the point of the tongue against the point

of the upper teeth, and not against the gum as in
English. Dal (.>) is a soft d formed in a similar man-
ner. Se, Sin, and Sad (,. u-, ^) are in Persian pro-
nounced just like the English s in such. They never
adopt the z sound which the English s has at the end
of words. He and He in Persian pro-
(^ and ,) are
nounced alike, as the h in have, but . at the end of a
Pronunciation of vowels. 5

word is not pronounced after /atheh ( 7), except in

e j (dak), 'ten', and in cases in which the / atheh is used
by contraction instead of alif, as <6, mdh for U, mah,
'the moon'; A.L shah for Aa, sfta7&,
'a king'. Nor is the
pronounced in ^ Tdli, 'who', 'that', *>. C/M&, 'what',
<~v 5i7i,
'three', ^ fo'/a, 'to', (though it is in ^ &i&, 'good').

Zal, ze, zad, Za (j J, J^> i;)

have all alike in Persian
the sound of e. Re (j)
pronounced more decidedly
than in English, but less so than in French. Such a
word as j& (fagvr), for example, must not be pro-
nounced Englishmen have a tendency to
faqiah, as
pronounce such words. Ghain and Qaf (^ and J>) are
gutturals and resemble hard g and fc respectively, but
are formed far back in the mouth by a movement of
the uvula and throat. Great care should be taken not
to confound them with the ordinary g and &, which
are J^ and jT in Persian. The latter two letters are
seldom distinguished from one another in Persian
printing, the second stroke of the S being usually
omitted, but in pronunciation they are carefully
II. Vowels.
In all languages there are three original
short vowel sounds, a, I, u, which when lengthened
become a, I, u as heard in Italian. In Persian the
three short vowels are represented by the signs fdtheh
( ), Msrch (- / ), and zammeh respectively, and ()
these are shortened forms of the weak letters I, &
and j. The long sounds of the same three vowels are
denoted by writing after each short vowel its corre-
sponding weak letter, as c-alj, dasht, 'he had', c-jl
'/Isf, 'he is', c...; btst, 'twenty'. The signs for the short
vowels are hardly ever actually inserted in Persian,
except when absolutely necessary to distinguish between
words that might otherwise be confounded with one
another, as ^
muhr, 'a seal', mihr, 'kindness'. Even
in such instances their insertion is optional, as the
6 Pronunciation of vowels.

reader is supposed to know the meaning from the

context and to be able to suppty the short vowels
from his knowledge of the language.
8. Whenever alif occurs anywhere except at
the beginning of a word or syllable, (where, to shew
that it is long, if it be so, the sign madd [-^-] or 'ex-
tension' should properly be placed over it), this letter
should be pronounced as a long Then in nearly all

parts of Persia it has the sound of a in hall, though

very occasionally the flatter sound of a in after may
be heard (vide 5). But note that in ordinary con-
versation, not only among the uneducated but even
among Persians of almost every class, unless they are
for some special reason on their guard, the letter a
before n and ni in purely Persian words is pronoun-

ced M; thus nan, bread, is almost always pronounced

nun. The same rule applies to a few Arabic words of
a similar kind which are of such general use as to
have practically become Persian, as in 'dm (f^)), 'a gift',
pronounced in'um or even an um. This ought not to
be imitated but should be observed.
9. Vav
(j) preceded by zdmmeh (expressed
understood) sounds like u (Italian). "When preceded by
fdtheh and not followed by another vowel, the two
letters (fatheh and vav) together form a diphthong au,
pronounced as the French au or the English long o.
In all other cases vav is simply the English v (vide 5).
10. Ye
(<) when preceded by Msreh serves to
lengthen the sound of that letter ( 7); the two to-
gether are therefore pronounced like I in Italian or
ee in English. ("We might transcribe by iy, but it is
more convenient to write bist for c than biust,
.-* '

latter would, strictly speaking, be a more exact trans-

cription.) "When ye is preceded by fdtheh, the resulting
diphthong ay or ai is now generally pronounced like
ai in the English word ail, though the older sound of
ai in aisle is occasionally heard. The latter sound is

For the working ont of this rule I am indebted to the
Rev. W. A. Rice, M. A., of Shiraz.
Pronunciation of vowels.

now, however, nearly obsolete, except in dib (^-), 'a

fault', Shaitan, 'Satan' (jlkJt), and a few other words,

mostly Arabic.
11. The subjoined diagram shews all the

Simple vowels: a, i, ti: , ,


Lengthened vowels a, !, u : :
1-^-, 15-7"? J~-
Diphthongs, simple vowels combined: ai,
au: c5 -; _?

vowels and diphthongs recognised in Persian. The

so-called majhul or 'unknown' sounds of j and ^ (i. e.
and e respectively) are entirely obsolete, except that
in most places the vav in the two words jj (two) and

y (A0w) is pronounced long o. The sound of as in

g8t, m8t, is heard in certain Persian words, but it has
no proper sign to represent it and is therefore in
some instances denoted by fdtheh and in others by
Itisreh, as will be explained under those signs.
. 12. The vowel fdtheh occurs far more frequently
in Persian than does any other vowel, it is therefore
of especial importance that the student should pro-
nounce it
aright. It found expedient to
has been
represent fdtheh in transcription by a, because when
the sound is lengthened it becomes a, but the fdtheh
has never exactly the sound of the English short a in
hat. It approaches this sound, however, in the following,

(1) When followed by

cases: - -
or as in the
, ,
firstsyllable of Jua-L Ahmad, jUs-l, a mal, or the last
syllable of /jL' bdndah. (In Isfahan the last fdtheh in
words ending in is thus pronounced, but in ShlrSz
the fatheh in such cases is pronounced e, hence in this
book we shall write such words bdndeh, etc.). (2) When
the syllable containing the fatheh is open (i. e. does not
end in a consonant), as <SCi-, md-li-Mi, 'a queen'. (3) In
a few words when followed by two consonants, as in
CUAJ,j^, Rasht, Yazd, especially when the latter of
the two is r; as "Jf gabr (an impolite word denoting
'a Zoroastrian'), ^3 qabr, 'a grave', "Co sabr, 'patience'.
8 Pronunciation of vowels.

But as a general rule fatfreh lias ilie sound of the Eng-

lish u *
in but, cut, or the dull sound of the vowel of ike
_t i

final syllable in such words as heaven, region, wlien

pronounced heav'n, regy'n. If this be not borne in
mind, the student's pronunciation will sound very
strange to a Persian, and will be extremely unpleasant
and incorrect. (The^ usual English may of writing
cummerbund for J&J& Mmarband shews how fatheh
sounds to English ears.)
13. In the Arabic words IJU 'this', visOi 'that',
'merciful', and in the proper name ^ir*l 'Isaac', as well as in

-j*jj, 'Abraham', J-w-"*, 'Ishmael', ^4^ *^* (Divine), etc.

when thus written in Arabic style, one of the fdthehs is pro-
nounced a, being written in the old Arabic fashion for alif.
This is often shewn by printing the fatheh erect, as in the
above examples, and calling it alif i Ichanjari,
'dagger-like alif.
Kasreh has generally the sound of short ? in
hit. But (1) when
immediately followed by ^, , or p.
it assumes the sound of e; as
S\j^\^ i tiraf (pronoun-
ced Etiraf), ?\j-\ ihtiram (pr. ghtirani): (2) when coming
between two words, as in ,USUr>l' Jcitab i padshah (pr.

kitab-e padshah), it is also

pronounced In this book, e.

however, it will always be transcribed by i, except

when in certain instances it stands at the end of a
word ending in \+- and is pronounced yi or I, when
it will be so transcribed (v. 34).
15. Zdmmeh is usually and properly a short u pro-
nounced as in Italian or as in the words put, pull. But
^, p and it has the sound of a short o, as

in ^J, muhr, 'a seal'

(pronounced mohr\ j^J/ mu'min,
'& believer',
(pronounced mo'miri). It has
the same sound at the end of all Arabic words where

it is pronounced by the Persians at all, as


hdmdo liUah, 'praise to God', Allaho akbar, J/'UUi,

is most great'.
16. As in our system of transcription long
marks are placed over the long vowels (as ij, bud),
Other Orthographical signs. 9

it is unnecessary to place any distinctive mark over

the short ones. A
vowel not marked long is always
to be pronounced short, whether accented or not.
Note that each short vowel (with the exceptions men-
tioned above and in 12) always preserves its pro-
per sound, even before r therefore J>^ j, and Jl bar,

Mr and bur, whether occurring as separate words or

as syllables in a word, are not to be pronounced alike.
17. All the different vowel and diphthongal
sounds that occur in Persian are heard in pronoun-
cing the words fJ^Tolajl^^j-j-^-^JU^I, Ai Jalinus
/ /

imu'min, muntazir i auqat i aydndeli I '0 :

Galen, thou art expectant of future times'.
Other Orthographical Signs.
18. Madd ("
) is a sign of prolongation (it is

really an alif written crosswise above the line) which

occurs only above alif, and the alif so marked is al-
most always at the beginning of a word. (The excep-
tions are only a few Arabic words, as jTy 'the Qur'in',

^\ ilahi, 'divine', and the explanation of this method

of writing will be found in any good Arabic Grammar.)
19. Hamzeh (__) is a small written above
the line. Its proper sound is the same as that of alif,
for which it is a substitute, i. c. it represents a hiatus,
and it will be represented in this book by the same
sign ( ) as when required as jCi or better &~i
alif, :

[mds'aleh, matter
'a under discussion', 'a moot point'].
At the end of words ending in I " the hdm0eh some-,

times seems to have the sound of y, as ^^*4i\i, Khaneh

yi naiikar, 'the servant's house', but it is now con-
sidered rather better not to write the hamzeh in such a
case. At one time the hamzeh had to be written, but
it had then its proper sound, for the words were
pronounced Jchaneh i nduJcar. But as the pronunciation
has now changed and the unwritten y crept in, Per-
sians rarely write the hamzeh between such words. It
is, however, inserted in this Grammar for the con-
venience of the student.
10 Orthographical signs.

20. Jazm 'amputation', or

y Sukiin, 'silence' (_2_
is a sign which shews the absence of a vowel after
the consonant above which it stands. At the end of
a word it is called jazm, elsewhere sukun. E. g. c.^!-
where the sukun and ja&m shew that the J and
o are not followed by a vowel. This sign is, however,
never used except when
absolutely necessary in this ;

respect it isthe signs for the short

treated like
vowels. The word above given is therefore generally
written oJai-, the reader being supposed to know the
vowels and where they occur.
21. Tashdid, 'strengthening' ( ),
is a sign
which denotes that the consonant above which it is

placed is to be pronounced double, as Jfcj&, taldffuz,

'pronunciation', ~J& taslidkkur, 'thankfulness', l*f, dmma,

'but'. English students should be careful always to
give the double pronunciation to a consonant which
is tashdided, and not, e. g., to say dmd for dmma.
22. Vdsleh ("). 'union', is a mark sometimes placed
above the alif of the Arabic article Jl (al) to shew that it
loses its vowel and has the last vowel of the preceding word
carried over to take its place and thus unite the two words
into one, as
\_r-j.jT Ut
Amfru' IMu'minfn, 'Commander of
the Faithful'. It must not be confounded with Madd ().
23. Tanvin, 'Nunation', or Nunu'ttanvin, 'the Nun of
Nunation is the name given to the doubled short vowel signs

(-?-, , -L) which sometimes occur at the end of Arabic words :

the signs are then read -an, -in, -un respectively. They are not
used with purely Persian words.
24. The eight letters and
^, ^>^ J#. J, ,

3 are never found in purely words, except Persian

that ^0 used in ju, sad, 'a hundred', o-^ shast

'sixty', and a few Arabicised proper names, as

'Isfahan'. So also \> is sometims used, e. g., in
or J.X.J (taptdan) to palpitate. When they occur other-
wise they shew the word to be either Arabic or Turk-
ish. But and 9 are distinctively Arabic,
i, j&, ]?

whereas v_, ^, j and S

never occur in Arabic words,
having been added to the alphabet by the Persians.
Accent. 11

25. The reason why so many s and s sounds

occur in Persian is that Arabic words introduced into
the language have to be written as in Arabic. In the
latter tongue the sounds of <>, ^, ^
and again those
of j, j, (_> and & are quite distinct from one another,
as are those of ^ and of
1 and . But these distinc-
tions are not observed in Persian. There is also a
great difference between the Arabic and the Persian
sound of (ghairi).

26. The Arabic

letters were originally 22 in number,
and were arranged in the same order as in Hebrew, Syriac and
Aramaean, i. e. in the order shewn in the followin.!; ollection
of unmeaning words, and from this order their numerical value
is taken. This arrangement is called Abjad, from the first
word of the series. It will be seen that the Arabic letters
added later are arranged at the end. The numerical value is
attached to each letter.

27. The Arabic numerals now used in Persian are:

\ ^OPVA^
Y r \* \**
123456789 10 100 1899 1900
The apparent strangeness ot the fact that these numbers
seem to be written and read not from right to left but from
leftto right is due to the circumstance that in Arabic, from
which the Persians have borrowed this system of notation, the
smaller number is read as well as written first: thus an Arab
would read 1899, 'nine and ninety and eight hundred and one
thousand'. This, however, a Persian does not do. The Siytiq
notation is given in Appendix C to this Grammar.
No signs to represent punctuation are used in Persian,
except that sometimes a lakht ( ) is employed to denote a
pause, and the sign (^H.) above the first word of a new sen-
tence. But these are often omitted.

28. The Accentin Persian presents no diffi-
culty, though the following rules may be found use-
ful. As already mentioned, the accent does not lengthen
a short voivel if it falls thereon.
12 Accent.

1. The accent never falls on any syllable farther

than the third from the end (antepenultimate), except
in such instances as those in which Rule 4 necessi-
tates this: as, a queen', sdltanat (oii-)
mdlikeh (<tfJu.)
a kingdom'; but mi-namdyand (jcA*^) 'they shew'.
2. When a word contains a vowel before two
consonants or before a tashdided ( 21) letter which
is the same thing, that vowel has the accent, ex-

cept when a long vowel (other than in such instances

as are mentioned in Rule 3) occurs in the same word
nearer to the end, in which case the said long vowel
takes the accent: E. g. bdndeh (cJu.),
'a slave', tavantst

(o-Jly), 'he could', dfarmd'udeh (eJL^^T), 'Creator', mu-

zdffar (y&). 'victorious', muntazir (J&^) 'expectant',
Khudavdnd (xjlj^) 'Lord'; but, farmud (j_^y), 'he

commanded', 'attar
a perfumer'.
3. The appended termination-* (as ~bddi, 'wick-
from (ju) ~bad, 'wicked', Arabi (^^),
'Arabic', from (v^) 'Arab, 'an Arab') and the pronom-
inal affixes of nouns and verbs (vide 46, 83), the
izafeh ( 40) and -rd ( 41) and the parts of the verb
ast ( 40, Words), do not take the accent whether
they contain long vowels or not: E. g. niki (j)i
'goodness', stidhri (^^i), 'a city, citizen, belonging to
a city', dadand (jiob) 'they gave',dadid (joj\j) 'you

gave', Iritabashan (jl^f) 'their book', urd (ijjl), 'him',

shirinast(o-^,^), 'it is sweet'. But when -i followed
by added with the meaning 'the
Mli is who', 'the . . .

. .
41, the -4 often has the accent, especially
when the definite article in English is emphatic; as
Mtabl Mi daram (fjbJS^.l^') 'the book which I have'.
4. The particles ml, fo', ra, ma, prefixed to tenses
of the Verb formed from the root (Lesson XI.) take
the accent: when prefixed to tenses formed from the
Infinitive (Lesson X.) none of them except na takes
the accent, but na always does: E. g. ml-dvarand
(jujjT^), 'they bring',
mi-diham (^JL^), 'I give', In-diliid
Accent. 13

'give ye', U-rau (_?_-.), 'go thou', md-kuriid, (ju^C)

'do not', nd-kun
(j) 'do not thou': mi-farmud, (j_y.^)

'he was commanding', mi-guftand 'they were

saying', bi-rdft (cJ_r), 'he went': but nd-mlfarmud, 'he
was not commanding', nd-mi-raftand, (JL^^J) 'they
were not going'.
5. In cases not covered by the preceding rules,
if a word contains only one long vowel or diphthong,
the accent falls on it; if two or more, the accent
falls on the one which is nearest to the end: E. g.,

dgahdnid (jLjUtTT) 'he informed', pddshah (Aa.il),

'a king',
padshahan (jUU.il) 'kings', kitabha (1^1x5^), 'books', ba-
dihti ((&_->) 'wickednesses', nik'ar
(_^), 'better', mktann
(j^Cj) 'best'. This rule does not hold in reference to
particles, adverbs, etc.,as ayd, dmma, anjd, ktija, hold,
ball, yd'nii hdrchand, and a few others, including most
compounds of har, 'every' so also in riiku, 'good',

and words ending in U generally: as yabu, nirU.

6. In compound words the accent of the latter of

the two prevails E. g. ashpaz-khaneh (^U-j-iT). 'cook-


house', sdhib-zadeh (^I^^L?) 'gentle-born', sdhib-mdnsab

(^.^AU-^-L?) 'office-holder', mir-ghdzab (^Ja's.^) 'execu-

tioner', Pari-ru (j^jr) 'fairy-faced', chahar-pay (cS^Wj-)
7. In words of more than two syllables a secon-

dary accent is often heard as ivell as the one above

mentioned, as sdltandt, mdlikch, muntazir, but this does
not require any explanation. In questions and also
in emphatic assertions the place of the accent is also
often changed, as in all languages.

Reading' Exercise.

ail l JT
Transcription (with Accents).
Dar shahri anb^r i panbeh-i bi-diizd! raft. Panbeh-
farushan nazd i padshih shikayat avardand. Padshah,
harchand kih tajassus farmud, diizd-ra na-yaft. Ami'ri
arz kard kih, Agar farmaii i Sultan bashad, duzdan-
ra mi-giram. Padshah vaira amr farmud kih, Chini'ii
bi-kun. An ami'r bih khaneh-y-i khyiid rafteh khyurd
va buzurg i shahr-ra bih bahaneh-y-i ziyafat talabi'd.
Chun hameh-y-i mardumin jam' shudand, ami'r bi-in
majlis dar imadeh bar ru-y-i har-yak az ishan na_zar
afkand va giift, Chih bisyar bi-hayS va ahmaq-and
ashkhasi-kih panbeh duzdi'deh badi'nja amadand va
rizehhi-y-i panbeh dar rish-ha-y-ishan jay girifteh
ast. Chand nafar az haziri'n, i'n-ra shini'deh, fi'lfaur

rishh^,-y-i khyi'sh-ra bi-dastha-y-i-shan pik kardand,

va ma'lum shud kih duzdan kudam and.
(For translation see the Key).

First Part.
Elements of Persian Grammar.

First Lesson.
Nouns and Adjectives.
29. The aU other Aryan languages,
Persian, like
at one time recognised the distinction of gender. The
modern Persian language, however, has entirely lost
all consideration of gender, as far as the grammatical
relations of words are concerned, if we except a few
constructions borrowed from the Arabic, which affect
Nouns and adjectives. 15

Arabic nouns and adjectives only. These will be dealt

with in Part II. Persian nouns which from their
meaning denote females are from a grammatical point
of view treated exactly like all other nouns. In most
instances the words denoting the two sexes are distinct
from one another, as:
Masc. Fern.

P'idar, father. Madar, mother.

Pfsar, son. duklitar, daughter.
Shisliak, wether. mish, ewe.

Masc. Fern.

asb, horse. mcidiyan^ mare.

Jchurus, cock. makiyan (murgh), hen.
aqa, master. Jchanum, mistress.

"When this is not the case the distinction is

denoted by adding the word nar, 'male', or madeli,
'female', as gav i ndr, 'an ox', gav i madeh, 'a cow'. In
both nouns and Personal Pronouns (as will be ex-
plained in due course) a distinction is often made
between words which denote animate and those which
denote inanimate objects, but this is not a distinction
of gender.
30. All case-terminations have also disappeared
in Modern Persian, both in Nouns and Pronouns. The
noun has therefore only one form in the singular and
one in the plural. It is convenient, however, when
the Noun the Subject in a sentence to say it is
in the Nominative, when it is the Object of a Verb
or follows a preposition, to speak of it as in the
Objective case. In this we follow the analogy of the
French language, to which in this and many other
respects the Persian language from a grammatical
point of view most nearly approaches.
When a noun is the Nominative of Address, it may
have the Interjection Ai, '0', prefixed, or a long a
affixed to it as Ai ward, or Mard-a,
man'. But the

noun may also stand alone.

When a noun is the Object of a Verb, it may in
certain cases have the Postposition -ra ( 41) affixed
16 Lesson 1.

to it. But these are not case terminations, as -ra is

never used when the noun is governed by a preposi-
tion, and cannot therefore be said to form the Ob-
jective case.
31. The Plural of all Nouns in the modern
spoken language may be formed by adding the ter-
mination -ha to the singular as, mard, 'a man', mard-

ha, 'men': zan, 'a woman, zanha, 'women': kitab, 'a

book', kitabJia, 'books'. This applies to Arabic words
introduced into the language as well as to purely
Persian words, although Arabic nouns frequently
retain their own peculiar plurals (vide Part II., Lessons
XVII XIX). In writing also the termination -ha may
be, and frequently is, attached without distinction to
all nouns to form the plural. But elegant writers still
consider the old rule of Classical Persian Grammar
worthy of some degree of attention. This is, that
nouns denoting creatures with life form their plural
by adding -an, those without life by adding -ha to
the singular. In conversation, however, the use of -&n
as a mark of the Plural
very limited.

32. Adjectives undergo no change for gender

or case, nor for number when they are used in con-
nexion with nouns or as the predicate in a sentence.
"When used as substantives they form their plural
in the same way as do nouns. The -an termination
then marks persons, and the -ha may denote things:
as ink, 'good', mkan, 'good people', nik-kti, 'good
things' buznrg, 'big, great', buzurgan, 'great people',

buzurg-ha, 'big things'.

As a general rule (for exceptions vide Lesson II. ,

38) adjective follows its noun and is united

with it by the izafeh or particle -i as, mardan i nik,

'good men', kitabha-y-i buzurg, 'big books'.

33. The Verb generally comes last in a sen-
tence. Nouns denoting inanimate objects generally
require the verb to be in the singular, even when the
noun is in the plural. Conversely, nouns of multitude

i For a fullerexplanation of the iznfeh, vide Lessons II.

and XXV ( 40 and 208).
Nouns and adjetives. If

require the verb to be in the plural even when the

noun is in the singular.
There is no definite Article in Persian, the need
for it being supplied in another way (vide 41).

Pidar, father. ast, is.
madar, mother. nist ( na-ast), is not.
bartfdar, brother. and, they are.
Hirrthar, sister. lidstand,they are.
bdchcheh, child. ntstand, they are not.
Pisar, son, boy. bud, he, she, it was.
diikhtar, daughter, girl. budand,, they were.
Jdtffb, book. injtt, here.
mard, man. Unja, there.
zan, woman, wife. in, this.
P'ir, old, aged. ffn, that.
javan, young, a youth. ja, jay, place.
Jehd&t, very, much, many. nig, also.
large, big, great, elder,
buz't'trg, dmma, but.
kfichik, small, little, young. hula,now. [~
f.'hntb I nya (asks a question, like Lat.
itik, >
good. va, o, and.
mku, \
Ind, bad. ball, yes.
sliaklis, a person. Ichair, )

nali, na. not, no. wa Jchair, \

ioiuU. ^r^
Exercise 1.
JL i
Madar javan ast. Baradar buzurg
Pi'dar pir ast.
ast. Khyahar kuchik ast. Mard va zan nik and. Diikh-
tar pisar nist. An pisar khaili khyub ast. Bachcheh

kuja'st? Inja ast. Aya pidar va madar Snja and?

Khair, inja ni'stand. Pidar va madar va pisar va
diikhtar inja hastand. Pidaran nik and va madaran
javan and. Mard i nik inja ast. Pi'sar i buzurg javin
nist. Kitabha kuchik ast. Mard i pir i'nja bud. Java-
nan niz anja budand, amma kitabha anja nah bud.

' In the plural this word has not the tashdid.

Khaili, used in the sense of many, is followed by a noun

in the singular, as is chand, 'some', 'several': e. g. khaili o/ar,
cJiand nafar, 'many persons', 'some persons' (compare use of
singular with cardinal numbers, 53). Chandftn is often used
as meaning 'many', chandnn gunjishk, 'many sparrows'.
Persian Conv.-Grammar. 2
18 Lesson 2.

Translation 2.

The girl The father is not good. The

is big.
child is The man and the woman are
very- small.
here. Where is the woman? The good father and the
good mother are there. The boy is not good. That
book is small. Where is the little child? The mother
is old and the boy is young (kftchilt). The brother and
the sister are here. The boy or the girl. Where was
the sister? The good brother was there, but the old
mother was here.
Question. Answer.
Dukhtar kuja'st? Dukhtar Snja ntst, fnja'st.

(Aya) pidar niz anja ast? Pidar inja nist.

(Aya) pidar mard i niku ast ya Bali, pidar rnard i nlkii'st,

nali? amma pisar khaili bad ast.
Pisarha buzurg and? Khair, buzurg nistand, kliailf
kuchik and.
(Aya) pidar va madar pir and ? Ball, pir and, amma khaili pir
Khyahar fnja'st ya Snja'st? KhyShar inja nist, amma mS-
dar ya dukhtar Inja hastand.

Zanlia va bachehhs va mardha Inja budand, amma hala nf.st-

yi khvub kuja hastand? and.

Second Lesson.
Nouns and Adjectives (continued). Izdfeh.
34. When
a noun or adjective ends in a vowel
sound and immediately followed by a word or affix

beginning with any vowel except I ', a y is as a gener-

al rule inserted after the final vowel of the previous
word for the sake of euphony. E. g. dana, 'wise',
danayan, 'the wise' (sapientes); dana-y-and, 'they are
wise': kittibha yi buzurg, 'big books': bddi yi sharit',
'shameful wickedness' niardtin i dana yi nikti, 'wise

and good men'. (Note that in Persian in such phrases

Of course the following word, to require the inserted y,

must be closely united in the sentence with the preceding,
e. g. as an adjective with the noun it qualifies. If the i begins
the second word, the y is inserted, but not if the begins an
affix or enclitic: e. g. riza-y-i izadi. 'the Divine approval'; but
sJiumd-id, 'you are'.
Nouns and adjectives. 19

the 'and' is omitted and the izafeli comes between the

two adjectives). After a and u (\- and j-) this inser-
ted y written &, ' but after & ,- or ,
is (which is

practically a vowel-ending, as the is not pronoun-

ced) the y is sometimes represented by a hdmzeh and
sometimes not written at all, though always pronoun-
ced, as j-iijo) or r^^^jo, bddi yi shanl' v_jj>-^U. or :

4_>y-4jU-, khaneh yi khvub. (Vide 19). The euphonic y

ast, 'is', but the vowel of
is never inserted before that
word is often omitted, as Mja'st (c U^) for kuja ast

(o-IW) In conversation too the y is not generally

inserted before and, 'they are', though it is very*

frequently and correctly written, as JCiUT, 'where are

they?' the alif of the and (jJI) then falling out. In the
perfect of verbs the y is not inserted, as amadeh-am,
- and.
35. The four nouns dardkht, 'a tree, plant',
gunah, 'a sin', chdshm, 'an eye', sukhan, 'a word', in
writing generally have their plurals in -an, though
not in ordinary conversation. In writing, the words

1 In Arabic words which end in (.!) Alif Hdmzeh, if the

hdmzeh is written in Persian (which is not
always the case),
the ^ is not inserted but only the kdsreh: as *2iUiJ(*tlbprft

or "the religious authorities

Isltim), piUl^Ljifr (ulama -y-i Islam),
(learned men) of IslSm". The former method of writing is the
older, but the latter method is now permissible. When a noun
or adjective (Arabic) ends in [c, (-5') and is followed by the

izfifeh, the {$ is changed into I

(-a) and the ^ then inserted;
as (5jo (da'vtf), but jl*jj ^l^f-ji (da'va-y-i ishtiri) "their claim".
If the noun ending in {$ be a Proper name, this is not allow-

able, but the iztifeh is represented by a hdmzeh: as A~~fr (*Islf)

"Jesus", ^~j* ('.MMS^'),

"The Prophet Moses". Note that in
"Moses": but
^^y* (Musfi-y-i nabi),
this form the alif i JcMn-
jari (or upright hdmzeh) over the g omitted, as in fact it
often is in such words even when they are not followed by
(Vide % 16B,^n).

'eyebrow', giyuh, 'grass', dkhtar 'a constellation',


may also take -an, -
probably because regarded as
animate, but with these words the -an is really
obsolete at the present time in speech.
In the written style ('and the same rule
applies to set speech, as in a sermon or oration), nouns
ending in and denoting animate beings change
the c to S
before adding the plural termination
(h to g)

-an; as, bachag&n, bandag&n (from e ju bdndeh 'a slave,

servant'). The reason of this is that such words once
ended in k in the singular (bdndolc), which was softened
to g before the vowel a of the plural termination. It
is not therefore correct to write JL^.JLJ, for the word
should be jl/Lx^, though when -ha is the plural term-
ination both hs should be written (e. g. UoU).
37. Adjectives form the Comparative by ad-
ding-tar, and the Superlative by adding- tarin to the
Positive: as, Jchvub, khyubtar, Jchvubtarin, 'good, better,
best' :
buztirg, buzurgtar, buzurgtarm, 'big, bigger, biggest'.
The Superlative is hardly used in ordinary conversa-
tion, the Comparative with az Jiameh (^uAj,l). 'from all',
'than all', being employed instead. The Comparative
has a plural formed according to the general rule,
but the Superlative has none. If two or more
superlatives qualify one and the same noun, the -in
of all the superlatives except the last is elegantly
omitted: as, Shahr i Kirman dar ayyam i sabiq ydki 02
mu'tabdrtar va pur-jam 'iyyattarm sJiarhd yi Iran bud, 'The
city of Kirman in former days was one of the most
important and most populous cities of Persia'.
38. As a general rule all Cardinal numbers and
all Demonstrative and Interrogative Adjectives (in-
cluding all those given in the list of words prefixed
to Exercise II.) must precede the nouns they qualify,

i So also other parts of the body, as: muzagtin (pi. of

muzeK), 'eyelashes' (though now muzgdn is used as the singular
and its plural is muzgsrihff) angushtan (fingers), ruKh&n (cheeks),

laban (lips), ffisuvGn (curls), zulfan (curls), etc. But these are
Nouns and adjectives. 21

as an mard, man': kudam slidklis? 'which person'?'.

Superlatives, ordinals, and the adjectives bisyar, 'many',

digar. 'other', khytth, 'good', ajdb, 'wonderful, fine',

chand 'some, several', and a few others may precede
their noun or follow it. (But when c^and means 'how

many?', it must precede its noun, as it is then an

interrogative). "When the adjective precedes the noun
it does not take izafeh, when it follows the noun the

izafeh is required. Hdmeh, 'all', if regarded as a noun,

requires izafeh afterit. as hdmeh
yi marduman, 'all (of)
men': but regarded as an adjective it does not take
izafeh, as hdmeh marduman, 'all men'.
39. When an adjective is the Predicate in a
sentence it does not take izafeh before it as an zarian ;

lihyushgil and, 'those women are fair'.

40. The Izafeh is merely the shortened form of

the Avestic 'who, which' (
yo, 208, 209). When it
comes between two nouns it is translated by 'of, as
kitab i madar, 'the book of the mother' 'the mother's =
book'. Such a sentence as 'This book is that man's',
'this house is that woman's' is rendered by in Mtab

ffz an i an mard ast, in Jchaneh a& ~an i an 0an ast, in

the older literary style, but by in kitab trial i an mard
ast, in Jcaneh trial i an zan ast, in the modern language.

(Mai means 'property' in the spoken language it often


denotes a horse or other animal for riding.)

In answering a question courtesy demands that a
portion of the words of the question should be used
again and not that a mere affirmative or negative
reply should be given'. E. g. dsb i mdra didi? 'Didst
thou (did you) see my horse?': Khair, Sahib, anra nd
didam, 'No, Sir, I did not see him'.

Anddk, a little (time). zamtn, land, country.
In, this. mulk, country.
(in, that. shahr, city.
liamnn, that very, the same. qdryeh, town.
ham'in. this very, the same. deh, village.
chlh taw, -am, I am.
cli'ih qism, > what sort of? -*
thou art.
chih jur (vulgar), ] ast, he, she, it is.
22 Lesson 2.

kudffm, which? savdr i, mounted on.

chih, which? what? sdhib, owner, master: Mr. (oi
chili nau', what kind of? Europeans).
chiguneh, what sort of: how? bngh, a garden.
dngTmeh, that sort of. rah, a road.
fnguneh, this sort of. kucheh, a lane.
dnqadr, that much. maiddn, square of city.
inqadr, this much. bazar, market, street with shops.
chih qadr, how much? asb, horse.
har, every, each.
hdmeh, all. ulagh,
hich, no none: am-. sag, dog.
nim, half. gurbeh, cat.
dmad, he came (she, it). gav, ox, cow, bull.
dmadand, they came. gusfdnd, a sheep.

raft, he (she, it) went. qdtir, a mule.

raftand, they went. dar, in, into: a door.
M, he, she. bi (bih), to, for.
tin qism, 1
az, from, out of: than (after
an nau', > that kind of. Comparative),
an jur (vulgar), ] bci, along with.
fulan, a certain, such and such a. bar, bar ruyi, on, on top of.
in qism, birun az, out of, out from.
this kind of. bi-deh, give thou.
bt-dihid, give ye.
hamchinfn, such as this, such a. -im, we are.
hamchindn, such as that. id, you are.
Khdneh, house. -and, they are.
naulcar, servant. hdstam, I am.
IdWi, child's manservant. hdsti, thou art.
ddyeh, nurse. hast, he, she, it is.

khidmatkdr, maidservant. Jidstim, we are.

chiz, thing. hastid, you are.
daryd, sea. hdstand, they are.

denotes he (she, it), is, i. e. "exists as khudd hast, ;

'There a God', 'God exists': but ast means is merely, as

nik ast, 'He is good'. This distinction, however, does not apply
to the rest of the persons of these two defective verbs, which
it is convenient to call the verb Hast and the verb Ast respect-

ively. Hast is sometimes used merely as an emphatic ast; as,

Shirazi ham hast, 'he is moreover a Shirazi'. The verb Ast may
be joined on to the preceding word, and then loses- its initial
alif in all the persons and becomes a mere enclitic affix.
The words nah, 'not', mah, 'don't', bih, 'to', may be written
as part of the following word and then lose the final e, as

<*jli-i the house', instead of 4jU.*j bihkhdneh; os J

bi-klianeh, 'to

na-raft, 'he did not go', instead of c^j^ nah raft. Az is some-
times treated similarly and then becomes zi
as zianru or

zanru instead of az an ru, 'from that aspect', 'because' ( j Jlj

Nouns and adjectives. 23

Exercise 3.

In qism khsneh khyub ast. An mard

javan nist.
Bachehhd savar i
qatirha-y-i naukarha-y-and. An
dukhtar dar shahr nist, dar deh ast. In chih chiz
ast? Pidar i an bachcheh -y-i nlku kiija'st? Dar mai-
daii i shahr ast. Zamin hast va daryiJ hast. Sag-ha
-y-i shahr dar kuchehhs -y-and, amma dar bagh.
ni'stand. Asbha -y-i khyiib dar rah budand. Dukhtar
i kuchik
fnja'st? Khair, i'nja nist, dar shahr ast. G-us-
fandhs va gavhs dar an zamin bisyar hastand. Dar
khanehha -y-i shahr khail! giirbeh va sag bud. Kiija
id? Dar bagh i khaneh im. Chih nau' bagh ast? Bagh
khyub ast amma kuchik ast.

Translation 4.

In this land are (is} many horses, cows, sheep,

mules and asses (horse and, etc.). That dog came out
of this house. The cities of that land were many. The
brother came along with the sister. Give a book to
the brother of the maidservant. The children's man-
servant came from the city. What sort of a horse is
that ? This kind of garden is very good. The sea is
larger than the land. The boy is smaller than the
girl. The village is large, the town is larger, but the
city is largest of all (from all). All the men and
women of that large village came to the square of the
city. Where are those houses? They are in such and
such a village.
Question. Answer.

Dfiyeh-y-i bachehhil kuja bud? Dar kucheh bad va bi-maidSn

_,_ iimad.
An chih chiz ast? Sag ast, amma khaili buzurg
j. nist.
(Aya) dukhtar i fultu zan bi- Bali, bi-shahr Smad, amma hala
shahr Smad? dar deh ast.

jjjjl). Persian words must not be divided in printing

for or

writing in Persian character in such a way as to put one part

of the word on one line and the rest of it on another, unless
in the case of compounds: but even then it is better for the
whole word to be on the one line.
24 Lesson 3.

(Aya) har gurbeh kuchiktar ast Khair, liar giirbeh az har sag
az har sag? kuchiktar nlst: hanieh-y-i
sag-ha buzurg nistand.
Zan i an bachcheh az
])tdar i
Na-y-amad, amma khidmatkar
maidan aiuad ya na-y-amad ? va dayeh va dfgar naukarha
yi barSdar i an diikhtar i
kSchik amadand.
Asb i fulan shakhs dar kucheh Bali, asb i sin mard dar kucheh
ast? ast, va qatir i baradar i s.lhib
i an
,_ bagh dar maidtn bud.
(Aya) an zan dukhtar i sahib i Bali, sahib i in ulagh-ha pidar
in ulagh-ha nist? i an zan ast.

Third Lesson.
Use of -ra (lj)
and I (<^-).
41. Article. no definite Article in Per-
There is

sian, but its place is in some measure supplied in cer-

tain instances by the use of the affixes (lj) -ra and

W *
Ra is a postposition, the only one in ordinary use
in modern Persian. In Pahlavi it meant 'for the sake
of, and in this sense it still exists in the strengthened
form ba-ra-yi, 'for, for the sake of, which is a prepos-
ition. Ra has its original meaning not only in old
Persian writings but also in the word chira, 'why'?
(= for what?) which is in common use. Ra also means
'to', and may be still used in this sense in writing,
thus taking the place of bi: as ura guftani, 'I said to
him' ura kitab dadam, 'I gave him a book'. But this

use of -ra to denote the Latin Dative can hardly be

said to exist in ordinary conversation at the present
time. In the modern spoken language tlie proper use of -ra
is to denote the direct object of a verb, especially when
the direct object is definite. Hence -ra is attached to
the direct object of the verb when the direct object,
(1) is a noun which in English has the definite Ar-
ticle; as, dsb-ra zin Jcun, 'saddle the horse' (2) is the :

proper name of a person or place as, lahran-ra didam,


'I saw Tehran': (3) is a noun

qualified by an, in or
some similar demonstrative adjective ( 38); as, an,
Idtab-ra giriftam, 'I took that book' (4) is an adjective ;

used as a noun and preceded by the definite article

in English; as, Khuda nikan-ra nigah mi-darad, 'God
Use of -ra (\j\ and i 25

preserves the good' (5) is a noun followed by -I and


l;ih (see 42) ;as, mdrdi-ra kih guriklit ginftlm, 'we

seized the man who fled': (6) is a Personal Pronoun
or its equivalent; as, in-ra bi-shinau, 'hear this', kt-ra
didi. 'whom didst thou see ?' In all such instances the

object is defined, and in all of them the -ra is there-

fore required in the modern language. (In the
Classical language it is sometimes omitted when the
direct object is inanimate though definite, but this is
not now correct.)
Even when the direct object of the verb has no-
thing to make it definite but requires something to
distinguish it from the subject, -ra may
be appended
to the object, especially if (1) the object be a person,
or (2) consist of a considerable number of words as, :

(1) Padshah gadai-ra 'The king saw a beggar';

(2) Dar shdhr chat va qdhveh va shdJcar va qand va min-rci
knaridim, 'In the city we bought tea and coffee and
sugar and loaf-sugar and bread'.
Note that the -ra comes at the very end of the
whole collection of words that go to make up the
logical object in such a sentence as that last given.
The same rule holds if the logical object consists of
a noun followed by a number of adjectives or by
another noun in apposition as, an mdrd i plr i buldnd-

qddd i lagliir-ra didam, 'I saw that tall, thin old man' :

Shariran Suqrat i failasuf-ra kushtand, 'Wicked men

slew Socrates the philosopher'.
When the direct object includes the word chih,
Svhat', and denotes something inanimate, the -ra is rarely
used as, cMh Ititab guftid, 'which book did you say?'

JRd must never be used (a) when the noun is

governed by a preposition (as it would be used were
it the termination of the
objective case, which it is
w ot, vide 30) or (6) with any word that is not the

direct object (or part of the direct object) of a verb:

unless the ra is used in the sense of to, or, especially
in letters, with the meaning of at, on; as an rtiz -ra,
'on that day'.
42. The affix-! in Persian is used, especially in
writing, to express the sense of the English indefinite
26 Lesson 0.

article a or an, as kitabi. 'a book', 'a certain book'.

The noun, however, may express the indefiniteness
without the addition of any such affix, for the word
kitdb by itself -may mean either 'a book' or 'the book',
or simply 'book'. The use of -i in this sense is rare
in conversation, yak ('one') prefixed to the noun gene-
rally taking its place, as yak kitab, 'a book, one
book'. If both are used the meaning is strengthened,
as yali qadri, 'a small quantity, a very little.'
When followed by kih ('which, who, that'), the -i
may often be translated by 'the'; as, mardani kih mt-
amadand, 'the men who were coming'; ganani-ra kih
anja budand didand, 'they saw the women who were there'.
When the word to which the *- is to be attached
ends in < or g, the affixed -i is written (-} or
merely a hdmzeli is appended, but the long sound of
the -I is retained, as &U, khaneh-i, a house: ^9^-9,
Sufi-i, 'a Sufi'. When such words are immediately
followed by ast, the lidmzeli is dropped and <
is in-

serted after the alif of ast, as c *i^U. Khaneh 1st, 'it

is a house': c*~,\ (jjt*\af\ anja Sufi ist, 'a Sufi is there'.
The affix-! may come either (a) between the noun
and its qualifying adjective, in which case the izufeJt
( 32) is omitted; as, mdrdi khvub, 'a good man'; or
(6) after the adjective, in which instance the izafeh
is retained between the noun and the adjective: as,
mdrd i khyubi, 'a good man'. The latter form is now
far more usual in speaking, though it might give rise
to a mistake; for mard i
khyubi might mean 'the or a
man of goodness', through this idiom is hardly Persian.
The student should bear in mind that not every -I at
the end of a word is the affix which is explained in this para-
graph. For the final 4 may (a) be an adjectival termination
(&s Isfahani, 'belonging to Isfahan, a native of Isfahan') or (b) ;

it may be the termination of an abstract noun, like -ness in

English, (as ntM, 'goodness'); or (c) it may be a verbal termin-

ation, (as dmadandi, 'they would come' gu-fti, 'thou didst say':

to mard i ntki, 'thou art a good man'). These will be explained

each in its proper place.

43. A question is generally in conversation

denoted merely by the tone of voice. In writing it
Use of -ra f\j} and i 27

is often marked by tlie word ay a ( Lat. -ne~),

which is placed at the beginning of the sentence but :

this word is rarely used in ordinary conversation.

Mdgar is sometimes used instead of aya, it may
occasionally be rendered by 'perhaps', and often intro-
duces an objection, sometimes even implying that the
answer 'no' is expected (Lat. nuni), as Mdgar an kar
Jchnib ast, 'Is that a good action?'

44. After such words as qddri and other parti-

tives the singular is used when the English idiom
would require the plural; as, qddri Imllu, 'a quantity
of peaches'. (Vide also 55.)


Ddr-am, I have. Dad-am, I gave.

dnr-i, thou hast. thou gavest.
dar-ad, he (she, it) has. dad, he (she, it) gave.
dtir-im, We have. ddd-im, We gave.
dar-id, you have. dtid-id, you gave.
ddr-and, they have. ddd-and, they gave.

Did-am, I saw. Bud-am, I was.

dfd-i, thou sawest. bud-i,thou wast.
did, he (she, it) saw. bud, he (she, it) was.
did-im, we saw. bud-im, we were.
did-id, you saw. btid-id, you were.
did-and, they saw. bud-and, they were.

dasht, he had. girifteli, having taken.

safid, white. ratig, colour.

siydh, black. pul, bridge.
niU pul, money.
prd i siyffh, black
ntlratig monej-, copper;
zard, yellow. small change.
sabz, green. 'amrtmeh, a turban.
snrJdi, red. ism-at, thy name.
nnrus, unripe qadr, quantity', value.
Khudj,if miveh, fruit.
sib, an apple.
zamini, earth (adj), earthly.
sib i samfnJ, potato.

gTiltlb'i, pear.

hulltf, peach.
much. sar, head, top, end.
gTish, ear.
gusltt, meat, flesh.
28 Lesson 3.

k'irci, whom ? (last, hand.

chtra, why? dyhlab, chiefly.
IcnllsTceh, carriage. din ) -,. .

kar, work, deed. mdshab )

rudkhaneh, river. imtin, faith.

mdmlikat, country, province. Iran, Persia.
gadn, a beggar.

Notes. In Persian two words are often written together,

as usOls for Uj>ls (fultin ;'), 'a certain place'.

Exercise 5.

^-* jl j6 - Aal

Translation 6.

The king saw the good man who was in the

servant'shouse. The river was in that country. I.

gave the book to the queen's maidservant. The daugh-

ters of the queen gave the red apples and the yellow
pears to the little children. I saw a carriage with
black horses on the bridge, and I gave the money to
the servants. Didst thou see the cat in the house or in
the garden? It was not in the garden but in the
lane, The asses in this country are chiefly white. Give

the mule to the owner of the house. The ^JMren's

nurse saw the dogs in the great square of the town.
A certain man saw a turban on the head of every
horse in the lanes of that city.
Personal Pronouns. 29

Ansicer. Question.

JJ4JU-JJJJI C~vls? *jU-Jjj jl

/ / .

(j~^~ ""^ (*"

^^y jt*-

Fourth Lesson.
Personal Pronouns.
45. The Personal Pronouns in Persian are of
two kinds :
- -
(a) Separable and (b) Inseparable. The
Separable are:
1 st Person, j* maw, I, me
2 ud Person, y
fc, thou, thee

3 rd
Person, <j-j\ vai, u, he, she; an. it.

him, her.
I/ wa, we, us
l*^t shuma, you [things).
jLo_l Is/tan, they (persons) :
l$iT aw/wi, they (persons and
them. them.
Asit is sometimes necessary to use the words
'we' and 'you' with a very extensive meaning, these
words, though plural, may take a plural termination ;

as, mayan gunahkaran, 'we sinners' shumaha in i tigad-ra ;

darid, 'you (i. e. all of you, you and your co-religionists)

hold that tenet'. If a noun in apposition follow the
1 st Pers. Sing, maw, the izqfeli is inserted; as, man i
Lesson 4.

gunakkar, 'I but with mayan the izafeli is not

a sinner' ;

used. To some places pronounced tu. U and vai

is in
have precisely the same meaning the one as the other,
but M is more' commonly used.
The simple and compound prepositions (Lesson VIII.),
the izafeh, and the postposition -m, are used with
these Personal pronouns just as with nouns. Note,
however, that man-ra and to-ra are contracted into
mdra and tura (\J-\j*\ E. g. U bi-man dad, 'he gave
to me': shuma ura dtdtd 'you saw him': kitab i man,
'my book' to kitab i mdra bi-tshan dadl, 'thou gavest

my book to them'.
The Possessive Pronouns are (as in the above
examples) formed by prefixing the izafeli to the Per-
sonal pronouns as, dsb i shuma, 'your horse' (lit., 'horse

of you') kitab i u, 'his book' (lit., 'book of him'). When


a noun with a possessive pronoun attached is the ob-

ject of a Verb, -ra is added in accordance with rule :

as, man asb i ura didam, 'I saw his (or her) horse'.
When a personal or possessive Pronoun of either
number and of any one of the three persons is the
direct object (or part of the direct object) of a Verb
and refers to the same person as the subject of the
sentence, instead of the simple pronoun the word
khvud ('self) or one of its equivalents must be em-
ployed (vide Lesson VEL): as, man kitdb i khyudra
dadam, 'I gave m/y book', (lit., 'book of self: to ktianeh-y-i
khvud-ra farukhtt, 'thou didst sell thine (own) house'.
The separate Pronouns are in Persian much less
frequently used than are their equivalents in English,
because the different terminations of the persons of
the Verb suffice to express the meaning sufficiently
clearly. As a general rule, therefore, the Personal
Pronouns are not used as the subject of a sentence
except when especial emphasis has to be expressed:
as, man mi-ravam, dmma shuma inja mi-manid, '/ am-
going, but you are remaining here'. (Cf. the usage of
the Classical languages.)
46. Inseparable Pronouns. Besides the Separ-
able Pronouns given above, there are in Persian a
Personal Pronouns. 31

number of Inseparable Pronouns or Pronominal Affixes,

which may be used in their stead whenever the pro-
noun is not the subject of a sentence. These are:
1 st Person, ^- -am, me, my,
2 nd Person, o '
-at, thee, thy,
3 rd Person, <j,-'- -ash, him, his, it,

her, its.


jU / -amdn (iman), us, our,

JIT -atan (itan), you, your,

jb-/- -ashan (ishan), them, their.

It will be noticed that the plural forms are made

by adding to the singular in each case the plural ter-
mination -an. The pronunciation, however, has now
changed into -iman, -itan, -ishan instead of -aman, -atan,
When any one of these terminations is affixed to
a noun or
adjective ending in .-- (-eh),
an alif is

inserted and the termination is written as in the fol-

lowing examples: ,.U;U. (khaneh am), 'my house': <jM.c^;

(navishteh ash), 'his document': c>|.dl&.L-^ (mdrtabeh-y-i
'thy exalted rank': jlrl^l
'aliyyeh-at), (laleh aten,
or laleh
itan) 'your attendant' (of children).
In popular usage and especially in conversation
these pronominal affixes are far more commonly used
than are the separable pronouns. They may in correct
style be affixed to nouns, adjectives, verbs, and com-
pound prepositions ending in izafeh (Lesson VIII., 70),
and mean my, to me, me; thee, to thee, thee, etc. as
required :
as, hitabam, buzurg ast, 'my book is large' :

dsbat-ra diaam, 'I zddamash, 'I struck

saw thy horse':
him': guftandashan, 'they said to them'. At one time
these affixes could not be used except in reference to
animate beings, but this rule is now almost obsolete.
In vulgar style these affixes are appended to the simple
prepositions also, as Hash 'to him', (pronounced be-esh),
but are rarely so written ( 77).
32 Lesson 4.

47. In most parts of Persia u or vai is used of

persons only, an taking its place in reference to
animals and especially to inanimate things as, u qdvfst,

'he or she is- strong' ;

an qdvi'st, 'it is strong'. (In
Shlraz, however, /? is often used of animals and even
of things ;
but this custom, though found in old
books, should not be followed.) So also ishan is used
of persons only, anha of animals and of things prin-
cipally, but also of persons. The plurals anan and
man are hardly ever used now even in writing except
when followed by kih; as, anan kih or ananikih, 'those
who'. In conversation anhatkih is used instead with
the same meaning.
Ma is sometimes vulgarly used instead of man,
with the verb in the plural, if this pronoun be the
subject of the sentence. Shuma is used, as 'you' in
English, when addressing a single person courteously.
To is used by villagers: it may be used to children
or inferiors. It is also used (like 'Thou' in English) in
addressing the Deity. Probably for this reason the
affix -at ('thy') is often used in certain expressions of

politeness when addressed to superiors; as fidayat

bashain, 'may I be thy ransom', in letters: qurban i
khak i pa-y-i javahir-asa-y-i dqdasat shdvim, 'may we be
the offering of the dust of thy most sacred, jewel-
like foot' (in petitions to the Shah of Persia).
48. ttonorifics, etc. Certain words, titles etc., are
sometimes out of courtesy substituted for pronouns.
In speaking, e. g., to a sovereign, gibleh-y-i 'alam (or
some other expression which practically denotes 'Your
Majesty') is used, followed by the 3 person plural of
the verb: as, Qibleh-y-i 'alam agah nastand kih, 'Your
Majesty is aware that', etc. So also, Huzur i mubarik
farmudeh budand, 'Your Royal Highness had command-
ed'. To any gentleman may be used the title sarkar

('lordship'), with or without other words; as sarkar i

shuma didid, 'you saw': sarkar i 'alt nawshtid, 'you
wrote'. In this case the 2 nd plural of the verb is used.
On the other hand politeness requires the speaker to
avoid the frequent use of man, T, and to substitute
for it such a word as bdndeh ('your humble servant'),
Personal Pronouns. 33

or even ('the least'), haqir ('the contemptible

one'), etc. In writing in a dignified style the writer
speaks of himself as dws&feV, wwMfo's ('your sincere
friend') etc.: in humbler style other words are used,
such as, du'agu, E. g. Amruz, chun
hagir, aqall, etc.
bdndeh inja amadam, Iwliskeh-y-i sarJcar ra dtdam, '"When
I came here to-day, I saw your carriage'.

, a tale. nishcisteh, seated.
ruz, a day. bdyad, ought.
kas, a person. btishl,, thou mayest (shouldst) be.
guft, he (she) said. laf-bi-zani, thou mayest boast.
kih, who, which; that. ztrn, because.
hdrchih, 1
whatever *gar, if, since.
harcinchih, $ darVU/h, a religious mendicant.
ham .
ham, both
. . and. . . . az an qdbti, of that sort.
afartdeh ast, he has created. cMh taur, how?
bartiyi, for the sake of. chih, what?
instin, man, mankind. chth <Mz, what thing, what?
pas, therefore, then. purstd,, he asked.
ndzdr, a glance. -chfyuneh, how?
bisydr, very, much, many. hdjat dtirad U-, he has need of.

ahammiyyat, importance. Mch . . .

na, none, no.
muhimm, important. daulatmdnd, rich.
daqtqeh, a minute. ziytideh, more.
pdsheh, gnat, musquito. lihtiza
(\J^\ therefore.
bini, nose. bdrtar, higher, more important.

Exercise 7.


Translation 8.

One day a king saw a beggar who (which beggar

&i/i w gada) was a religious mendicant. (He) said to
the king, 'I am richer than all the kings of the earth'.
Persian Conv. -Grammar.
34 Lesson 5.

The king said, 'How?' He said, 'Because I am a man

of God'. The king asked (from) him, 'How art thou
richer than a king?' He said to him, 'Because a king
is a person who has need of many things, but a religious
mendicant is a man who has need of nothing. I am a
mendicant of that sort, therefore I am richer than all
of you'.
Answer. Question.

<2*x :~r


Fifth Lesson.
49. The Persian numerical system is very simple.
The cardinals from 11 to 19 inclusive are formed by
prefixing to <o (dah), 'ten', a slightly varied form of
those from 1 to 9. Instead of the Persian ordinal for
the equivalent Arabic ordinal Jjl (d-wal) is used;

but for 21 st 31 st etc. the regular Persian form '^


(ydkum) is alone in use. The ordinals are formed from

the cardinals by affixing -ww, as will be seen in the
table. Notice, however, the slight irregularity in the
Numerals. 35

way of writing the ordinals for 'second', 'third', thir-

tieth; also the spelling of thewords for 60, 100, 200,
300, 500.
In ordinary conversation instead of jl$>. (chahar)
char in said ;
j^ pronounced Mjdah, or even
(liijdah) is
hizdah; chciharddh is
pronounced cliarddh; hifddh is pron:
Mvdah: and the vulgar but very usual pronunciation
of panzdah and shanzdeh is pnnzdah and shunzdah (vide
8, Jin). So also punsad is said not unfrequently for
pansad: also sinzdah for sizdah, 'thirteen'.

Ordinals Cardinals Ordinals Cardinals

d, 28 vr
24 A j \ n "^ 2 *

25 To
70 V-

100 N--

101 \-N
102 \-Y
110 N N-

111 N N S

112 N NY
120 NY-
rr 130
36 Lesson 5.
Numerals. 37

50. The Arabic Cardinals and Ordinals, espe-

cially the units, are occasionally used in Persian but ;

it is unnecessary to give the

Cardinals, as they are
used only with Arabic words, as -u^l ^y-\^\
t (Andjtl i

'the four - in Persian

drba'eh), Gospels', J^\ j[^.
(chahar Injil}. The Ordinals
more commonly used,are
being often employed with the names of kings instead
of the Persian Ordinals: as ^lo^o^y (Yazdijird i sani)
'Yazdijird the Second'. In numbering the heads of a
discourse etc. they are also used in an adverbial form
with the Arabic case-termination I(pronounced -an)
appended, as ljb
(saniyyari) 'secondly'. These ordinals are.

sabi' sadis kliamis rabi 1 -- salis sam dvval

yth _ gth _ 5th _ 4th _ 3rd _ 2 nd _ 1 st

j&\e, j*L*
ashir tasfr samin
10th _ 0th _ 8 th

51. 'Once', 'twice', 'thrice', 'four times', etc., are

translated by yak bar, yak dap eh, yak mdrtabeh; do bar,
do ddf'eh, do mdrtabeh, etc. Bar i duvvum, bar i siwum etc.,
mean 'a second time', 'a third time', or 'the second
time', 'the third time', etc. Do bareh means 'once more',
'again' :( digar bdreh^ or bar i digar, 'another time'. Such
a phrase as 'five times six makes thirty' is expressed
by the word jji-^ (mi-
sMsh ta si ta\
L'^L'^^jt^i (^o/nj
shavad), 'becomes', being understood.
52. fractions. Some of the words denoting frac-
tions are Persian, but most of them are Arabic. They
are used in the following manner:

Eng. Pers. Arabic.

One half.
nim. nisf.

One third. <iLu. sih yak. suls. *Ll

One fourth. dljW*- chahar yak. rub', /
One fifth. khums.
dl^v panj yak.
One sixth. (iljLA shish yak. suds.
38 Lesson 5.

seventh. dlr^ haft yak. sub'. ?

One eighth dlc~iA hasht yak. sumn.

One ninth. *ili& nuh yak. tus'.

One tenth. dlj dah yak. 'ushr.

The word nim is not used in counting, nisf having

now taken Although we may say and write
its place.
sih yak (both Persian words) for 'One third', yet to
'two thirds' it is not permitted to say 'do sih
yak' ; one must say dd suls. The same applies to the
other fractions: e. g. 'five eighths', panj sumn; 'three
fourths', sih nib'; 'seven tenths', haft 'ushr.
53. Rule. After all purely Persian Cardinals the
noun put in the singular (never in the plural as in

English): e. g., 'two horses', do asb] 'a thousand men',

hazar mard.
If these words are the subject in a sentence, the
verb is sometimes in the singular, sometimes in the
plural: as, mardi ra db pisar bud, 'to a certain man
there were (was) two sons' ('a certain man had two
sons') an sad gusfdnd gurtkhtand, those hundred sheep

ran away'. As a general rule the plural verb in such

instances is used with words denoting persons: it is
often used with words denoting animals, but it is not
correctly used regarding inanimate things, (though
this usage is gradually finding its way into the modern

54. In conversation the word ndfar ('person') is
usually inserted between the numeral and a word
denoting persons as, shish nafar savar, 'six horsemen'.

Daneh or ta is similarly used with all other words as ;

panj ta sib, 'five apples'; chahar ta asb, 'four horses';

dah danehfinjan, 'ten cups'. In writing, ta is rarely used
in such constructions, but the other words are. In
more precise written style other expressions are used,
somewhat like our English 'five head of cattle': as:
'five elephants': == c

Panj sinjir fU, (sinjtr chain').

do drradeh ('arrabeh) tub, 'two guns' :
(drradeh, drra-
beh = 'a waggon').
sih ra's asb, 'three horses': (ra's 'head').=
dah d'dad sdndali, c ten chairs': (d'dad 'number'). =
Numerals. 39

do dast- libds, 'two suits of clothes': (dast =
yak saub aba (qaba), 'a single coat: (saub
yak /arvdnd kdshti, 'a ship' (farvdnd 'bar').
^ chdhar
jild kitab, 'four books' (jild 'volume'). :

shish qdbzeh tufdng (shamshir), 'six rifles (swords):


haft hdlqeh angushtar, 'seven rings' (hdlqeh 'link'). : =

In reference to houses in legal documents the word
bob ('gate') is used as, do bab klianeh, 'two houses'. But

in ordinary speceh or writing dast ('hand') takes the

place of &a&, and do dast khaneh is said.
55. In such phrases as 'a glass of water', 'a
piece of bread', the Persian follows the German idiom \

by omitting the 'of as, yak shisheh ab, yak pareh nan

(cf. ein Glas Wasser; ein Stuck Brot.) j

Tuti, a parrot. mi-danad, he knows.
qadr, a quantity. va bds, only, and no more,
qddri, a little. merely.
Ftfrsi, Persian. pasMmdn, regretful.
fimukhteh bud, had learnt. jihat, cause, reason.
javtib, answer. khandld, he laughed.
su'al, question. fiztid kdrd, he set free.

chirn, why ? why not ? certainly. '

Hdzrat Adam, 'His Excellency

jdngal, forest. Adam'.

purstdeh, having asked. Havvti, Eve.
pardndeh, bird. >* 4er Ba'd az an, after that.
baziir, market. qismat, a portion.
burd, he carried off. bar&darnneh, brotherly, of a bro-
biirdeh, having carried off. ther, a brother's.
qatmat. t
mi-guft, he used to say.
P rice valne

i siytih, a black coin, a cop-

tjtmat, \ pul
tumnn. a toman (10 Krans). per.
biynbfin, desert. mi-tavttnand, they can.
bf, without, devoid of. At, 0!
bi-fdhm, without understanding, W-y-nmuzand, they may learn.
foolish. bi-astini, with ease, easily.
mt-arzJ, art thou worth? mi-dih'i, thou givest.
khvushnftd, pleased. hdrgiz ...na, never (ne . .
shud, he became. dar b<treh-y-i, about, concerning.

This is the meaning of the word when used alone in
answer to a question.
40 Lesson 5.

sliuddi, having become. ghulfim, servant, slave.


angah, then, thereupon. mfil, property.

gamdn burd, he fancied. daiilat, wealth: a state.
Kharfdam, I hought. nufni, meaning.
Jcharfd, he bought. khftmush, silent.
chun, since, when. bfish, be thou.
harf mi-zanad, he speaks. dgar bi-fahmand, if they under-
juz, except. stand, (if they get to know
bi-Jchpubt, well. about.)
lafz, a word. mt-rasad, it arrives.
(dfflz (A.T. plur.), words.

Exercise 9.

Translation 10. A Tale.

A beggar saw a king and said to him (that), '0
king, thou are very wealthy and hast houses and
horses, (and) lands, (and) servants, and very much
money ;
but I (bdndeh) brother (for Adam
who am thy
ts our father and Eve is our mother) have nothing.
Give me a brother's portion of thy wealth and pro-
perty'. The king said to one of his servants, 'Give
him a copper'. The beggar said, '0 king, what does
this mean? Why dost thou not give me a brother's
portion?' The king laughed and said to him (that),
'Be silent; for (Mi) if the other brothers understand,
thou wilt not get even this (even this does not arrive
to thee)'.

Now often applied to a telegraph messenger !
Relative and interrogative pronouns. 41

Answer. Question.

o vi jl o^O

jl>jJ -> l>^ <jj c l->- <> jl> jJ o !>. c/.l

JU!| -^-'IjV J L-T

"J Jj 1

..3 j_,. ^if V J*jl4). jTjI-U,

Sixth Lesson.
Relative and Interrogative Pronouns.
56. The simple Relatives are Mi, 'who', for per-
sons (no plural), and chih, 'which', for things. The very
same words are also used as Interrogatives, 'who?'
'what?' But when they are Relatives they cannot be governed
~by the prepositions,
ly izafeh, or by the postposition -ra,
though when they are Interrogatives they may. (In
the latter case the plural of kih is kiyan, 'who?') Hence
42 Lesson 6.

it is often necessary to supplement the feeble relative

kih by the personal pronouns with the prepositions to
express the English Relative when preceded by pre-
positions or when it is the object of a verb. The
method in which this is done will be best understood
from the following examples:
(a) 'The man who came hither (a) Mardi kih Inja Smad daulat-
was rich'. mand bud.
(b) 'The woman tvhom you saw' (6) Zani kih ura dfdid (or, kih
'who you saw
(lit. her'').

(c) 'The child to whom you gave (c) Bachcheh-i kih kit5b-ra bi-
f-lick Vn-n-iV
the flv+ tfVia-f- to Trim'N
-f./\ vwi dadid.

(d) 'The person whose child they (d) Shakhsi kih bachcheh-osft-ra
took' (lit 'that his child'). giriftand.
(e) 'The people whom I saw were (e) Ashkhasi kih Ishffn-ra dfdani
blind' (lit. 'that I saw them'). kur budand.
(/) 'The men to whom you gave (/) Mardhai kih pulashan (or kih
the money were beggars' pul-ra bi-ishtiri) dadid gada
'that to them'). budand.
(g) 'The robbers, from whose (g) Bahzanani faTishainshirhara
hands (lit. 'that from their az dast i tshan girift gurikh-
hand') he took the swords, tand.

strengthened by the
57. Chili as a Relative is

addition before of the demonstrative an. 'that when

it ,

it is governed by a preposition: as,

'From what (that which) he Az tinchih u guft, fahmtdam.

said I understood'.

Anchih may be the object of a verb without beii

followed by -ra, but if -ra, is inserted the word
.ought to come after the -ra: as,
(a) Anchih shinidid rdst ast: (a) 'What (that which) yoi
j_ or heard is true' .

Anchili-ra kih shinidid, etc.

(This latter sentence is hardly right: it would he

more correct to say, chizi kih (dn-ra) shinldid rdst ast.)
(b) Anchih(-ra kih) guftid, shinid. (b) 'He heard what (that whicl
that) you said'.

In a similar way kih as a Relative may be strength-

ened by the insertion of an or in before it, and
scholars now use sentences like the
Even good native
following; Mardi-ra kih amruz dfdid tajir bud, 'The mar
whom you saw to-day was a merchant', but this cannot be
Relative and interrogative pronouns. 43

be used of things as well as of persons ;

as ,
in answer
to the question, Chih ~kitab guftid, 'What book did you
say?', it may be replied, AnJcih dar dost i naukar budi
'That which was in the servant's hand'.
58. 'Whoever', 'whosoever', 'everyone who', and
their oblique cases, are similarly expressed by the use
of such words as hdrkih, hdranJcih, hdrkaskih, harkdsi JciJi,
hdrkas, har shaMisi Jcih, har Jcudam Jcih: as,
Hdrkih bi-vai Jcitabi dadi mamnun i to gasht (or in
ordinary language, Hdrkih be'sh yak Jcitab daM mamnunat

thud) Everyone to whom thou gavest a book became

(was) grateful to (of) thee'.
Asb i hdrJcas-ra Jcih didand az u giriftand, 'whose
soever horse they saw, they took it from him'.
'Whichever' is expressed by liar an kih, har Jcudam
Jcih; as, *Take whichever you please'; Har Jcudam Jcih

bl-khyahid bi-gwid.
Similarly hdrchih, haranchih, haranchih Jcih, har chizi
Jcih, are used to express, 'whatever', 'whatsoever',
'everything that', etc.
59. Interrogatives. The simple Interrogative
nouns are (formerly, and still in vulgar speceh, M,

whence the plural Jciyari), 'who?', and chih, 'what?'

When -ra is added to these words the final h is

dropped; as Mm, chira (l^-ljC) 1

- But as the latter

word clura means

'why?' ('why not'?), the compound
chih chiz, 'what thing?' vulgarly chih chi) is used
instead (often without -ra) as the interrogative.

(a) 'Whose book is that?' (a) An kittibi kist (= kih ast),
or nn kitab mril i kist?
(b) 'Whom did you see?' (6)
Kim didld?
(c) 'To whom did you give it ?'
(c) Bih kihdtidid(ash)

(d) 'Who are they?' (d) Ishrin kiytin and?

60. The Persian method of expressing the inter-

rogative adjectives 'which?' 'any?' 'how much?', 'how
But when kih or chih are relatives and in composition
with nn, in ihe ft is retained before -rft. With hdrkih the
final h falls out when -m follows.
44 Lesson 6.

many?' and the interrogative adverbs, 'when?' 'where?',

'why?', 'how?' will be understood from the examples
following :

(a) 'Which house did you see?' (a) Kuddm khaneh-ra didid?
(6) 'Has any one of them done (6) Ay a hich kudtim i ishdn (or
that?' hich kudfimashari) Snra kar-
deh ast?
(c) 'How much did you give for (c) Anra
bi- chand kharfdid?
that? (lit. for how much did the bi is generally
you buy that?') omitted in conversation).
(d) 'How many people were pre- (d) Ghana nafar hazir budand?
(e) 'When do you go?' () Shuma kai ml-ravid?
(/) 'Where did you go?' (/) Kuja raftid?
(g) 'Where is that hammer?' (g) An chakush ku?
(h) 'Why are you weeping?' (k) Chira giryeh mf-kunid?

(i) 'How do you do that? Anra (bi-) chih taur mi-

Note that chand, besides its interrogative meaning,
has also the signification of some] as tdni chand, 'some
- - in more modern
persons', style ashkkasi chand or
chand ndfar.

day before yesterday. jiristtid, he sent.
dtruz, j^esterday. dideh, having seen.
dmruz, to-day. mabtida, lest.
fdrda, to-morrow. rasid, it arrived, befell.
pas-fdrda, the day after to- jantib i 'titt, (the lofty doorstep,
morrow. =) your Honour.
subh, morning. bi-rasad, it may (might, should)
kaldgh, a crow. arrive, befall.
bi-bini, thou mayest see. filfaur, at once, instantly.
Tchdbar, news, information. baqqtil, fruiterer, greengrocer.
khdbar dih, inform thou. dukknn, shop.
Tchdbar ktmad he might (may, dukkandar, shopkeeper.
should) inform. zahmat, trouble.
ta,in order that. bi-kharad, he may (might) buy.
M-binam, I may see. zud, soon, quickly.
fnl, omen. (bar) rah anddkht, he (cast him
bi-yabam, I may get. on the road, =) let him go
yfiftU, you got. his way.
tamfim, the whole. atdb kard, he reproached, found
vfikanjum, lucky. fault with.
khytihad shud, shall become. fuhsh, abuse.
dihad, he may give. siynsat, government , punish-
parvtfs Tcdrdeh, having flown.
Relative and interrogative pronouns. 45

parideh bud, he had flown. avdrd, he brought.

rdfteh bud, had gone away. avdrdand, they brought.
t i, \ (his times became hin, time.
auqatash ( ;. e .) he wa s kdrdeh i, thou hast done,
zad, he struck.
sakht, hard, severe. kafsh, a shoe.
david, he ran. zddi, thou struckest.
iimadeh, having come. shikdyat, complaint.
bar (imadeh bud, had come up. namud, he shewed, made.
dar an bain, mean-while. pish i, before.
master. qdzi, judge.
khashmndk talabideh, having summoned.
khashmgin javdb dad, he replied.
tanbih, warning, punishment. kar, deed, work, action.
shudeh bud, it had become. bad, evil, bad: badly.
gardtdeh, having become. faqir, poor, a poor man.
dust, friend. qirdn, a kran (Persian coin).
ta'druf, present, gift. go, away with thee!
birau, ^
khudti nd-kunad, (May God not jib, pocket.
do it =) God forbid. insaf, justice.
mt-kunid, you do, make. bidu, to him.
nazd i, near to. bar dtirid, take up, keep.

Exercise 11.

Translation 12. A Tale.

A religious-mendicant went into a fruiterer's shop,

and because (azanj'ihat kih) the fruiterer did not quickly
attend to him (iira rah na-y-andakht), he found fault
46 Lesson 6.

with him. The fruiterer too abused the mendicant,

and the latter (U) became angry (having become angry)
and struck the fruiterer on the head with his shoe
(struck a shoe on the fruiterer's head). The fruiterer
lodged (namud) a complaint against (ae) him before
the judge. The judge summoned the mendicant and
(having summoned .)
asked (from) him (that), 'Why
. .

didst thou strike this shopkeeper?' He replied, 'Because

he gave me abuse!' The judge said to him, 'Thou hast
done a very evil deed; but since thou art a poor man
I shall (do) not punish thee severely: give half a (a
half)kran to this shopkeeper and go away'. Thereupon
the mendicant took (brought) a kran out of his pocket
and, having given it to the judge, struck him also on
the head with his shoe and said, 'If such is justice,
do thou keep (take up) half the kran and give half
the kran to him'.


J^Xi i^9 Uai I

jjvi ul 3j\~^\ jjl L

j^ 4^r I^L.JJJ i^^'' '^
Jf. r '-
t>^. 3
The reflexive pronoun. 47

Seventh Lesson.
The Reflexive Pronoun.

The Reflexive Pronoun khyud or khyish. 'self

(which of the same origin as the Latin se, suus*) is
used very much as the similar pronoun in Latin. The
great difference is that, while se and suus belong to
the third person singular and plural and to no other,
the Persian Reflexive Pronoun is used of all three per-
sons and of both numbers. Khyud may be (a) the subject of
the verb, - - in which case its use is easily under-
stood it may be either (b) the direct or (c) the indirect

object of the verb; or again it may (d) be governed

by the prepositions (including izafeh) and the post-
position -ra: it may also (e) be used as a noun and
have the separate pronouns with izafeh or the prono-
minal affixes of either number and of any of the three
persons attached to it. The use of this pronoun is
rigorously observed in Persian, but it presents no dif-
ficulty if the following rules be observed. (We deal
first with khyud alone and then with khyish separately.)
62. When khyud is the subject of the sentence, it
is used almost like the English self, and like that
word is generally united with a personal or possessive
pronoun: as,
1. Khyud (or man khyud, now more usually man
khyudam, ktiyud i man or khyudam.) bi-shdhr mi-ravam, 'I
myself am going to the city'.
2. Khyud (to khyud, now to khyudat, khyud i to, or
khyudat) ura 'Thou thyself didst see him'.
3. Khyud (u khyud, now u khyudash. khyud i -n,

khyudash] anra guft, 'He himself said that'.

Similarly are used
- -
khyud (ma khyud, now ma

khyiidaman, khyud i ma, or khyildaman): khyud (shuma

Khvud is from khvu (found as late as the Masnati of
MaulSna-yi Rumi) -(- ta (cf Skt. tas termination from): =
khyish from the same root + ash, affix of 3rd sing. his. =
[Pahlavi Jchut and khvesh], Khvu is Avestic hvft (Akhaemenian
twtfi), Skt. sva, Lat. se, suus: Gk. aye, e: Russ. swy, etc. In Russian
and in the Greek of the Hellenic period (cf. eavrovs, Luke XVII.,
14 for vfi&s aviovs) the reflexive pronoun, as in Persian, refers
to both numbers and to all three persons.
48 Lesson 7.

Tchyud, now
shumti khyildatan, khyud i shuma, or kJiyuda
-tan): khyud (islian khyttd,now JchyudasMn, ishan khyud-
ashan, or JcJwud i ishari).Only in vulgar speech, does
the kJiyud take the plural termination -ha (the h in
this termination is frequently omitted by the un-
educated), and khyudhaman(khyuddmun), khyudhatan (khyud-
atun), khyudhdshan (Ithyudashun) are then used.
63. "When khyud is (a) the direct or (b) the
indirect object of a verb, or (c) is governed by a pre-
position (including izafeh] or -ra', it refers to the
same person or thing that is the subject of the sen-
tence (as is evident from its meaning self): e. g.,
(a) Man Tchyudrtt sdrzanish Mr- (a) 'I reproached myself.
To kitdb i khyudra bi-vai dddt. 'Thou gavest thy (own)
book to him'.
Ma bi-khfineh-y-i khyud mi- 'We are going to our (own)
ratiim. house'.

(Aya) shumti dsb i khyud-ra 'Did you take your (own)

giriftU? horse?'
Ishun dar dil i Jchvud gaman 'They did not imagine
nd-bwrdand. (fancy) in their hearts
(6) Shumd khyudra (or bi-khpud) (b) 'You have given yourself a
khaili zahmat dsdeh id. great deal of trouble',
(c) tT dar bareh-y-i khyud guft. (c) 'He (she) spoke about him-
self (herself)'.

64. Foreigners often make mistakes in the use

of Ichyud through failing toremember that, whenever
in English one can use the word self or own along
with a Personal pronoun without materially altering
the meaning of the sentence, then khyud (alone or
followed by a possessive pronoun separable or inse-
parable) must be used in Persian instead of the simple
personal pronoun (generally in such cases a possessive).
E. g., in the sentence, 'I left my book on the table',
the meaning is not materially altered by saying 'I
left my own book on the table' therefore in Persian, :

instead of saying Man Jcitab i (bar) ru-y-i miz mdra

va ffuzardam, which is utterly wrong, one should say
man kitab i Jfhvud-ra (bar)ru-y-i ntiz va guzardam.
When governed by -rn it must be the direct or indirect
object of a verb, as will be readily seen.
The reflexive pronoun. 49

In the modern spoken language instead of Idiyud

alone the compound forms khyudam, khyudat, khyudash,
Jehyudaman, khyudatan, kltyudashan, or khyud i man, etc.
are generally used. This is not approved of in writing
except when necessary to avoid ambiguity (cf. 45).
In the modern language in both speaking and
writing the pronominal affixes may often be used instead
of khyud in a possessive sense, though the separable
pronouns may not. Thus the sentence given above,
Man kitab i Jchmtdra (bar) ru-y-i miz va guzardam, might
equally well be put thus, Man kitabawnra, etc. So
again, Shuma khaneh-y-i khyudra faruklitid, 'you sold
your house', might be Shuma klianeli-atanra farukhttd.
In the third person singular and plural this use of
the pronominal affixes -ash and ashan is open to the
same ambiguity that is found in English as, kita- :

bashra gum kard, 'he lost his book'. Here it is not clear
whether it was his own or some other person's book
that he lost.
65. Khyish may be used instead of khyud when-
ever the latter is not the subject of a sentence: but
khyish cannot take the pronominal affixes or the per-
sonal pronouns preceded by izafeh when it is used in
this sense. ) When khyud is governed by -ra or any

preposition except the ifafeh, the strengthened form

khyishtan may be substituted for it, but it takes no
appended pronoun and is rarely used except with -ra.
In fact the main use of khytshtan and kJiyish is to avoid
the repetition of khyud. Examples:
Mankhytshtanra sdrzanish kdrdam : To kitab i khyfshra
bi-vatdddi: Ma bi-khaneh-y-i khvish mi-ravlm: (Ay a)
shuma dsb i khytshra girlftld? Ishan dar dil i khyish
gamdn_ nd-burdand : Shuma khyishtanra khatli zahmat dadeh
id: U
dar bareh-y-i khytsh guft. (For translation vide 63.)
66. The use of lihytidash, khyudashan, is very
noteworthy and very convenient in such a sentence
as,Shuma Hdsan-rd savar i asb i khyudashra, dldid, 'You
saw Hasan mounted on his own horse'. If the affix -ask

i) When Khmsh is followed by a possessive pronoun it has

the meaning of 'a relative'; as man khvishashrfl didam, 'I
his relative'.
Persian Conv. -Grammar.
50 Lesson 7.

were not used, the meaning would probably be

'mounted on your horse' ( 63). But the phrase is
really a contraction for, Shimia Hdscm-ra didid kih savar
i dsb i khviid-bud.

Bakliil, a miser. andish/d, he thought out.
mf-badiam, I am. bi-ndzar uvdrdeh, having (brought
mi-bashad, he, it is. to sight. =) devised.
bayad bffshad, it must be. rastdeh ast, has arrived,
iltiftit farmudeh, (having com- dost, hand.
manded attention, notice, =) mi-khrfiham, I wish.
kindly, please. ddfn kunam, I may bury.
shab, night. mamnfin i, grateful to.

dmshab, to-night. zindtin, prison.

'?*** as a loan. afkdnd, he cast.

any atom
\ 'umr, life.
bi-ravam, I may go. khvaiiad bud, shall be.
bi-rdft,he went. ddraz, long.
rdfteh bud, he had gone away. khvffhtd ztst, you shall live.
naqd, cash, ready money. farm fid, he commanded.
mi-danam, I know. mulazim, attendant.
kih .
anja, where.
. .
btshtar, more.
panhtin, hidden. aqraba (Ar. pi. ofqartb) relatives.
bi-kimam, I may make. khtiyin, treacherous.
M-khvushi, with pleasure. khiydnat, treachery.
makhfi, hidden, secretly. hamchinffn, thus.
uftadeli ast. has fallen (out) qabl az, before.
danddn, a tooth. umid, hope.
bayan, explanation. taJisfl, attainment.

aulad, children (Ar. pi.) ma bdqi, the remainder.

khvahand murd, they shall die. tnazkur, mentioned.
pish i ru, before the face. bar gardanfd, he returned (trans).
agah (az), aware (of). tadbi'r, plan.
ashkhtts (Ar. pi. of shakhs*) per- Wwuslidil, delighted.
sons. gardrd, he became.
farzdnd, child. btfd az, after.
raftq, comrade. bar hdzar, on (hisj guard.
sipurd. be handed over.
bi-siparid, hand over.
az aqab i, behind. mu'dbbir, interpreter ot dreams.
shittffteh, having hastened. ta'btr, interpretation of a dream.
gusashteh bud, he had placed. tdlab kdrdeh, having summoned.
mf-guzard, he was placing. Khvab, sleep, dream.
nihad, he put. dfinishmdnd, wise, sage.
bi-did, he saw. in'am, a gift.
duzdfd, he stole. durust, right, correct.
duzdrdeh, having stolen. tafdvut, difference.
baz, back, again. ta, so that.
bi-burd, he carried off. rtkhdeh bfid, had (been)poured out.
The reflexive pronoun. 51

yaft, he found. rdhti namfid, he let go.

multafit, attentive, comprehend- ghazabnak, angry.
ing. bad-shuTcun, ill-ouiened.
hileh, a trick. hikayat, a story, narative.

Exercise 13.

jl ,& JLi oili
" ^j^ >- Jv
f *
Oj l^-'

Translation 14.

A certain king saw in a dream that all his teeth

had (has) fallen (out). Having summoned an interpreter
of dreams he asked (from) him what the explanation
of the dream might be (is). He said, '0 king, this
dream is very ill-omened, because its explanation is
this, that all (thy) children and thy relatives shall die
before thine eyes (face)'. The king became angry and
(having become angry) threw that man into prison.
Having then called another interpreter of dreams he
52 Lesson 7.

enquired of (from) him the explanation of that dream.

He said, '0 king, this is a very good omen, for its
meaning is (this) that your life shall be very long,
and that you- shall live longer (more) than all (your)
children and relatives'. The king laughed and com-
manded (to) his attendants to give (that, 'You give')
a gift to this wise-man: and having rebuked that other
he let (him) go.

r ij>. JT>
& <O 3J>,


if T

4*. j.


-A.i A>- t_M _}\ -W

*y. \ J'i jT'(LT)

ii* .1
j~* Cu' )

J ** ^
Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 53

Eighth Lesson.
Prepositions, simple and compound:
Conjunctions, Interjections.
67. The simple Prepositions now in use in Per-
sian are very few, the only ones of Persian origin
now used being:
o#, from, out of: than (with comparatives).
bi, hi (when united with the following word: when
separate, bih, bah), to, for, at; in, with (means).
ba, with, along with (now used of manner and in-
bar, on, upon.
bi, devoid of, without (sine).
dar, in. into, at; on (of time).
-i, of (the izafeh, which in many instances is now
a simple preposition).
/a, up to, as far as.
Of Arabic origin and less commonly used are:
ila, up to, to (e. g. of verses: az ayeh-y-i sMslium
ayeh-y-i htfdahum, 'from the sixth to the seventeenth
hdtia\ as far as (often used with in kilt, as hdtta'
in kih U gliazabnak shud, 'to such an extent that he
grew angry'.)
= per as used in English (as, shdkar, hijdeh man
fi hashtqardn: 'sugar, eighteen maunds at eight krans
per maund'.)
bilii, (as, bild shahk, 'without doubt').
older form of bi is ba, which is still
68. The
used in Shims and in some other places. When followed
by u, an, in, ishan, a still older form of the words may
be used, bad- or bid-, after which the initial alif of
the above four words is omitted as bidU ( J-A>), bidan

( jl-fcj, bidm (ji-^),

bidishan (jLi^). This form of the
preposition is rather more used in writing than in
69. In modern conversation dar is seldom heard,
ta (more properly tu-y-i) being often used instead, as
77). Uar is rarely used
sandiiq, 'in the box' (vide
alone, (bar) ru-y-i generally taking its place: even in
54 Lesson 8.

writing it has a tendency to be used almost inter-

changeable with bi, except after verbs of giving. Ta bi
is now more frequently used than ta alone, and bi
is sometimes said for juz.
The Compound Prepositions in conversation and
even in writing are now
supplanting the simple ones.
The simple Prepositions are, however, often omitted
in conversation and sometimes even in writing when

the sense is clear enough without them; as, U rdfteh

ast (bl-) slidhr, 'he has gone to the city': Si-dih man
for bi-dih bi-mdn, 'give to me'. Sliamsnir (dar) ddst i

savar bud, 'the sword was in the horseman's hand'.

When in composition with other words and thus form-
ing part of a compound Preposition, the simple pre-
positions are also frequently omitted both in speaking
and in writing as, Narduban (bar) sdr i divar bud, 'the

ladder was on the top of the wall' bdchcheh (dar) bdghal


pidarashjasf, 'the child is in its father's arms (em-
brace)'; UMya'st? (Dar) klwneh-y-i baitar ast. -"Where is
he? He is the veterinary surgeon's (house); An
shdklis (bar) daman
i huh uftad, 'that person fell at the

foot of the mountain'; An sanduq (dar) pa-y-i dardkJit

ast, 'that box is at the foot of the tree'; A'sb i man
(dar) pain i divar yaft shud, 'my horse was found under
the wall' An shdhr (bar) lab i darya vagi ast, 'that city

is situated on the shore (lip) of the sea'. In these

examples and in those given below the words in
brackets may be omitted without changing the
70. The Compound Prepositions are generally
composed of a noun preceded by a simple preposition
expressed or understood. For this reason they all
require an izajeh after them, except in the few instances
in which az or bi- takes its place. Most of the com-
pound prepositions in actual use are given in the
subjoined list. They are shewn in actual connexion
with other words in order to make their meaning and
use clearer and more easily understood.
Sirun az shahr, out of the city.
Sirun i slialir, outside the city.
Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 55

andarun i Jchaneh, )
,-, -, ,-, v
,_/,/. T .
77 _, 7 } within, inside the house.
dakhu Khaneh, i j

(dar) bain i rah, on (amid) the way.

dar asna-y-i an fair, during that work.
f -
(bar) sdr i rah, on the road, by the roadside.
(bar) bala-y-i sar i vai, above his head.
bidun i dustam, without my friend.
bi-istisna-y-i ishan, with the exception of them.
(az) dqab i vai uftadand, they followed (fell) after
az rah i Abushdhr, via Bushire.

-? >
javanmdrdi, from, by way of, generosity.
dunbai i u, behind him (vulgar).
nazdik i, nazdik bi-} 7 7 ,, N ,-> ,

A -'LI- shahr, near (to) the city.

qartb ^, qanb bi- \

az qarar i anchih mdktub ast, according to what is

written. . ,, _ <
-^ i

bi- hddd as far as possible.

i iniktin,

(dar) pa'i-y-i fj/) vai, after (in search for) him.

(bi)- ghair i u, except him.
gliatr az an, besides that, other than that.
pain i kuh nishdst, he sat at the foot of the
(bi-,)(dar) zir i dardkht, beneath the tree.

pas az an
ba'd az an
after that, afterwards.
ba"d i an
az an bi-bd*d
pas i pdrdeh behind the curtain.
(dar) dqab i pdrdeh
(dar) pusht i divar, behind the wall.
(bar) pusht i bam, on the roof.
pusht i sdr i naiikar amad, he came up behind the
qdbl az an vdqt, before that time.
pish i hakim amad, he came to the doctor.
pish qazi istad, he stood before the judge.

pish ru-y-i vai, in front of him (before his face).


baradaram nishdst, he sat beside brother. my
rn bi ru-y-i padshah, face to face with, in front of,
the king.
56 Lesson 8.

(dar) muqdbil i mdsjid, in front of the mosque.

dar muqabileh-y-i Qur'an, in comparison with the
(bar) ru-y-i miz, on the table.
ndzd i vat, near him: in his opinion.
(6*)- ndzd i va'i raft, he went to him.
az ndzd i hakim, from the governor.
az janib i Khuda, from God.
az huzur i padshah, from the king's presence.
mrd la-y-i an kitab M-guzar, put this inside that
book (spoken style).
(bi-~) zidd i I

(bi-) khilaf i > an hiikm, contrary to that command.

(bar) khttdf \

muvafiq i
bar vifq i
an qaul, according to that statement.
nmtabiq i
(bar) ndsb i

dar bab iman, in reference to belief, in the matter


of faith.
dar bdreh-y-i an mdtlab, in reference to, concerning
that matter.
(bar) sar i u rikhtand, they fell upon (attacked) him.
(bar) sdr i siifreh, on the table (cloth).
bdld-y-i sdr i u tstadand, they stood close beside him.
(dar) miyan i taifeli, among the people.
miyaneli-y-i an do ndfar siilh slmd, peace was made
between those two persons.
bi-ja-y-i n,
in place of, instead of him.
(bi)-avaz i u
(bi)-sdmt i

(bi)tdraf i Sddkubah, towards Baku.

tdraf i sliam, towards evening.

(bar) an ddst i rudkhaneh, on that side of the river.

(bi-)an su-y-i (tdrafi-) rudkhaneh, across the river.

hamrah i ishan, , .,-, ,-,

j_ _' 7 ^ 1 i-t along with them.
(n-hamram-y-i ishan,
jilau i man bi-rau, go in front of me.
daur i fira girtftand, they surrounded him.
Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 57

dailr i slidhr, }
, ,-, .,
j- T < -
7 '7 around the city.
girdagird i shahr, |

(dar) atraf i d'ih, in the outskirts of, all around,

the village.
bi-khdtir i Khuda, for God's sake.
(az\ barayi man, for me.
bi-nhat i )
. n -,

7- ,77 } w, by reason ol him.

m-sabab i )

bi-vaslleh-y-i \
Injil, by means of, through the
bi-vasiteh-y-i \
mahz i shujd'at i mubdriz, simply through the cham-
pion's courage.
siva-y-i u, except him, besides him.
az bdhr i vai,because of, for the sake of him.
dar rah i ma ktishteh shud, he was slain for us,
instead of us.
(bi)-kMdmat i vazir, to the minister.
bi-kMdmat i shumd ml-rasam, I (shall) come to you.
bardbar i an khdneh, facing, opposite to, that house.
band bar an hujjat, according to (based upon) that
mulk-ra bi-tdht i tasdrruf i khvud avdrd, he brought
the country under his own sway.
ba vujud i haddsat i smn, in spite of tenderness
of age.
az bdrakat i 'Urn, by benefit of (taking advantage
of) learning.

71. Conjunctions. The Conjunctions in Persian

require but little explanation. The most important are :

va, o, and. chun, since, when.

ya, or. vdgar (va agar), and if.
ya .
ya, either ...
. . or. vdgarnah (va dgarndh), other-
va yd, or even. wise, and if not.
chih .chih . ).
, , mdgar. but, perhaps.
va khvah
whether or -

khpdh. . .
\ az bds kilt, since.
nay but, nay rather, etrn (kih}, )
j f
* because
nay on the contrary ztinru ki>* \

(Germ. sondern, Gr. ct/Ua) na. ..va na, neither nor. . . .

(va) dmma \ ba tnkih :

although, \

(va) Vtkm \ but, yet, (Germ, bcl vujud i fin kih ( notwith-
(va)ldkin j after), however. (ma' i'tnkih |
vdli dgarchih that.
58 Lesson 8.

ham . . . ham, both . . . and. ham, even, also.

niz} also. hdrchand kih, however much.
dgar \
pas, then, accordingly.
hargnh >
if, since. hrdtinkih, whereas, since.
liargdh kih I

72. Interjections. The principal are :

- -
Inak, lo !

ai, Oh; vay, woe! ah; afsus, alas! Aa/, alas! (hatf
ast kih, 'it is a pity that' .); lah baJi! 'bravo, well
. . done!'

a painter. gurikht, he fled.
yak dfgar, one another. gurikhti, thou fleddest.
(juftand, they said. gur'tkhtihi, thou hast fled.
-tascfr, a picture. dtiman, hem of a garment.
bt-kashim, let us draw. zddeh, having struck.
bi-kashad, he may (might) draw. bdlkih, but, on the contrary.
mt-kashad, he draws. liffla, now.

kash'id, he drew. yrfftam, I found.

kasliidtHi, having drawn. saztf. punishment.
kashfdam, I drew. mf-diham, I (shall) give.
kasJii'di, thou drewest. (ikhiru'ldmr, finally.
ht-ltnim, let us see. htikim, governor.
bi-blnand, they may (might) see. har du, both.
khmheh, cluster, hunch. khrnstand, they asked-for.
angfir, window.
a door, gate.
cfar, vet having stationed.
darb, large gate, gateway. amr farmud, he commanded.
avfkht, he hung. birtin kunand, they should put
minqar, beak. out.
mi-zddand, they were striking. lialat, state, condition.
gamdn miburdand, they were liukm kdrdeh, having ordered.
fancying. shamshir, sword.
mlcell, fruit. gdrdan, neck.
mardumnn, people. bt-zan, strike thou.
pasandidand, thej- approved of. sukhan, a word.
purs'idand, they asked. tarstd, he feared.
pdrdeh, a curtain, fi'lfaur, at once.
jp^'s/t, forward, dsla, at all (wiffi neg).
pas. back, backward. Idrakat, movement.
timadeh, having come. fahmid, he understood.
daraz, long. taziydneli, scourge, bastinado.
he stretched out.
rfar<?3 Adrrf, ta, in Border that.
ma'lum, known. nii'imkin, possible.
dar pdy-i, in search for. sffzad, he may make.
dtdeh, having seen. mi-bud, would he, was.
'azfzt respected, dear. naqsh, a picture.
ktimil, perfect. iqrar kdrd, he confessed.
farffteh shud, he was deceived. fdqat, only, merely.
farifteh shiidand, they were de- rihdi escape, deliverance.
ceived. gul khvurd (he ate deceit), he
chandi, a little (time). was deceived.
Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections. 59

Exercise 15.

Translation 16. A Tale.

A slave fled from his master. After a short time

his master, having gone to another city and having
found (seen) that slave there, seized him and said,
'Thou art my slave, why didst thou run away from
me?' The slave, having laid hold of (having struck
hand upon) his garment (hem of his garment), said in
answer to him (in answer of him). 'No!; on the con-
trary, thou art my slave, and having stolen much
money from me thou hast run away now that I (have)

found thee, I (shall) give punishment'. Finally they

both went to the governor and (having gone they)
asked for justice. The governor of the city, having
stationed both (of them) near a window, ordered that
both should put their heads (head) out at one time.
When they were in that position (state), the governor
said to one of his attendants, 'Draw thy sword and
(having drawn) behead (strike the neck of) that slave'.
When the slave heard this speech (word), he at once
drew his head back, but his master did not make any
60 Lesson 9.

movement at all. The governor understood which was

the slave and which the master (that which is .)
. . :

therefore he bastinadoed the former (vaira) and de-

livered him to his master.



\*ji jl j\ .,

Ninth Lesson.
Language of the Common People.
73. In languages there is a considerable
difference between the written and the spoken style,
though the written style, as it may be called, is in
reality used also in set speeches, sermons, orations,
and even in careful arguments and discussions. There
is also a considerable difference between the ordinary
conversational language of the educated and that of
the uneducated classes. The same rule holds also in
Persian, but with this difference that even educated
Persians are careful to avoid using to the lower classes
the language they would use in speaking to their
equals. Hence one may hear from the lips of a well
educated man, if he is speaking to a shopkeeper or
villager, the kind of language which may be properly
Language of the common people. 61

designated as vulgar. Examples of this we purpose to

give in this lesson, as an English resident in Persia
ought to be able to imderstand, though he may not
care to speak it.

style of the modern Persian newspaper is at

once elegant and at the same time more colloquial
than that used in any but the most modern Persian
books, e. g. the late Shah's diaries. But there are
certain words and expressions which are habitually
used by even the best speakers, but which are not
yet to any extent admitted into the written language.
These, however, ought to be known by anyone who
wishes to be thoroughly conversant with the language
now spoken in Persia. We proceed to mention some
of these more fully, though a few have been already
introduced into the Exercises, and still more into the
Conversations. Some of the forms are not new, being
found in Pahlavi (themselves or their analogues).
74. Almost every Persian, even those who are
well educated, habitually in ordinary conversation pro-
nounces a before m
or n in Persian (and in some very
common Arabic) words as u (vide 8).
There are a number of words which are some-
what differently pronounced in different parts of the
country: e. g. pudishuh is said in Shiraz and padshuh
in most other places. The most important of these
differences is the substitution of i in some places and
of a in others for u in a large number of word: e. g.
Old Pers: numudan, shunudan, nibftdan, guman,
gulii, cliunan.
Sltiraz: nimudan, shinidan, ribiidan, giman, gilfi,
Isfahan: namudan, sltanfdan, rabudan, gamun, gain,
clianun (?).
Somewhat similar are the cases of such words as :

Shiran: -- imruz, imsal, imshrib; z'indch, zindagi, Mi'rjil,

irreli, Tthislnn.
- -
Isfahan : amruz, amsal, amslu'ib : zdndah, zdndagi,
kh'ljil, arreh, Miashm.
75. Nouns. The plural termination -an is rarely
heard: the vulgar pronunciation of the plural -/* is
62 Lesson 9.

simply-a: e. g. the popular plural of Mchcheh is

Arabic plurals are very commonly used with the
numerous and increasing number of Arabic nouns in
use in Persian, which have caused many classical
words (as saman, etc.), to be completely forgotten.
Moreover the Persian words dih, 'village' and farmayish,
'a command', always take the plural in the Arabic form
diliat, farvnayishdt (vide Part. IE., 152).
Shahzadeli, 'prince', is in conversation shortened
into Shahzdeh. When prefixed to a proper noun with
the meaning of 'Mr.', the word kT is often pronounced
a, as Aqa Muhammad Alt, often called Amd Alt. The a
heard at the end of a short sentence, e. g., bi-shumu
mi-guyam-a is shortened from ha, another form of han,
'behold', %!'
Nouns are sometimes popularly used in an in-
correct sense: e. g. mdhkameh, properly 'place of judg-

ment', 'tribunal' (court of a hakim or governor), popu-

larly means 'a dispensary', 'a doctor's consulting room'
(from haktm, properly 'a sage', popularly 'a physician'.)
So also the word naql pqpularly means 'cleverness',
or even 'cuteness'; as, An shdkhs khaili ndql ddrad,
'that's a very clever fellow'. So du'a, 'a prayer', often
means 'a charm': tasbfh, 'ascription of praise', means
'a rosary': ta'mtr is not the 'building' but only the

'repairing' of a house; etc.


Among nouns on the borders of acceptance into

the written tongue are: gilleh, complaint; gJil,
'deceit'; gaud 'a pit'; kharsu, 'mother-in-law';
ashtl, 'a after a quarrel' (a good old literary
making up
word but not now considered such), etc.
76. Adjectives. Some adjectives used in writing
are not much used in speaking; as nik or mku. 'good'
(though it is used in compounds, as niknam, nikanjcim).
Others are constantly said but not written: e. g. gliula

and naghula: as, In cliiz Jchvub ghula ittifaq uftad, 'this

Instead of chub in the sense of 'firewood', the common

people always say chukh or chiigh: and the word liazar (a thou-
sand) is very frequently used to denote a kran: as do Juusdr,
'two krans', because a bran contains a thousand dinars (an
imaginary coin).
Language of the common people. 63

thing happened easy\ i. e. 'came cheap' an shakhs khatli :

naghuld ast, 'that fellow is very deceitful': in rah nagltula

ast, 'this road is rough'. Others change their meaning:

as, jahil, 'ignorant', is often used (especially by women)

as meaning 'young': na khvush now means 'ill, sick,
unwell', even in writing. Kliaill as an adjective or
adverb hardly ever written, while the book word

bisyar, its equivalent, is rarely used in conversation:

qashdng, 'pretty', is now allowed in books because the
late Shah used it in his diaries. The popular form ot
sirak, 'clever', is zardng, but this often means, 'sharp',
- not
always in a good sense. Popu-

larly maqbul, 'accepted', means 'pretty'. Kudiuli is a
popular word meaning 'tiny, little', in a somewhat
contemptuous sense.
The Superlative is rarely used in conversation,
the comparative with az hameh doing duty instead.
For yafc, 'one', the softer forms yek and yey are
constantly heard. This word has, in the language of
the people, almost supplanted the affix -i; as, yet/
kitabish b'ideh for Ttittibl bi vai bi-dih, 'give him a book'.

Occasionally both are used together, as yey pulisli M-deh,

'give him
a single copper'.
77. Pronouns, Prepositions, etc. The popular form,
of the pronominal affixes is: -im, -id, -ish; -imun, -itun,
-ishun. These are attached to the simple prepositions
as well as to other words: thus we get, e. g., be'm,
b^t, b&'sh, be'mun, M' tun, be'^sliun, for bidu or bi U or bi
vai, etc.Instead of dar, the word tTi is almost univer-
sally used for 'in' of place and work (not of time,
where it is simply omitted) as, tu sandUq, 'in the box'
; ;

tush (= dar dn)^ 'in it'. So ru takes the place of bar,

'upon': as, Jeitab rU mte ast. 'the book is on the table';

rush, 'on him, on it'. Pish i is used instead of naed ?',

'near', 'to', 'at' and instead of the obsolete mam kitabi


'stj(mini est liber), is said, kitab pfsh i man ast. Thus

a servant, if asked, kaltd kuja'st? 'Where is the key?',
will probably reply, Pish i man ast, 'I have it'. =
In place of -ra the old Pahlavt definite termin-
ation -0 is often heard from the lips of the common
people, though it is never written e. g. dsbo (or dsbo)
o4 Lesson 9.

sin l&un for asl-ra sin liun, 'saddle the horse'. In Shiriz
-alt takes its place asb-ali zin lum.:

78. Verbs. In place of ast the old Pahlavi ai in

the form -ah frequently heard; as in cliiz khaili

Ithyub-ah thing is very good'. The Perfect Par-


ticiple in -all, as rasfdeh, 'having arrived' ( 85, c.)

is rarely used by the common
people, except in com-
pound tenses.
Shustari, 'to wash', has popularly sliur instead of
the correct form sliuy for its root :
as, inra b'i-sliuyam ?,
'am I to wash this?, which becomes
inra bi-shuram?
The ordinary verb for 'to get, to obtain, to purchase'
is issundan (for sitandan) and it is used in
place of
giriftan (vide 115).
The longer form of the infinitive of Causative
Verbs 121, 122) is not popularly used: so we have

rasundan for rasantdan or rasandan, 'to cause to arrive,

to bring'. Mired for vm-ravad, mi-slied (mi-shavad), mi-
ded (mi-diliad) are common contractions.
79. Adverbs. Some popular adverbs are very
expressive, as jakht, 'just now, just': parsal, 'last
year', etc.
80. The following exercise and conversation are
given in English letters because they contain many
words never ivritten in Persian. They represent also
(in the exercise) the vulgar,and (in the conversation)
the papular pronunciation, which the student ought to
know. (For translation see the Key).

Asbtib, (Ar. pi. of scibab) goods, boro (bi-rau), go, off with you !

pir zan, old woman.

i bi-ssun (M-sitan), take thou, get.
baliam, together. Iti-ssuni, mayest thou get, take.
umidim (amadim], we came. mi-tuni (mf-tavani), thou canst.
umid (timad], he came. pdi knrish raft (pdyi TcUrash], he
amvtil (Ar. pi. of mnT), goods, went about his business.
property. ahvtil (pi. of hat), state.
un (an), that. shartf, noble.
unu (rmlid), those, they. alhamdo liltih, thanks to God.
Jchuneh (lihtineli), house. .
iltifut, attention, kindness.
iino (tinra], it, him. jantib i 'all, your honour.
o (va), and. mt-ravid, you go.
mdno (mdra], me. mdnzil, dwelling, resthouse.
sltarik partner. nan, bread, a loaf.
Language of the common people. 65

duzd, thief, robber. raftq-id (rafiqat), thy comrade.

(bar) sdr rtkhtand, they fell upon. avurdam, I brought (=1 am
lukht, naked, plundered. just bringing).
ktishtand, they killed. qalyttn, hubble-bubble.
Inln'tdd, compelled. mail mi-farm&id, do you wish?
Tilivasl, he demanded. qatyankdsh, smoker of the qatyan.
Tilirfistim, we demanded. bi-bdkhsMd, pardon (me).
iz (az), from. farmudid, you said.
ndslinid (nd-shintd), he did not mt-kasham, I draw. [at home.
hear (would not listen to). tushrtf dtirand, they are (he is)
dfid o bidffd Tcard, ('made justice tashrif btirdand, they have (he
and injustice', =) complained has) gone out.
aloud of injustice. al'tin, now, just now.

fikr, thought. zdhmat, trouble.

taqsir, fault. murdkhkhas bi-farmttid, permit
bi-yar, bring thou. me to take leave.
tdriha, alone. Jdivush fimadid, you are welcome.
chih jur, how ? hdzir, present, ready.
IcM.jil, ashamed. mt-kunam, I make.
if. gundili, swelling.
fyih (dgar\
igilmtt (dgar ndh\ if not. pusht, back.
iz miyun rafte i, (az miyttn rafteh in shtt'dllrih, please God!
f) thou hast gone out of the mi-rasam, I (shall) arrive.
middle, = thou hast died. mt-shavad, it becomes (= it is
mi-ded (mi-dihad), she gives (will possible).
give). chunkih, since, for.

Exercise 17: Qisseh.

(Principally Isfahan dialect.)
Do (nafar) nifir asbab i khyudishun-ra pl'sh i pir
i zani guzashtand o be"sh guftand, I'gih ma har d6
baham umidim o malimiino khyastim, bideh.; igihna
na-deh. Bad iz chaiid ruz yey mfir iz una (bi-)khuneh-i
iin zan umid o guft Sharfkim murd, chunkih tu rail

duzda sarimun rikhtand uno kushtand o mano lukht

karcland hala malimuno bideh. Un pir i zan labiidd

shud o b6''sh dad. Bad iz chand riiz iin yak! di'gih

umid o malisho khyast. Zan be''sh guft kih, Raflqid
umid o guft kih to iz miyun rafte i; harchih be''sh
guftam nash'nid: malo giri'ft o burd: hila di'gih pi'sh
i man chi'zi nist. Un kas
pish i hakim raft, iz dast i
un zan dad o bldad kard kih, Malimo nami-dM. Ha-
kim ^fikr kard o guft, Un zan taqsi'ri na-darad; to bd''sh
gufte i, I'gih har d6mfin baham umidim, bi'-deh igih :

na. na-deh. Boro, rafiqido bi-yar o malo bl-ssun: tanha

chih jiir mi'-tiin! bl'-ssiint? Un mard khijil shud o pai
karish raft.
Persian Conv. -Grammar. 6
66 Lesson 10.

Translation 18.

[Turn the above Story into the literary style,

writing out the words properly in the Persian char-
acter, and being careful to spell all the words correctly.
(See Key).]
Su'dl. Javdb.
Ahval i sharff (chih taur ast)? Alhamdo lillah az iltifat i
i 'alt.

Kuja mirid (= mi-ravid)? Manzil mfram (= bi-khaneh-y-i


_ khyud mf-ravam).
Ai Yusuf, nun (nan) bi-yar. Avurdam (avardam), Sahib.
(vide note to 138).
Qalyun (qalyan) mail mf-far- Khair, agha (aqa"), qalyun-ka&:
maid ? nlstam.
Bibakhshid, chih farm n did ? Bandeh a'rz kardam . . .
v Farmndid .
(vide 232).
. . . kih hargiz qalyun nami kas-
. .

S^hib tashrff dgrand? Bali, sShib, tashrff darand.

Chih gufti? BirRn raftaud? Bali aghS,aFa~n tashrff biirdand.
Khaill zahmat dsdam, bibakh- Khaili khyiish (Emadid) nma-
shid: hala murakhkhas bi- did: insha' AllSh zud barSyi
farmaid (at end of visit). bajzdid bi-khidmat i sluima
mf-rasam (Said by host).
Amruz mi-khyaham savar shu- Bali, sahib; asb-ra hazir mf
deh (bi-)shahr bl-ravam: mi- kuiiam: (or) Khair, sahib;
shed (nii-shavad) ? nami-shed; asb nakhvush
ast gaundili (varam) ru

pushtash darad.

Tenth Lesson.
The Verb in general: Active Voice: Tenses from the

There is in Persian only one Conjugation

of the Verb. "When therefore the root and the infinitive
of any verb, regular or irregular, are known, the
various tenses, moods and persons are formed in the
most regular manner without the slightest departure
from the rules which are now to be given. If the
Student has carefully observed the formation of the
various parts of verbs already introduced into the
Exercises, he already knows something of the Per-
sian verb.
All Moods and Tenses are formed from (1) the
Infinitive Stem, or from (2) the Imperative, 2 nd Sing.,
which is also the Root of the verb. These are there-
The Verb in general : Active Voice Tenses from the Infin. 67

fore called the 'Principal Parts' of the Persian verb.

The Moods are the Indicative, the Subjunctive, the
Imperative, the Conditional, the Optative, the Infini-
tive. The Participle, the Agential and the Gerundive are
the remaining forms of the verb. Causal (Causative)
Verbs are often formed from other Verbs ( 121, 122).
82. The various Persons, singular and plural,
of each tense are formed by adding to the stem cer-
tain Personal Endings. These, as will be seen, bear a
considerable resemblance to the Personal Endings
similarly used in Sanskrit, Greek and Latin Verbs,
and are fragments of pronouns meaning 7, thou, he, etc.
Hence the Separable Pronouns as subject of the Verb
are not so much needed in Persian as in English
(vide Lesson IV.. 45, Jin.), since in Persian the Per-
sonal Endings are better preserved than in English.
83. The Personal Endings in Persian, except in
the 3 rd Pers. Sing., coincide in form with the enclitics
which mean lam, fliou art, etc. (Vide 'words' prefixed
to Exercise II.) They are:
Personal Endings.
Singular. Plural.
1 st Person: -am. 1 st Person: -im.
2 nd Person: -I. 2 nd Person: -id.
3 rd Person: -ad. 3 rd Person: -and.
These Personal Endings are attached to the stem
of each tense to form the Persons. They undergo no
variation. But note that, (1) the ending of the 2 nd
Sing, is not used in the 2 Sing. Imperative, and (2)
the ending of the 3 rd
Sing, is not employed at all in
the Preterite and the tenses formed therefrom.
Should the root of the verb, end in y (t$), this
letter is dropped before the Personal Endings that

begin with i, but is retained before the others: e. g.

mi-farma-id, 'you command' (root farmay-}, but mi-

farmayand, 'they command'.
I. Parts formed from the Infinitive Stem.
84. The Infinitive of all Verbs ends in -tan,
which, when preceded by a vowel or either of the
liquids n or r, changes into -dan. All newly made
68 Lesson 10.

verbs have -dan, generally preceded by -i to connect

the termination with the root. The Soot of the verb
is formed (in regular verbs) by cutting off the -tan,
-dan or -Man of the Infinitive. The Infinitive Stem
is obtained by merely cutting oif the final -an of the
Infinitive: this is called the "Shortened Infinitive".
The 3 rd Sing, of the Preterite Indicative coincides
in form with the Shortened Infinitive, i. e. with the
Infinitive Stem. The other persons of the Preterite
require the addition to this of the Personal Endings ( 83).
The Imperfect Indicative is formed by prefixing
the particle mi to each person of the Preterite. The
Past Participle adds -eJi to the stem of the Infinitive,
i. e. to the 3
sing, of the Preterite. The Perfect Indi-
cative adds the present of the Verb ast (vide list of
Words prefixed to Exercise II.) to the Past Participle.
The Pluperfect Indicative is formed by adding to the
Past Participle the Preterite of the Verb Sudan 'to
be' (vide "Words prefixed to Exercise II., and also 95.)
85. As an example we take the Intransitive
Verb Davldan JA-JJ) 'to run': but Transitive Verbs
are conjugated in a precisely similar manner.
Infinitive: -davidan: Infinitive stem: -davld.

(a) Preterite Indicative.

Singular. Plural.

1 st
Pers.: david-am
(^jj) david-im (^A,JJ) we ran.
I ran.
2 nd Pers.: david-i (t^j-O david-id (A,A,^J) you ran.
thou rannest.
3 rd Pers.: david (^.j^) he, david-and (A,'JL,JJ) they ran.
she, it,

(6) Imperfect Indicative.

Singular. Plural.

1 st P.: ml-damdam (,.A,JJL.*) nn-davidim (^Jbja-*) ^

I was running. we HJ

2 nd P.: nn-davidi (^A^JU,) mi-davldid

thou wast running. you
3 rd P.: mi-david jjju. he
was running. they
The Verb in general : Active Voice Tenses from the Infin.
: 69

This tense also means used to run', and often


signifies began 'I used for the Con-

to run': it is also
ditional Mood in the modern language, both spoken
and written, in place of the obsolete Conditional (103, e.),
meaning, 'Were I to run', etc.

(c) Past Participle.

Singular. Plural.
davideh (^.jj) having run, davtdagan ( 36) (jl^Xjj)
(or, 'on running'). davidehha (UoJOj^)

The Past Participle of a Transitive Verb has

generally an active sense, but it may sometimes be
used with a passive meaning, as it always is in the
Passive Voice ( 110). It is sometimes in the old style
used as a noun as, gufteh, 'a saying, speech' farmndeh,

'a command'. Only when used as a noun has it a

Plural: as, guftehha, 'sayings'; kushtagan, 'the slain'.

(d) Perfect Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: davideh am (*LA,JJ) davideh im (-vUj^j)
I have run. we
2 nd P. : davideh-i (OA,JJ) davideh id (jJa-xjj)
thou hast run. you
3 r<1 P.: davldehast(c~*\o^)i) davideh and (A,
he has run. they
The literal meaning of the Perfect is 'I am having
run', etc., which signifies 'I have run'. So the Pluper-
fect literally means 'I was having run', i. c. 'I had run'.

(e) Pluperfect Indicative.

Singular. Plural.

I had run. we
2nd P.:dfawfeA&wdl(^jj4,jj) davideh &i*d
thou hadst run. you
3 rd P.: davideli lud
he had run. they
70 Lesson 10.

With Transitive verbs the Perfect and Pluper-

fect are formed in precisely the same way: e. g. from
Jctlshtan, 'to slay', Itusliteh am, 'I have slain', (lit. 'I am
having slain') ^ Mshtch budam, 'I had slain' (lit. 'I was
having slain'). Care must be taken not to translate
these as 'I am slain', 'I was slain', which in Persian
would be ktishteh shudeh am, kushteh shudeh budam (111, A.). '

Thus the Persian language saves the beginner the difficulty

which he finds in French, for example, in discovering whether
to use etre or avoir as an auxiliary. In Persian the verb dnslitan,
'to have', is never used as an auxiliary, though it is employed
as a part of some Compound Verbs ( 124), a very different thing.
"When the perfect is immediately followed by
another perfect or by ml-bashad, hast, etc., the ast etc.
of the first of the perfects is elegantly omitted as, ;

an vagt ta aknun taifeh-i budeh va hdstand Jcih, etc., where

budeh stands for budeh and.

sipurdan, to entrust (siptfr). khiycinat, deceit.
rdftan, to go (ray). dwrugh, a lie; false,
talabidan, to demand, summon. bak, fear, scruple.
tdlab ddshtan, to demand. shani', shameful.
dttshtan, to have, hold (dtir). mi-tarsam, I fear.
inktir kdrdan, to deny. bi-tarsad, he should fear.
kdrdan, to do (kuri). vaqt, time.
giiftan, to say (guy). amtinat )
t entrust deposit,
dtidan, to give (diK). nihndan \

namudan, to shew, do (namely). biytibtin, desert.

arz namudan, to represent. ddram, I have.
pursfdan, to ask, enquire. faiiran, at once.
bfidan, to be (bash}. bi-y-ayad, it may come.
btirdan, to carry off (bar). mabdda, lest.
klivtistan, to wish, demand (khyaK). amr, a command.
nihndan, to put (nih). muhr, a seal.
lihyurdan, to eat. nislitin, a sign.
yuzfirdan nishtin bi-dih, shew.
to P lace
guztslitan tabdssum, a smile.
varzidan, to act, do. khftmush, silent.
zddan, to strike (ean). ravtineh sliud, he departed.
tarsidan, to fear. dhmaq, a fool.

But with certain verbs the Perfect participle has also
a passive meaning; e. g. navishteh ast may mean not only 'he
has written' but 'it is written' avtkhteh ast means 'he has hung'

and also 'it was hung, it hung'. The context always clearly
shews the sense.
The Verb in general Active Voice Tenses
: : from the Infin. 71

rddd kdrdan, to give back. hanuz, as yet.

radd mi-kuni, thou givest back. faideh, advantage.
i) nislidstan, to sit down (nishtri) albdtteh, certainly.
dmadan to come (dy). qaul, saying, word.
farmudan, to command (farmdy). zdhir, evident.
mdndan, to remain. barhdqq, true.
rasidan, to arrive. ziinru,he- cause.
yiriftan, to take, get (gir). faribdndeh, deceiver.
farijtan, to deceive (farib). khdjil, ashamed.
kharidan, to buy. khijtilat, shame.
anddkhtan, to throw away (an- niguli dashtan, to keep.
ddz). dvaz, an exchange, return.
mi-andnzam, I throw away.
fdhmtdan, to understand.
ydftan, to find (ydb).
qarz, debt.

mother - - law "

darydft kunam, I may discover, tufiiltyyat, childhood.

adfi kdrdan, to pay.
qdsam, an oath. add, payment, performance of
qdsam dddan, to put on oath. duty.
qdsam khviirdan, to take an oath. ptri, old age.
sdfur, a journey. bt-zanad, he may (might) strike.
mdblayh, a sum of money. tdfreh rdvad (zdnad), he may get
javan, a youth, off (with a false excuse).
ftfte, back. qabdleh, title-deed.
chigfmagl, the state of affairs. tulii ddst, empty-handed.
mi-dflii,thou givest. qarz m'i-diham, I lend.
In-dihad, he may give. vitzi-h, clear, evident.
Mzt'r, present. baydn namd, explain.
shifhid, a witness. rahn, guzardan, to pledge, give
shahddat, evidence. in pledge.
khriyin, deceitful. taindm i, the whole of.

Exercise 19.

nishdsteh bildt, 'thou hadst sat down' 'thou wast =
seated', '#HW srast sitting'. So also istddan, 'to stand up', istddeJi
am, 'I have stood up' =
J aw standing', (Cf. Latin not /, 'I have
' 1

ascertained' 'I know'.) The same thing applies to

'to lie down'.
Lesson 10.

ji A> 1^1 ji M -O J*



/Cl oJ-^ Is!

Translation 20. A Tale.

A certain person used every day to buy six

loaves.One day one of his friends asked him, saying
(from him having asked, said), '-'What dost thou do
with (dost thou make) the six loaves every day?"
That person in reply to (of) him said. "I keep a loaf
The Verb, Active Voice: Tenses from the Eoot (Imperative). 73

for myself, and I throw away a loaf, and I give back

two loaves, and the other two loaves I lend". His
friend said, "I don't understand at all (I did not under-
stand anything) what thou hast said (saidst); explain
more clearly". That person said, "That loaf which I
keep for myself I eat, and that one which I throw
away give to my mother-in-law, and those two loaves
which I give back I give to my father and mother
in exchange (return) for those which they gave (have
given) to me in my childhood; and those two loaves
which I lend, I give to my sons, in order that they
may give me a return in my old age".

<_>) *>- (Ji '

o j^.ybiu ^yij j.^' jLs i. <o


ij <s. i &

A, L'jl

Eleventh Lesson.
The Verb, Active Voice (continued) Tenses from the :

Root (Imperative).
86. As stated above ( 81), all those parts of

the Verb which are not formed from the Infinitive

Stem are formed from the Eoot, which coincides with
the 2 nd Sing, of the Imperative.
II. Tenses from the Imperative (Root).
87. The Root of the Regular Verb is formed
by cutting the Infinitive ending -tan or -dan,
together with the uniting vowel -i, if employed: as,
74 Lesson il.

Infinitive. Root.

Davidan, to run : dav.

mandan, to remain: man.
faishtan, to kill: hush.

The E/oot of the Irregular Verbs has to be learnt

separately; but when it is known, the Tenses and
Moods are formed from it quite regularly in both the
Active and the Passive Voice.
88. The Subjunctive Present (the same tense
expresses also the Subjunctive Imperfect) is formed
by appending to the Root the Personal Endings
( 83). For the Present Indicative the particle mi is
prefixed to each person of the Present Subjunctive.
The Present Participle adds -an to the E/oot the :

Agential adds -andeli to the Root. Example :

89. Davidan, to run: Root Dav (j$).

(a) Imperative.
Singular. Plural.
2 nd P. dav (jj), 'run thou' 1
ddv-id (jbjjj, 'run ye'.

(6) Subjunctive Present.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P. ddv-am (cj$), I may, ddv-im
we may, etc.

might, shd., wd.,

2 nd P. ddtM^jJjthoumay- ddv-id you may, etc
est, etc., run.
2 rd P. ddv-ad (sj$) he, she, ddv-and they may, etc.
it, may, etc., run.

This tense also means 'Let me, etc., run', 'may

I run?'. In older style it sometimes has a future sense,
but more frequently has the meaning of the Present
Indicative, 'I run'. However, it is not now used in
these senses in conversation or even in writing, except
in imitation of the antique.

i Pronounced Dau (vide 9). This must be carefully no-

ticed. So in all such verbs as have a root ending in av; as shinau
(shinav'), rau (rav), etc.
The Verb, Active Voice: Tenses from the Eoot (Imperative). 75

(c) Present Indicative.

Singular. Plural.

1 st P. mi-davam (fj-v) I am mi-davim (f_j-A-*)

me are
running. running.
2 nd P. mi-davi (^aJu*) thou mi-davtd (ji-JL.) you are
art running. running.
3 rd P. mi-davad^jj^ he is mi-davand (a>'jJL) they are
running. running.
Besides meaning 'I am
'I do run 'do

I run?', run', <I very often used in a

this tense is
future sense (of. the English, 'I am going to town
to morrow, in Persian Fdrda bi-sJidhr mi-ravam).

(d) Present Participle.

Davan (^j^)> running.

(e) Agential.
Singular. Plural.
Dav-dndeli (jJjj), a runner. Davandagan (Oo-i'/j)
run -

90. When the root of a Verb ends in y (&), this

letter is optionallydropped in writing, and always in
the modern spoken language,in the 2 nd Sing. Impera-
tive as
guy (e_^); root of guftan (j^O? '^ s P ea k' :

2 nd namudan
Sing. Imperat: guy (&/} or gu (_jf) :

(jjj*;) shew', 2
'to Sing. Imp: namely (tsU;) or nama
(L;). [The
same rule applies to nouns of similar for-
mation; as ja (jay), rn (ruy) pa (pay)].
The Imperative and the Present Subjunc-
tive more commonly used in their strengthened
form, which is made by prefixing to each person the
particle bih or bi- (Avestic

vi, aparf}.

(a) Strengthened Imperative.

Singular. Plural.

2 nd P. U-dav (b'i-dau- >), bi-david (jwj-^) 7

run ye.
run thou.
76 Lesson 11.

(6) Strengthened Present Subjunctive.

Singular. Plural.

1 st
P. lt-davam(fjju)lrna,y, U-damm ({_*) we may run.
let me, run'
2 nd P. bt-daii (tjjo), thou li-davld(ja^,]-yoi\ may run.
mayest run.
3 rd P. bt-davad (>>!), he li-davand :

they may
(-t jl-)

may, let him, run. run.

The meaning is not altered by the insertion of

this particle, the use of which really depends upon
the taste of the writer. In speaking the simplerforms
are of comparatively rare occurrence except sometimes
with Compound or Prepositional Verbs (vide 109,
124). When, similarly, the words iiah, 'not', rnali.
('not', used only with the Imperative) are prefixed
to these tenses, the prefix bi must not be used. In
the older style the Strengthened Present Subjunctive
had a future sense. (When, however, a person says
inrd li-kunam ?, although it may in English be rendered
'Shall I do this?' yet to the Persian mind the meaning
is 'May I do this ?') When the root of the verb begins
with alifj the t of the older form m of the prefix is
retained: as bi-y-uftad,
(-^), 'he may fall', The y is

also inserted when na or 'ma are prefixed to such

verbs; as ndyamuzad (j^U) 'let him not learn'.

original termination of the Infinitive
was -tan, and this is still preserved in most of the
older verbs in the language. But as only four of
the consonants, ,J, u-, J* are permitted by
- -

euphony immediately to precede -tan without the inter-

position of a vowel, and as many verbal Roots end
in other consonants than these four, of the following
two Rules one must be adopted to form the Infinitive :

1. Modify the final consonant of the root so that

it may become one of the above four: - - E. g.

As the initial AHf in such verbs is omitted, unless it
has the madd over it (t.
e. is long s), when the y is inserted,
the student may find it difficult to understand such forms
unless he is careful.
TheVerb, Active Voice: Tenses fromtheRoot (Imperative). 77

Root, amuz- infin., amukhtan, Ho learn':

Root, farib-, infin., fan/tan, 'to deceive': or,
2. Insert the connecting vowel i between the
Root and the Infinitive ending, softening the latter
into -dan: as
Root, tdlab-j infinitive, tdldhidan, 'to summon.'
Root, ram-, infinitive, ramidan, 'to shy' (of a horse).
The only consonants that may immediately precede
-dan are n and r; as R, man, Infin. mandan, 'to

remain'. But these do not always remain unchanged ;

as, R. chin, Infin. clridan, 'to pluck' R. dar, Infin. :

dashtan, 'to have' (where the r is changed, in accor-

dance with Rule 1.).
In the case of many verbs the old infinitive,
formed in accordance with Rule 1, has now given
place to a new infinitive formed according to Rule 2 as, :

R. sanj-: Old Infin. sukhtan (sdkhtan): New Infin.

sanjidan, 'to weigh'.
R. sunb-: Old Infin. suftan: New
Infin. sunbldan, 'to bore'.
93. Instead of learning rules for the formation
of the Infinitive from the Root, or, - since the In-

the - - for
finitive is given in dictionary, finding the
Root when the Infinitive of an irregular Verb is
known, the far better plan is for the student (as in
Latin) to learn the Principal Parts of each irregular
Verb. Hence, in giving every such word in this
Grammar, we state both the Infinitive and the Root.
A list of Irregular Verbs is, moreover, given as an
Appendix to Lesson XIII., where Rules for the for-
mation of the Infinitive from the Root are given. It
will be seen that there are three causes which have
operated in producing the very slight apparent irre-
gularity in some Persian verbs; these are: (a) a
- -

desire to render the pronunciation more euphonious

and easier, (b) contraction, (c) in a very few instances
the fact that certain verbs are defective and require
to have their missing portions supplied from other
verbs. Examples of these three classes of irregularity
are: (a) amuz, amukhtan, 'to teach, to learn';
(b) avar (ar), avdrdan, 'to bring'; (c) bin, didan, 'to see'.

Very rarely also 2.

78 Lesson 11.

Duzdtdan, to steal. bam, the roof.
shanidan (shanav), to hear. qasr, a palace.
khvabidan, to lie down, to sleep. divdr, wall.
guftan (guy), to speak, say. murgh, a fowl.
namudan (namdy), to shew, do. ishtireh, a sign.
guzdshtan (gtlzar), to pass by. Jcih gfiya, as if.

guqdrdan (guz,dr), to permit. bdzi kardan, to play, to gamble.

guzdshtan (guzar) to leave. sadd zadan, to call.
didan (bin), to see. huzur, presence.
bar ddshtan (bar ddr), to carry. shart, condition, wager, stake.
shudan (shav), to become. khyushnud, pleased.
bdkhtan (bag), to lose (a game), ashpazklidneh, kitchen.
bdyad, ought. ddhineh, bridle, bit.
faramush kardan, to forget. kas, person, fellow.
arzidan, to be worth (bi-). zdrar, injury, loss.
pasandtdan, to approve of. zin, saddle.
danistan (dan), to know. umid, hope.
afrtishtan (afrdz), to raise aloft. afsdr, halter, headrope, headstall
barkhdstan (barkhiz), to rise. a'/rt' hazrat ('most lofty presence'
pazlruftan (pazir) to accept. your Majesty.
az tdraf i }
~_j -i > on the part of.
,-, /? makkdr, deceiver, deceitful.
az jamb e
hazar chandan, 1000 times as
blddr, awake. much.
mthtar, groom. dkhir, last; end.
i'timdd, reliance. vujud, existence, person.
nigtthbfini, watching, act ofguard-
iyn, permission. khatir, the heart.
(jazeh, ijazat, leave. khatirjam' darid ('keep the heart
pas, a watch in the night. together' =), be of good cheer.
pasbani, act of keeping watch. 2rishkdsh, present (from an in-
pdhin kdrdan, to stretch out. ferior).
lazim, necessary. ciqdas,most sacred.
zud, quick; early. humayuni \
r y aJ

nish, prick, sting. shahanshdhi \ '

dawn. imperial.
a/tab, sunshine. [of shahrydri [bling.
nish i aftdb, (at) the first ray quwdr bdzi, dice-playing, gam
Exercise 21.

TheVerb, Active Voice: Tenses from the Root (Imperative). 79

Translation 22.

One day a king was seated on the roof of his

palace. He saw a man who was standing (is having
stood up) at the foot of the wall and had (has) a fowl
in (his) hand, and that person was making (is making)
a sign as if he wished (wishes) to make (him) a present
of that fowl. The king called him and enquired, 'Why
dost thou show this fowl to me?' He said, 'I beg to
state to your most sacred imperial Majesty that I was
gambling with a certain person, and on the part of
your Majesty (the imperial person) I laid (made) a

wager and gained (carried off) this fowl, and I have
now brought it I hope (there is hope) that you will


(may) order them to (that they) receive it from me'.


That s, the servants. It would be presumptuous to ask

the king himself to accept it!
80 Lesson 11.

The king was much pleased and said that they should
(until they did) take (bear away) the fowl to (into)
the kitchen. After two [or] three days the same man,

having again presented himself (having arrived to

the presence of) before the king, brought a sheep
with him and said, 'This sheep also I have won for
your Majesty (the most lofty royal Presence) in
gambling.' The king accepted the sheep also. The
fellow came a third time, and he had brought another
with him. When the king saw him empty-handed
he asked him, '"Why hast thou brought nothing for
me to-day?' He said (made representation), 'In your
Majesty's name (name most sacred imperial) I laid a wager
of one thousand tomans with this man and lost to him :

he has now come for the money.' The king smiled,

and, having given him the sum mentioned, said,
'Never after this gamble in my name.'


Jl j

Jl jr" -A.
J j^J^J*" Jl

* Ifl Xlju: Jl jji ^JC^-L _,2T-Ci._?5j p


i^-^J^^. l^-.l
The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Bare Occurrence. 81

Twelfth Lesson.
The Verb (continued) : Auxiliaries : Tenses of Rare
Before studying the formation of the
remaining tenses of the Active and the tenses of the
Passive Voice, it will be convenient for the Student
to have before him paradigms of the most necessary
auxiliaries. "We therefore subjoin those of (a) Sudan,
'to be'; (&) Khyastan, 'to will, wish'; and (c) Shudan,
'to become'.
95. Sudan, 'to be': Root bash or buv (y or js.1).

(a) Preterite Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st
P.: budam, I was. budim, we were.
2 nd P.: budi, thou wast. budid, you were.
3 rd P.: bud, he, she, it was. budand, they were.
(6) Present Subjunctive.
Singular. Plural.
1 st P. basham, I:
may be. bashim, they j
2 nd P. \bashif thou mayst be. bashid, you be.
3 rd l?.:bashad, he, she, it, bcishand, they }

may be.
(c) Imperfect Indicative.
Singular. Plural.
1 st P. :
ml-budam, I was, etc. ml-budim, we were: etc.
( 85, &.)

(d) Another form of the Present Subjunctive.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: faivam, I may be. buvim we
2 nd P.: buvi, thou mayd be. bilvid, you may be.
3 rd P. :
buvad, he, she, it, buvand, they
may be.
(Still used, in writing only.)

(e) Perfect Participle.

bitdeh, having been.
(/) Imperative.
Singular. Plural.
2 nd P.: bash, be thou. 2 nd P.: bushid, be ye.
Persian Conv. -Grammar. 6
82 Lesson 12.

(g) Perfect. Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: bitdeh am, I have budeh im, we have been : etc.
been : "etc. ( 85, d.)

(ft) Pluperfect Indicative. (t) Agential.

Wanting. Wanting.
(j) Present Participle. (K) Optative.
Wanting. 3 rd Sing, bad, bada, may it be !

(0 Perfect Subjunctive.
1 st Singular, bude/i baslumi ( 102), I may have been.
(m) Present Indicative.
Singular. Plural.
1 st
P. mi-basham, I am. mi-bastnm, we
2 nd P. mt-basM, thou art.
mi-bashi, mi-basMd,
mi-bashid, von
you are.
3 rd P. ml-bashad, he, she, mi-bashand, they
it, is.

(n) Future Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P . :
Jchyaham bud, I shall khvahim bud, We shall be; etc.
be; etc.

(As in the Regular Verb: 100.)

ludani, abont to be, deserving or requiring to be,
able to be.
The prefix bi ( 91) is not now used with any oi
the Tenses of this verb.
[In India the Agential bashdndeh there pronoun-
ced Msh'indeh is often used in the sense of
bitant': but it is unknown in Persia at the present
96. Ehyastan, 'to will, wish, ask': Root Rhyah.
(a) Preterite Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st
P. khyastam, I wished.
Jchyasttm, we wished.
2 nd P.: khyasti, thou wish- khyastid, you wished.
3rd P.: Khydst, he, she, it, Tthyastand, they wished.
The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Rare Occurrence. 83

(6) Imperfect Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st
P. :
rrii-Wiyastam, I wish- mi-khyastim, we wished, etc.
ed, was wishing ;

etc. ( 85, 6.)

(c) Past Participle.

khyasteh, having wished.
(d) Perfect Indicative.
khydsteh am, I have wished, etc. (85, d.}

(e) Pluperfect Indicative.

khyasteh budam, I had wished, etc. ( 85, e.)

(/) Perfect Subjunctive.

khyasteh bashaw, I may have wished, etc. ( 102.)
(#) Gerundive.
khrustani, to be desired, desirable.
(h) First Present Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P. khyaham, I shall. khyahim, we shall.
2nd p khydhi, thou wilt, khydhid, you will.
3 rd P. Wiyahad, he will. Jchyahand, they will.

(i) Second Present Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P. :
mi-khyoiham, I wish. mi-kliyaMm, we
2 nd P.: ml-MvAI,thouwish- mt-khyciMd, you
edst. wish.
3 rd P. : ml - khyahad, he mi-khyahand, they
(?) Imperative.
2 nd Sing, khyah,* wish thou. 2 nd Plur. Myahid, wish ye.
(k) Present Participle.
kJiyahiin, wishing (Obsolete}.

(I) Agential.
khyahdndeh, wisher.
(m) Future Indicative.
khyaJmm khyast, I shall wish, ask, etc. ( 100.)
Often used as a conjunction

(cf. Latin vel . . .

veT). Ichvrfh . . .

fa khrfih, 'whether or'. . . .

84 Lesson 12.

97. When the verb khyastan is used an auxiliary,

the First Present Indicative is used to form the
future of other verbs, being then united with the
shortened Infinitive of the verb following ( 100). It
therefore means 'I shall, thou wilt', etc. The regular
or Second Present Indicative is never used as a simple
auxiliary and never has this sense: it means 'I wish,
I desire, I ask', etc. The simple form of the Present
Subjunctive cannot be used (since, as explained above,
it is in this Verb used in the sense of 'I shall'): the

strengthened form is therefore used; as b'i-Jchyaham,

'I may wish', etc. ( 91,&.) So also the strengthened
Imperative always used ( 91, a.), bi-khyah, b'l-khyahid,

[For an explanation of the reason why

'wish', 'ask'.
in the First Present Indicative the mi is not used in
this verb, vide 107.]
98. Notice the meanings of the following con-
structions :

a) Mi-khvaham bi-davam, I wish to run (lit. 'I wish

I may run').
b) Khvaham david, I shall run.
Qdlam-ra ddst girifteh budam va mi-klwastam

Mghaz-ra M-navlsam, kih shuvna amadid, 'I had taken pen

in hand, and 1 was just about to write, when you came'.
99. Shudan, 'to become': Root shav.

(a) Preterite Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P. shildam, I became.
shudim, we became.
2 nd P.:s/mdt,thoubecamest. sMdid, you became.
3 rd P.:s/rarf, he became. sliudand, they became.

(6) Imperfect Indicative.

nvi-shtidam, I was becoming, etc. ( 85, &.)

(c) Past Participle. (d) Present Participle.

sMdeJi, having become. Wanting.
(e) Agential.
shavdndeh, one who becomes (rare}.

(f) Perfect Indicative.

shudeh am, I have become, etc. ( 85, d.)
The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Rare Occurrence. 85

0) Pluperfect Indicative.
sh'iideh ludam, I had become, etc. ( 85, e.})

(h) Imperative.

Singular. Plural.

2 nd shau ( 9), become thou. 2 nd shdvid, become ye.

() Present Snbjnnctive.

Singular. Plural.

1 st P.:shdvam, I may of shdvim, we may

2 nd P .: shdvi, thou mayst o sMvid, you may
3 rd 'P.:s'hdvad, he may g shdvand, they may
(;) Present Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
\.* ~P.:mi-shava
m, I become.
mi-sJiavim, we
2 nd P.:wt'-s7tfiii, thoubecom- ml-shavid, you become.
3 rd P. :mi-shavadjhe becomes, mi-slwvand, they

(Je) Future Indicative.

Jckvtiham shud, I shall become, etc. ( 96, li.)

(I) Perfect Subjunctive.

shudeh "basliam, I may have become, etc. ( 102.)

(m) Gerundive.

shiidani, about to become, that ought to become.

In this verb the strengthened forms with bi- are
very frequently used, as M-shavam, 'I may become', etc.
It will be noticed that, except in the formation
of the Infinitive, there is no irregularity in the con-
jugation of either Khvastan or sMdan.
are now in a position to continue the explan-
ation of the formation of the remaining tenses of the
Regular Verb.
100. The Future Indicative Active is formed
by prefixing to the shortened Infinitive ( 84) of any
verb the First Present Indicative of Ichyastan ( 96, h :

86 Lesson 12.

Future Indicative Active of Davidan, 'to run'.

Singular. Plural.
1 P.: khyciJiam david khahim david

2 nd P.: Jchydhi david khyahid david (

3 rd P.: JthaJiad david khdhand david

'I shall run, thou wilt run', etc.

This tense is now used in speech (except in Ka-
shan) only when a very decided future or a purpose is
denoted, in other words in ordinary conversation it
denotes rather 'I will run' than 'I shall run'. Other-
wise the Present Indicative ( 89, c) of the principal
verb is employed in a future sense. More rarely the
Future has^the sense of must, should, etc., as in the
sentence, Ajab nist kih javarii i buznrg Jchviihad
natn'Ud, 'It is not strange that a youth should con-
ceive great projects'.
101. The Gerundive is formed by adding-! to
the Infinitive, as:
Davidani (Jo>j.i), about to run, that should run.
It is now
rarely used in writing though not uncom-
mon in speech. In the case of Transitive Verbs the
Gerundive has generally a Passive sense as, kushtani, ;

'about to be killed, that ought to be killed' dftdani, ;

'that may be seen, that should be seen, that is fit to

be seen, visible'. Like all other adjectives the Gerun-
dive requires na (I') and not nah (u) to be prefixed
to form the negative as nadidani, 'that cannot be seen.

invisible, that is not fit to be seen' ( 206, g). The

Gerundive may (like other Adjectives) be used as a
Substantive: as, khmirdam (jo^J^-), 'that which may
be eaten, food'.
102. The Perfect Subjunctive is formed by
adding the Present Subjunctive of Sudan ( 95, b) to
the Past Participle of the principal Verb.
The Verb Auxiliaries : : Tenses of Rare Occurrence. 87

Perfect Subjunctive Active.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: davideh basham , j ji) davideh bashim f_Ji

2 nd P. : davideh bdshi O-AJJJ) davideh bashid

3 rd P. : davideh bdshad -A>

davideh bdshand

'I may (might, should, would) have run', etc.
103. There are also a few other tenses which
are of rarer occurrence except in literary style. They
are the following :

(a) Optative.
3 rd P. Sing.: davad (jljj), may he run!
It occurs only in the 3 rd Singular, and is formed
by inserting an alif before the final letter of the 3
Sing. Present Subjunctive ( 89, 6). Sad ( 95, ft) is
contracted from buvad.
(6) Continuative Perfect Indicative.
This tense is formed by
prefixing mi- to all the
persons of the Perfect Indicative ( 85, d).
Ml -davideh am, etc., 'I have been running', etc.

Example: 1. Az in ayeli cliizha-y-i gharib padid

mi-dyad kih bi-ndzar nd-mi-amadeli ast, 'From this verse
some strange things become evident which have not
been coming to sight' (i. e. have not usually been
noticed). 2. To ura dideh-i kih dar mdsjid istadeh Qur'an
tni - kfivandeh va sdr i Khyudra pain mv-avdrdeh
va buldnd ni/i-kdrdeh ast, 'Thou hast seen him that,
having stood up in the mosque, he lias been reading
the Qur'an and has been lowering and raising his head'.
(The word ast is understood after mi-khvandeh and mi-
avdrdeh, according to the last sentence of 85).

(c) Contiuuative Pluperfect Indicative.

This is formed by prefixing mi- to each person
of the Pluperfect Indicative ( 85, e) as, :

Mi-davideh bndam, etc., 'I had been running', etc.

88 Lesson 12.

(If in the two sentences given above in (6) we change the

present and perfect tenses (mi-nyad and dfdefii) into the imper-
fect and pluperfect (mi-nmad and dideh biidi), we may then change
the other verbs, now in the Continuative Perfect, into the Con-
tinuative Pluperfect, thus mi-dmadeh bud, mi-khvtindeh (bud)
: . . .

. mi-avdrdeh (bud),
. . mi-kdrdeh bud.) . . .

(d) ( on t i nuu t i ve Perfect Subjunctive.

Mi-davideh (of.Msham
102), etc., 'I may have
been running, may have Ikept on running'.
This tense is of very rare occurrence indeed.
(e) Conditional.
This is formed by adding-* to all the persons of
the Preterite nd Person Singular.
( 85, a) except to the 2

Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: davidami davidimi
2 nd P.: davidi (^j^j^ davtdidi
3rd P.: davidi i^jjjj damdancTi

I should (were to) run', etc.

This tense also expressed habitual action and then
had exactly the meaning of the Imperfect Indicative.
It is not now used in speech and rarely in writing,
the Imperfect Indicative being employed instead in
both senses ( 85, 6).
104. In older books ml was prefixed to the
Imperative to denote continuance, thus forming the
Continuative Imperative: the longer form of the same
prefix, hami, was also used in the same way. E. g.
mi-dau, hami-dau, hami-david, 'keep on running'. But
this is now obsolete in speech and very antiquated
even in writing.
105. The prefix U- is often in writing used
with the preterite Indicative, especially when it is a
word of one syllable. It thus forms the Strengthened
Preterite : as in the sentence / n-ra guft va birdft, 'He
said this and went away'. But the employment of the
prefix a matter of taste, and it does not very

materially modify the meaning.

106. The original form of mi- was hami (Pahlavi
hamai), and it meant 'always, ever', as is seen from
The Verb : Auxiliaries : Tenses of Bare Occurrence. 89

the word liamislieli which still has that meaning and

is formed from the prefix hamit by adding to it the
old (Achaemenian Persian) adverbial termination -sJieh
(-sha, Pahlavi -shah).
107. The form now known as the present Stib-
junctive used in the old language to be the Present
Indicative, and it is still found in classical works (and
in their modern imitations) in that sense. It has there-
fore very often a future meaning, as has the modern
Present Indicative ( 89, c). But in the modern tongue
the only Verbs in which the Indicative meaning of
thisform is retained are khyastan (First Present), daslitan,
and sometimes bay'istan and shay'istan (
97 and 131).
108. The Negative of the Imperative in the
older language was formed by prefixing ma-, 'not'
(Avestic and Achaemenian ma, Greek /^, Latin ne).
In speech, however, na is generally used instead of
ma-, as less forcible and therefore more polite. In
writing ma- may still be used, as may na- also.
When a verb is compounded with a pre-
position which precedes it, the particle mi- in the
Present and Imperfect Indicative etc. is placed between
the preposition and the verb: as, bar amadan, 'to come
up'; Present Indicative bar mi-ayad. The same rule
holds generally with the prefixed particles bi, na, ma-
etc. and also with regard to the Auxiliary Khyaham; as,

bar nd-y-dyad, bar nd-mi-ayad, bar Wiyaliad amad, etc.

But bi- is not prefixed when this particular preposition
bar is used in other instances it may be as faru b't-

barad 'may he (let him) swallow'. (Of. the introduction

of the augment in Greek between the prefixed pre-
position and the verb, as eeXef"ov from exXs^to.)
In a few verbs (the prepositional nature of which
is nearly forgotten, cf. the case of xaftiZot in Greek)
the auxiliary of the Future is prefixed to the prepo-
sition, as Jchyahad barlchast, 'he shall arise'. (Bar Jchyahad
Mast is antiquated.) So JcJiyaJiad dar
guzdslit, 'it shall
pass away' (although ddr Jchyahad guzdsht is also correct) ;

but faru khyahad burd, 'he shall swallow', in accordance

with the general rule. So also fara girt/tan, 'to acquire',
90 Lesson 12.

has fard mi-girad, fard Wiydhad girtft, fard bi-glr, fat

md-gir, etc.
Such verbs as paziruftan 'to accept' avdrdan, 'to brin ;

nmadan, 'to come', etc. are really compounded with separabl

or inseparable prepositions; but as this has been forgotten
the Persians, these verbs are treated as uncompounded.

gundh, sin.
murtahib i, engaged in.
navishtan (navls), to write. qudrat, power.
shitdftan (shitdb), to hasten. izn, permission.
piishfdan, to conceal. mashghul-i(bi), busy with.
rasanidan, to cause to arrive. Shaitd-n, Satan.
situdan (sitay), to praise. dtash, fire.
panddshtan (panddr}, to consider, Johannam, hell.
fancy. 'uqubat, torture, punishment.
bar ddshtan (dar}, to take up, ta'lfm, doctrine, teaching.
carry off. 'uqald (Ar. PI. of dqif), sages.
firisttidan (firist), to send. sirfsht, composition, nature.
tavnniston (tavdn), to be able. mdmkin, possible.
nishan dddan (dih}, to shew. dsar, impression, effect.
bdvar kdrdan, to credit. qatil, saying, speech.
muntazir, expectant. khdmush, silent.
mulaqat, interview. kham, bent.
muddat, period of time. kuliikJi, a clod.
magrun, near. giriydn, weeping, tearful.
kisalat, ill health. ahdmm (Ar. Superlat.), most im
fursat, leisure, opportunity. portant.
dqsar -i auqfit, oftentimes. 'djiz, helpless, unable.
barhti, times, often. umnr (Ar. pi. of amr), matters
sliaraf-y&b, honoured. haqfr humble, contemptible.

I'd/, weakness. chindn, such, so.

yal'ash, slowly. Jianitz, still, as yet.
rtth rdftan, to walk. ziydd, very much.
bi-imfin, without faith, infidel. dard, pain.
danflj wise. tabdssum, smile.
muttaqt, pious. ghairi wor'*, invisible.
mds'aleh, question, problem, fewfr, presence.
sw'ff/, a question. sarkdr, lordship: Sir.
su'aldt (Ar. pi.), questions. mustdujib i, liable to, deservin
'ulamn (Ar. learned
pi. of 'iilim) ntdkhfi, concealed, hidden.
men ,
religious , khdk, clay, soil, earth.
doctors of the law. chinankih, just as.
Islfim, Muhammadanism. duriighgu, liar.
be exalted',
('may =) siikhan, a word.
Most High (of God). hikmat, wisdom.
ndzir, viewing, beholding. tafdrruj, pleasure, aniusemen
khtiliq, Creator. (a walk).
Tchair, good. sddr i a'gam, Premier.
sharr, bad, evil, wickedness. vatir, a minister of state.
The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Eare Occurrence. 91

tajv'iz, permission, sometion. takdllum, conversation.

a field.
Jiishtzfir, hamfinff, indeed.
gdndum, wheat. qa/'/in va Jchyfsh, relatives.
buldnd, tall. high. nshnti, an acquaintance.
InddncK, height. iltiflit, attention, kindness.
qadd, stature. tadirtf, honour.
ddam, a man
(person). guftugu, conversation.
sOq, leg, stalk (of corn). Jiarf,a letter, a word.
Qfbleh-y-i Alam, ('Cynosure of harf zadan, to speak.
the World' =) Your Majesty. 'deim i,
bound for.
sal&mat, safety: safe. shartf, noble.
saldmatij safety. mtini', prohibitive.
mutavcyjih, attentive, careful. aknun, now.
tab va Idrz, fever and ague. **J
muta'djjib, surprised.
vdtan, native land. sb va Itavfi ('water and air'),
ftl, elephant. climate.
bd'zij some. innh, moon, month.
tnuftd, beneficial. tavdqquf, delay, sojourn.
aqdi-ib (Ar. pi. of qartb) rela- tdjir, a merchant (Ar. pi. tujjar).
tions, shadtd, severe.
tabib, a doctor, physician. dttchdr shtidan, to meet with to ;

ddsteh, handful: handle. be attacked by (a disease).

Icdghaz, paper: a letter. zamtin, time.
ahl, a 'people. raf, rejection, a shaking off.
darkhytist, request. chaq, healed, well.
mdusam, a season. umid, hope.
nkhir i kdr, finally. gtihgaM, from time to time.
isbdt, a proof; substantiation. muznliiin, troublesome, troubler.
sfibitkdrdan, to prove. yagin, certain (it is certain).
sihhat, correctness: health. tijdrat, commerce.
ijrfzdi, ijazat, leave. shughl, business, calling.

Exercise 23.
92 Lesson 12.

'lj jLriiH^J ^!j>- g:* J ^^j-3^ cr^-r.


^ftJ^oJ^P jU lj)l^-"U- j| ^A

Translation 24. A Tale.

One day a king went out of the city with, his
Prime Minister for a walk (amusement, recreation),
and he came to a field and there saw some stalks of
wheat with ears-of-corn which were taller than the

In Modern Persian there is no ordinary word in use for
'plant' of wheat: hence the circumlocution.
The Verb: Auxiliaries: Tenses of Eare Occurrence. 93

height of a man. The king was surprised and said,

'Until now I never saw (I had not seen) wheat so
high as this (with this height)'. The Prime Minister
said, 'May it please your Majesty (May the cynosure
of the World be safe!), in my native land wheat
grows (becomes) to the height of an elephant'. On
hearing this the king smiled and said nothing. The
minister said to (with) himself, 'The king, having
considered my statement false, on that account (from
that reason) smiled'. When they came back from (their)
walk, the minister wrote to some of the people of his
native land (that they should send) to send a handful
of (from) stalks of wheat along with the ear(s)-of-corn
(ktwsheli] that are (may be) on the top of them. /But
when his letter reached that place the season for (of)
wheat had passed, until one other year when (that)
they sent (some). The minister took (bore) them to
(nazd i) the king. The king asked him why he had
brought them (having asked from him said, 'Why
hast thou brought these?'). He said, "Last year, when
I said (had represented) that in my country stalks of
wheat grow (becomes) to the height of an elephant,
your Majesty smiled. I said to myself, 'His Majesty
(the most lofty imperial presence) has (pi.) deemed my
statement false', therefore I have brought these to
substantiate (for the sake of substantiation of) my
words (qaul)." The king in answer to (of) him said,
"I now believe (have credited) what thou hast said:
but for the future (after this) be careful not to say
(thou mayest not strike a letter) what thou canst
not (mayst not be able to) prove except after one

Ul fjJL. ^\j>j2. (Jb jo_

U ,sAb
94 Lesson 13.

j <->' ->'->

jjj ^4)
/ " *
U U.J.5
I & V jU^.lL" *JLi

,* jj, 43

.tl * j

Thirteenth Lesson.
Passive Voice of the Verb : Order of Words in a
Sentence: Oratia ttecta and Obliqua. Oratio
The Passive Voice of all Transitive Verbs
is formed by appending to the Past Participle ( 85, c),
singular,*the various parts of the auxiliary shiidan,
'to ( 99). As the verb davidan can have no
Passive, being an intransitive Verb, we take as our

In place of using the Passive Voice, Persians often use
the 3rd Person Plural of the Active Voice, as in the Examples
following: "He was killed"; lira kushtand, (lit. 'they killed
him'): "He was given a present"; in' ami bivat dadand. In the
latter kind of sentence where in English a Passive Verb has
a direct object after it, there is no other way of translating
into Persian. (Cf. the use of the English they, German man,
French on.}
older form of the past Participle without the final

-ah is generally used in the Passive of ynftan (yl>\ 'to find' :

e -
yajt mi-sliavad, 'it is being found'.
Passive Voice of the Verb Order of : Words in a Sentence. 95

example the verb kushtan (root kush), 'to kill'. It must

be remembered that its Past Participle means, 'having
killed but also 'having been killed ( 85, c).

111. Kushtan (<J&~), to kill: Past Participle,


Passive Voice.
A. Indicative Mood.
(a) Present Tense.

Singular. Plural.
l P. : kushteh mi-shawm kiishteh mi-shavlm c^T*

2 nd P.: hlshteh mf-shavt kushteh mi-shavid (<i<

3 rd P.: kitshteh mi-shavad kushteh mr-shavand

<lij J ^Jk *UMl

'I am being killed, thou art being killed', etc.

(of. 99, j).

The literal meaning of this tense is, 'I am be-

coming having been killed', or 'I become killed', etc.

(6) Imperfect Tense.

Singular. Plural.
1 P.: kushteh mi-shudam ktishteh mi-shitdim

2 n(l P.: kushteh mi-shtidi kushteh mi-shudid

.((^o^ <:'f) .(j^oL.*

3 rd P.: ktishteh mi-shud kushteh mi-shudand

'I was being killed', etc. (cf. 99, 6).

Literally, was becoming having been killed',


or 'I was becoming killed'. Like the Imperfect Indie.

Act. ( 85, 6) this tense is also used with the sense
of the Conditional, '(If) I were to be killed', 'Should
I be killed', etc.
96 Lesson 13.

(c) Preterite Indicative.

Singular. Plural.

1 st P.: MshteJishudam(^c^f kushteh shudim

2 nd P.: kushteh shudi (4^$" Mshteh slmdld (


3 rd P. : hlshteh shud vJ-f hlshteh shudand (

'I was killed', etc. (cf. 99, a).

Literally, 'I became killed', etc.

(d) Perfect Indicative.

Singular. Plural.

1 st
P.: Msliteh shudeh am kushteh shudeli im

2 nd P.: fat-shteh sJmdeh i kushteli slnideli id

.(oi c^) .(A,IJL

3 rd P.: Mshteh shudeh and faishteh skudeh and

'I have been killed', etc. (cf. 99, /).

Literally, 'I am having become killed', etc.

(e) Pluperfect Indicative.

Singidar. Plural.
1 P. : Mshtch shudeh Imdam fatehteh shudeh bitdim

2 nd P.: faishteh shideh ludi faishteh shudeh budid

.((^J^u^ c^f) .(A,JJ>*A^

3 rd P. : Tiustiteh shudeh bud Mshteh stmdeli budand

'I had been killed', etc. (cf. 99, g).

Literally, 'I was having become killed', etc.
Passive Voice of the Verb: Order of Words in a Sentence. 97

(/) Fntnre Indicative.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P. : Mshteh khyaham shud Mshteh khyahim shud (cT"
Ai3 )
.(jJi^j^ .(o^^jbly.
2 nd P.: Mshteh khyaht shud Mshteh Jchyahid shud (<iT~
) <ii .(a-i-u&l^
3 rd P. : Mshteh khahad shud Mshteh khahand shud

'Ishall be killed', etc. (cf. 99, K).

Literally, 'I shall become killed', etc. What has
been said in a previous paragraph ( 100) regarding
the use of the Future Indicative Active applies also
to this tense.
-B. Subjunctive Mood.
(a) Present Subjunctive.
Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: Mshteh shdvam <cT~ Mshteh shdvlm <~^ <cJf".

2 nd P.: Mshteh shdvi (o^" Mshteh shdvid (-x.

3 rd P.: Mshteh slidcad (<zir' Mshteh shdvand (jJ i

may be killed', etc. (cf. 99, t).

Literally, 'I may become killed', etc. The strength-

ened form of the Auxiliarly, bt-shavam may also be
used as, Mshteh M-shavam, etc. This forms the 'Strength-

ened Present Subjunctive Passive'.

(6) Perfect Subjunctive.

Singtdar. Plural.
1 st P. : Mshteh shiideh lusham Mshteh shudeh bashim
.(,ilJl AllT') .(.^la-Ll
2 nd P. Mshteh
: shudeJi Mshi Mshteh shudeh bitsh'id

3 rd P. Mshteh shudeh
: brisJtad Mshteh shudeh bashand
.(o^laAi <l
Persian Conv. -Grammar.
98 Lesson 13.

may have been killed', etc. 99, ( I).

Literally, 'I may be having become killed', etc

C. Other Moods.

(a) Imperative.
Singular. Plural.
2 nd P.: Mshteh sJiau (tcT 2 nd P.: kiishteh slidvld

.(j .(A,^
'Be them, ye, killed', (cf. 99, />): literally, 'Be-
come thou killed', etc.

(6) Infinitive Present.

kiishteh shiidan ( j-i <iiT), 'to be killed' (cf. 99).

(c) Infinitive Perfect.

hishteh shudeh Imdan (j.jj>-i^ 4^O, 'to have been killed'.

(d) Past Participle Passive.

h'tshfeh sJwideh, 'having been killed' (O-L

Order of Words
112. a Sentence. From the
Exercises previously given the Student must have
noticed that the usual order of words in a sentence
is: (1) Subject, (2) Attribute of the Predicate, (3)
Direct Object, (4) Indirect Object, (5) Predicate.
As Adjectives and Nouns in Apposition directly
(as a general rule) follow theNouns which they qua-
lify, of course these terms 'Direct Object' etc. denote
the wlwle of the logical Direct Object and are not used
in their narrower Grammatical sense.
Example: (1) "Padshah i niku
(2) ba khyushi
(3) an khal'at-ra (4) bi sartib
dilir (5) 'ati farmud",

Hie good king with pleasure presented that robe-of-fionour to

the brave colonel.
Emphasis is expressed by changing
this order, but no change is required in the order of
the words to denote a question.
When a subordinate sentence begining with such
words as dgarchih, harchdnd kih, ba vujudi hih, etc. occurs,
it must be inserted before the main portion of the prin-

cipal sentence and be followed by dmma or some such

word: as, "The minister presented the robe-of-honour
to the general, although he was jealous of his fame" ;
Passive Voice of the Verb : Order of Words in a Sentence. 99

Vaztr, dgarchih bar shiihrat i sardar husad mi-bilrd,

amrtia farmud. Other subordinate
khdl'at-ra bi-va'l 'ata
sentences are generally treated somewhat in the same
113. The indirect narration (oratio obliqita) is

rarely used in Persian its place is generally taken


by the direct narration (oratio recta), which is often

introduced by kih ('that'): as, "The servant said that
his master was not at home"; Ndu/car guft Jcih 'Sahib
tashrif nd-darad This, of course, changes the tense of

the verb in the latter clause.

Avardeh and, (they have brought but, an idol. n C^A

) they relate. butparasti, idolatry.

Irtin, Persia. 'ahd, covenant: fixed time,
Kayumdrs bimdrl, sickness.
Istdkhr milhlik, destructive.
Siytimak shuyu', prevalence.
Huslidng khalq, people.
Talimuris f-o -yr N kastr, numerous.
halkh (Proper Names).
vdrteh, whirlpool.
SMrdsb fand, destruction, death.
Btsitiin Injdram, unavoidably.
Ibrahim i 'azfz, dear, honoured.
Adham dar guqdshtan, to pass away.
Firddusi (Anthor of Shahntimeh}. tasdlli, consolation.
Pishdadiydn (name of a line of sffkhtan (saz), to make.
mythical Persian kings). rdfteh rafteh, gradually.
pardstish, worship. shi'r,verse.
parasttdan, to worship. maktub, written.
Musalmdn, a Musalman. 'ibdrat, style.
jahiilat, ignorance. isltih, correction.
bahimtyyeh, bestial. isti'mdl, use.
rihfit, deliverance, muhtioareh, idiom.
taz', act of placing. msbat bi-, in reference to.
ifa'-ideli,a rule. 'aib nd-darad, it matters not
qilnun, a law. Farawgt, European.
sar-silsileh, beginning of line Farartgistdn, Europe.
(chain). yaqtnan, surely.
qabfleh, tribe. saff, line, rank.
itfrat,obedience. knrvttnsard, caravansarai.
gdrdan, neck. muldzim, attendant, f j^
nilindan. (nih), to place. nfifjdh, suddenly.
bar khdstan (khiz], to rise. dalq, beggar's robe.
muhtirabat, war. kashkiil, beggar's bowl.
<injdm, end. 'asa, staff.
anjam/dan, to end (intr.). drikhil shiidan, to enter.
Jang, battle, war. Jadd, grandfather.
100 Lesson 13.

kuslitan, to kill. az an i kih

whose ?
band namfidan, to build, to begin. mul i kill

mukhdlafat, opposition. mukJiatab, person addressed.

intiqdm, vengeance. mutakdttim, speaker.
kdmar, waist, loins. ddab, courtesy.
bdstan (band), to bind. shimi'trdan (shimnr), to reckon,
Idslikar, army. account.
fardham, together. ra'y, thought, opinion.
sMr, a lion. rffst,true, right, straight.
paldng, a panther. durust, correct.
yuz, a leopard. hingam, time.
shikdst, defeat. ishtibah, mistake.
div, a demon. Jcunun, aknun, now. .

" V^J^LA^>
dushman, an enemy. Jial >
now '

uftddan (tiff), to fall. al'an \

mcfrikeh, field of battle. mundarij, recorded.

idftan (tab), to turn (tr.). sliu'arn, (Ar. pi. of shif'ir, a poet.).
pd-y-i tdklit, capital. mubaligtieli, exaggeration.
sdltanat, kingdom, reign. shdkk, doubt.
sulidn, ruler, SultSn. asl, root, origin.
murdji'at, return. tarikli, history (Ar. pi. tavarikh .

taj, a crown. qadlm, ancient.

shdlii, royal. 'tiqil, intelligent: a sage (Ar. pi.

padshdhi, reign. 'uqaln).

paidd, discovered. kuh, mountain.
nur, light. nwvdrrikli. historian.
ildht, Divine. afstfneJi, fable.
ztihid, a hermit. Sar Jan Mdlkam, Sir John Mal-
(ftash, fire. colm.
zamdn, time. musdmma' bi-, named.
isti'dnat, aid. qubfd dashtan, to accept.
ddnisli, wisdom. rdqam ( Ar. pi. arqum), inscription.
vnjtr, abundant. mikhi, cuneiform.
zdfar, victory. sdklirdi, rock.
khvdndan, to read. mshtwr, more.
navishtan (watfs), to write. ittilfi', information.
hobs, captivity. tdifeli, race, people. }
fard giriftan, to learn, acquire. ta'tfqub,pursuit.
vasiteh, method. "itstuklwan, a bone.
qaid, bond. mahi, a fish.
astri, captivity. drreli, a saw.
bakhsliidan, to bestow.

Exercise 25.
Passive Voice of the Verb Order of Words in a Sentence. 101

Jjjl ji c^>*\ j

Translation 26.
One day Sultan Ibrahim i Adham was seated at

the door of his palace, and his attendants (had drawn

ranks) were drawn up in line by him. Suddenly a
mendicant with a beggars-robe and bowl and staff,
having arrived from a journey (road), wished to enter
the palace. The Sultan's attendants asked him saying
(having enquired from him said), "Where art thou
102 Lesson 13.

going, old man?" The mendicant said, "I want to go

into this caravansarai". In reply to him they said,
"This is the palace of the ruler of Balkh and not a
caravansarai". The old man said, "No, it is a cara-
vansarai". The Sultan, on hearing (having heard) this,
called the mendicant before him and said, "Mendicant,
this is my house; for (from) what reason dost thou
say that it is a caravansarai?" The old man replied,
"Ibrahim, permit me to (command permission in order
that I may) ask thee (from thee) a few (diand) questions.
"Whose house was this at first?" The Sultan said, "My
grandfather's". He said, "When thy grandfather passed
away, whose did it become?" The Sultan said, "My
father's." The mendicant said, "When thy father died,
to whom
did it pass (arrive)?" The Sultan in reply
said, "It passed on to me". The mendicant said, "When
thou passest away (pres. Subj.\ to whom will it go
(b'i-rasad)?" He said, "To my son". The mendicant in
reply to him said, "Ibrahim, a place that one enters
and another goes out of is a caravansarai and not a
dwelling (kkanekf.

L Ll

i *j* JU.lf <r


jl JLo-j. jlj-.l JA! x-.U* cjbTjl jJ4^'l 45" <j.,J j

j-> I
j (j-J-r. j^^-sr.)
f .r

\\J\ oS

XI -U.
Irregular Verbs. 103

^ * ^ " * 6 1*~ '"" *'1 **^'


u ->*:-*
Jiji jTU jVlUl J.



Appendix to thirteenth Lesson.

Irregular Verbs.
114. As has been already said, the only irre-
gularity in the conjugation of the so-called Irregular
Verbs consists in the formation of the Infinitive from
the Root modified in a particular manner. When both
the Infinitive and the Root are known, the formation
of the various tenses and moods proceeds exactly as
shewn above in the Regular Verb. Many of the Irregular
Verbs, with their Roots subjoined, have already been
given in the Exercises, but for convenience of re-
ference all the Irregular Verbs are here entered alpha-
betically (in the order of the Persian Alphabet). A
few that are quite regular are also entered (with R
prefixed) where any mistake might otherwise be made
regarding the root. Those parts of the verbs which
are enclosed in square brackets are now obsolete, and
should not be used in speaking or even in writing,
though they are entered here because they occur in
the older writers.
115. List of Irregular Verbs.
[Aj~idan,ttji'n],ajfdeh, to stitch, [rfkhtan, ffkh], ffkhteh,
to draw
make raised stitches, e. g. out. [adorn.
for ornament. nrffstan [ffr<7?/|, ffrtttfeft, to
104 Lesson 18.

[azurdan, azar], azurdeh, to Bakhtan to play, to

) baz,
annoy. Bilztdan lose (a game).

azmudan, azmdy, to test, try. R. bdftan, bdf, to weave.

B. [dzdan, az], to stitch (= bayistan, bdy, ought, to be,
ajidan, q. v.). proper (impersonal),
[asudan, asay], asudeh, to re- biirdan, bar, to carry off.
pose. bdstan, band, to bind.
[ashilftan, ashub], ashufteh, to budan, buv, bash, to be.
disturb. bfkhtan, Mz, to sift.
agliishtan >
aghdr], aghishteh, Paludan, paltiy], to strain.
aghartdan to steep, (inblood). 'paisfan i -I* i n
1,1 jpciy\i ''O fe nrm.
agMshtan ) agMsh], to em-

[agMsJitdan ^ brace; to cut. puklitan, paz, to cook.

afartdan, afartn, to create. paztniftan, pazir, to accept,
agdndan, dgan, to stuff. receive.
[aludan, aluy\ aludeli, to defile. pazmurdan [pazmir] ,pazmiirdeh,
[amddan, amdy], amddeli, to to wither (intr.).
prepare. parddklitan, parddz, to busy
amadan, ay, to come. oneself with (bi).
amukhtan, amuz, to learn, (to [parhfkhtan], parhtz, to ab-
teach, old.}. stain from (az).
amikhtan, amtz, to mix. panddshtan, panddr, to sup-
afrdkhtan, to exalt > afrdz, pose.
afrdshtan, to hoist \ to raise. [pfkhtan, piz], to take captive.
afzudan, afzdy, to increase [pirdstan, pirdy], pirdsteh, to
(trans.}. adorn.
R. afshandan,afshdn, to sprinkle. paimudan, paimdy, to measure.
afshurdan, afshdr, to squeeze. patvdstan, paivdnd, to unite
uftddan, uft, to fall. (tr. and intr.}.
anddy], to smear. [Takhtan] taz, takhteh, to

anbdshtan, anbdr],
[andudan, aribdshteh, tazidan twist, to gallop.

to heap up. tdftan, to twist, turn ) tab, to

anddkhtan, andaz, to throw. tabfdan, to shine \ shine,

andukhtan, anduz, to store, turn.

lay up. [tukhtan, tuz\ to collect.
ingashtan, ingdr, to deem. [tanudan, tandv], to twist,spin.
[aglidshtan, aglidsh(?)}, to accu- tavanistan, tavdn, to be able.
mulate. Jaidan, jav, to chew (vulg.
sghushtan )
aghush] to em- for khmdan).
aghftshtdan \ brace. jdstan, Jah, to leap.
ajrukhtan, afruz, to kindle. justan, juy, to seek.
angtkhtan, angiz, to stir up. Chidan, chfn, to pluck.
aijdrdan, ) dear, KHtistan, khiz, to rise.
vulg. and old, avurdan \ dr,to khmbfdan ) kliusb to lie

bring. kliuftan \ \ down, to

aifkhtan, aviz, to hang (tr. R. khvaUdan, khvab |
be asleep.
and intr.}. Dddan, dih, to give.
tstddan, ist 1 ,
ddshtan, dar, to have, possess.
tostandu P'
obs.^^an,i S ^ damstan, dan, to know (&
Note. Some of these verbs have not been placed in alpha-
betical order.
Irregular Verbs. 105

dirudan ) R. sliikdftan, sliikaf, to cleave,

diravtdan split (<raw.).
dfikhtan, duz, to sew. shikdstan, shlkan, to break
(trans: a stick, e. g.).
shikuftan >
sliikuf, to burst
dldan, bin, to see. (shikfiftan?) \ into bloom.
Kabudan, rabdy, to snatch away. shanmrdan, sJmmdr (old s/ta-

[rdstan, roll], to escape. wiwr), to count.

[rasfem] >
ruy, to grow up, spring sliinakhtan,sliinris,to recognise,
rutdan ) vip. to know (connaitre).

m ..

' t0 S P in " [shunudan]

shinav, to
hear, to

rdftan, rav, to go. shanuftan (vulg). ] smell.

to sweep. [Ghunudan, gJiiinuv], to slum-
rfkhtan, riz, to pour out, spill. Firisttidan, firist, to send,
[Zadan] ) zny, to bring forth f/arfawflfaw >
farkdnd] to ,

zaldan \ young. [/ar/cawdHan ^ cause to dig

zddan, zan, to strike, beat. a canal.
[zidfidan, zidliy\ to rub off, to farmfidan, farmdy, to com-
polish. mand.
[zinudan, zinav\ to neigh, howl. furukhtan, furfish, to sell.
[ztstan, ziy], zindeh (Agential), to firiftan, firib, to deceive.
zandeh live. fuzudan, fazdy, to increase
Sukhtan, snz, to make. (trans. Another form of
suidan (v. sudari). afzudan, q. v.).
sipurdan, sipttr, to entrust. fislmrdan. jisliar, to crush
(another form of afshurdan,
aitfindan sittin, to seize, take. q; V.).
[Kttstan] )
kah, to grow thin,
(vulg. sTmdan, sun, to get, buy.) kahfdan \
waste away (intr.)
kdshtan V Tear, to sow, plant
[ktshtan] \ (seed).
7 >
sanj, to weigh.
scwjidan [kaftan] i
kav, to dig (vulg. to
to kttitdan \ search a person for
[sirishtan sirish], sirishteh,
I sZrts/i
(vulg.). knead, stolen property, etc.).
mix. kdrdan, kun, to do.
[surfulan] R. kdndan, kan, to dig.
sardy, to sing.
[kiiftan] ) kub, to knock, pound,
[suftan (
suft] stifteh kubtdan \ crush.
( sunb .
Guddkhtan, gudtiz, to melt
sunltdan \
to P ierce bore

sukhtan, suz, to be burnt, to burn guzdrdan, to place )
guzdr, to
(iiitr.), (old to burn trans.}. **r c
guzdslitan, to leave \ leave, let, ,

to permit, place.
guzfahtan, guzar, to pass by.
Shnyistan, shay, to be fitting gard'idan (see' ffdshtan).
(impersonal). giriftan, gir, to seize, take.
shitdftan, shittib, to hasten. gurikhtan >
gurfz, to
shtidan, shav, to become (old, to go). (vulg. gurukhtan) \ flee.
shustan, shTty (vulg. sli~ir\ to girtstan [gtriy], to weep.
wash. guzidan, guztn, to choose.
106 Lesson 13.

E. gaznlan, gaz, to bite. Nigarlstan, nigar, to look at.

gusistan i
giisil. to break [nisltnstan] ) nishtfn, to set, seat
tjusikhtan >
(trans., e. g. a nishandan \ plant.
gusiltdan (Vulg.
thread). nishdatan, nishin, to sit down,
strengthened imperat. 6ts- namudan, namify, to show.
for bigufril}. navakhtan, navaz, to sound (tr
gushddan )
gusliuy, to open, and intr.); to receive witl
gushudan \ loosen. honour; to pet (a child).
J*.* t ottru. to become.
y / ij 1+ 1 * } ncivi-s. to write
gardidan S (old nabtshtan S
giiftan, guy, to say, speak. nihudan, nth, to put, lay down
gumashtan, gumar, to appoint, [nihuftan, nihuft(?)}, nitiufteh, t<
[gdndan] > , , . hide (trans.-).
ga1> move
gandUan \ ffishtan > M, to (tra,
R. Mtindan, man, to remain. hilidan (old and vulgar).

[maniston], man, to resemble. Yfiftan, yfib, to get, obtain.


-' J
-n, mir, to die.

116. As noticed above ( 74), in the first syllable

of some verbs (e. used in some
g. namitdan, while a is

places, i is heard in others, and u may still be found

elsewhere. We have in the above list adopted in each
case the most usual pronunciation (the short vowel
hardly ever being written in Persian).
117. There is (as will be noticed in the List
given above) a great tendency to form regular infi-
nitives in -idem from the roots of irregular verbs. In
some cases, however, both the regular and the irregular
forms are now obsolete, as shewn above. New verbs
are often formed by compounding the present or pas
participle, or sometimes the shortened infinitive, with
auxiliaries. Thus for the tenses formed from the ob-
solete root of giristan, to weep, we find giriyan ml-
diavad etc.substituted: for (Iranian, drasteh lidrdan: for
z'tstan, zlst namudan, etc.

118. To the advanced Student the following

rules for the formation of the Infinitive from the Root
of Irregular Verbs may be useful.
The old termination of the Infinitive in Persian
(Pahlavi, Dart) was -tan (cf. Sanskrit -turn, Latin Supine
in -turn) : -dan has arisen from this by softening the
after a vowel or a liquid letter, and can therefor

A very few Irregular Verbs the sense of which is some

what obscene have been omitted from the above list.
Irregular Verbs. 107

occur only after such, letters (the vowels long or short

and the liquids n and r).
119. Rules. I. A few Boots insert a (lengthened
from an original final a in the root: cf. i-sta-dan and
Lat. std- re) e. g. tst-a-dan, (older isttfdari), firist-a-dan

(same root with prefixed fra, [Greek ~/>o-, Lat. /;n),

Skt. pro]).
II. Many verbs, the roots of which end in -ay,
change this into u before the ending -dan, e. g. sitay,
III. Many verbs, the roots of which end in -a/%
change the a into u before appending the -dan : e. g.
mamar (old sJmmur), sliamurdan.
IV. Other roots in ar and ar, if they take the
older ending -tan, change the r into sli before it as :

guzar, guzdshtan; guzar, guzashtan; dar, dashtan: but if

they take -dan they retain the r, sometimes changing

the preceding vowel of the root: as, guzar, guzardaii :
bar, burdan.
V. Roots ending in h, nd (and also those in n
which take -tan) change this into s before -tan: as,
rah, rdstan; band, bdstan; slukan, shikdstan.
VI. Roots ending in z, s, sh, change their final
consonant into Jch before -tan; as, anddz, andakhtan;
shinas, shinakhtan; dusk, duklitan. (Some exceptions are
found, e. g. agush, agushtan.)
VII. Roots ending in v, b, Tty, change these letters
into /before -tan: as, rav, rdftan: rub, ruftan (ruftan):
guy, guftan.
VIII. Roots ending in in often omit the n before'

the termination -dan or -tan: as chin, cliidan: guzln,

IX. Some Verbs, the roots of which were origi-
nally nouns, adjectives or participles, add -istan or istan.
instead of the simple -tan (i. e. insert or t, connecting ?',

The n is no original part of the root in such verbs:


e. kun (root of kdrdan) is contracted from the Avestic kerenar

(cf. nu class of verbs in Sanskrit, Greek deix-vv-o), Latin pono
for pds-n-o. So chin fr. J/chi.) In nishfn (ni Russ. na-, Lat- =
in shas (sh for s after
: =
sed, [Lat. severe]) the n is for d or nd.
108 Lesson 14.

vowel, and s for euphony, before -tan) :

as, nigaristan
(nigar) ;
danistan (dan).
tavantstan (tavan) :

X. "When a preposition is prefixed to strengthen

the verb, the conjugation is unchanged thereby: as
kliiz; barlchastan, barkhiz. Only when the pre-

positional nature of the prefix is forgotten is a slight

change allowed as, paqiruftan, pazir (from pazI
Avestic =
paiti, Greek -f>6<?, and raftan; cf. vulgar r-ed for rav-ad,
contracted) avdrdan, avar (from a -j- biirdan, bar).

120. The
full explanation of some of the irregularities
requires a reference to older forms of the language and does not
lie within the scope of the present work. But the following

notes may be useful: Dtdan is from the \/dhi, 'to separate,

distinguish, discern'; Mn is the Avestic vain, to see'. Amadan

= ft
\garn, while fly
a -\- \'i. The original Persian form
of the root of giriftan is the Avestic girew, which became giriv,
hence the infinitive giriftan (Rule VII.). The present form of
the root, gfr, comes from this by contraction, and the vowel is
lengthened as a compensation for this contraction.

Fourteenth Lesson.
The Causative Verb Compound and Prepositional Verbs.

121. The Stem of those parts of the Causal or

Causative Verb that are formed from the Imperative
is produced by
appending the termination -an to the
root of the simple Verb, thus producing a secondary
root from which all the other parts may be formed
quite regularly. In other words, the root of the Caus-
ative Verb coincides in form with the Present Par-
ticiple of the simple verb. The Infinitive adds to this
the termination -dan, to which the uniting vowel I
may be prefixed. The meaning and use of the Causative
Verb are seen by comparing the verb raise with the
verb rise, of which the former is the Causative, in
English. So also we may call 'to seat' the Causative
of 'to sit', the former
meaning 'to cause to sit'. In
Persian there are many Causative
Verbs, though they
cannot be formed from every
simple Verb, and their
use is
becoming more rare than formerly. In a few
instances the Causative remains when the
simple verb
has ceased to exist: as agahamdan, 'to
inform', from
'igah, which now exists only as an adjective, 'aware'.
The Causative Verb Compound and Preposition al Verbs. 109

122. Examples of Causative Verbs.

Simple Verb. Root. Cans. Root. Cans. Inlin. Meaning.

navisldan, naws navl^an navisan-(i)-dan. To cause to

'to write'. write, to dic-
rastdan, ras rasan rasan~(i)-dan. To cause to
'to arrive'. arrive, to
tarsldan, tars tarsan tarsdn-(tydan. To cause to
'to fear'. fear, to frigh-
rdstan, rah ralian raltan-(i)-dan. To cause to
'to escape'. escape, to save.
amitlchtan, amug amuzan umTisan-(i)-dan. To cause to
'to learn'. learn, to teach.

123. To the Eule given in 121, the chief

exceptions are :

Simple Verb. Root. Causative Root. Caus. Infin. Meaning.

rdftan, rav ran (cont. randan To drive.

'to go'. for ravari)
nishdstan, nishin nishan nishandan To seat.
'to sit down'.
guzdsldan, guzar guzar gmaslitan To leave.
'to pass.

But this last verb also forms gussarSn-fy-dan, 'to

offer (a sacrifice)', 'to cause to pass'.

124. Compound Verbs.

Owing in large measure to the Arabian conquest
of Persia and the consequent introduction of Islam,
many Arabic participles, nouns and adjectives are in
Persian used with Persian auxiliaries to form new
verbs. Persian adjectives or participles, and sometimes
nouns and the shortened infinitives of verbs (as zist
namudari) are sometimes similarly used to form the
first element in such compounds. The Persian trans-
itive verbs used to form the second element all
assume the meaning of to make, or to become, or something
similar. The chief of the verbs so used with a few
examples of the compound verbs 8,re here subjoined.
110 Lesson 14.

Auxiliary. Compound Verb,

Kdrdan (kuri), 'to do'. mddad kdrdan, to help.

tiamudan (namdy), 'to shew'. tdlab namudan, to demand.
dddan (dih), 'to give'. taghyir dddan, to change
zddan (zan), 'to strike'. harf zddan, to speak, [ed.
khvtirdan (khyur), 'to eat'. zdkhmUivurdan, to be wound-
burdan (bar), 'to carry off. gamdn burdan, to fancy.
sdklitan (saz), 'to make'. razi sakhtan, to satisfy.
farmudan(farmdy),'to order'. muldhizeh farmftdan, to per-
dldan (bin), 'to see'. taddruk dtdan, to make pre-
kJiashidan, 'to draw'. zdhmat kashtdan, to take
ddshtan (dar), 'to have'. dust dastitan, to love.
dantstan (dan), 'to know'. mdslahatdamstan, to approve
gardanldan, 'to render'. narm gardanldan, to soften,
dmadan (dy), 'to come'. padid amadan, to become
shiidan (sliav), 'to become'. marqumshndan, to be written.
gdshtan (gard), 'to become'. zdhir gdshtan, to become
ydftan (ydb), 'to get'. tabdil ydftan, to be changed.
varzidan, to act. jasdrat varzidan, to presume,
125. Such of the Compound Verbs as are trans-
itive in Persian take the postposition -ra after their
direct object whenever -ra would occur with the direct
object of a simple Verb ( 41): as ura farmudand, or
iira Jiukm Jidrdand, 'they commanded him'; an kitdb-ra

JJtvandld, or an kitdb-ra nmluhiseli-jarmudid, 'you read

that book'. So also Ishdn-ra mulaqdt-kdrdtm, 'we met
him': an kdgJiaz-ra tahrir-namud (or navishfy, 'he wrote
that letter'. In some Compounds more than one auxi-
liary may be used without materially changing the
sense: e. g. tdlab-kdrdan is the same as tdldb-namudan.
But in others no change can be made: e. g. labdil-
kardan (or -namudan) and taglvjir-dadan are correct, but
The Causative Verb Compound and Prepositional Verbs.
: 111

the auxiliaries must not be interchanged. The student

in his reading should pay especial attention to this
A very few Persian verbs have been formed from Arabic
nouns by simply adding the infinitive ending -f-dan: the chief
of these are talab-t-dan, 'to demand'; fahm-f-dan, 'to understand';
raqstdan, 'to dance' bal'tdan, 'to swallow'.

126. Prepositional Verbs (Verbs compounded with

prepositions) have been dealt with in 109 above.
Some verbs undergo more or less change of meaning
when united to prepositions e. g. : :

Dar avdrdan, to bring out (az) to bring in (bi).


dar Jcasthdan, to draw out (az).

dar avikhtan, to grapple with.
nidu dar dadan, to utter (give out) a cry.
dar mandan to be destitute, weary.
va guzardan (guzashtan) to leave behind.
va istddan, to stop, come to a stand to stand up. :

va dashtan, to hold back to station.


va (or baz) Jcdrdan, to open.

baz dmadan, to come back.
baz istddan, to desist from (az).
bar gdshtan (gardidari), to return, turn back.
dar guzashtan, to pass away (az)] to pass over
(az, bar).
dar dmadan, to come in (bi) to come out ; (as).
chindn va namudan, to point out as such.
furu bur dan, to swallow up : to force down (as a
needle into cloth).
gir'iftan, to acquire, learn.
bar dashtan, to carry off.
bar khvnrdan, to meet with (-ra, or bi-). '

dar uftadan, to occur to fall in with (bi-).


dar yaftan, to find out, discover.

var* shiJcdstan, to become bankrupt.
pish gir'iftan, to assume, take upon oneself (the
government, etc.).
Bar khvurdan (az) also means 'to profit by': as, az ta'ttm

i U bar khrnrdam, 'I profited by his instruction'. But here bar

is a noun meaning 'fruit'.
2 Var is another (popular) form of bar: so people often
say far df'islitan for bar dtfshtan.
112 Lesson 14.

vil kdrdan (vulgar for rahd Jcdrdari), to let loose.

lar Jidm zddan, to confound.
tiritn kdrdan (ralM az khyud) to put oif (one's

Vafat, death, decease. gdrdish, turn, wandering.
JamsMd \ afsifneh, fable.
Zahhffk I
proper names of (Ar. pi. of ism), names.
Sliaddad fabulous people. dam, net, trap.
Rustam ) muhdbbat, love.
Banbai, Bombay. giriftnr, captive.
Shiraz ) zdujeli, spouse.
Kftzarfm Inkin, but.
Names of places.
gumasliteh, agent.
Sistan dastgfr, captured.
Bushire. farmdn, command.
AbusMhr qatl, execution, murder.
Hind, India. sahr, poison.
Cliin, China. halnk, destroyed.
IstaJihr, Persepolis. ulnccii bar, over and above.
takJit,throne: bed. sUmin, a surety.
sharab, wine. zantanat, security.
paidd, discovered. .
tavdqquf, delay.
mashhur, well-known. murdlchklias shiidan, to take leave.
banif nihddan, to build: to begin. jokingly.
bar fin and, they assert. tdlab, a demand.
Khalq, people. siyflheh, a list.
fdba^eh, class, grade. shinalchtan (shinss), to recognise.
qismat, share, division. ta'djjub, surprise.
katib, scribe, writer. muta'ajjib, surprised.
fdpdhl, soldier. taftisli, enquiry, search.
arWo (Ar. pi. of rail, Lord), mdhv kdrdan, to erase.
masters. *dlt kdrdan, to insert.
Inraf (Ar. collective form of tashrif a car dan, to come.
hirfat), occupations. tashrff dashtan, to be in, to be at
ftantfyi' (Ar. pi. ofsanfrat), a trade, home, to remain.
calling. varid shiidan, to arrive.
hfraf va sanaiji', artisans.
cliapar (vulg. chdppar), postal
alii, courier.
faWhat, agriculture. chap&ri, postal service.
zirff'at, husbandry. dhmaq, a fool.
Mi f. va z. husbandmen. tmimkin, possible.
tujjffr ( Ar.Pl. of tajir), merchants. rfihuftfidan (uff), to start, set out.
sauddgar, a trader. kiital, steep mountain ascent.
slidmsfi, solar. qufileh, caravan.
This word
is now used only in writing. The proper dis-
tinction between tajir and sauddgar is that the former is a
merchant resident in one place: the latter goes abroad and
brings goods back with him to sell.
The Causative Verb Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 113

avdil, (Ar. pi. of avvaT), first, mastifat, distance.

beginning. tai Mrdan, to traverse.
sdltanat, reign, kingdom. sur'at, speed, rapidity.
'tilam, davazdeh ruzeh (adv.), in 12 days.
mctmur, built; populated. tanhti, alone.
rd'iyyat, subjects, people. aynl, family (pop. wife).
abdd, inhabited; well oft". yakshdnbeh, Sunday.
bi'l dkhireh, finally. long, lame.
iqbal, prosperity. lang namudan, to halt.
bakht, good fortune. qtttirdtir, muleteer.
maghrur, proud. astirA, ease.
da'vt, claim. hdrakat kdrdan, to set out.
Khuddi, Deity, divinity. mdusam, season.
timsdl, likeness, image. bdhtir, spring.
surat, form; face. tabistttn, summer.
mayeh, substance, cause. pd$z, autumn.
lAznri, disgust. zamistdn ) - ,

nasl, off spring. zimist&n \
za'm, fancy. sahih o saldmat, safe and well.
bartldarzadeh, brother's son. mdnzil, stage, halting place,
Jchvaharzftdeh, sister's son. destination.
taqat, strength (to suffer), en- maqsud, purposed.
durance. havd, air, weather.
muqtfvamat, resistance. rahat, ease, comfort.
sahrd, desert.

Exercise 27.


C" ^ J** ~ <J^ ^J

Persian Conv.-Qrammar.
114 Lesson 14.

Translation 28. A Tale.

Some merchants presented themselves (having
become present) before (bi-huzur i) a king and brought
some horses which they wished to (that they might)
sell. The king approved (pasandid) of those horses, and

gave the merchants two thousand tomans over-and-

above the price of them, and told them to bring other
horses also to that value (to the value of that sum)
from their native-land. But he did not ask their
country (i. e. what their native-land was) and their
names, nor did he demand from them a surety. Those
horse-dealers took their leave. Some days later (after
some days) the king jokingly said to his prime minister,
"Write for me a list of the names of all the fools that
thou knowest". The minister, having done so, brought
that list to the king's notice, (caused to pass from
the glance of the king). When the king read it he
was surprised at this, that he found his own name
at the head of that list. He enquired of the minister,
saying, "Why dost thou deem (hast thou deemed) me
a fool?" In reply to him he said, "Because your
Majesty, without making enquiry concerning (without
this that they should enquire) the country and the
names of those horse-dealers, and without demand-
The Causative Verb Compound and Prepositional Verbs. 115

ing (demand of) any security, entrusted to them as a

deposit such a large sum that they might buy horses
(horse)". The king said, "If those merchants bring the
horses, what then?" He said, "If they do so (did so),
then I shall erase (having erased) your Majesty's name
(name most sacred, imperial) from this list and enter
their names instead of it".


If the -m is inserted it is because the previous words
are the objective of distance.
Lesson 15.

Fifteenth Lesson.
Defective, Impersonal and Contracted Verbs.
127. We
have already given in Lesson II. the
conjugation of the defective verbs ast and hast. Their
contractions now require notice.
128. When nah-, na-, 'not', is prefixed, the verb
ast is contracted as follows.

Singular. Plural.

1 st
ndyam{^)j I am not. nd'im (/.-if)? we are n t-

2 nd P.: wa'* (!>'),

thouartiiot. nd'id (j-if), you are not.

3 rd P. mst (c~J ), he
: is not. ndyand (-ui'), they are not-
These forms, except the P. Singular, are not 3 rd
used in the modern spoken language, and are rarely
now written.
129. The 2 nd person Singular of ast
is not written

separately but united with the preceding word as

is ;

To sdgi (jC. /), 'thou art a dog'. If the preceding

word end in (not if it end in J ), this part of
the verb is written merely hdmzeh, with or without
kdsrch (s
or ?), but this is still pronounced -I; as io

ableli \
(41 /), 'thou art a fool'.
When the 3 rd person Singular follows to, 'thou',
both the j and the are dropped in both speaking

and writing: e. g. in Jchaneh-y-i tust (^JiriU.^1), 'this is

thy house', (where c-lr is written instead of c lj>").

The initial alif is often omitted in every part of

this verb, and the remaining letters added as an enclitic

as, mdnam man

affix to the preceding word : for
am (fl^),
'I am'. So also ust
(c jl) for u ast (c l^l)
Mtabast (c-~ for kitab ast (c~-
lytr'); dhmaqtd
br') (ju5a.l)
for dhmaq id I
(A, j|*=>-l): In Icitabmal imast (cu-U JU^-> tOr 0> e ^ Ct 1

Should, however, a word ending in come '

before ast (c I), ye (<^) is inserted after the alif of ast

(vi1) and the hdmgeJi of the preceding word is omitted :

Defective, Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 117

as, in an khaneh {st kih 'this is tliat

house which'.
130. The different persons of Hast (O~A) are
also contracted in the following manner when preceded
by nah (na-) or kih.

Singular. Plural.
1 st P.: nistam (.J). nisttm (,_:_;).
-/ - -/

2 nd P.: nisti (-\



3 rd P.: nist Ci~J). nistand (oj).

Singular. Plural.
1 P.: Jcistam (JL-O* kfstim
\l -/ /

2 nd P.: kisti (j-f). Ttistid


3 rd P.: klst z~. kistand

mku nistid, 'you are not good' u ktst,

E. g. Shuma :

'who he (she)?' in Jchaneh mal i last, 'whose is this

house?' shuma ndukaran i Jcistid, 'whose servants are you?'
In asking the question 'Who is there?' (e. g. in
answer to a knock at the door), a Persian says merely
Kist? (vulgar, M-dh?, cf. 78). The answer often
given is man hastam (==- I am), 'It is I', (cf. Ego sum,
ifia zlpi).
131. The Impersonal Verbs ~baytstan and shaytstan,
rd P.
'ought' or 'should', are used only in the 3 Singular
of each tense. They are generally followed by the
present Subjunctive, with or without kih. The logical
subject of the second verb may for emphasis be prefixed
to the impersonal with or without -ra appended (accord-
ing to whether it is considered the object of the im-
personal or the subject of the second verb): as,
An pddsnah -(ra) bayad kih dar fikr i rd'iyyat i Hhvud
bdshad, 'That king ought to (be in thought of) think
about his subjects'.
But the -ra is inserted in such a case.
Notice that the mi- not necessarily used in the

present Indicative of bayistan and shaytstan (vide 107

and 133), but it may be employed for emphasis.
118 Lesson 13.

If the necessity or obligation is general and not

shortened form of the Infinitive follows
particular, the
these verbs -instead of their requiring the Present
Subjunctive: as, Ahkam i ilahi-ra mi-bdyad bija dvdrd,
'One must carry out the Divine commandments'. This
distinction is rigorously observed in the modern language
in both writing and speech, though in the older language
the use of the Subjunctive in such constructions (after
bayad, sliayad etc.) was not recognised. With the two
modern usages and their difference of meaning compare
the French, "H faut que j'aille" and "II faut aller".
132. Shdyistan is rarely used in conversation,
except sliayad in the sense of 'perhaps' and shayistcli
as an adjective, 'suitable, befitting, worthy'.
133. Tavdnistan (tavari), 'to be able', is followed
by the (1) Present Subjunctive or (2) by the shortened
Infinitive according to the same rule and with the
same distinction of meaning. But when it is used im-
personally the -ad of the 3 Person Singular is omitted.
The mi is used in the present Indicative of this verb
except in the instance last mentioned, where in the
older style it may be left out: as,
Ma ndmi-tavdnim an Icar-rd M-kunim, 'We cannot
do that work'. An Icar-rd nd(mi-)tavdn hard, 'It is im-
possible to do that work'.
134. Where in English an Infinitive follows
another verb, in Persian the present Subjunctive
generally takes the place of the Infinitive, and kih (ex-
pressed or understood) precedes this Subjunctive, except
where purpose is implied, when its place is taken by
id (or more
rarely by td an ~kili). But to imply purpose the
Infinitive preceded by bardyi may be used. Examples :

'He told him to read the book' urd hulmi hard kil<

kitab-rd bi-khydnad.
'He went to look for his rifle', Raft td tufdng i khyud-
rd bi-juyad, or Bardyi justujii kdrdan i
tufdng i khyud raft.
It will be noticed that the Infinitive is often (as
in this instance) used as a noun, like the English
gerund in -ing,
_and then takes an izafeJi after it. So
also, Bi-sdbab i tdbidan i dftab, 'because of the shining
of the sun'.
Defective. Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 119

135. When
dashtan (dar) is a simple verb and
means always omits the mt- in the Present
'to possess', it
Indicative ( 107): as, kitabi daram, 'I have a book'
(not mi-darani). In order to express the Subjunctive
(present or imperfect) meaning, this verb then takes
the perfect Subjunctive (dashteh basham) in the sense of
the present or imperfect: as, Haranchih dashteh basliam
mi-diham, 'I give whatever I (may) possess'.
But when dashtan is used in composition with
nouns, adjectives, etc., to form a compound verb, or
has even a preposition (bar etc.) prefixed, the verb
follows the regular rule and assumes the mi in the
Present Indicative as, an dsb-ra nigah mi-darand, 'they

are taking care of that horse'; ura dust wii-daram, 'I

hold him dear'; an pul-ra bar ml-darand, 'they are
carrying off that money'. In this case the simple and
regular Present Subjunctive (daram), with or without
M-, is used as Subjunctive: as, Padshah va'ira dmr far-
mud Mi hliazaneli-ra mahfuz (M)-darad, 'the king com-
manded him to protect the treasure'.

'Words (Notes).
Htisil i mdtldb, darkhmlr i man ast, it suits me.
moral (of a tale).
jdhd va sd'i, effort .
kdndan, to strip off from (az).
siyliar i sinn (= smallness of shcikhnaffr i sliiktiri, hunting-
tooth), youthfulness, youth. horn.
kuhulat va kibar i sinn, middle birun avdrdan, to take off.
and advanced age (not 'old bi-dsar i rfn rasi'dand, theyfollow-
age'). ed it (the sound) up.
Ispttniyti, Spain. girifteh, overcast (of the sky).
Shurl, Charles. chdnd sffl i qdbl, some years ago.
khddam va hdsham, retinue. ta'un, the plague.

The Student must now consult a Persian Dictionary for


the words he does not know. Those given henceforward in these

lists are merely words used in a special sense, peculiar idioms,
or words belonging to the spoken and not to the written language.
Palmer's Smaller Persian Dictionary will supply all the ordinary
words needed for the remaining Exercises. Any other difficulties
will be found explained in the translations given in the Key
to the present work.
The Persians are fond of putting together two words of
similar meaning to express one idea (cf. Eng. Prayer-Book "We
pray and beseech", etc.). Of these one is often Arabic and the
other Persian, and one is sometimes a simple word intended to
explain the other which is more difficult.
120 Lesson 15.

sargardtin, puzzled, astray. sarSyat Tcunad, it may infect.

Tcdppar (vulg. chdppar), a hut. juy (vulg. jub\ watercourse.
hlzumkdn, woodcutter. ram Jcdrdan, to shy.
hanuz fdrigh nd-shudeh bud, sar do pu istadan, to rear (intr).

hardly had he finished. bi havti-y-i (in fimadan, to follow

i man mi-Khvurad, it is
Iji-ktfr his example.
useful to me. dost (of a horse), front foot.
bi-qiiwat i hdrchih tamdmtar, chfzi nfst, it's nothing (= ''don't,
with all his might. mention it pray").
shdtieh, shoulder, comb. bar ddr kasMdan, to exectite.

Exercise 29.

.1 ' ___ ' '


JU-JJ OA* <_Jjj' jl

This and the following Stories are taken from AqS Mfrza
Asadu'llsh's revision of the Sad HiMyat, a revision undertaken
under the Author's supervision and
primarily for the use of
students of this Grammar, the object to omit all obsolete
words and idioms, and to replace them by modern expressions
in use in the best Persian of the
present day.
Defective, Impersonal and Contracted Verbs. 121

Translation 30. A Tale.

One day Charles V., king of Spain, got separated

from his retinue in the hunting-field. Having wandered
about (gone astray) in a forest, he at length reached
a woodcutter's hut and determined to rest there a
little. But when he entered the (that) hut, he saw
four persons lying upon straw, and from their appearance
it was evident that they were (are) robbers. The king
asked them for some water to drink; but hardly had
he finished drinking a cup of water when (kill) one
of the robbers coming forward said to him, "I have
just seen (I understood now) in a dream that your
cloak would be (is) useful to me". Saying (having
said) this, he snatched away the cloak from the king's
shoulders (shoulder). Immediately afterwards another
robber came forward and said, "I also saw (didam) in
a dream that your coat (qdba) suits me". Thus saying,
he stripped the coat off the king's person (tan). The
third robber in the same way took his hat, and a
fourth wanted to take off the (that) hunting-horn that
hung from (on) the king's neck by a chain of gold.
Then the king said, "First permit me to (that I) teach
thee the use of my horn". Saying this, he blew the
horn with all his might and his attendants, on hearing

the sound of it, followed it up and captured the robbers.

Then the king said to the robbers, "(My) dear friends,
I also have had (seen) a dream, and in that dream I
saw (this) that all of you had been executed". Thereupon
the royal attendants hanged them all on the trees
that were in front of the (that) hut.


(On a Ride).

jc -xu*

Ul rl-U 4>-a-C- C _ 9-U^.

122 Lesson 1C.

jc^l jj ^Tjj-: o^'^J J-

Sixteenth Lesson.
Use of Tenses of the Verb.
136. The student has doubtless already noticed
that the use of the various tenses in Persian often
differs from their use in English. Many instances of
this have already occurred in the Exercises, Translations
and Conversations, and the proper use of most tenses
is readily learnt in practice. A
few general rules
upon the most important differences between the two
languages in respect of the use of the leading Tenses
are here added.
Use of Tenses of the Verb. 123

137. The Persian Imperfect Indicative is dis-

tinguished from the Preterite as clearly as in Latin,
Greek and French. Mi-davidam ( 85, &), for instance,
not only means 'I was running', but also 'I used to
run'. The Imperfect and not the Preterite must be
used when the action denoted by the verb is regarded
either as continuing for some time or as being fre-
quently repeated, i. e. when the ordinary English past
tense may be changed into the Imperfect 'was doing',
or Habitual, 'used to do'. Example: 'He studied medicine
in England for ten years'. Here studied evidently means
'was studying', 'continued to study', or 'used to study',
and must therefore be rendered by the Imperfect in
Persian; as, llm i t'lbb-ra muddat i ddh sal dar Inglis-
tan mi-khyand. (For other meanings of the Imperfect
vide 85, 6, and 103).
Besides the ordinary use of the Preterite
Indicative as in English, Persian recognises two other
uses of the tense, (a) In speaking of an action which
has just been performed (especially when such words
as hala, ilhal, al'dn occur in the sentence), if its con-
sequences are not regarded as continuing, the Preterite
must be used in Persian, though the Present Perfect
is employed in English. E. g., 'What you have just
said is true' : Ancliih al'dn farmudid rast ast. '

(?>) The
Preterite is also used to denote an uncertain future,
where in Latin the Perfect Subjunctive might be used.
E.g. Dar Mr shdhri kih rdftvd va shumd-ra pa~truftand,
'Intowhatsoever city ye go and they receive you'.
139. The Perfect is used of an event which,
however long ago it occurred, is regarded as having
results tvhich still continue. It often therefore occurs
where in English the Preterite would be used. E. g.
Hdzrat Muhammad Qur'an-ra az janib i Kliuda bi-md

rasanideh ast: 'Muhammad brought (lit. has brought)

us the Qur'an from God' : Ardasliir an slidhr-ra dar hdlat

A remarkable use of the Preterite of Avurdan is often


heard when a servant is ordered, e. g., to bring in coffee for a

guest, and the order is repeated after a few minutes, as it has
not been obeyed. His answer is, Avdrdam (ttvtirdani), Sdhib; but
this means "I am just about to bring it", not "I have brought it".
124 Lesson 16.

/ Miardbi yaftch ta'mtr hardeh ast, 'Ardashir, having

found that city in a state of ruin, repaired (lit. has
repaired) it'.. Here the perfect is used because Mu-
hammadans still have the Qur'an, and the city (Madain)
which Ardashir is said to have rebuilt still exists.
% 140. The Subjunctive Present is used after qdbl
00 (pish az) an (in} Mil, where in English we should use
the Preterite Indicative :
as, (a) Qdbl az ankih bi-sliahadat
rdsad, vatra az khilafat khal kardand: 'They stripped
him of the Caliphate before he attained to martyrdom'.
az in kih laslikariydn-ra az in jang i lam d'ihand,
(b) Pisli
ulama-y-i Turk fatvaha navishteh ishtihdr dadand kih, etc.
'Before they informed the soldiers about this battle,
the Turkish religious-authorities wrote decrees and
announced that', etc.
Sa d az ankih also sometimes requires the verb
following it to be in the Present or in the Perfect
Subjunctive, especially when a purpose or something
regarded as future or uncertain is implied but the ;

Preterite Indicative with its future sense may also

be used even in this case, as well as when a definite
past event is meant: as (1) Ba"d az ankih ura didam,
(or dideh btisham, or bi-binam), Mtdb-ra bi-vai mi-
dilmm (khvaliam dad}. 'After I see (may have seen, have
seen) him, I shall give him the book': (2) Ba"d az
anWi ura dtdamf Icitba-ra bi-vai dadam, 'After that I
saw him, I gave him the book'. In the former sentence
the seeing is future and more or less doubtful, in the
latter it is an event that has occurred in the past.
Ta requires the Present Subjunctive after
it when means 'in order that', in which case ta
rinkih may be used:
as, Ta (ankiti) Jchilaf-i dar ummat
vaqi nd-shavad, sJiamshtr az gUlaf nd-Tcashtd, 'He did
not unsheath the sword, in order that there might not
occur (lest there should occur) opposition (dissension)
among the people'. This construction is very usual.
But if ta denotes 'so that' and states not so much
a purpose but a result, or a
purpose regarded as accom-
plished, ittakes the Preterite Indicative after it. E. g.
kusUd ta qabileli-y-i khyudra Uydk digar miittafq
va bd kliyud yak-dil va ydlt-zaban
saleht; 'The king exerted
Use of Tenses of the Verb. 125

himself so that he brought his people (tribe) into accord

with one another and made them of one heart and of
one mind (tongue) with himself. (It is possible, but
less accurate, to translate this preterite with ta by
should bring, which in Persian would be denoted by
the Present Subjunctive).
Ta anJcih with the Preterite also means 'until' as, :

Ta anJcih ura dana sakhtand, 'until they made him wise'.

But when 'until' refers to something future (and hence
doubtful} it is expressed by ta followed by nah (na-)
and the Present Subjunctive, and the secondary clause
( 112) follows the primary: as, Tabi-sarMr i ali amr
i ^agimi-ra arz na-kunirn, nd-Jchvahim nishdst, 'We
shall not sit down until we tell your honour an important
142. In letters, the Pluperfect Indicative is used
in referring to what a correspondent has said, where
in English the Preterite or even the Present would
be employed: as, Dast-khdtti Wi bi-sarafrazi-y-i in abd
marqum farmudeh budid ziyarat gardid: 'The note
which you did me the honour to write has been re-
ceived with respect'. Here also we find the Preterite
used for the Perfect. (With the use of the Pluperfect
in letters, compare the Latin usage.)
143. If a plural noun be the subject of a sentence,
or if the subject consists of two or more nouns in the
singular, the verb must be in the plural when the nouns
denote persons. If they denote animals, the plural is
almost always used if things wittiout life, the verb

should be in the singular, though very modern writers

as well as many speakers now sometimes use the verb
in the plural in the latter instance also.
A plural verb is used with a singular noun to
shew respect as,: A 3
*la Hdzrat i Padshah chinm farmudeh

and, 'His Majesty the king has (have) thus commanded'.

A noun of multitude requires the plural after it:
as, tamdm i an taifeh ravaneh shudand ; 'the whole of

that tribe departed'.

If hdr yak, hdr has, hdr sJidJchs, be the subject of
a sentence, and if any plural noun or pronoun preceded
by az come between it and the verb, the latter must
126 Lesson 16.

be in the plural and must agree in person with the

intervening plural word as, liar yak az ma anra didirn;

'every one of us saw (we saw) it'. Similarly, liar his (az
istiiiri) bi-khaneh-y-i Jfhyud raftand, 'Every
one (of them)
went to his own house'.
144. Participle is, when used at
The Present
all,generally used adverbially, and is sometime repeated
twice; as, davan davan amad, 'he came running'. It is
not used (as in English) along with the verb to be:
for 'I am running' is expressed by mi-davam. few A
apparent instances to the contrary occur, but in these
instances the Present Participle has become a mere
adjective as, tarsan id, 'you are afraid' so also giriyan
: :

shud, 'he became tearful', 'he wept'.

IsMndar i Rumi, Alexander of aJidmm (Saperl. of muJiimm) very
Macedon (Greece). important.
Aristu, Aristotle. kfighaz, a letter.
az pidar =
az tin i ptdar. chapffr i daulat i Inglts, English
khiradamfiz, teacher of wisdom. Government (Consular) cou-
Jiaman, so much (and no more rier.
=) only. tdkhtan (faz}, to rush upon,
dastgtr, helper, ("every one's attack.
helper in affairs of this world bdsteh, a parcel.
and the next"). ihtimal i kutti dsrad, it is very
bi-chdng avdrdan, to get posses- probable.
si on of. Iji-ndifi, somehow or other.
mnsdlldh, armed. radtlnamudan, to restore.
tflr, & spider's web. ba dddb va muriivvat, polite and
samfm i qalb, bottom of his heart. kind.
post (Eng. ^word.), post. Jcavfdan (to dig =) to search,
talagraf-khuwh, telegraph sta- 'go through'.
tion. jur'at kdrdan, to dare, venture.
'tiqab uftddan, to be late.

Exercise 31.
Use of Tenses of the Verb. 127

jU-L ^j jl

Translation 32. A Tale.

In ancient times (time) there was a prince who,

having suffered (obtained) a severe defeat in battle,
was compelled to flee that he might escape from (his)
enemies' hands (hand). When evening came on (became),
having reached a forest he entered it, and, being
wearied with his journey (from weariness of journey),
he cast himself down on the ground under a tree and
went to sleep. Then a robber, having seen him in that
condition, came near, intending to kill him and seize
his belongings and his clothes (in order that, having
killed him, he might bring to grasp his property and
attire). But at that perilous moment (hingam) a fly,
alighting (having sat down) on the prince's cheek, bit
him so that he instantly awoke from (his) sleep. When
the robber saw him awake and armed, he was afraid
and disappeared without attacking him (not having
made an attack upon him). After that, the prince
concealed himself in a cave. That very night a spider
spun a web at the mouth of the (that) cave. Early in
the morning two soldiers from the army of the enemies
who were pursuing him reached that place. The prince
heard them talking to one another (that they are
talking with). One of them said to his comrade, "He
must surely be in this cavern". But the (that) other
in reply to (of) him said, "No, it is impossible, for
lo! the web of this spider has not been torn". When
the soldiers had gone away, the prince thanked God
Most High from the bottom of (his) heart and said,
"0 God, I thank Thee that yesterday Thou didst save
me from great danger by means of a fly, and to-day
through a spider".
128 Lesson 16.



_Li (IT)
*-O j*
jl Jk,U rlJU:' Ul ^


il ^.^P Lj- C J, CiA J-J

/*JU.l ^S l^_^ai-C

ru /* ' I '

;l JJ U3
f . \jU4I i jl jlo ^jlj
jliI^T <o

iy i

. A JJ
Second Part.
The Arabic Element in Persian: Compound
Words, Idioms, Government of Yerbs.

Indroductory Observation on Arabic Words in Persian.

145. The Arabic language and literature have

for manycenturies exercised a very extensive influence
upon those of Persia. This is due partly to the Arabian
conquest of the country some twelve and a half cen-
turies ago, accompanied as it was by the compulsory
conversion to Islam of the great mass of the people
and the addition of a considerable Arabian element
to the population. But, in addition to this, the Qur'an,
Traditions etc., require to be read in the original
Arabic, in which language also prayers must be said.
Moreover, Islam has caused the destruction of the
greater part of Avestic and Pahlavi literature and the
total neglect of the study of the scanty relics of these
ancient forms of the Persian language. Arabic is, there-
fore, almost the only source from which new terms
can be borrowed and new words coined to express
theological, literary, and even scientific ideas. Though
in recent years a few isolated words have been borrowed
from various European languages, yet none of them
has influenced the grammar of Persian in the slightest
degree, which it is not too much to say that Arabic
has done very extensively. Not only has a very large
portion of the vocabulary of the language been borrowed
from the Arabic, but the Arabic element is still in-
creasing. Many pure Persian words, still in everyday
use in Urdu (Hindustani), are completely obsolete in
Persia itself. Natives of Persia hardly over middle age
can remember that some of these words were still in
use in their childhood, though they have now been
supplanted by Arabic words.
Persian Conv.-Grammar. 9
130 Lesson 17.

146. One of the great advantages

of the Arabic
language the
is facility with which it permits of the
formation of "a great multitude of words from a single
root. If the meaning of the root is known, even a very-
slight acquaintance with Arabic Grammar will suffice
to render its derivatives easily understood the very
firsttime they are heard or read such is the wonder-;

ful and almost mathematical precision with which these

words are formed in accordance with the fixed principles
of Arabic Grammar. It is one of our main objects in
this part of the present work to explain the method of
the formation of the most usual Arabic derivative forms,
and thus to give the student a key to the understand-
ing of an immense and most important portion of the
vocabulary of the Persian language. But, as it is not
designed to deal with the whole of Arabic Grammar,
but merely with that part of it which it is necessary
for the student of Persian to know in order that he
may attain a satisfactory knowledge of the latter tongue,
these notes will be reduced to the narrowest possible
limits consistent with the object in view, so that they
may be practically useful.
147. In Arabic (as in all the other Semitic
languages) the larger number of roots consist of three
radical letters, veryfew being composed of four, and
none of more than four. Any of the letters of the
Arabic Alphabet (all of which are considered as con-
sonants 4) may be employed as Radical or root letters,
but only a few of them can be used to form derivatives
by being attached to the root. Those so used are
styled Serviles and are the seven letters contained in
the words ^~.j\ -j By prefixing, affixing or inserting

one or more of 'these in the right place all Arabic

derivatives are formed.
148. Arabic has two Genders, Masculine anc
Feminine, and three Numbers, Singular, Dual anc
In a certain class of words, as explained in Lesson XXJ

( 181), the letters\ and j also seem to be used as Servile

but they are then euphonic substitutes for o. The same thin$
applies to the final at the end of Arabic words used in Persian,
being for Arabic ; (pronounced o).
Indroductory Observation on Arabic Words in Persian. 131

Plural. It lias only three cases in each number, Nomi-

native, Accusative, arid Genitive. It also possesses a
Definite Article Jl (al) which is unchangeable except
that (1) its vowel is elided when a word ending in a
vowel precedes it, and (2) that when the word to
which the article is attached begins with any one
of tho 13 letters jkU
>,j* cr _r'jj:>.> l>o
( (

the J of the article is assimilated in sound to that

letter, as is shewn by a tasJidid ( 21) placed over
the first letter of the said word.
149. Of the three Arabic cases, only the Nom.
and Ace. of the Singular and the Ace. of the Dual
and Plural are in use, the Ace. of the Dual and
Plural being used in place of the Nom., and that too
in a form shortened by the omission of the final short
vowels. The Ace. Singular is used only as an adverb
in Persian. In the following Lessons the short final
vowels and everything else not used in Persian are
omitted, but the student will find them in Arabic
phrases adopted into the language as single words
(Appendix A).
Seventeenth Lesson.
Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives.
150. A
Regular Masculine Noun or Adjective
is thus declined (in the shortened form used in Per-

sian: 149): Jlj (genitorjj a male parent, a father.

Plural. Dual. Singular.
(valid] Jl_j Nom.
(validiri) &j>\) (validairi) ^.'-Jlj (validan) tJlj Ace.
151. A Feminine Noun or Adjective is regularly
formed from the Masculine by affixing to the Masculine
the termination 5 (-aturi), which in Persian becomes

(eh): as Jlj (valid) '& father' (genitor), iJlj (ralideh),

'a mother' (genitrix) :
^l* (saw), 'second', m.\ ;IT' (saniyyeli)

All Arabic nouns and adjectives ending in ^


(*), in
Persian properly have this letter tashdtded, so that stint should
132 Lesson 17.

'second',/. In Persian the feminine termination (; )

nouns may become o (af) as well as (eh), and
in some words both forms are used, as ojUl (ijazaf)
and jLl (ijagdi), though these have sometimes different
meanings, as <z^J (tarlqat) and <*J (tarlqeli), o^ljl
(irddaf) and jljl (iradeh). Feminines are thus declined:

Plural. Dual. Singular.

(vdlideK) Jlj Nom.
(validat) oljjlj (validatatri) ^Jlj (val tdatari)tjb\) Ace.
152. The feminine plural termination jjl (,) is
sometimes appended to purely Persian nouns, the chief
of which so treated are: (dih), plural oU^ (dihat)

'a village'; J-L*^ (farmaish), 'a,

command', plural
(farmaishdt)', (navishteh), 'a document',
oli.*U^ tzz.j
1 7
plural oU^_y (navislitajut) ; J^jl^; (nigdrish), 'an epistle ,

plural oUjW (nigarishat) ; ^jK (karklianeh), 'a factory',

plural oWli-jlT (TcarJchanajat); ajr, (mtveh), 'fruit', plural

oU_>- (mivajat); l
(bagh), 'a garden', plural olcl ^6a-
pfca^; oL'jjj (ruznameh). 'a,
journal', 'newspaper', plural
oU*l'jjj (rnznamajat). So too, by false analogy, the
Arabic (broken) Plural word <Lc (dmaldi), which in
Persian has a Singular meaning and denotes 'a work-
man', often forms its plural oU^
(amalajat). The term-
ination ol (at) is sometimes used to form the plural
of words that can in no
way be regarded as femin-
ine, as in the last example. Again, an Arabic noun
in Persian sometimes takes a double
plural (as in
that example): e. g.
_,*^ (jdultar)*, 'a gem', broken
be saniyy. But in Persian the tashdtd is omitted in the masculine
(though it is retained in the fern.), and the accent in the masc.
is often thrown back.
Navishtthand other Persian words in had at one time
<J"7 softened into J^ ( 36) as their final letter. This in
became hence such plurals in oL (jut).

This is an instance of a Persian word
(jt>, gmthar)
Arabicised, and then taken back into Persian with one or more
Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives. 133

( 157). Plural yblj*. (javahir), double plural ol^l^

(javahirat) ; ~,j (rasm) 'a custom', 'rite', broken plural
rj-o (rusum), double pi. oU^-j (rusumat); l_jj (dava),
'medicine', broken Plural 4jjl (ddviyeh), double plural
i>U'-_.sl (adviyajaf], besides what is in Persian considered
itsproper Plural, oLIjj (davajaf). These different Plurals
have often different meanings (vide 167).
153. The Ace. Sing. Masc. (as shewn
in 150)
is formed by adding I
(pronounced -an) to the stem,
the Ace. Sing. Fern. ( 151) of words ending in * (Ar.
) by simply adding the tanvin ( vide 23) without ;

the alif.Though these formations are in Persian used

only as Adverbs, yet their occurrence is very frequent ;

as, iUI (amtinatan) 'as a deposit', VL(for -yU.) }iala, 'now'.

If the article Jl is prefixed to such words the tanvin
(and also the alif, if used) is dropped; as, CM)! (algisseJi),
'finally', jVl (al'an), 'now', 'just now'.
154. All Arabic nouns in Persian which end in
s ,
o not belonging to the root as the o does
in cij (vaqt, m., 'time'), and all broken (% 157) Plurals
&re feminine, and almost all other nouns are Masculine.
Their gender needs to be remembered only when it
is desirable to
append to them an Arabic adjective.
(Even in this case, if the said adjective is in such
common has virtually become a Persian
use that it

word, like ^.sf(djtfy, 'wonderful',

it does not generally
take the feminine form.) E. g. umur i JcaStreh, 'many
matters' ; khataya-y-i Jcabitreh, 'great sins' ; (but umur i

djlb, 'wonderful things').

The Comparative (which is also the Super-
. 155.
lative) of Arabic Adjectives is formed by prefixing
alif to the masculine, omitting formative letters [on
the model of t
Pos. (dzim), 'great', ,^1 Comp.
(a zam] 'greater', 'greatest']. The Feminine affixes ($ (a')

Arabic Plurals. Cf. dastur, a Zoroastrian priest, broken Plural

134 Lesson 17.

instead [Oa* Pos. (dztmeh), ^Ja.^ (uzma,) Comp.] except

when the masc. ends in (5 (a ), in which case the

Feminine ending is (a), appended to the

I Exam- < :

Comparative. Positive.

Fern. Masc. Fern. Masc.


y (d'zam)




(uft?) ^)jl (dwdf) Jjf (first)

(uBtaf) &J\ (dkhar) J3 (akhfreh) .^f (^)^j-( (last)

(jfcusrtf) &JLf(dks ar) t

J'\ (kasfreh) ^^f(ka$r) ^3" (much)
('%#) Idi (a.W} JS.\ (Wyyth) tU ('^^jl (high)

[In Persian ula is hardly ever used in the sense

of 'first', as fern, of dvval, since the latter word has
become Persian ( 154), but ula (erroneously pro-
nounced auM ) is used in the sense of 'excellent'.]
Arabic adjective in the feminine is occa-
sionally added to a non-Arabic (i. e. purely Persian
or Turkish) noun; as 3*e&j?\ (Banu-y-i uzma ) 'Great-
est Lady' (a title). But this usage is of extremely
rare occurrence.
Whenever any Arabic noun or adjective which
ends in (a') is followed by the
t izafeJt, the said
ending is changed in takes the place
\ (-a), and <

of the izafeh: as, jUol^Uic.^ie (ulum uzma-y-i ishari), %

'their greatest sciences'. But this does not

apply to
Proper names of Persons, as Yahya-yi ta*mid -diJiandeh
(.XAJ -u~rjs'_), "John the Baptist". (V. Note to 34).
156. Sometimes in Persian we find two Arabic words
united together to express one idea. If these are both
the second is in the
genitive case (the sign of which is dropped
in the Persian
usage of such words); if not, the second is an
adjective. In either case the second of the two words (unless it
be a Proper name) has
generally the article J| prefixed ( 148),
and the last vowel of the former word
(if it be singular) is
t), unless it is governed by an Arabic preposition, in which
case the said vowel becomes -i Thus we have ( ).

(hubbu'l vdtan)^ 'love of one's native land' (amor

patriae), 'patriot-
ism'; jUaLlrfjk (Zittu's Sultan), 'Shadow of the
Regular Arabic Nouns and Adjectives. 135

(a title); tXj^Tj (Ruknu'l Mulk), 'Pillar of the kingdom', (a

title): and on the other hand ^UTf^jlo. -^ (min jdnibi 'ttdh) 'from
the (side =) presence of God'. If the former of the two words
is a masculine or feminine dual or a Regular masculine plural

in <_/_ (-in), the n ( is dropped when it is "in construction"

with a word following: as J.fl^.1 J^ (Ban? Isra'U), 'the Children
of Israel'.
Abu Bakr (the first Caliph). sd'at i chahdr, four o'clock.
kMdfat (vulg. KhaUfat), Cali- (bar) chdshm, (on the eye =) most
phate. obediently.
farmudeh, acommand. chttrvadclr (animal owner =)
Peace upon him.
alaihi'ssaldm, caravan leader.
mahkum kdrdan, to command. hdrakat kdrdan, to set out, start.
dah sdlagi, age of ten years. nashtd, early breakfast.
rast, straight. mail farmudan, to desire, wish.
khmirdt, smallness, youth. muydssar, obtainable, to be got.
buzurgi, bigness (manhood). tukhm i murgh, hen's egg.
bait, verse, poetry. birydn kdrdan, to fry.
pich, bend thou (Imperative). fibpdz kdrdan, to boil.
nd-shavad = ndmi-shavad ( 107). kibdb kdrdan, to roast.
abnd (Ar. pi. of ibn), sons ( 167). utdq, a room.
maydn (
45), shur, brackish.
vuhush (Ar. pi. of vahsh), wild lahdf, padded quilt.
beasts. dushdkk(pron. dushdkk), mattress.
ajz,weakness ajzt, a weakness,
pushti (bdlish) vulg., pillow.
an infirmity. rakht i khedb, bedclothes, bed-
gushzad i to, (ear-struck of thee ding.
==) heard by thee. aivdn, porch.
mikh mikh kdrdan, the grunting. kliyurjin, travelling-bag.
kuh-anddm, (mountain-bodied =) shdb bi-khair, good night.
as big as a mountain. Khudd hdjiz (i shumd), (God be
sdg-i tail (Arabian dog =) grey- your Protector =) goodbye
Exercise 33.

-^ Ali>- 4^ 1
J O^ V- ^JV* .J
136 Lesson 17.

Translation 34. A Tale.

One day a lion and a hare were conversing with
one another. The hare asked the lion,
saying, "Is it
true what they say, that the feeble and
cowardly cock
by crowing is able to drive away such as you (the
sons of your kind) who are very
brave and strong?"
The lion in answer to him "That saying is (cer-
tainly) quite true; nay more (bdllrih), it is no secret
(mdkhfi nist) that all of us large wild-beasts have
generally an infirmity of that kind (like that) and in :

the same way too thou hast no doubt heard that the
grunting of a pig makes a huge elephant fear and quake
(fearing and trembling)." The hare said, "Is it so?,
then I now understand (understood - -
138, )
why it is that the voice of
greyhounds frightens us
hares so much."
(Master and Servant travelling).

^.1 Ul
Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 137

^-l j- -^ U J. oJ^. r -*H y '->>. ^^/j*-

Ui - VUj - jryUft/T'fe-i
L jlL u-Jj-s jirl rfjb ?js* /)



Eighteenth Lesson.
Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian.
157. Very few Arabic masculine nouns form

their plurals regularly in accordance with 150. Most

masculines and many feminines have what is known
as a Broken Plural, so styled because the noun is
broken (as it were) to allow of the insertion or omission
of a vowel or of more than one. The new word thus
formed is in reality a noun of multitude of the sin-
gular number and feminine gender, but it takes the
place of the obsolete or rarely used regular plural, and
is hence styled the
plural of the noun or adjective
from which it is derived. In practice, the simplest
way to learn these Broken Plurals is to learn the
nouns given as examples in the following lists, and

The most important classes of nouns that form their
plurals regularly are Participles of the various Voices of the
Verb (Lesson XX), except the Present Participle of Voice I.
when used as a noun (it is generally an adjective and is then
used with a regular plural.) The Infinitives of all the Voices
except that of Voice I. (which has a broken Plural) take the
Plural in ol #
138 Lesson 18.

to take them as models upon which to form the plurals

of other nouns of the same measure (vazri). It will be
found that the- task is a very simple one, especially
if the broken plural of every new word be learnt

along with the singular. In the singular attention

must be paid mainly to the number of consonants in
a word (it being remembered that in the Arabic
Alphabet every letter is accounted a consonant).
158. The addition of the feminine termination
(or o ) to form a new noun rarely removes the noun
thus formed from the category under
(or adjective)
which fall if it had not this final syllable.
it would
This will be noticed under each of the Models now
to be given.
Under each Model the most common and necessary
forms come and the rarer ones at the end.

159. Model I. Nouns formed of two Consonants

of which the latter is doubled (tazlidided).

Singular. Plural.

(1) Z^ (hadd), limit, bound: jjot (hudud).

(2) j_ (sirr), a secret, mystery :
ji^l (asrar).

(As these classes of nouns have really three con-

sonants [since j^. is a contraction for jo>. and J-. for
j^>], therefore this Model is practically the same as
the second Model, examples 1 and 2.)
160. Model II. Nouns of three consonants.

Singular. Plural.

(1) J*\ (amr), a command, jj*\ (umur), matters (v.

matter. 167).
(2) j&>: (hukm), an order. *L_Cf (ahkam).

Sometimes assimilation occurs in the Plurals of

words of these classes, and occasionally a root letter
that is omitted in the singular recurs in the plurals:
S. y P. P.
as, f m
i;i (for f 1j..i);
S. a,' ^\j>.\ (for
oil. I);
S - - !
^ p -
J'jtf (from 1/J^).
Less usual forms falling under this model are - :
Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 139

Singular. Plural.

(3) J (bahr), sea, ocean. jUv (bihar).

(So also with, tlie termination -^ or o-i)

cX* (Jch'islat, khdslat), JLai- (KhisaT).

the earth, a
(4) jjij'i (arz), ^'Jf (wrazi).
(So with the termination <

<L/ (laileh), night. JL/ (layalt).

(5) ^ (MO&I), prophet. li*f (anliya).
(6) ^^, lad. (sibyari).
(softl), 0L*^
. 161. Model III. Nouns of four consonants, of
which the second is alif.

Singular. Plural.

(1) J^lc (

rimil), agent, fac- & (dmaleli)^ Jl [170]

totum. (iimmal).
(2) ^Afc" (Mhiri), priest, ma- $"" (kdhaneli).
(3) ^cL a poet.
(sha *l^ (shu'ara).

Less usual are the following measures :

(4) _.L (sahib), owner (Ar. yl^f (ashab, companions

companion.) of Muhammad, etc.)
(5) ^li (qagi) ecclesiastical sU (quzaf).
(6) ^Alj (rahib), monk. jl^j' (ruhban)

(7) J>-L (sahil), shore, coast. J-l_^ (samhil).

(So also the latter form with + or o-^ added: -

<ujV (lagimeh), (|;.,f.,ne- *JI_/ (lavazim),

n. f. neces-
cessary. saries.
(8) <*lj (vaqi'eh), an occur- ,i_,lj (vaqayi ).


In Persian used in the sense of a singular.
140 Lesson 18.

162. Model IV. Nouns of four consonants, of


tich the third is ^.

Singular. Plural

(1) <. (hakim), sage: *LC^ (hukama).

(2) w~J (tabib), physi- +ty\ (a tibia).

Adj. (3) >/* (kanm), kind, JjT" (kiram).

(4) j.> (tariq), road, jL' (tumq).
163. Model V. Nouns formed of /twr consonants,
of which the third is alif.

Singular. Plural.

(1) otT (Qdtab), a book. JJT (^*M6).

(2) (j-U, a garment,
((libas), <_J( (dlbiseh)

164. Model YI. Nouns formed of four con-

sonants, but of other than the measures mentioned
under the three last models.

Singular. Plural.

(1) osA* (mdsjid), a mosque. oa.ll* (masajid).

This method of forming the plural is used even

when the feminine termination or o^- is added.
However much the form of the noun in the singular
may vary from (1), in the plural the model is follow-
ed, except in the very few nouns that fall under (2)
and (3). E. g.

^f^> (nasihat), advice. L*f (nasayih).

( :
* (da'vi) or J_^S (da va ), &&* (da'am).
<! Uj (risaleh), a tractate. Jf L j (rasail).

Very rare are the following formations:

Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 141

(2) ^J (Qaisar), Caesar, _ r^Ll (Qayasireh).

(mdlak) dii (for '& (mdTak), gj%! (&M) (malaikeli, ma-
angel. laik}.

Adj. (3) j (dsvad), black.

\ jb^L (sudari).

examples of (2) are jU{, PI. oil*; (Af-
ghins); o&?1 PI. AiiLf PI-
(bishops)', ^**j\, ^Ijf (Ar-
Model VII. Nouns formed of five con-
sonants, the fourth of which is a Weak Letter (oZi/,
vav or /). However much the form of the singulars
of this class of nouns may vary, the plural is formed
on the one model, as will be seen.
Singular. Plural.

'jllail (sultan). Sultan, ruler. c^Ml

jyl (qanuri), law. t>yl_js

(mdktub), written. w-TlS^

(tadbir), plan, device. -?J-V(

If the 2 nd and 3 nd consonants _in such words are

the same (i. e. a lashdided letter, as jlS^' for j'&lfj' ), the
plural still follows the usual form as :

jK'j (dukkari), a shop. cjrfVj

All the words given under these models are
actually in frequent use in Persian, and a very large
number more are formed in accordance with the
same rules.
Umar ibnu'l Khatttfb, name of pishkdsh, a present (to a super-
a Caliph. ior).
JSalmdn, a noted Persian con- saughtit, a present on returning
vert of Mu hammed. from a journey.
rahmatu'lltih 'alaih, God's mercy judd, separated, separate.
on him! gul i ydkheh )
Janfib i Scdmtf'n, his honour gul i stneh \

Salman. ffwfewft, mixture.

i On this model is (wrongly formed C^ljl tne plural of
the Turkish word jli. (khnn, a title).
142 Lesson 18.

7<, food. bar (jeweller's word), alloy.

bdndagi, service of God. ^fa (o
f a jewel), of the first
God water -
Izacl, (old Persian).
the rest
sitir all (of). zdrar kdrdan, to suffer loss, to
Hunltd, Indians (pi. of Hindu). lose.
'ala'lkhusus, especially. sigtir, cigar.
har chih zudtar, as quickly as qab, a thing for holding, case.
possible. quit, a small hox.
to'tintf, a present (to an equal), kibrtt matches (sulphur).
[Note: Articles of gold and silver are sold by weight, one
krnn a misqal for silver, plus about at least half as much again
for the carving, etc.]

Exercise 35.

vlj y 4>-

xJu^ff b ^.31 gj^> ^u

'.Is -'

3 ij UP il i.

jUL- ^,U>- c^L

io _

Translation 36. A Tale.

Some of (as) the historians of ancient Greece have
related (hikayat Mrdari) wonderful fables
the habits and customs of the
people of India, one of
which the following (this, that) - - In that country
is :

there a sandy desert, where on account of the


dryness and aridity (bi-att) there is no population

(Sbadi). In that terrible wilderness there are found
enormous ants, which are smaller than
dogs but larger
than foxes, and these ants dwell under the
ground in
such a way that, having
dug away the soil they cast
(pour) out the sand (sands) in the same manner that
ordinary ants in other (sair i) countries do (thus), and
Arabic Broken Plurals in Persian. 143

in (those sands) the sand which they throw out there

are pieces of gold. Accordingly, those Indians (Hunud)
who purpose to go in-search-of that gold devise a plan
in this way. Every person yokes together three camels,
one of which must be a female, in such a manner
that the female camel (may be) is between those two
male camels : and that female camel should have been
recently separated, from her young one (kurreh) since
under those circumstances (in that state) camels are
particularly swift. Their master mounts that female
camel, and, when he has filled his sacks with (as)
that sand, he urges on the camels as quickly as possible,
in order that, having got beforehand with the ants (sibqat
jtistan bar), they may flee, lest those ants, having run
after them, should tear them in pieces (pareh pareli
Having thus got possession of (bi-chatig avdrdan)
the gold, they sell it to foreign merchants.


~$ J\> Ul

; ^'j^'
/JjJ ^

144 Lesson 19.

ui J*-


t/.l Ui j



Nineteenth Lesson.
Irregular and double Plurals.

166. Some Arabic nouns which form their

Plurals irregularly occur in Persian. The chief of
these are :

Singular. Plural.

(insari), man (homo), ^'j (was), human beings.

(akh), brother. ^L**l (ikhvari), brethren.
(ukht), sister. *'>-i (akhavat), sisters.

(famm}. mouth. *\\ (afvah), rumour.
Irregular and double Plurals. 145

U (ma), water. * U (miyah), waters.

z>~Ji (quvvat) strength, power. \^ (quva) powers.
(qdriyeh), town. *
!_,; (qura), towns, cities.

Those forms which are marked with an asterisk

are very rarely used in Persian. It will be noticed
that sometimes there is a difference of meaning be-
tween the singular and the plural. Akh (fl) is in
Persian used principally in the form <j-\ (dkham) to
mean 'my brother', which should be J*\ (dJchi) some- :

times ^(SyA man] is said with the same

meaning. used in the religious sense of
Ikhvan is
'brethren' principally. Akhavat (of_^f) is used in such
expressions as 'sister languages'.
Other Arabic nouns take two or even
more Arabic plurals in Persian, some of which
are irregular. These have often different meanings.
The principal are :

Singular. Plurals.

(ibri), son. (&am, for bamn, 156),
sons : * LI (abna), sons
(in a figurative sense).
(amr), affair, command, ^f (wmV), affairs; ^j\
(avamir), commands.
ul l-i verses;
(bait), verse, (house), ((abyat), o_^
(buyut), houses.
r* (shaikh), old man (a JL (shuyulch), old men;
title). (mashaikli), elders.

jL (short), condition, wa- (shurut), J*,l_,i (sha-

ger. rait), conditions.

r tf (katib\ a writer, a scribe. ^.l (Icuttab), copyists; <
(Jcatabeh), scribes.

~\ (ism), a name. L2 (asma) and ^ L( (asaml,),

(fath), victory. ^ (futuh), conquest; oL_^i'
Persian Conv.-Grammar. 10
146 Lesson 19.

oU.!jS (davajat), medicines.

Ijj (dava), medicine. 4>/i\ (ddviyeh), spice: pi.

olf jjf (adviyajdt), spices.

jj> (nur), light. j\j>\ (anvar), lights; jl^J

(nirari), a fire.

*3\i. (khadim), a servant. Joi. (khuddam), servants: ,oi-

(khddam), retinue.

168. Some Arabic nouns end in what is known

as 'the of unity', and they drop this to make their

meaning general, which has often the effect of ex-

pressing a plural signification. The original difference
between the general form and the proper plural is
well seen in the following word.

Singular. General form. Plural.

<' , -i

- c ^ a
/ T,
e x
the ( > ~^

e _\

i i- i, v j\
/ mi { J**z (sliu ur) i

single nair. nair(ofthehead). |

-*^, \\f.
jLil (ash ar) '

Often, however, such words have not in Persian

any plural form, but use the general form as a plural.
Singular. General form. Plural.

^^ (Mrfaf), an oj>- (Mraf), in-

industry. dustries.

fT (shdyareh), js~ (shdjar), trees j\*f"\ (ashjar),

a tree. (in general). trees.

I j^. (bilad), a coun-

Aul' (bdladeh), small M! (bdlad), town, i
try, region,
town. i jlol' (buldan),

Singular. General form.

cl* (mittat), a sect. jL(mtlal), sects, communities.
oj'j j (ddulat), a state, wealth. J j (duval). states. ,'

^- -'
(ummat), a people, re-
^f (umam), communities.

ligious community.
(*'iaO, favour. ri, (w^am), favours.
Irregular and double Plurals.

All such, words in all their forms are feminine :

e. g., "The Great Powers of Europe", v_Jjf L&JJjj

i mu dgzameh-y-i Urup): "The United States of

i muttdhideli-y-i* Ydngi
America", U'jjt-Sos^JJj (duval
169. The two following rules are observed in
Persian in reference to certain classes of Arabic nouns
and adjectives :

Rule I. An Arabic noun feminine, singular or plural,

if followed by an Arabic adjective, requires that ad-

jective to be in the feminine singular: as,

<u~L~.j^( (umur i siyastyyeh), political affairs.

<!*%. iJ (vaqai mulummeh), important events.

C'UL OjL/Ml (Salatin i Sasaniyyeli), the Sasanian kings.

(mululi i mazbureli), the kings aforesaid.
(malaikeli-y-i muqdrrabeh}, the angels nearest
(to God).
Often, however, but not always (as the above
examples shew), if the noun in the plural denotes men
or angels, the adjective is put in the proper Arabic
plural form: as,
jUL.1 $L~'I
(aribiyd-i atMr), the pure prophets.
(hukkdm i kiram), gracious governors.
Rule Arabic cardinal numerals between 3 and
10 (inclusive) may be used with Arabic nouns, in
which case the adjective follows the noun and is
united toit by isafeh, in accordance with the Persian
idiom in reference to most other adjectives, not car-
dinals. But the noun must be in the plural and the

adjective in the feminine singular: as, < jlJ-.L'l (anajil-i

drba'ah), 'the Four Gospels'. Contrast the Persian equi-
valent J-jfljU*. (chahar Infil), in which the numeral
precedes the noun and the latter is in the singular.

Yangi Dunyai, 'the New World': ydngi is AzarbaljSni


Turkish for 'new'. The United States are also in Persian news-
papers often called (Jjjl'f, an attempt at writing tats Unis iu
Persian letters!
148 Lesson 19.

170. A
number of Arabic words in the plural
are used with a singular meaning in Persian. In order
to express thB plural, the Persian plural termination
jl_ (an) or U (-ha) is then added. Examples: -

Singular. Ar. Plural. Persian Plural.

t>j (Rabb), Lord ^\>j\ (arbab), a l^Ljl jUj( oLLji

(used of God peasant proprie- (arbabha, arbii-

only). tor, or the head- 6an, arbahat).

man of a village.
(ndib), vice- *->\j>' (navvab), a \*\j? Jlljp. (nav-
gerant :
police- title. val>ha,navvabdn).
lff ,,,
Jlc ('amtt), agent. Alic (dmaleti), a ^L=M- IA^ (dma-
workman. la- lajat^ dmalahha).
bourer. ( 152.)

Any Arabic noun used in Persian may

take the ordinary Persian plural terminations ( 31)
instead of forming its plural in accordance with the
Arabic rules. But Arabic plurals are very extensively
used in Persian with Arabic nouns both in speaking
and in writing.
Bi-sdr burdan, to spend time, dslipaz, a cook.
live. Hdzrat i Vain, His Eoyal High-
surmeh, collyrium (to brighten ness.
eyes). hamshikur, hunting-companion.
pai burdan, to follow, turn to. biklarchtn ( .,
Khudn-rastdeh, (one who has) kaukardk <

attained to (a knowledge of) vcfdeh Itlivnstan, to invite.

God. sdbzijtit , 11

dam zddan, to cavil, ask why tarakdri

and how. sib i zamml (pomme de terre),
ddrajeh, (spiritual) rank, degree. potato.
ujrat, wages. kdlam i Fardngi, cauliflower.
tiikhm, (seed), egg; t. avardan bfidinjan, egg-plant fruit (in
to lay an egg: (fully, tukhm India Brinjal.)( Faranyi,
imurgh). tomato).
murgh, a hen, a fowl. shurvti, soup.
nastyyat, on credit. tnrubcheh, radish.
bamdadsn, on the morrow. 'ainu'nnns (ananas), pineapple.
chdndi, (for) some time. purtuqdl, a lime.
add ndna-kard, would not pay. azgtl, a medlar.
kadkhudff, headman of a village, alubdlu, sour cherry.
Irregular and double Plurals. 149

wdktfiban, in writing. gilds, sweet cherry.

jujeh, a chicken. tut i Fardngi, strawberries.
aqdllan, at least. tiltt, plum.
J chance.
ittifdqan, by
* -L
sabz )
> areensrasre.
zarang, clever, cute. gaiyen >

chigunagi, state of affairs. khtineh-y-i miz, drawer of a table.

qdhqalieh, loud laughter. sTikhtehdan, ashtray (for cigars).
2>tshkhidmat, table-servant.

Exercise 37.

Translation 38. A Tale.

labourer lived a long time in foreign (distant)
countries, and, having at last returned to his native-
land, and having soon wasted all the money (moneys)
which he had saved (heaped up) from his wages,
reached the extremity of poverty and impecuniosity.
One day, having entered a small village, he went to
This refers to the Persian custom of making plots of
ground intended for cultivation lower than the adjoining water-
courses in the fields, so that they may be easily flooded when
desired. The paths and other elevated patches of ground remain
diy, as the water does not rise so high.
160 Lesson 19.

a well-known shopkeeper, and asked him for (asked

from him) a dozen (twelve) cooked eggs on credit, and
having got them he ate them at dinner-time and next

day, having set out, he went to his own village. When

some time elapsed and that labourer would not pay
his debt, the (that) shopkeeper, having laid a complaint
in writing against (having made .... from) him before
the headman of that village, said, "Such and such a
person has bought on credit (has made credit) from
me twelve cooked eggs, and until now has not given
the money for them (of it), and on that account has
caused me great loss for from those twelve eggs twelve

chickens would have been produced for me, and every

chicken, on becoming a hen, would have ere this laid
at least some hundreds of eggs, from which a large
number of (basa) other chickens would have come into
existence (pad/id amadan)". And in this very manner
that covetous shopkeeper claimed (was claiming) an
enormous sum. When that impecunious fellow heard
this, having gone into a wineshop he desired to forget
his ill-luck wine (having drunk wine). There he
happened to meet (by chance he met) a clever clerk
(katiti) who (that that clerk), having enquired the
state-of-affairs, said to him, "Dear friend, be of good
cheer, for, if you put your matter into my hands
(entrust your matter to me), everything will turn out
(sMdari) all right (durusty The labourer, having thanked

him (ighar i mamnuniyyat Jcdrdan), went to the headman

and said, "Such and such a clerk is my attorney (vakil)
and will soon be present to answer (having become
present will give answer) in my stead". The headman,
having for a long time waited for (having become
expectant of) that clerk, when he did not come, sent
in search of him and asked him, saying, "Well, so
and so (ai fidari), why hast thou wasted my time ?
since I have been looking out for you for some time
(it is a space nmddat I draw the expectation of
thee)". He said, "Sir, I was cooking peas, for I wanted
to plant (having planted) them (it) in
my garden and
to see what will come of it (what will become)". The
headman, having laughed aloud, said, "Yon fool (ai
Irregular and double Plurals. 151

dhmaq), do you not know (thou knowest not) that

cooked peas never grow?" He said, "Sir, if it is so,
then when does a chicken come out (come up) of
(from) a hen's egg that has been (may have been)
cooked?" The headman, on hearing this, rejected that
shopkeeper's complaint.


fV _J. f.z$

j j; <. A, I

^, x. c-Jijij ^_^l j,
j _^A

J j

"-.-,, I j ui I li I ' *>

J^ li
jLJS ) *4 j ,*L- It
152 Lesson 20.

T\ventieth Lesson.
Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb.
172. As has already been explained ( 147).
the Root of the Arabic Verb generally consists of
three Radical letters. From this root a number of
Voices are formed by prefixing or inserting one or
more of the Servile letters mentioned in 147. (The
nearest analogy to this in English is afforded by
such verbes as 'to raise', 'to* seat', 'to lay', formed
somewhat similarly from 'to rise', 'to sit', 'to lie'.)
All the voices formed from any root have a connexion
in meaning, with one another and with the root,
though in English their meanings have often to be
expressed by quite different words. "When the mean-
ing of the root is known, it is not difficult to know
the signification of each of its derivatives. This will
be readily understood from the following Paradigm.
173. Voices of Kdtaba, 'he wrote' ( J^T"). !

174. The voices are quoted and generally known

by the numbers prefixed to each, u'hich must be learned.
The Preterite is not used in Persian, but it is
here supplied as a necessary link between the various
Voices, and it is useful in shewing how the other
forms are produced. Very few Verbal roots form all
these Voices, but all may be produced from each
root if required. A vast number of Arabic words used
in Persian are formed from their
respective roots in
the manner shewn in the diagram. All the Infini-
tives are Verbal nouns, and (as used in Persian) most
of the Present Participles Active and
many of the Past
Participles Passive are employed as nouns, though
(as the name Participle implies) they may also be
used as adjectives.
(Vide the Table, p. 158).
Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 153

8 -- 8

^^ a



U| 5
\ f 8

.8 oPn
aw H *
QJ r-i

o w
a3 60.2^
9 "3 2 c "o o>
tJO o CS
w a! a
53 5<s o
O 3 <U<5
6 Go


^H ^ ^ C
O 34J O M p
W air ^
cS i

w K.2
154 Lesson 20.

175. The prefixed or inserted ^. is the remnant of a word

meaning self.The ^
of Voice X. is a weakened form of the
prefix of Voice IV. (originally in the Semitic tongues and ^
meaning then weakened to
'to make"*, ^
* and T). The doubling
second Radical in Voice II. is the result of
(taslidfding) of the
pronouncing Voice I. with greater emphasis: it accordingly adds
force to the meaning of Voice I., if that Voice has a transitive
meaning, and renders it transitive if it has not. The Infinitive
of Voice II. is formed not from its preterite but from an ad-
jective (of the form ^^}derived directly from Voice I. and
having sometimes an Active and sometimes a Passive Participial
meaning: to this adjective the o above mentioned is prefixed,
and the word thus produced originally meant 'to produce such
an effect on or for oneself. The mu prefixed to all the Participles
except those of Voice I. is the remains of a word which meant
who' or 'which'. Voice VII. is formed by prefixing to Voice I.,
thus producing a Passive sense (it is doubtless the remains of
a pronominal or demonstrative word): the prefixed in this

Voice and in Voices VIII., IX. and X. is only to assist the

pronunciation and goes out altogether when no longer needed
for that purpose, e. g. when mu- is prefixed. Voice III. is formed
by taking the Present Participle Active of Voice I. and turning
it into a verb denoting 'to act as one doing such and such a

thing': e. g. in this Verb 'to act as a katib or writer'. Voice VIII.

inserts the o instead of prefixing it: this Voice seldom occurs
when Voice V. does, and is really (originally) an optional form
of that Voice, used in its stead when euphony requires. Voice IX.
is really formed from adjectives denoting coloxirs (which in
Arabic in the masc. sing, generally prefix alif to their triliteral
root, as j^-f, dsvad, 'black'; dhmar, 'red'): and the verb denoting
to produce that effect, to grow of that colour, is made by merely

taslidtding the last radical: as ahmdrra 'to grow red', 'to

blush'. It will thus be understood how there is really
mysterious about the origin of the various Voices and tenses
of the Arabic verb.
176. The second vowel in the Preterite of Voice I. is
sometimes i ( ), sometimes ( ) instead of being, as here,
a (-L): but this does not concern the student of Persian. The
form of the Infinitive of Voice I. also varies, and a single root
has frequently several different forms of tiiis infinitive. Except
in these few matters and in the instances in which (vide
Lesson XXI.) euphony demands a contraction or the assimilation
of certain letters to one another, there is no irregularity in the
formation of the different parts of the Arabic Triliteral verbs,
all being formed according to the
Paradigm given in 173.
It will be a most useful exercise for the student to form
from other Arabic roots (e. g. from
JJ [Infin. I. JJ], k
Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 155

[Infin. I. \z: Pret. I.

'if], Ju* [Infin. I. jltj) words in accor-

dance with, the Paradigm, and to trace out their meanings.

When it is desirable to find the root of a word, this is
done by striking out the formative letters: e. g. the root of
JUIL.1 (istiqbdl) is
JJ, and istiqbdl is Infin. X. of that root.


HaMb, a man's name. b'ismi'lldh, (in God's name),

Hajjdj, a tyrannous governor of said in inviting one to enter,
Arabia under Caliph Abdu'l to sit down, to eat, etc.
Malik. rub' bi-cltahdr mdndeh, a quarter
Bdsri, native of Basreh. to 4 o'clock.
Khvdjeh Hasan, a man's name. gardan(t)dan, taking (a horse)
ishtin, =
he, she (said out of out for exercise.
respect). davtindan, making (a horse)
'alailii'rralimali, on him be mercy. gallop.
rahmatu'ttdh 'alaih, God's mercy qddam rdftan, to walk (of a
/>n him. horse).
'Ajawi, non-Arabian Persian. ; yurgheli rdftan, to amble.
ftduma'eh, hermit's cell. yurtmeh rdftan, to canter.
namdz, Muhammadan stated lukkeh rdftan, to trot.
prayers (offered 5 times daily). damdgh ddshtan, to be somewhat
daur i ura giriftan, to surround fresh.
him. sarkdsh, obstinate, stubborn,
chanddn kill kdmtar, the more
. . .
.... the less. Hun, see! lo!
qadfmu'l ayytim, ancient times. kabfid (nikli), grey.
Ldndan, London. bur, brown.
sanjdq, a pin. Icdhar, bay.
inshsa'Udh, please God. titei, Arabian (not in use).
sarfeliju, saving, careful, econom- asU (najib), wellbred, blood-.
ical. kuran, chestunt-coloured.
bachdieh-giirbeh, a kitten. pack-horse.
tasJtrff biytivarid tu, come in. tatimmeh darad =
to be concluded.

Exercise 39.

J jU
..) ^A~^~>
... 1
156 Lesson 20.

Translation 40. A Tale.

In ancient times in the city of London there was

a wealthy merchant, who took (gave a place) into his
house a poor orphan and brought him up (was nourishing
him). Although this child was so (small) young that
the merchant did not appoint him to (over) any work,
yet he himself, (loving toil) being diligent, and having
devised some work for himself, busied himself in (of
this, that) collecting lost pins. "When he had picked
up number
a of them, he brought them to his master
and gave them to him. The merchant was pleased
and said, "Please God, by and by (after a little) this
boy will turn out (become) a trustworthy and economi-
cal man". One day in that house a cat gave-birth-to
some kittens, and that orphan obtained permission to
rear one of them for himself. When that kitten grew
up (became big), one day it happened that the (that)
merchant, having laden one of his ships with (az)
various kinds of merchandise (amval va ajnus i tijaratt),
was sending it to a distant country, and he wished
to go on board the ship and see whether (kill a>/u)
everything was right (bi-tarttb a-st). On the way as he
went he met that boy holding (who had) his cat in
his arms (bosom). He said to him, "Child, hast thou
not something too to send across the sea for sale?"
He said, "Sir, you well know that I am destitute and
have nothing but this cat". The merchant said, "Well.
send that cat, that having sold it they may bring
back its price for you (thee)". The boy handed over
his cat to one of the sailors and asked that they should
sell it for him: and the
ship started. (To be concluded).
Voices of the Regular Arabic Triliteral Verb. 157


*j*'j*" -5"*

1:1 jji csj jj^ ^u^ Aob ^^- r-u

-Cu ..
-^._* f^ ^u^
A.' I ci

jJA*i _


ljclj Ul

- - -

_-l J-.l <".i 1


Ul c-l jL- ltL- l^-l J.

45 .jlo,' S .__- 1 jl -

Ai'jl 3 ,\>

-" ? ***'

\ J\ *** A-C< 4J i_- '

158 Lesson 21.

Twenty-first Lesson.
Arabic Verbal -Forms (Continued): Verbs with Feeble
Radicals, etc.
177. In certain classes of Arabic Verbs a few
contractionsand other alterations of the foregoing
scheme ( 173) take place, mainly for the sake of
euphony and to facilitate pronunciation. These occur
mainly when one of the three Radical letters of the
verb is a weak letter (\ <s j). These changes,
however, take place in accordance with fixed rules,
the most important of which we now proceed to
178. If the middle radical be <s or j, I

it represented by lidmzeh ( ) in the Present and


Past Participle of Voice I. as, from V J_y : Pres. P. ,

Act. Jj't, Past P. Pass. JjL.'; from VjL, Pres. P. Act.

JfL, Past P. Pass. JZ; from V^u, Pres. P. Act. J*U,

Past. P. Pass. J>'.
179. In Voice II., if the third radical be one
of these three weak letters, the Infinitive adds a as. :

from r^ji the Infin. of Voice II. is <[y 7

(in Persian

usually ?>& taqvfyyat).

180. In Voice IV. if the third radical be j or ^
it is
dropped in the Infinitive as from V ^\, Infin. IV.

the 2 nd radical be j or <j, it is dropped
But if
in the Infinitive IV. and is added at the end of

the word: as, from IV. Infin.

Vj^ (Pers. cJ'Ui). *l
In this class of Verbs the Pres. P. Act. IV. has
^ and the Past. Part. Pass. IV. has (by contraction I

in each case) before the final letter:

as, from Vj^,
Pres. P. Act. IV.
W, Past. P. Pass. IV. (con- Ll>
tracted from Jjy and Ja^ respectively). If the first
radical be in Infin. IV. its
or'j, place is taken by

L$: as, from VI^J, Infin. IV.

181. In Voice VIII., if the first radical be a
weak letter, it is assimilated to the inserted o throuh-
Arabic Verbal Forms : Verbs with Feeble Eadicals. 159

out, so that this o has the taslidid: so from V_u.j comes

Infin. VIII. jtfl (for jUl); Pres. P. Act. jj? (for

If the first radical be ^ or J>, the letter ] is

inserted throughout in Voice VIII. instead of o: as,

from V.*->>a Past. Part. Pass. ^>J***l. If the first radical
be \, or Ji, throughout Voice VIII.,
this letter is tashdfded

instead of o being inserted: as, from Vx, Pres. P.

Act. VIII., Infin. VIII. %) (#$')
If the first radical be j, a j is inserted in Voice
VIII. instead of o: as, from V]^ Infin. VIII. %3j-
If the first radical be o, j or j, it is usually
tashdided having o inserted after it in
instead of
Voice VIII. throughout: as from ^jfj, Pres. P. Act.
vin. /.
182. In Voice X., if the 2 nd radical be , or <^,

it falls out in the Infinitive, and the ending is

appended: as, from Vj|^ Infin. X. VUl) (in Persian

183. In verbs which have I for their first radical,

this letter is changed to j after the prefix ^ (mu) : as,
from Vji.1, Infin. III. -U.I> (mu'akliatzeh, sometimes
pronunced muvakliazeli or even muvakhiqeli, the second
in such forms Infin. III. in ordinary Persian
becoming ').
18-4. A few other similar changes occur in
Arabic Verbs of the classes mentioned, but as they
are caused by the carrying out of the principles
already illustrated, they present no difficulty. If a
root contains two weak letters or otherwise conies
under two of these rules, both operate: as, from V^ji,
Infin. IV. ,Ul (Vide 180); from V~~^ Infin. VIII.
(Vide 181, 180).
100 Lesson 21.

185. The Arabic words jj (Irreg. genitive

Sing, ^i, used as Nom. in Persian Plural ^3 i), 'owner', :

'possessor', *H 'nothingness', and J 'other than', are

of frequent use in Persian in composition with other
words of Arabic origin. Their use will be best under-
stood from the following examples: jM*HjS, 'possessed
of glory, glorious, Lord of Glory' (said of God);
grandeur', 'eminent':
jb^S 'possessed 'grand',
Jj*A f jie., 'nothingness of knowledge', 'ignorance';
oj r -vt, 'nothingness of power', 'powerlessness' f^ **^, :

'other than known', 'unknown'; ^j*jf- (ghair i mar *),
'other than seen', 'unseen', 'invisible'; 'other
than bounded', 'unlimited', 'boundless'.
186. The following Arabic phrases are in con-
stant use as single words in Persian, so that the
student ought to learn their meanings. Many others
will be found in
Appendix A.
4fcbj (fi^ljumleti) on the (dla'ddavam) con-
whole. tinually.
j (filhagtqeh) in truth. s (dldlklmsus) espe-
l.'t (Wlfi'l) in fact. cially.
ij (bd'dahu) after it lJl (iltildbad} for ever.
(him). 1 A, (abadu^labad) ever

A-W' (bd'daJia) after her and ever.

(them, of things). (Jauqu'l'adah) ex-
* Ul (dmma ba'd) but next. traordinary.
Jte (cm qarlb) soon, J-L (hasilu'lkalam)
shortly. finally, in short.
(alqisseli) in a word, (vagkatrek) etc.
finally. (ma jaro) what
(hakaza) thus. occurred, event.
|) (lihaza) therefore. (ft ma ba'd) for
(ma'k&p) besides the future.
(ma'haza'lqiyas) on
this. ^

(ma bdqt) the re- this supposition.

mainder. (musharun Haiti) the
instantly. person indicated.
Arabic Verbal Forms : Verbs with Feeble Radicals. 161

be noticed that in Arabic phrases when-

It will
ever long vowel immediately precedes a word
beginning with the article Jl, the said long vowel is
pronounced short, as in the above examples.
Musa', Moses. haif ast, it is a pity.
alft'nahiyyinn ~) on our Prophet alfifz (Ar. pi. of lafz), words.
va dlaihi'ssalnm \ and on him be maghshush, indistinct, confused,
peace. inaccurate.
Iblts, Satan. ahl i zabtin, those whose native
Khastiis (Ar. pi. of khastseh'), language it is.

peculiarities. muhcivareh, idiom.

vasdvis (Ar. pi. of vdsvaseJi) temp- zarbu'lmasal, proverbial: a pro-
tations of Satan. verb.
Kibriya, the Divine Majesty. bi-tarfy i ultf (aula'), far more.
haivtfn i dardndeh, beast of prey. Icumak, aid, help.
zahreli, bile; daring. hifz Mrdan, to learn, learn by
puz, snout. heart.
mu'dttim, a teacher. qavantn (Ar. pi. of qnnuri), laws.
mlrza (here), a teacher of Ian- qava'id (Ar. pi. of qa'ideK), rules.
guages. sarf va nahv, grammar.
muta'dtlim, a student, pupil.

Exercise 41.

(|jo U'jjj $ j^J

puilf L* jiHjj^ 45 ij

&~* J *-!


Translation 42.

(Conclusion of the Tale of the Boy and the Cat.)

After some months that vessel reached an unknown
island and cast anchor. When the sailors disembarked
(came to the dry-land), they were informed that a
Persian Conv.-Grammar. 11
162 Lesson 21.

sovereign (stdtani) reigned (reigns) over that island:

and when that sovereign heard that some foreigners
(foreign persons) had arrived in (have become arriving
of, varid i) his country, he commanded that they should
be invited (so that they invited them) to lunch (that
they may eat lunch) with him. But when they sat
down at the royal table, they saw that, although there
is plenty of (plentiful) food, yet it is impossible (not

possible) to eat as much as even one morsel in comfort,

because the king's palace is full of (from) mice and
rats (mice small and large), which are so daring that
(having dared to this limit) they snatch the morsels
from the guests' hands. The sovereign, having become
ashamed, said, "Whoever discovers (may discover) a
remedy for (of) this calamity, I shall give him a large
sum". Then one of the sailors said, "Your Majesty, I
have a beast of prey, which, if you permit (if there
be permission), will very speedily (with complete haste)
completely destroy all these mice". "When the king
commanded, they brought that cat, and the cat busied
herself in the chase in such a manner that after half an
hour no mouse dared to (had daring of that, that it should)
shew its snout. The king, having become extremely
pleased (joyful), purchased that cat for a sack full of
gold (fczZa), and in that manner that orphan became rich.

~ J


i c~.l .^g oj'Ur Af-

.l Jolt 4)"^
Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 163

is Oil

-^l> -Ui,^>. sJ'JJ^ * <*^


'j".j ~ J^-* *^ *li). ($-l*O -5-**



J/ .^^ jl

Twenty-second Lesson.
Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives.
187. Besides the Participles and Infinitives of
Verbs as explained in Lessons XX. and XXI., manj-
other words are formed from Arabic Triliteral roots.
We now proceed to explain the method of such for-
mations, the principal of them only and those most
frequently met with in Persian being given. It will
be found that an acquaintance with the methods in
accordance with which such words are produced will
enable the student, not only to remember the meanings
of the words when once learnt, but also to know their
meaning the first time he meets with them, if he knows
the meaning of the root. If, for example, he knows
( 190) that mi prefixed to the root and a inserted
before the last radical forms nouns denoting instruments,
it will not be difficult to remember that miftah

164 Lesson 22.

so formed from V *& 'to open', means 'a key'. As the

same rules are, with few exceptions, applicable to all

roots if necessary, it will be understood that a vast
number of words may be produced from almost every
Arabic root, and that little doubt can arise about the
meaning of each word so formed.
188. Nouns denoting people engaged in any trade
or occupation are formed by tashdidmg the 2 nd radical
and inserting a before the third: as, from V^j^, 'to
turn, to change', comes olj^ (sarraf), 'a money-changer':
from V^^;, 'to cut up, dissect', comes v^** (4a??ab), 'a
butcher': from 'to sprout', (ji{ vegetable), comes
J\% (baqqal), 'a greengrocer'.
Nouns denoting the place where anything
occurs are formed by prefixing ma to the B/oot: as,
J-SZ (mdktdb), 'a school', from V jjf 'to write': -^-^

(mdsjid), 'a mosque', from Vu=- 'to worship'. Nouns

sometimes add a to this form; as <&s? (mdhkameh)
'tribunal' vulgar use in Persian in the sense of
'a doctor's
consulting room', from hakmi in the sense
of 'a doctor') from Vj. 'to judge', 'determine', 'com-
190. Nouns denoting instruments are formed by
prefixing mi to the root and by (frequently) prefixing
a to the third radical: as (j>\ji+ (miqraz), 'scissors',
from j>jt,
'to cut': <jH~* (misvak) 'tooth -
'small piece of wood for rubbing and cleansing the
teeth', from V^^ 'to cleanse the teeth' : j \-*+
'touchstone', from
V^, which in Voice II. means 'to

verify a weight', 'test a coin'.

191. Many nouns and some adjectives are form-
ed by inserting j before the third radical (such nouns
are forms of the Infinitive of Voice I., of which
there are 24 possible forms): as
Jy.i (dukhul), 'act of
entering', 'entrance', from Vjl^ 'to enter':

'necessary', from V^, originally 'to press', 'to con-

Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 165

strain'. Others to this form add : as jj_^ (zarwreh,

in Persian ojj_^, zarurat), 'necessity'; ^J5^ (hulcumeh,
in Persian ^jl
hukumat), 'rule'.
192. An adjectival form is obtanied by insert-

ing i before the last radical: as, ^jT (karim) 'kind',

'gracious', from VTT7 'to be beneficent': J^ (ycdU),

'scanty', 'small', from Vj;, 'to be few': jX (jalil) 'glo-
rious', from Vja., 'to shine forth'. From these adjec-
tives nouns may be formed by changing the I into a,
with or without adding as J}U (jalal), 'glory';

*X\f (Jcarameh, in Persian

^\jT karamat) 'generosity';
or even by merely adding the as tL^ (fazileh, ,

in Persian cJLi faztlaf), 'superiority', from Vj^, 'to

nouns and adjectives are formed by
193. Other
adding -an to the root: as jUail (sultan), 'a ruler', from

VjaJU? 'to be despotic' jl^ (hairari), 'astounded', from


'to be bewildered'; <Mof ('irfari), 'knowledge',
from 'to know'. From the same roots may be
formed other nouns by merely adding a (in Persian
changed into o ); as c:lu. (sdltanat), 'sovereignty',
'kingdom'; o^ (hatrat), 'astonishment'.

194. Many nouns (infinitives of Voice I.) insert

a before the last radical (cf. 192): as *&' (kcdam),
'speech', from Vj^; j\J (qarar), 'agrement', from Vj;;
jl^i (farar] 'flight',
from Vjt Some adjectives also

have this form as J%^ (halal) 'lawful', from Vj,., and


{\j>- (haram), 'unlawful', 'forbidden',

from V. ,.. Nouns
of this formation often add -^-
(in Persian o ); as
ojls? (tijdrat], 'commerce', from V'^.
195. A few insert a before the second radical:
as (fthatam), 'a seal', from Vj^; Jilt (qalab), 'a mould',
from V,jy;. From the present participle Active of
166 Lesson 22.

Voice I. we have nouns feminine in ;

as oV1

(faideh), 'benefit' ;
qa'idek), 'a rule' :
(from Vjj and
196. Many other nouns are formed (Infinitives
of Voice I.) by the addition of various short vowels
to the radical consonants: as Jt ( ilm), 'science'; ^2J.
\ ,

(husn), 'beauty'; J&, (tdlab), 'request', 'demand'; ^o*

(huda'), 'guidance', ^o* (qudus), 'holiness'. Adjectives
are also formed by means of the insertion of the
short vowels :
as, ^-^ 'handsome' ;
^^ (ndjis), 'defiled'.

197. Some nouns add to the root (this in

Persian sometimes becomes ,
): as tSje-'* (da'va
da m), 'claim', from

VJ^; <y ('/afoa'), 'decree'.

198. The Arabic diminutive rarely occurs in

Persian: its be understood from the
formation will
following examples: j^.j (rujaU), *'a mannikin', from
Jj (rdjul), 'a man'; ^Ja! (husain), 'goodlooking', from
^^ (hdsan), 'handsome' (a proper name).
199. Attributives, nouns and adjectives, are
formed in great numbers by adding I (fern, -iyyek),
to the original noun: as
&j+*+ (Mfen), 'Egyptian',
from ^. (Misr), 'Egypt'; (IsfaMni), 'a native J\*i*>\
of Isfahan';
cjj> 'necessary'; J4 (^*)i
'childish'; ^\ 'foUower of the Bab', etc. If the
noun ends in or ^ these letters maybe droj

ped or changed into j before the addition of the -i:

as, c^a, (Bdsri), 'a native of Basreh; 4^--? ( lsa^) l

'belonging to Jesus', from J_c ('-&')? 'Jesus': ^y-

from ^L (saneti), 'a year'. The femi-
(sdnavi), 'annual',
nine singulars of nouns (and
adjectives) in * are often
used with the significance of the
plural and instead
latter: e. g. ol
'the Bsbis', 'the Bahais'.
(BabiyyeK), (BaliaiyyeK),
(This is owing to the omis-
sion of the noun
with the same meaning).
^ (mittaf), 'a people, sect', or ^
Formation of Arabic Derivative Nouns and Adjectives. 167

(The key to the explanation of the following Story is the
Muhammadan tradition quoted almost literally in the Moral
- that one who
gives to the poor gets ten times as much in
return from God in this world and seventy or even seven
hundred times as much in the next world.)
Sham, Damascus; Syria. q&im maqam, lieutenant, substi-
'Usmlin ibn i 'Ufftin, afterwards tute.
Caliph. muvtifiq uftddan, to turn out
dali = ft dah Mst, twenty
btst well, succed.
in ten, = 200 per cent. khytihad namud = .should form,
(fi)yak dah, ten in one
= 1000 conceve.
per cent. mutafakkireh, reflective: i

dunyti, this world. mut: reflective power =quwat

dkhirat, 'uqba', the world to
come. of reflection.
kimiytf,the philosopher's stone, murtasims&khtan, to paint, depict.
dar har surat, however that may mdfrash, portmanteau, travel-
be. ling-bag.
'ttmil, an official (head of taxa- gwmruM, liable to Customs duty.
tion department). khurdeh rfzeh, small articles.
hid&sat i sinn, youth, youth- gumruk, Customs dues.
fulness. [with, tdrafi shdm, towards evening.
ittistff dtishtan, to be endowed Khudti htffiz (Khudti hamrfih),
pishgtih, vestibule. Goodbye.
Exercise 43.

jb fdj\ iiifi \^\ jl

Translation 44.
They say that Ardashir Babakan, son of Babak,
is of the race
(offspring) of Sasan son (bin) of Bahman,
son of Isfandiyar. Others mention for him a humbler
168 Lesson 22.

origin (descent). However that may be, they say that

his father was one of the officials (farmers-of-taxes).
The governor of Darabjird, who was named (had the
name) Pirl, heard that Babak had (there is to Babak

a son, who, in spite of his youth, is endowed with

an excellent(vafir) intellect and (a) noble (bahir) courage.
He therefore summoned him: and Ardashir gained
such credit (i'tibar) with him (in his presence) that,
whenever any matter prevented him from conducting
the government, he used to make Ardashir his sub-
stitute and Ardashir's conduct (Itirdar) on these occa-

sions turned out so well that after Piri's death he was

appointed to the government of Darabjird. It is no
marvel that a youth like Ardashir, who had made
such rapid progress (who may make progress with
this rapidity), should conceive great projects (vide
100). They say that the
force of reflection in sleep
depicted in the
vestibule of his brain his waking
thoughts (the thoughts of his wakefulness), and flatterers
explained (interpreted) this dream as (bi-) signs of
future (coming) greatness. All historians assert (bar an
and) that reliance upon these dreams became the
cause of Ardashir's rising up to claim (of this, that A.
came up in claim of) the sovereignty of Persia: and
if in truth he and his followers had (have had) con-
fidence in (bi-} this kind of dreams, there is no doubt
that it must have helped (ought to have helped) in
his advancement to the lofty dignity (dignities) of
the sovereignty.

^jU' ^J jfjl gy^ ju^ \j\
Ji^ If j
f\ e

Uc- Jil Ul
Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 169


L ,/UU'il '
^T *jU'
t . I I
' . 5 i '/-" <-^
-AJ.' C^

Twenty -third Lesson.

Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, Adjectives
and Adverbs.
200. In Persian,
in the other Aryan lan- as
guages, many nouns and adjectives are derived from
simpler forms by the addition of certain terminations,
which, though doubtless they at one time existed as
independent words, have now become mere affixes.
The principal of these terminations in use in Persian are :

A. To form Nouns:
(a) 'guardian': as jlj^, 'door-
-Saw, denoting
keeper' (from jj a door); jUl (baghbari), 'a gardener'
(from l a garden). In vulgar pronunciation this ter-
mination becomes awan (awun}.
(b) -kar, more rarely -gar, denotes the doer: as,
jlS^Gf (gunahkar),
& sinner'; jlfjjj^, (Parvardigar), 'the
Nourisher' (God).
170 Lesson 23.

(c) -andeh, formed from Verbs 89, e), denotes


the Agent: as, -^T (Afarindndeti), 'the Creator';

juiT (kundndeh), 'the doer'.
(d) -gar, denotes one working in or engaged in
something; as, _,tlbT (ahingar), 'one working in iron
'a blacksmith'; J'jj (zdrgar), 'a goldsmith' (ear,

'gold'); jTb^- (saudagar), 'a trader'.

(e) -ar denotes (1) the agent: as, jlu,^ (khari-
dar), 'purchaser'.
(2) an action: as, J!AO (dtdar), 'vision' (of Grod).

(3) hence (concrete) a thing: as, jbj (mur-

dar), 'carrion'.
(f) -dan denotes a receptacle: jl-w (sham'dari),
'a candlestick'; (chiraghdari), 'a lampstand';
j|jui (qalamdari), 'a pencase'.
(g) -istan, -stan, -bar, -zar, -sar, -lakh, -sfian, denote
a place abounding in the thing named: jtLJ^ (guli-

stan), 'a rosegarden'; jll-jj^b (Hindustan), 'India'; jU_j>.

(juybar), 'a place abounding in streams'; jljlf (gulzar),

'flowerplot'; jLtL, (sangsar), originally 'a place abound-

ing in stones' (now used with the verbs namudan or
sakhtan to mean 'to stone to death'); jU_^" (ktihsar),
'a mountainous district'; (sanglakh), 'stony ground'
^fi~ ;

j^ (gulshan), ;
a flowerbed'.
(h) -i forms abstract nouns and corresponds to
-ness in English: jZ (*> (nikui), 'goodness';

t^ (bddt), 'wickedness'; ^jj (raushani), 'brightness',

'light'; (jLijj (raushanai), 'light' (from obsolete adjec-
tive raushana); ^"i'lj (danai), 'wisdom'. If added to a
word ending in (originally -ak and then -ag, vide
36), it
changes the li to g; as 'service', 'wor-J^-,
ship' (from o^ bdndek).
(i) -ish (an older form of -I), -ak } -a, -an, -eh, form
verbal nouns: as, J*\*j (farmaisK), jU_> (farman), 'a

command'; J'ljj,- (sneak), 'a burning'; garma

Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 171

'heat' ; jj. (Idrgeli), 'a trembling', shamareli, 'a number',

'reckoning', 'computation'.
(;) -ok, -akeJi, -eh, form diminutives denoting per-
sons, implying littleness and either contemptibleness
or affection: as J^iio (dukhtarak), 'a little girl', 'a
little daughter' ^i!s dukhtareh) ; J>~j~> o^
(pisarak, pisarek), 'a little boy';
<J"j>^. (mdrdaK), ^^
man'. 1
(mdrdakeh), 'a, mannikin', contemptible little
(K) -cheh (rarely -icheh} forms diminutives denoting
things: as *==H (boghcheh}, 'a little garden'; <*Ljj (dari-
cheh), 'a little door', 'a window' (that opens : a window
that will not open is now called *j=?>, pdnjrek).
(I) Some nouns assume the Turkish termination
chi or (the latter after n, r or a vowel) to denote
the Agent: as (talagrafchi), 'a telegraphist'.
(Vide 207). This class of nouns is increasingly
numerous in the modern language.
201. B. To form Adjectives:
(a) The termination -mand denotes 'possessed of:
as JLU>J.S (daulatmdnd), 'wealthy'; -co^i (kMradmdnd),
'wise'; -u*ub (danishmdnd), 'possessed of knowledge';
-cj^L (hajatmdnd), 'needy'.
(b) -var, -avar (-ivar), -avar, denotes 'characterised
by': as, jjlj (davar}, 'a judge' (for dadvar, from dad,
Old Persian datha, 'law', now 'justice'); jjTjjj (euravar],
'strong' (from eur, 'strength', 'violence'); jj^'j (ranjur),
'vexed' (for ranjvdr); jj^l^U (shu lehvdr\ 'flaming'; j/L
(janivar), 'animate'; 'an animal' (from /an, 'the soul',
'the vital principle').

(c) -var and -vish (-vash) denote 'resemblance',

'suitability'; as jljU (shahvar), 'fit for a king'; J^j*\*

(This explains the formation and use of the word _^


(jptreft), denoting an old person of either sex, which

has mard
or zan attached as pireh mard, 'an old man', pireh zan, 'an old

woman'. But Persians, not aware of this, write *j*j~\, (,P* r


(&* r z zan ^ which can hardly be correct.

172 Lesson 23.

(mdhvish), 'like the moon'. But jlj-u*| (umtdvar) means

(d) -sa and -asa denote 'likeness' :
as, Ll^* (dn-

barasd), 'like amber'; LT^I_^ (javahirasa) 'jewellike'.

(e) -sar, -andeh, gin, denote 'fall of (Latin -osus) :

as jLjtji (sliarmsdr), 'bashful', 'modest'; -u*_ji (shar-

mdndeh), 'ashamed'; ^j (ghamgiri), 'sorrowful'.

(/) -in denotes 'made of: as J.j3 (eann), 'golden',
(simlri) 'silvern'; jj-^T (ahiniri),
'made of iron':
(atashiri), 'fiery'.

(g) -ineh, -eh, are adjectival terminations added

to words to denote 'duration' or 'frequency' :
as, oj^j
(ruzineK), -daily'; tj,jj&>. (chandruzeh), 'lasting but a
few days', 'brief; JUyi> (harsaleh), 'yearly', 'annual';
-JUU< years old'; ojjj-jjljj (davaz-
(panjahsaleh), 'fifty
deh-riizeli), 'having lasted twelve days'. The
is sometimes merely attributive as in the phrase :

LJja-lc^UlcJ (du'aha-y-i 'ajizeli-y-i ma), 'our humble peti-

tions' (better
VljJe; vide 202).
(h) -aneh denotes 'manner': as, 4>'b^ (mardaneh),
'manly'; 4.'lj>.j (dwaneh), 'like an evil spirit (divf, hence
'mad': Vtl*^ (muhabbataneh), 'loving', 'affectionate'.

*) -i forms adjectives denoting 'belong to': as,

(jdngali), 'belonging to a forest', 'wild'; iS_^
(shdhrt) 'belonging to a city', 'urban', 'bourgeois', 'a citi-

zen'; J\sT (Mjai), 'of what place' (cf. the meaning of

the Latin cuias). Cf. the similar Arabic affix in 199.

(/) -nak denotes 'productive of: as v/L'jjj (dard-

nak), 'producing pain', 'painful' ;
JT," j>- (suzriaK), 'burning',
'glowing'; cfU^ (haulnak), 'terrific', 'awful'.
(k) -a added to the root of a verb forms adjec-
tives (similar to present participles in -an): as, L'lj

(dand), 'knowing', 'wise'; Ijb (dara), 'possessing'; L-

(bind), 'seeing', 'able to see', 'clearsighted'; l_^ (sha-
'able to
navd), hear', 'hearing'; (guya) 'able to \/
Formation ot Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 173

speak', 'speaking' (now generally meaning 'so to speak',

'as if, 'perhaps').
202. It will be noticed in the above examples
that in Persian these Persian terminations are often
appended as well to Arabic words as to Persian ones.
In some instances the termination -aneh ( 201, h) is
needed in order to form (from adjectives which can
be used in reference to persons only) other adjectives to
qualify words denoting things. For example, ^^"(Jcartm),

'kind', 'gracious', j>-\& ( afiz)i 'helpless', 'humble', are

used of persons; mard ajiz, 'a kind

as, i Icaritm, shakhs i

man', 'a humble person'; but 4,'LjTolL.I^ (murasttat i

karimaneJi), 'kind letters', sukhanan i 'ajizaneh, 'humble
203. All Adjectives may in Persian be used as
adverbs, just as in German. Besides this the lack of
proper adverbs is made up for in several ways:
(a) By using Arabic nouns (masc. or fern.) in the
Ace. Sing. ( 153): as, <2JU- (haqiqatan), 'truly'; 5U
(//'Zon) 'actually'; j^l (aZ'aw), JU.1 (ilhal), 'now' (for

Jlil^ fi'lhal).

(b) By employing Arabic nouns with Arabic

prepositions: as, j^flJ (fi'lfaur), 'at once', 'instantly';

J^WPJ), 'in fact'.

(c) By using a noun with a Persian preposition:

as, ^^ (bi-khvubi), 'well': aLiil^. (biishtibah\ 'unerringly'.

(d) By using two nouns together (united by

izafeh] with the omission of the preposition gover-
ning the first: as, jlT,i.T alchir i Mr), 'finally'.

(e) By employing a Present or Past Participle

adverbially: as c-j- (paivdstek), 'continually'; jljjjljj
(davan davari) 'at a run'.
Adverbs of time and place (except 5" Icai,
and a few other old words), such as jjj,i (dtruz =
dtgar ruz), 'yesterday'; U?T (anja), 'there'; (few/a), U2

'where?', are so simply formed as to require no

174 Lesson 23.

Chinavad, (Ar. Sirtit), bridge Shapur, S&poi:
over which tire dead pass at vafdt ytiftan, to die.
Judgment. bar sdr i, upon, against.
rastakhfg (Ar. qiytimat}, resurrec- bi'listiqldl, absolute, autocratic.
tion. tanzim, arrangement, regulation.
alghdraz, finally. muhimmtft (Ar. PI.), important
dti ipur-kliun, heart full of blood affairs.

(sorrow). taskhtr Jcdrdan, to seize, take

'arsh, the throne (of God), highest possession of.
Heaven. tasdrruf, grasp; power.
ln-j>a va sar (here ==) devout. 'Iraq, the region about Kirman.
ahdng va farr, (music and pomp manqul, stated, related.
=) internal dignity and az miytin barddshtan, to get rid
grandeur. of, do away with.
baqiyyatu'l umr, remainder of az kindreh giriftan, withdraw
life. from, resign.
mardum-azdri, tyranny, oppres- az ddst rdftan, to be left undone.
sion. chaughsn-bdzi, polo-playing.
Ardavdn, Artabanus IV., king atta'jilu min'ash Shaitsni va'lta'-
of Persia. anmyyu mina'r Rahman, "haste
mustduli gdshtan bar, make one- is from Satan and patience
self master of. (taking it easy) from the
rujhfin dtidan, to prefer. Merciful One (God)".
Exercise 45.

JJ) J/ j^I- _}\j X

J\>-' U^ j.J -- 43 JCX


i/ 1.
Formation of Persian Derivative Nouns, etc. 175

*-< jJCj jl j L j

Translatioii 46.

The first who helped Ardashir was his

father Babak. Having slain the governor who had
been appointed by (from the side of) Artabanus, he
made himself master of Fars. But Babak, having
shewn a preference for (preferred the side of) Sapor
his elder son, gave him the title of governor of (placed
on him the name of the government of) Fars, and
after a short time died. Ardashir, after his father's
death (his father), led an army against his brother;
and Sapor's people (aqvavri), having seized him, deli-
vered him up to Ardashir, and in Fars he obtained
176 Lesson 23.

absolute sway. It is not known what he did witl

Sapor, but he executed the persons who had dealt
treacherously with him. After regulating (regulation
of) the important affairs of Fars, having attacked
Kirman, he seized that country; and, before Artabanus
could engage in repelling him, he had brought almost
the whole of Traq into his power. It is related that
Artabanus remained in the district ofJdbcd (= Mountain)
near Hamadan and Kirmanshahan until the victories
of Ardashir compelled him either to get rid of Arda-
shlr or himself resign the sovereignty.


_:\ LJI jUv; > jLL

jljl j,=-.1
Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 177

Ju U J.-_jC*
*l o-Ci. C 1
<_* j-^ .fj

41-0 j
jijjjl L^. 45^vi~-li/.l oJUr w^r- jL^ j U

olffj^ ^^ ^-
^a.'; ) J&>' *^-l

j-. jl L. j jjU-i t/ IjU^U j-iL_ j_^ j-^J-J

^jlj i* < J.l Ul

T\venty-fourth Lesson.
Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives.
204. The formation of Compounds in Persian
is so simple that mention only a few of
it suffices to
the different classes of compound nouns and adjectives
so produced. These are very numerous, and may be
made almost at will.
205. A. Compound Nouns are formed: -

This is a Persian's lucid(!) explanation. He means to


say that they place the figure which represents XII. just at
the handle of the watch, and, reckoning 12 o'clock sunset time,
count the hours from that on. Thus an hour before sunset would
he 11 o'clock (generally called yak sn'at bi-ghurtlb mttndefi), one
hour after sunset would he yak sn'at az dasteh guqashteli. Only
at the equinoxes would sunrise coincide with the handle, but
at all times of the year the handle is set at XII. and the sun
therefore sets at 12 o'clock ("handle time", bi-sar i dasteh).
Europeans use their own way of reckoning time in Persia,
and recent Persian newspapers describe this as sn'at i chandutn
ala Farangi, borrowing the d la from the French.
Persian Conv. -Grammar. 12
178 Lesson 24.

simply placing two nouns

in juxtaposition
(a) By
with one another; as ,ljU (sMhraH), 'royal road', 'the
ol' jj j (ruznameli, 'day-letter'), 'journal',
king's highway' ;

'newspaper'; 'telegraph office':

4,'UMjJir (talagraf-klianeh},
l> (khyabgah), "sleeping-place',
(b) By
uniting two nouns together by izafeh: as
In many such
vl>^J (rakU i khvab), 'bedclothes').
formations the izafeh is omitted and a true compound
formed, the plural terminations (when it
is necessary

to form the plural) being appended to the second member

of the compound as for amir i
^^j^ ghdzab),
'executioner' (lit. 'master "of wrath') j>"L^ (mircLklmr] ;

'chief of the stable', 'head groom'; madarzdn, 'wife's

mother', 'mother-in-law' sahibmdnsab, 'an official'
; ;

mirsliikar, 'chief huntsman', 'master of the hounds (hunt) ;

mirpdnj amir ipanj hazar), commander of 5,000 horse';

sahiWdianeh, 'householder', 'head of the house' sarsUsileJi, ;

'head of the line' (founder of a family); shakhnaftr,

'horn' (for blowing) bachcheligtirbeh, 'kitten'. The plurals

are formed as in the following examples sahibmansaban, :

shalilwiafirha, qaim maqaman (viceroys, lieutenants).

(c) uniting together a noun and an adjective

or a noun and the root of a verb, with or without
any additional termination: as t^jU>- (chaliarpay) 'a
quadruped' ; ashpaz, 'a cook' ; sarbaz, "'a soldier' (lit.
who stakes his head') ; gululehrizi, 'bombardment'.
(d) By placing together the preterite stem and
the root of a verb, united by va or its substitute a
short u, a very important class of nouns is formed:
as, guftuguy, 'conversation'; justuju, 'search'.
(e) By uniting the preterite stems of two verbs
by means of the conjunction va(o): as cijjo^T (amad-
o-rdft), 'coming and going'; ju^jc-if (guft va shanid),
'talk', 'conversation'.
(f) uniting together two nouns by va (o) to
express a single idea: as, l^jJT (ab va "ham, 'water
and 'climate';
air') marz 6 bum ('boundary and land')
'country'; (in this and in some other instances the
conjunction may be omitted:) kliarid vafurush ('purchase
Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 179

and 'barter', 'commerce'. One of these nouns

may be Persian and one Arabic, or they may both
belong to the same language. Frequently one of them
explains the other. The shorter of the two comes first :

g. jang va jidal ('battle', P. and 'fighting', A.), 'war'.
206. B. Compound Adjectives.

(a) A large number of Compound adjectives are

formed by uniting together two nouns: as, J.cL- (sangdil,
from sang, 'a stone', and dil, 'heart'), 'stonyhearted' ;

partpa&car, 'of fairy-form', fairy-like'; maliruy, 'moon-


faced' karamshi ar (from ltdram, 'generosity', and shiar,


'habit'), 'generous'.
(b) Similarly an adjective and a noun may be
compounded together: as c^-^ (nifcbdJcJif), fortunate',
'lucky'; lihyushbuy, 'sweetsmelling' ; badakhlaq (<jMil.x),
'immoral'; siyah ckdsJim, 'blackeyed'.
(c) Other compound adjectives are formed by

attaching to a noun the root of a verb as j^J j (dilsuz) :

'heart-consuming' rahatamiz, 'rest - giving', 'restful'

; ;

dilasa, 'heart-consoling', 'comforting'; jalianara, 'world-

adorning' ; jahangir, 'world-seizing' ; gitiafruz, 'world-
(d) Occasionally only part of the verbal root with
the termination -an is used in composition with a noun
to form a compound adjective: as ataslifistian (from
jishurdari), 'fire-darting', 'volcanic'.
(e) The Past Participle of a verb, in its longer
or shorter form, often used in such compounds as,
is ;

shalizadeh, 'king-born' (hence as a noun 'a prince') ;

Khudarasideli, 'having-attained to (a God'

knowledge of) ;

jdhandiddt,, 'experienced', 'travelled' ('having seen the

world') Tcarazmudeli, 'experienced' ('having been tried

in work') salkhyurdeh, 'aged', 'advanced in age'.


(f) The prepositions ba, 'with', and It, 'without"

are often compounded with a noun to form an adjective;
as o.jU~l (la-shaqavat), 'miserable'; ba-safa, ('with pu-
rity =) 'nice'bt-munivvat, 'unkind' bi-fdhm, 'senseless'
; ; ;

\i\-iman, 'unbelieving'; bi-dtn, 'without a religion', 'in-

fidel'. This class of adjectives, like every other, may
180 Lesson 24.

take the Comparative and Superlative terminations

-tar and -tartn.

(g) The prefix na- (!') with an adjective, participle,

or root of a verb following equals the English un- or
the Latin in-: as t^LL' (napaty, 'unclean'; nadideh, 'un-
seen', 'invisible'; no-dan, 'ignorant'; haqq-na-shinas, 'un-
grateful'; nd-didant, 'that should not be seen'. (Note
that, while ndh- or na- is used with finite verbs and
means 'not', na- is used in these compounds.)

(h) The particle ham (**), 'together' [Lat. con, co- ;

Greek frequently compounded with a noun

auv-\ is

following, and the adjectives so formed are freqently

used as nouns as, J&j* (hamvdtan), 'of the same coun-

try', 'a compatriot' ; hamshdhri, 'belonging to the same

city', 'fellow citizen' ; hamshdg'ird, 'fellow-disciple', 'school-
mate', 'fellow apprentice' hamdhdng, 'harmonious'
; ;

hamrdng, 'of the same colour'; liamshireh, 'partaker of

the same milk', 'sister'.

(i) The noun

guneh, 'kind', 'sort', is often com-
pounded with the demonstrative adjectives and the
interrogative chih:a,s, inguneh, 'like this', 'such': chiguneli,
'ofwhat sort' ('how')? With chih in the form gun it is
contracted into chun, 'like' ('how?', 'when'). The word
fam, 'colour', is now used only in composition: as
surkfifam, 'redcoloured'.
(j) Many adjectives are formed by repeating a
noun twice and placing a between: as gunagun (from
guneh}, 'of different sorts', 'diverse' bardbdr ('breast to ;

breast'), 'equal', 'level' sarasdr, ('head to head'), 'wholly'


(used adverbially); labdldb ('lip to lip'), 'brimful';

kashdkdsh, 'pulling against one another' mdldmal, 'com- ;

pletely full'. Sometimes different nouns are united by

a, or various prepositions may come between them
instead of a : as, labbarldb, 'lip to lip' sardpa (sartapa), ;

'cap a pie', 'from head to foot', completely' (used ad-

verbially) ; sarazir, 'sloping'.
Haqq, the truth (one of God's bar ma muhdqqaq ast, we know
titles). for certain.
miytin, the loins. ihtimtil dtishtan, to be probable.
taUqi shudan, to meet (in battle), 'att-miqdar, mighty, powerful.
Persian Compound Nouns and Adjectives. 181

rfty namudan, to take place. tavdssul justan bi-, to seek to

az ddst dadan, to lose. attain.
khvtindan, to call, proclaim. hal nd-dashtan, to be ill.
king of kings, Em-
slicihanshtih, chaliideh shudan, to catch cold.
peror. surat, face, cheek.
fursat ghantmat danistan (shamur- bdd Tcdrdan, to swell, get swollen.
dan), to take advantage of an shudan, to get well, recover.
opportunity. ndbz didan, to feel one's pulse.
vus'at dtidan, to extend (trans.). dtM ddshtan, to have something
Furfit, the Euphrates. the matter.
Ddjleh (Dijteh}, the Tigris. tib-gusht, broth.
iqtimat dtishtan, to take up one's ishtiha, appetite.

Exercise 47.
182 Lesson 24.

Translation 48.

Accordingly Artabanus bound up (his) loins for

the contest. The two armies met in the plain of
HurmuzSn. A fierce battle took place, and Artabanus
lost his crown with his head, and Babak's son on that
very battlefield having saluted as sovereign (with the
sovereignty) they proclaimed Emperor. After this
brilliant victory, taking advantage of the opportunity,
he not only brought under his power the rest of the
land of Persia, but, extending the boundaries of the
realm, he made them reach on (02} one side to the
River Euphrates and on the other side as far as (to)
Khyarazm. It is recorded that he built a city on the
banks of the Tigris: and since it is also stated that
he took up his residence at Madiin (Seleucia-Ctesiphon),
they have fancied that he is the builder of this city :

but we know for certain that long (muddaflia) before

Ardashir's reign that city was (has been) in-existence
(maujud). probable that this fancy is on this
It is

(that) account because (Jcih) Ardashir, having found

that city in a state of ruin, repaired (has repaired) it.
In short, Ardashir's renown became great (faddnd), and
he subdued the neighbouring-countries (atraf). The
kings of the neighbouring-countries rendered (shewed)
obedience and submission, and mighty monarchs from
the east and west of the world, having sent to his
court ambassadors and royal offerings, sought to attain
his friendship.

(c~U ^L) r ft>l


Jj. ^U J. (4oUjL) juiy. L


Li (IT)

r_r-.> j'-s ^

jj J v.-." jj J jl jl )

J. j^jb jto jjj (LT)

Turkish Comp. : Use of Iztifeh as a Eelative Pron. 183

ziijj -
O* ^ ^'O
L <l *Ujl jl jl

jl') ^
jjb i)Kj>

_ 1 -L-

s-" Ai- Ul a';5C^ jjj JXU

T\venty-fifth Lesson.
Turkish Compounds: Use of Izafeh as a Relative
207. In a few instances not only single Turkish
words but two of them united together to express a
single idea are met with in Persian. In such cases it
should be remembered that the former of the two
words is in the genitive (although the genitive sign
J^- in is omitted), and that the second is followed by
-i if it ends in a
consonant-sound, and by -si if it ends
in a vowel -sound, including - (-eh). This -i or -si
means Ms, hers, its, theirs. For example, from the
184 Lesson 25.

Azarbaijini Turkish ^ which in Ottoman

Turkish is ^ (tin), 'a and J^l (bash),

is formed 'commander of 1,000

head', ^L^* (mtnbdshi),
men', 'a colonel'. From j/ (yuz\ 'a hundred', and

of a hundred
is formed
^\jj>. (yuzbasM), 'commander
men', 'a centurion': from IcT, 'lord', 'eunuch', and the
same word we have ^illcT (aghabashi), 'chief eunuch'
from hakim and bash, ^LJC* (hdkimbashi), 'chief phy-
sician'. Proper names are also formed in a similar way,
'slave of Ali (from qul, 'a slave').
e. g.
Jsj^ CAU guli),

Very seldom does the former of the two nouns take

the Turkish plural termination J or jV (ler or lar),
as in
jCj}C- (beglarbegt), 'chief 'beg .

"When a Turkish adjective occurs it is prefixed

to its
noun, Lo^f- (Ydngl Dunya), 'the new
as in

world', 'America': uHJjS (Qizil-bash), 'red-head' (a tri-

bal name).
The terminations f. (chi) and f- (ji) are Turkish,
as already stated in 200, I. :
as, ^f (tufdngcht), 'a
man armed with a gun', 'rifleman'
middleman', 'an arbitrator', 'an intercessor'.
^ L> (miyanji), 'a

208. It has been explained in 40 that the

Izafeh is a shortened form of the Avestic yo, yat ('who',
'which'), in Pahlavi shortened into i. This accounts
for its use between a noun and the adjective which
follows and qualifies it, for mard i ntku really means
'the man who (is) good'. When the Izafeh comes be-
tween two nouns not in apposition with one another
it may now be considered to be a
preposition and
translated by of, as shamsiiir i padshah, 'the sword of
the king'. But originally, when the Persian noun had
case-terminations, the second of these nouns would
have had the genitive ending: so the phrase really
means 'the sword which (is) of the king'. It is neces-
sary to bear this in mind in order to understand the
usage which we now proceed to explain.
209. Izafeli often employed not only to unite

together two nouns which are in apposition to one

Turkish Comp. : Use of Iztifeli as a Eelative Pron. 185

'St. John (the Baptist)',


another, as Hdzrat i Tokyo ,

Musaf-y-i nabt, 'Moses the Prophet', but also to con-

nect a noun with a following prepositional clause. In
each case it retains its original meaning of a rela-
tive pronoun, though in the former it is not trans-
lated in English. Example Sarkardagan i dar an mdm-

likat az Sultan baghavat namudand, 'The officers who

(were) in that province revolted from the sovereign':

Mara 02 shiqaq i dar din M-rahan, 'Deliver us from dis-
cord which (may occur) in religion' (i. e. 'from schism'):
Ashkhas i dar an bagh mara didand, 'The persons who
(were) in that garden saw us'. In each instance Irih
and a verb may be substituted for the izafeh without
materially altering the sense: as, Sarkardagani Wi dar
an mamlikat budand, etc. The Izafeh in such instances
as these, and in fact in all other cases also, is gene-
rally omitted in printing Persian books, but it must
be supplied in reading.
Chdshm dukhtan bar, to fix one's kashkih, would that!
eyes on. (Ar. pi. of ldqab\ titles.
) 3rd
dtishti Sing. Conditional, huruf (Ar. pi. of harf), letter

guzfishti \ ( 103, e). of alphabet.

tf#>,repentant(Pres.Part.Act.L chap kdrdan, to print.
n /- ;\ 'aib nd-darad, it is no harm.
y-?)' mnzl, past (tense of verb).
bi-yak bar, once, once for all. mtfzi-yi-qarw, perfect.
bt-khvahand, strengthened for mdzt-yi-mutlaq, preterite.
khvtihand. mazi-yi-ba'id, pluperfect.
Dnrn, Darius. bartiyi khtirij, for abroad.
az tin jumleh, from that collec- ghaib, 3rd Person (pronoun or
tion = among them. verb).
dustdar, friend, lover. mukhdtab, 2nd Person, person
j'arman-guqar, obedient. addressed.
umarti-ra az u Mm btishad, he is mutakdttim, lt Person, the
a terror to the nobles. speaker.
az sukhan&n i ust, it is one of ptikat (Eng. word), envelope,
his sayings, unvtin, address on a letter.

Exercise 49.

} j&
186 Lesson 25.

>_/ -^^ J

.^ ^J*
c~-\ ^Wj *o l

j\ jJ

Translation 50.

When ArdasMr grew weary of prosperity and

power, he resigned (left) the kingdom to his son
Shapur. The days of his reign before the slaughter
of Ardavan were (is) 12 years, and after his death
(him) (he reigned) as an autocrat (autocratically) 14
years. Ardashir Babakan is one of the wisest and
bravest kings that have (ever) reigned in Persia. The
narrative (explanation) of his conduct (ahval) is the
best witness to this statement; for from the lowest
position he raised (caused to arrive) himself to the
lofty station of a mighty (buzurg) kingship (sdltanaC):
and the alteration which he brought about (dad) in
the state of his realms (mulk) is a marvellous exploit
(az djaib i Mr). The historians of Persia assert that
the monarchy (mulk) of Persia was founded (pay girift)
by Cyrus (kai Tchusrau) and (that) Darius overthrew it
(az dost ddd = lost it), and Ardashir restored it (baz
bi-jayikhwid avdrd). And what has been recorded (copied)
of his sayings is a proof of his goodness of disposition
and wisdom. Among them are (these) "When the king

is just, the
people (ra'iyyat) necessarily love and obey
him", and "The worst of rulers is the king who is a
terror to the nobles and not to evildoers". This is
also one of his sayings, that "A
country is not secure
(payadar) except through experienced men, and men
Turkish Comp.: Use of Izdfeh as a Eelative Pron. 187

cannot be got together except through property, and

property is not acquired except through building and
cultivation (agriculture), and the building of towns
does not come about except through justice.


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t^' c*i,y jk-Jo OiL*
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jj^Ll Jl^a-l -oil li.M

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Twenty- sixth Lesson.

Government of Verbs Simple and Compound.
210. In Persian the direct object of a trans-
itive verb, whether the verb be simple or compound,
generally in the objective (accusative) case, which
is in certain instances marked by the use of the
Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 189

postposition Ij ( 41): as, Padshah ynsar i Jchyud-ra did:

Man iira dust ml-daram : Vazir an shdkhs-ra dmr farmud.
211. But some transitive verbs (for example
those meaning 'to fear', 'to ask') require a preposition
before the noun which in English would be considered
their direct object: as, man az vdi mt-tarsam, 'I fear
him'. Many intransitive verbs require after them cer-
tain prepositions which differ in meaning from those
required in English after verbs of the same sig-
nification: as, Dar
fikrian dmr bud, 'he was in thought
of (was thinking of, about) that matter: an kar Dar
tafdkkur nd-namud, 'he was thinking of that business'.
212. We
subjoin a list of the most usual in-
stances in which either (1) a preposition is required
in Persian when none is needed in English, or in
which (2) the preposition required in Persian differs
from the one which would be used in English after
a verb of the same meaning.
su'al kdrdan as )
_', to ask (anyone).
pursidan az

tarsidan 00, to fear (anyone or anything).

dochar shudan Iti to meet (anyone), to meet

barkhyurdan bi with (anyone).


an shdkhs-ra mulaqat Jcdrdan, to have an interview

with that person.
7 , _> _j 7 ^ to confess
.1 .

an chiz-ra (bi-an chiz) %qrar namudan I , ,-,- , ,

7 7^ ^ ,. Jr 7 j , } that tmng,G7
m-cmzi I'tiraj (cardan I ,->

tafdkkur kdrdan dar } to think about

ta'dmmul namudan dar or barayi } (a thing).
iltimas Mrdan ndzd i (bi)
iltimas dashtan as
to entreat (anyone).
multamis budan az
istid'a namudan az
-' i. T -LI- to mount a horse, to embark
savar iasb, Kasht^, -, -,-
7-7,' 7T, 7 -j on board a

ship, to enter
Kallskeh shudan
a carriage.
dakhil i Jchaneh shudan, to enter a house.

In Classical Persian books after pursidan the objective
with ra is found: but this usage is now obsolete.
190 Lesson 26.

dar amadan bi (dar), to enter (a house).

dar amadan az or birun az, to come out of (a house).
az sdltanat kinareh girt/tan, to abdicate the throne.
az mdnsabi isti'fa namudan (khyastan), to resign (ask
to be permitted to resign) a post.
az taqsiri dar guzdshtan, to pass over an offence,
az an khaneh guzdslitan ('tibur kdrdan), to pass by
that house.
an chiz-ra az u darkhyast kdrdan, to ask him for
that thing.
ura (bi-vai) hiikm kdrdan } -, ,

.* _ / -,
. to order him.
ura >,

(bi-vat) amr farmudan }

padshah ura (bidu) hukm dad, the king gave him a

(written) order.
az 'dqab i shdkhs uftadan (amadan, rdftari), to follow
a person.
masliglml i (dar, ~bi} Icari sliudan, to busy onesel:
with a task.
az kdsi* mamnun or mamniin i Jcdsi budan, to be
obliged to a person.
iqlimaz namudan az x -, ,-,
to wink at (anything).
' }

T .i T- T , -,

c/iashmpusiM Icardan az \

In-Tiarl pardakhtan, to engage in a work.

az Tiari pardakhtan, to give up a task.
milrtakib i (M) dmal i bad shtidan, to engage (be
implicated) in an evil deed.
mubtala-y-i (bi, dar} afat shudan, to fall into (be
involved in) misfortune.
tashth i aldibar i muvarrikhin i Iran namudan, to correct
the statements (traditions) of the historians of Persia.
(an Mghaz-ra islah Mrdan, to correct that letter).

ihtiyat kdrdan az, to beware of.

qadir bar an budan kih (pres. Subjunct.'), to be able to.
ura mutaba'at kdrdan to follow him (lit. or
mutaba'at i u kdrdan } figuratively).
iman avdrdan bi (bar), to believe in (a person).
stlkihani (ra) bavar kdrdan
(tasdlq namudan), to credit
a statement.

Or tashth, but islah implies more need of correction than
Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 191

tavdkkul daslitan bi (bar) Khudd, to trust in God.

i'timad kdrdan bar
to put confidence in.
i'tiqdd ddshtan bi

mushtdq i mulaqdt i shumd hdstam, I am anxious

for an interview with you.
kharidan, farukhtan, bi, to buy at, for (a price).
arzidan (bi), to be worth (such a price).
ishdn bahdm barkhvurdand, they met one another.
utdqrd az mdrdum khdU (ti'ihi) kdrdan, to empty the
room of people.
ura dddan, to attribute forgery to
bi-iftird nisbat
him, to accuse him of forgery.
02 an chlz mutamdtti'' shud, he enjoyed that thing.
ura bi-an kaldm muJthdtab sdkhtan
to address that
ura bi-an Jcaldm khatdb namudan speech to him.

hdjat birchizi daslitan to have need be

muhtdj i (bi-) chizi budan
in need of, a thing.
ihtiydj bi chizi ddshtan
libds i fdkhir bar va'l pushamdan, to clothe him in
gorgeous attire.
ghdzab (khaslim) namudan bar, to get angry with (one).
guftan ba lilimid, to say to oneself.
(bi-vai (ura) guftan, to say to him).
az ndzar i padshdli arizeli -i guzaranidan, to bring a
petition to the king's notice, lay it before the
shikdyat avdrdan bar (Jcdrdan, namudan az, bar), to
bring an accusation, lodge a complaint, against.

ydftan az (bar), to gain information

ittttd about.
khandtdan az, to laugh at.


Ra'nyti (Ar. pi. of ra'tyyat), sub- hnzir-javrM, quickness of retort.

jects. matfilib (Ar. pi. of mdtlab),
mtil Jchvurdan,to devour (swal- matters.
low up) property. muzdyaqeh nist, it does not
a'zn (Ar. pi. of '?), members, matter.
limbs. mamdlik (Ar. pi. of mamlikat),
kliatteh, a county. provinces.
e f
pi. of ft7 ), districts,
c.:l1 (Ar.
ta'lif, composition (compilation).
ma'mur, built, made up of.
192 Lesson 26.

Exercise 51.
, I/'
^ ^ "

Translation 52.
Among (from) Ardashir's sayings is this also :

"It isbecoming for kings not to use sword and spear

while (to) stick and baton (chub} suffice for the work".
Ardashir, just as he is renowned for (az) the conduct
of an army, holds a high place and a very-lofty rank
also in the government of the country (kishvar) and
the state legislation (vaz 1 i qavanin i mulM). It is said
(they say) that by means of informers he was aware
of the affairs (news) of all the provinces and even
Government of Verbs Simple and Compound. 193

(hatta) of (his) subjects' houses: and they say that,

besides a capacious intellect, he had conspicuous ability
(fdzl i bahir). The Karnameti ("Annals") and the
Adabu'l'Aish ("Rules of Conduct") are among his com-
positions. In the Annals is written an account of (his)
journeys and wars, and in the second book the habits
of life and the rules (adab) of (polite) intercourse and :

these two books were so esteemed (mil'tabar) among

the peoples of Persia, that Anushiravan commanded
that they should send reliable copies of (from) that
work (naviskteh) to all-parts (atraf) of his dominions,
in order that men might acquire good manners. It is
well-known that Ardashir, in spite of these great
qualities, was bigoted in the religion of Zoroaster
(Zardusht), and not only used to make efforts (an
effort) to exalt (in exaltation of) the banners and
carry out the precepts of that faith (mdshab), but even
(balkih) compelled men by torture and punishment to
accept that religion; and in this manner he shewed
forth (was making evident) the requirement of his
religious-law (sharfat). In the days of slackness and of
disturbance of the realm, Zoroaster's religious-law also
having become (remained neglected) obsolete, the
community had become divided up in (bar) a thousand
different ways, and it is an established-fact (muhdqqaq)
that many of the ancient rulers shewed an inclination
towards the faith of the Greeks and hence it is

possible that this conduct of Ardashir may have been

because of (his) zeal (ta'dssub) for wise-measures of-
State (masalih i mulM), and the desire that men, in faith
as in all-other matters, should be agreed and in-har-
mony (muttafiq).

unnecessary to subjoin any more Conver-

It is
sations, as theStudent should now be able to converse
with some ease about the subject matter of the Stories
and Exercises for Translation and about other matters
of practical utility. This he will find a very useful

Persian Conv. -Grammar. 18

194 Lesson 27.

Twenty-seventh Lesson.
. Certain Persian Idioms.

The Persian language is distinguished

213. foi

the very large number of idiomatic expressions oi

which In this respect it resembles English

it makes use.
Many such idioms have already been introduced ii
the exercises and Conversations as well as in Lessoi
XXVI. We now proceed to mention a number oi
others which are for the most part connected witl
the peculiar use of certain verbs.
214. Khvurdan (JJj>-), 'to eat' or 'drink', is

used to denote use with a noun often

suffering, etc. Its
prevents the necessity of using the Passive Voice o
another verb. E. g. zdlilim khyurdan (to eat a wound)
'to be wounded': takan Ichyurdan (to eat a push), 'to
be pushed', 'to receive a push' gul khyurdan (to ea :

deceit), 'to be deceived'. Other idioms are: zamin

khyiirdan, 'to fall to the ground', 'to be knocked down'
glidvti khyiirdan, 'to grieve' ; qfsus Jchmirdan, 'to regret'

qdsam Tthyurdan, 'to take an oath',

swear' an cliiz 'to ;

bi-ddrd i man nd-mi-khyurad, 'that thing is of no use

to me' gulfdeli bi-shikar Jchyurd, 'the bullet hit the

game' bi-Jctir i vai mi-kliyurad, 'it comes in useful foi


him' muhr bala-y-i pak shudeli khynrdeh bud, 'the ses


had been impressed on the part obliterated'.

215. Didan, tin (<>*>- j-*o) 'to see', is used in ;

somewhat similar manner: as, ddrd didan, 'to suffe

pain'; mdslahat (salah*) didan, 'to deem advisable'
tadaruk didan, 'to make preparations'; san didan, '

review (troops)'.
216. Farmftdan (farmay) (cSUy-j.sj/_^), 'to coi
mand', is in courtesy used of any action, not only
a superior but of an equal, in of kardan, namudat
etc. E. g., mulahizeli farmudan, 'to peruse'; amr farmudar
'to command' bi-farmaid, 'say, speak
; enter sit ; ;
etc. :
iltifdt li-farmaid (lutf bi-farmaid), 'please'.

217. Avdrdan, avar, ar (f\-jj\ jjjjf), 'to

is used in various phrases; e. g., (bi-) Tthatir (yad] avdr-
dan, 'to recall to memory', 'call to mind' bi-Mr (bi-ja, ;
Certain Persian Idioms. 195

bi-amal) avdrdan, 'to perform, execute, carry out'; hujum

avdrdan bar, 'to make an attack upon'.
218. KasJiidan, 'to draw' ( j-u^5") ;
zdhmat Jtashtdan,
Ho take trouble', 'to suffer inconvenience'; dlam Jcash-
idan, 'to suffer pain' ;
intizar Ttasliidan, 'to expect', 'look
out for'; ddst kashman az, 'to withdraw from (any
business)'; Idshkar kashitdan bar, 'to lead an army against',
'march against'.
219. JBdstan, band (o^-^j), 'to bind', is used in
certain phrases, but some idioms in which it occurs
in classical works have now become obsolete: e. g.,
khiyal bdstan (now Mrdan), 'to suppose', 'fancy' 'ima-
gine'; liar bdstan (now bi-itmam rasanidari), 'to accom-
plish a task'; na'l bar asb bdstan (now dsb-ra na'l Jcdr-
dari) 'to shoe a horse'; hlleh bdstan (now hileh Mrdan)
'to devise a trick'; etc. Besides these we have:
surat bdstan, 'to take shape', 'come about' (of a pur-
pose or plan) Jcdmar bi- (or barayi) Ttar'i bdstan, 'to gird

up one's loins for (a task)'; miyan (or Mmar) bi- (or

barayi) muqdtileh bar bdstan, 'to gird up one's loins for
the contest (battle)' ahd bdstan, 'to make a covenant';

shart bastan (Jcardan), 'to make a bet', 'lay a wager'.

220. Amadan, ay (t-ti-Ju), 'to come', is some-
times used in the sense of 'to become', taking the
place of sMdan: as, dideh mi-ayad (nn-shavad), 'it is
seen', 'it is evident'; padid amadan, 'to be evident', 'to
be found'; bar u ghalib amadan, 'to overcome him';
dgar an dmr dar ndgar i shuma pasdnd ayad, 'if that
matter commend itself to you' bi-zanu dar amadan, 'to

kneel down': bi-Khatir amadan, 'to come to mind' (also

bi-yad amadan); Ichwish amadid, 'welcome!' (said when a
guest is going away!); gir ndmi-ayad, 'it cannot be got'.
221. Girt/tan, gir
G/-<^>/), 'to seize', 'to take' :

dunbali ura giriftan, 'to follow him'; (bi-an sukhan, or)

an sukhanra gush giriftan (or dadan) 'to give ear to
(listen to) that statement'; suragh-i ura giriftan (or
suragh giriftan ura), 'to seek out, follow him up'; but
az u suragh giriftan, 'to ask him to direct one to some-
one's house' ;
Mshti giriftan, 'to wrestle' guftan girift ;

(also aghaz namud, or bana namud bi-guftari), 'he began

196 Lesson 27.

to say, speak'; qardr gir'iftan, 'to get fixed', to be con-

ceived' (of a child); ta'mid, ta'Um, giriftan, to receive
baptism, teaching'.
222. Burdan, bar
(j-.- j^y!),
'to bear away', 'earn

off: gaman burdan (kdrdan, dashtan) 'to fancy', (saic

from courtesy of oneself, rudely of anyone else); ran)
Mrdan, 'to be vexed'; an kitab-ra ism burdan, 'to men-
tion (quote) that book'; az miyan burdan, 'to put out
of the way' (often =
'to kill'); bi-sdr biirdan, 'to spenc"

(time)', intransitively, 'to abide', 'sojourn', 'live'; tosh-

rif burdan, 'to go away' (said in courtesy); pai burdan,
'to follow up (bi-chizi) a thing', 'to understand'; hdmlel
burdan, 'to attack (barf.
222 a. Uftadan (uff) (^l-jjl^i), 'to fall', 'happen':
muvafiq uftadan, 'to turn out well, successfully'; uqc
uftadan, 'to be late', 'to fall back'; az aqab i shdkh{

uftadan, 'to follow a person';

ittifaq uftadan, 'to occur',
'happen'; jildu uftadan, 'to precede', 'take the lead', 'gc
in front'; pish uftadan az, to surpass', 'outstrip'; (bi-)
rah uftadan, 'to set out on a journey'.
223.Namudan, namay (^Ij-jj^j), 'to shew'
'to seem', besides its frequent use with a noun,
'to do',

adjective or participle to form a compound verl

( 124), has also some idiomatic uses: jdngi sab rut
(rukh) namud, 'a fierce battle took place'; mdra shao
ruy (rukh} namud, 'I was glad'; ijtinab namfidan 00, M
avoid', 'refrain from'; bar tdraf (hinareh) namudan,
set aside'.

224. Justan, juy '^ seek': sibqatjusta)

bar, 'to be beforehand with', anticipate 'to (one in)';
kinareh justan az, 'to avoid', 'fight shy of.
225. Zddan, zdn (jj- jj j), 'to strike', 'beat', 'hit':
bang zddan, 'to shout aloud' faryad zddan, 'to cry out',

'make a lamentable noise' hdrf zddan, 'to speak' tufdn^

; ;

bar u zddan, 'to shoot at him'; eanu zddan, ,'to kneel':

zdng zddan, 'to ring a bell'; laf zddan, 'to boast'; gu
zddan, 'to deceive'; bar-ham (bi-hdm) zddan, 'to throi
into confusion'; khatmeh zddan, 'to pitch a tent' (i. e.
to erect it, the exact
opposite of the English 'to
Certain Persian Idioms. 197

strike one's tent'); ura taziyaneh (chub] zddan, 'to basti-

nado (flog) him'; sill (old tapancheh} bar ruyasTi zddan,
'to give him a box on the ear'; tapancheh zddan, 'to
fire a pistol'; talagrdf zddan, 'to send off a telegram';
tt'ihmat zddan, 'to accuse falsely' jam zddan, 'to add up

(figures)'; dam zddan, 'to breathe', 'to cavil': hads zddan,

'to conjecture'.
226. Dashtan, ddr (jb-^b), 'to have',, 'to hold':
dn-ra lazim dashtan, 'to require, have need of, that';
In dmr-ra marnz dashtan (= drz kardan}, 'to represent
this matter humbly'; tashrif dashtan, 'to be at home',
'to be present' (polite style).

227. Andakhtan, andaz (jl-C l-^^-l XI), 'to cast',

'throw': rah anda/chtan, 'to let (one) go', 'to set (him)
on his way'; ta'viq (ta khtr) andakhtan, 'to postpone
(a thing)' ;
ndzar andakhtan (afkdndari) bi, bar, 'to cast a
glance upon'.
228. Other common expressions are the following :

Hang rtkhtan, 'to feign', 'pretend'.

taghy/ir dddan

tabdil kdrdan to change, alter (trans).

mubdddal sdkhtan ]

dvaz namudan (lidrdari), to change, exchange.

ura daldlat kardan, to guide him.
an sukhan-ra daldlat kardan i to prove that state-
muddllal namudan \
to'stV (dsar) Mrdan (dashtan} bar, to make (leave)
an impression on.
drz kdrdan, to state (politely), to say, to represent
auqdtash tdlkh shud, he was angry, he was put out.
baz istddan az, to desist from.

qat i ndgar kdrdan az (bar}, to glance briefly at,

pass on from.
ddst slmstan az, to wash one's hands of (a thing).
aibi (bdki) nd-darad, it does not matter; it is

pretty good.
(bi-} ddr rdftan, to run away, escape.
bar an and kih, they will have it that, they
assert that.
198 Lesson 27.

gail bar in hdstand, they assert this (that . .


they acknowledge.
tdj-ra la mr az ddst dad, he lost both his crown
and his life.

fursat glwnimat sfiamtirdan (dantstan) to take advan-

tage of the opportunity.
sdfaratan Jchyush guzdsU? did your journey turn
out well?
ura qarar dadan, to appoint him, station him (at
a place).
ba u qarar dadan, to make an agreement with him.
drz i bdndeh-ra bi-rasid, listen to what I wish to say.
(pas or) aqab nishdstan, to retreat (said of troops).
(pas or) uqab nishandan, to repulse (an army).
dtash (tishnagi) fa furu nishandan, to quench a fire
riza bi-in dad Jcih, he consented to this, that.
zabdn gushudan, to open one's mouth,
begin to
speak (pdite).
dahan gushudan (bazkardari), to open one's mouth (rude).
(dar) Jchyab budan, to be asleep.
(bi-) Ichyab rdftan (tashrif burdan), to go to sleep.
stiKhan hanuz bar zahanasli bud kih, while he was
yet speaking.
Twmuz az hdrf zddan farigh nd-shudeh bud Jcih, he had
hardly finished speaking when . . .

an suMan-ra bar zaban i Wivud hdrgiz jari nd-mi-

sazam, I never permit myself to use that expression.
chdshm duklitan bar, to fix one's eyes on.
rdkht azTchmid birun kdrdan, to put off one's garments.
randan (= hdrf zddan], to speak.

futuhat ura ddst^ dad, he gained some victories.

an shdkhs in cliiz-ra ash i dar fiamjush sakhteh ast,
that fellow has made a hash of this matter.
hdrakat kdrdan, to set out, start on a journey.
azim i Tdhran budan, to be bound for Tehran.
taydUud yaftan, to be born.
Jcdm randan, to flourish,
hukm randan, to rule, govern.
ura barayi Itasi aqd bastand, they betrothed her to
some one.
Certain Persian Idioms.

Gul i gutib (now gid i s&rleh} a masMUr (Ar. pi. of mashMr;,
eminent persons.
moon. saUh dumstan (dm\ to see fit.
badr, the full
zartr blind mutavallid, born.
an old Jcaiffyyat, state
of affairs.
''ajtizeh (for Ar. 'a/ife),
hag- (here t world is so rod'n*, design: statement.
ca il e(lj t 2 dtfmnamudan, to venture.
/arf/fcfr, deceived = enamoured. Jaztratu 'VArab, Arabia, Meso-
potamia. Lment.
macjbidtin, persons accepted (by
maqdrr i ayrdah, seat ot govern-

Mnamai = turn mi-Jcunam. jur'at, daring,
a daring deed,
tartqat, religion. [confessor). presumption. .

% I religious guide (father-

In this and some other Stories the
M ^%
^"/(rfr, enamoured.
words in brackets are
which precede
in explanation of the more difficult phrases
them in the text.
Exercise o3.
200 Lesson 27.

Translation 54.

Sapor is one of (az) the eminent (pi.) of rulers.

Regarding his descent and bringing up many fables
are related. They say that his mother was a daughter
of Ardavan (Artabanus), and they relate that she wish-
ed to poison Ardashir in revenge for (of) her father.
Ardashir, having obtained information of this design,
handed over the young woman to a minister (vazlr)
that he might put her to death, but the minister did
not see fit to slay her. When her son was born, having
named him Sapor he busied himself, as was right
(kama ydnbaghi), in taking care of him (bi-ta'dhhiid i
hal i u). After a time, when Ardashir shewed regret
at not having an heir, the minister explained the
state-of-affairs. The king, being delighted with this
statement, desired to know whether Sapor was (is)
really his offspring ornot. He commanded that,
having brought Sapor along with some children of
the same age as he was (hamsal i u) into his presence,
they should engage in a gaine-with-balls (guybazi).
During the game a ball fell near the king's throne.
Not one of the boys ventured to fetch it except Sapor,
who boldly coming forward (qddam i jaladat pish niha-
cleh) carried off the ball. The king, glancing towards
the minister, knew that that-very-one (fiaman) was (is)
the prince. Finally, the first war that Sapor under-
took (Jtard) was with Zaizan, one of the chiefs of the
Arabs. "While Sapor was in KhurasEn, taking advan-
tage of the opportunity, Zaizan, having seized upon
Arabia, fortified the fortress of Khazar and made it
his seat of government. When Sapor became aware
of this daring-deed and marched an army in that
direction, Zaizan' s daughter, having become enamoured
of Sapor, through a promise of (becoming) a princess
of the king's hdram, plotted treachery against (ba) her
father and brought his life and rule to destruction
(md'raz i lidlak). The treachery of this vile-deed (fchiba-
sat) having [become (amadeh) forbidding] hindered
Sapor from keeping (ifa-y-i bi-) his agreement, instead
of (that that he should seat) seating the damsel on
the throne and (in) the palace (kskh), he handed her
Parsing. 201

over to the executioner that he might cause her to-

be-dragged to the plank [for laying dead bodies upon
to be washed] and the grave (khak) and award (rasa-
nad) to her the recompense (ka'ifar) of the deed, as
was her due (saza).

Twenty- eighth Lesson.

229. The best method of Parsing may be a
matter of opinion to some extent; but in Persian all
that is really necessary is to give such particulars as
are given in the subjoined parsing of the first few
sentences of Story XV., which story is appended to
this lesson. As the question of gender does not affect
grammatical relations in Persian (except indeed some-
times with Arabic nouns and adjectives, 154), it is
unnecessary to mention gender at all, except perhaps
with such Arabic words. The singulars of any Arabic
broken plurals that may occur should be mentioned,
and the parts of all Irregular Verbs (Infinitive and
230. (Story XF., first few sentences parsed).

shdkhs; noun, nominat. sing. (Ar. PI.

Shdkhsi ashkhds) subj. of bud.
i; affix, denoting indefinite article.
bud: 3 rd Sing. Pret. Indie. Act. of Intrans. Verb
budan, bash (biiv), agr. with its subj. shakhs.
htiehsaz; comp Adj. (hileli, trick, and saz, rt. of
falMan, saz, to make), positive degree; part predicate
of sentence, qualifying slidkhs.
i; izafeh, joining two adjectives.
Adj. (dagha^ deceit, and \ltaz of

daghabaz; comp
bukhtan), posit, degree; part predicate of sentence,
qual. shakJts.
riig: noun, obj. sing, (governed by dar
Rnzi understood).
*: affix, denoting indefinite article.
az; preposition.
Mianeh] noun, obj. sing., governed by prep. az.

birfm; adv., qualifying amad.

202 Lesson 28.

amad; 3 Sing. pret. Indie. Act. intrans. of anui-

dan (ay}, agreeing with u understood (referring to

vet] conj.
rd Indie. Act. trans, of guftan
gu/t; 3

Sing. pret.
(guy}, agreeing with u understood.
kill] conj.
dgar; conj.
Khuddvdnd; noun, nom. Sing., subject of 'inayat
i; izafeh (prep., gov. 'alam).
'alam; noun, obj. Sing. (Ar. pi. 'alarnm, regular),
gov. by izafeh.
amruz; adv. (in -\-rug), qualifying 'inayat kunad.
yak; numeral (cardinal) Adj., qualifying dshrafi.
dshrafi; noun, obj. Sing., gov. by (or direct object
of) 'inayat kunad.
bi-'} prep.
man; Pers. Pronoun, obj. Sing., gov. by l>i- (or
indirect object of ditto}.

'inayat; noun in composition with Mnad (Ar. pi.

Compound Verb, trans., 3 Sing.
inayat kunad;
Pres. Subj. Act. of inayat kdrdan; agreeing with its

subject Khudavdnd (svibj. after dgar denoting uncertainty).

Mnad; 3 Sing. Pres. Subj. Act. trans, of kardan
(kun) etc. (as above).
do; numeral (Cardinal) Adj., qual: qarun.
qiran; noun, obj. Sing., -gov. by (part of direct
object of) khairat mi kunam.
i; izafeh, prep.
an; demonst: Adj., obj., sing., gov. by ra
anra (or part of direct object of klwirat ml kunam).
ra; Postposition.
dar; prep.
rah; noun, obj. Sing., (gov. by dar).
i; izafeh (prep.).
M; Pers. Pron., obj. Sing., gov. by izafeh.
khairat, noun (Ar. PI. of kha'ireh, regular), in com-
position with mi-Tfimam.
Parsing. 203

mi-kunam Compound Verb., trans., 1 st Sing.

Wiairat ;

Pres. Indie. Act., (in future sense), agreeing with man

mi-kunam] 1 Sing. Pres. Indie. Act. trans, of
kdrdan (kuri), etc. (as above).

Exercise 55.

Translation 56.

In short, after that Shapur (Sapor) (had) con-

quered many of the towns of Mesopotamia (JcwreK),
he marched against Nisibis (Nisibiri): and this strong-
hold (qdl'eh) is situated between the Tigris (DtjleJi) and
the Euphrates (Furaf), and the Empire of Eome and
Persia were always at strife (niea dashtand] about 1

Sapor, after subduing Armenia, captured it. And,
according to the historians of Persia, when the siege
of that fortress was prolonged, Sapor in despair

( ajie shudeli) commanded his army with- one -accord to

ask help and assistance from the Creator (Hdzrat-i
Sdrt). They say (that), while they were engaged in

Short for prevent the repetition of tho

Jcufr i ni'mat (to
ni'mat], 'ingratitude.'
204 Lesson 29.

humiliation and supplication, a wall of (from) the

fortress After the capture of Nisibis he marched
towards the Byzantine dominions (mamalik i Rum),
and in that country numerous victories were gained
by him (fira ddst dad). He took the Emperor of Byzan-
tium (Qaisar i Hum} captive and appointed another
person (mard) to that important office (amr). The first
act of the new Emperor was to conduct Sapor to
Antioch (AntaktyyeJi), which in those times was the
capital of the (Caesars) Emperors of Byzantium, and
to hand over that city to be plundered (bi lad i tdkht
va tardj dad): and he returned with immense booty
and many slaves (sardri). But a serious reverse (sdda-
meh) came upon his army through (ag) one of the
nobles of Byzantium. The historians of Persia have
not recorded the defeats that befel his armies at the
end (avakhir) of his reign. According to their state-
ment, Sapor, having in prosperity flourished for
31 years, built numerous cities after the war with
the Byzantines (Rum): two of that number (jnmleh] he
built- and -called (band nalidd) by his own name; one
Nishabiir in Khurasan, which is still among (az) the
important cities, and the other Shapur near Kamrfm
in Fars.

Twenty-ninth Lesson.
Notes on Polite Conversation.

The Persians are naturally a most cour-

teous people, and the rules of etiquette (nislidst vabar-
Miast) are numerous and are most rigorously observed
among them. It does not lie within the scope of the
present work to treat of these, except in so far as
they concern the language used in polite intercourse ;

but the student, if he visits Persia, should carefully

notice the conduct of native gentry in these matters,
and early acquire the rules observed in connexion,
g., with the qatyan, the reception of guests, etc. We
have already ( 48) pointed out the fact that the
speaker should occasionally use certain expressions of
humility regarding himself and of respect for the
person with whom he is conversing. These words
Notes on Polite Conversation. 205

(which may Submissives and Honorifics),

be termed
when they nouns, often take the place of the
Personal Pronouns both in speaking and writing.
Their use is abundantly illustrated in the Conver-
sations and in the Letters contained in the Appendix.
The use of the Personal Pronoun of the First
Person Singular (man) should not be indulged in too
freely it is better (when a pronoun or its equivalent

is really needed at all) to

employ one of the Sub-
missives instead (Vide Conversation XXV). It will,
however, be noticed, that, in some of the Tales given
in the present book, certain persons use man of them-
selves even when speaking to a king. One reason for
this is that in writing the older style permits the use
of man, to, etc., where in conversation it would not
now be allowable to employ them. Another reason is
that, in addressing a king, to speak of oneself
as bdnde'h, haqir, etc. would not indicate sufficient
232. A speaker should often preface a remark
with the words drz ml-shavad (drz mi-lmnavn) bi-khid-
mat i (sarJcar i) shuma, or bi-kMdmat i janab i ali drz

mi-sliavad (mi-kunam). Politeness requires the person

addressed to interject in an undertone the words nn-
farmaid, which implies that he deems the verb jar-
iniidan more suitable to the dignity of the speaker.
In referring to the auditor's remarks a speaker must
use farmudan; as, chinun Mk aVan farmudid, "as you
have just said". Similarly from courtesy extensive use
is made of compound verbs one element of which is
this same verb farmudan: as, ay a in kitab-ra mulahigek
(mutala'eh) farmudeh id? "Have you read this book?"
But the speaker must never use this verb of himself,
nor, of course, must he employ tashrif avdrdan (btirdan,
dashtari) regarding himself. In giving an order, even
the Shah of Persia would not say to the lowest of
his attendants, Man tura hukm
Mrdam, "I commanded
you", nor would he use the equivalents dmr namudan,
farman dadan, as Europeans often do. He would say
giijtam, though in speaking to a third person he might
use words implying command, e. g. Man nra M an
Lesson 29.

kar ma'nmr sakhtam, "I commanded him to do that.'

The use of Mkm
kdrdan and its equivalents in giving
orders conveys to Persian ears an impression of the
speaker's arrogance or of his ignorance.
233. In enquiring whether a person has com-
prehended what one has said to him, the use of
word fahmidid, "Did (= do) you understand?" is not
permitted by courtesy. The proper ^word to employ

nu'dtafit (literally "attentive"); as, Aya

arz i bdndeh-ra
multafit shiidid? "Do you understand
what I say?" The
expression (aya) yaftid? is also sometimes used in the
same sense.

"When a visitor wishes to depart, courtesy

requires him to ask permission to do so before rising
from his seat. This he does by saying Murdkhkhas
mi-farmaid? or Murdkhkhas am? The proper reply to
this is Bi-in zudi tashrif mi-barid? or, to a man of
great importance, Bi-panah i Khuda. The guest, when
actually going, says, Khaiti zdhmat dadam or Bi-nihayat
muzahim shtldam, to which the host replies, Khaili
kkmish amadid, in sha'a'llah zud bar i digar tashrif mi-
avarid.The guest answers lltifat i shuma (janab i dU)
ziyad: Khuda hafiz. The host answers Khuda hafiz i
shuma, and accompanies him to the door, unless he
sends a son instead. The visitor often declines this
attention, but the host insists on it, saying hdtta'l 6ab,
"as far as the door." The proper reply to this is
Tasqtitu 'ladab baina?lahbabj "Ceremonies fall down
between friends," i. e. "No ceremony between

Other matters of importance will be learnt from

the Conversations and from attention to the usage
of educated Persians. Attention to such matters is
absolutely necessary, unless the student wish to gain
a reputation for ungentlemanly conduct.


Mann, a weight (7y2 or 15 Ibs). mazdrratashan, the injury which

pnk, clean (= completely). they inflict.
zdghan, a kite (bird).
Notes on Polite Conversation. 207

Exercise 57.

** 3 j \^>

o CJtau 1
^- OJJ
208 Lesson 30.

Thirtieth Lesson.
Some Persian Proverbs.
235. The Persians, like most other nations,
have a large number of proverbs, some of which are
very expressive. Our limits prevent us from giving
more than a few of the most important of these. But
the student who wishes to pursue the subject further
will find it well treated of in a volume entitled
Jju:jtXL. Not a few of the proverbs there given,
however, are now obsolete, as the volume was com-
posed some centuries ago lout the following and many

others are still in constant use.

European Equivalent. Persian.

(1) Out of sight, out of

The darkest hour is

just before the dawn.

(3) "What the heart thinks
the tongue speaks. j^^.'

(4) A widow's mite. eSjr"" ^^ ^^-JJ-5 j' (0

If G-od be for us, who
(5) j^ jiTc I
JA! jl J\ (o)
can be against us? ^^1
(6) Let bygones be by-
J>>- $ J** $ ("0

(7) Take
when you
chance jl_u* J-J j / <j.l (v)

(8) He is as well known /j_^ ^-JLl jf j\ (A)

as the Devil him- '^1
self. (II est connu
comme le loup
Some Persian Proverbs. 209

(9) Out of the frying-pan

into the fire.

(10) He's a skinflint: he is r"

_^ JLZ-J jl (N )

(11) As well be in for a

^Jijf ^j| ^ JT '
sheep as a lamb. .

-\*f <>- ,-M

aj^> j~.

(12) Cut your coat accord- ^,1, Sjixl Ijl

^jf (>Y)
ing to your cloth. *f j\j*
(13) He has caught a Tar- <$j Jl^,. ^^ o"^*-^ (^)

(14) With the most brazen ^_^ ^ )Jt Ij-dC*. ^*.j, (vi)

(15) He hasn't got a leg j;^. o^ l^j^ L

to stand upon.

(16) Where there's a will ^j ^y^r* 3\~j. jUj; (\*\)

there's away. Little t
n ^ [;

strokes fell great

oaks. (Petit a petit
1'oiseau fait son nid).

(17) No rose
without a
^ + ^ fi f^f I j*] (\ v)

(18) Carry coals to New- ^ ^j^T ^S^ '

jL*L (>A)

(19) Make hay while the jiy Jl; c I

*^" j>" IT
sun shines. c _ ,

(20) Honesty is the best flj^-j *j^ >z~~ \j jU I"

(v )

(21) Slow and steady wins -,y j*Ui jj j ^^y ^ji, I"
(r >
the race.
(22) Self-praise is
no com- ^ jjj"" j_^- tJ.>" (vr)
^^j ^i^"

(23) Words once spoken

cannot be recalled.
j^,"i?V-jLOl^ f 4^ (rr)
JJj*kj, j*> J >-."^
Persian Conv. -Grammar. 14
210 Lesson 30.

(24) Virtue is its own j^,^ j^ <;l. Jj v iy (Y i)

(25) You
can't draw blood
_u ^
f *
J>5 *\\ -J
/ (to)
\ i
irom a cabbage. . ;

(26) To kill two birds with dL jJT j<.

^jj> u^> <>-
' (v l)
one stone.

(27) He is caught in his j$\ ^ ^^^ -ci^ jf^L (rv)

own trap.
(28) Spare the rod and ,^J aj~ cJ^. jl v^r (
v A
spoil the child.
(29) The nearer to Church ^.^ \j^^- ^ ),*' (^^)
the farther from ^Jj _ ,.

(30) You can't see the wood
/. ,, u-I- ^c-l u~^ jl-u^ (v
\ )
for the trees. _

(31) Never look a gift horse jloSO:' ^j_p. die'

in the mouth.

(32) Business is business.

(Kaka a vulgar
word in Shiraz for
a brother. Elsewhere
it means only a
negro, which mean-
ing often has in
Shiraz also).
(33) When Greek meets <j Ij.jy. ^i^>. <_*_,>. (tt
Greek, then comes a- Li
the tug of war. Set
a thief to catch a
(34) No use striving against a*!^. \\

^jj or" jl

(35) Though the mills of ^| J^i- _/^ lui (to)

God grind slowly,
yet they grind ex-
ceeding small.
Some Persian Proverbs. 211

(36) They that live in

^ JL \j *L.t. j.*
iL (ri)

throw stones.
(37) Too many cooks spoil
the broth. What's
^ j^.[" yLjS^jj ^VL (rv)

everyone's business
isnobody's business.
(38) He is in his last gasp.
(n n'y a plus d'huile
dans la lampe).
(39) He has hit the right
nail on the head.

(40) He doesn't know a

hawk from a hand-
(41) Deathis the brother
of sleep.
^-1 ^ j^l^. v ly. (i>)

(42) Let the cobbler stick ^.^ c -

Jr. ^ jK'(ir)
to his last.
(43) One touch of nature ^Ij a |j Jj^ Jj (tr)
makes the whole
world kin. (Es muss
von Herzen gehen,
was auf Herzen
wirken will.)
(44) He is a greedy fellow, 40 4*.^* Lj jjb ^j (i l)
he wants whatever j^\ -^>
he sees.

(45) He is in doubt what *}j^ j) "

-^5C J^ Jj (i)
to do.
( -J[ ^L
(46) No use crying over x^ ^ jfj^j. dl^-j
" (11)
spilt milk.

(47) When the steed is

^ jL;J
stolen shut the sta-
ble door.
(48) Walls have ears. j

(49) The pot calling the f " " "

kettle black. \ ^- -^
212 Lesson 30.

(50) One can't make war .ulC: c~~ l>-

with rose water.

(51) Every man is inno- c

cent his guilt is

proved. (First catch

your hare.)
(52) A slight loss is a great ^
one to a poor man.

(53) Better late than

ne- ^i
ver. (Festina lente.)

(54) His room is better

than his company.
i/ I 5 /
(55) Fortune is fickle. jJLj: j\j <iu. <^* V J v *.

(56) That is a very diffi- dtjl"^-tj c~~\ *iljllj (o\

cult task.

(57) You can't make a silk _^L Jj J\ J li-jj ('

purse out of a sow's -vi)
, i t. ,
i^_y. * <


(58) Nitere,parvepuer,qui- ^ ,-'

cunque nitere cupis.

(59) Can two walk to- c I
gether except they "i|

be agreed?
(60) A penny laid by for L. j^j ^1^. j| a^-.yj (^ )
a rainy day.

(61) There are wheels with- -^\ t^Jg c-lT x3 (^0

in wheels.

(62) Gentle means are best. ^

(63) Silence is golden, jb c-j J .c-jj.' I"

^^ (it)
Speak when you're
spoken to.
(64) He put in his oar ^jjT U^,- 3L.jJ ^r- (^i)
where he wasn't
(65) Diamond cut diamond. jcSCL- Ij ^1- ^1- ("\)
Some Persian Proverbs. 213

(66) Potatoes and point.

The miser would
skin a flint.

(67) To buy a pig in a

poke. (La nuit tous
j.[^ ^^ ^^ (^ v )

les chats sont gris.)

(68) Segnius irritant ami- jj^o ^'U j] j-u^. (u)

nes demissa per
aurem, quam quae
sunt oculis subiecta
fidelibus . . .

(69) Turn and turn about U.T

L:. j (lO
turn about is fair
(70) One word begets an- jjjT ^ o > o >-
(v )
(71) One can't believe a <? *f ij(^ oj,Ta* (VN)
single word he says.

He is fond of the
sound of his own
>^>^^^>f,j^' '
i' .

(73) As iron
iron, doth the
countenance of a
man his friend.
(74) Two heads are better 4.U-V. c *C jl l-u,
(v i)
than one.
One must die when ^
(75) jj" L.I
' j^,. ljo.,
" (v)
one's time comes. jL^

(76) Patience and perse- cUjlT -* -hA* -o

-c (v*\)
v /
verance won
a wile
for his Reverence.
(77) One good turn de- jj|j ^ ^r ,
^j, ^>U, (vv)
serves another.
(78) A lucky man may do * JJf ^jb jfl ^IU (VA)
as he likes. ^\ ^ ^.^
M9) He has let the cat out
of the bag. All the
fat's in the fire.
214 Lesson 30.

(80) That's a case of the ^ J'Zl Jtil .^L. jl lib (A )

wolf and the lamb.

(81) His cup is full. (It's O jj^

j^j^Jp (AN)
all up with him.)
(82) The fathers have eaten
sour grapes, and the
lib yVjl ^ j>. lib Jb (AT)
children's teeth are
set on edge.
(83) He's been let blood ^J
(done out of money).
(84) Qui s'excuse s'accuse. j^jT ^ allfj /A. jJ* (At)

(85) His sands are just c^f>f j~> oof J'^f (AO)
run out.
Exercise 58.

^ O 1 ^- Li 40 jju
Arabic Phrases in Constant Use in Persian. 215

Appendix A.
Arabic Phrases in Constant Use in Persian.

And God is most wise (= and God

knows best what is the truth)
God is most mighty ........
To God be praise ...... ^juCl or
If itplease God ....... ^fuLtjl or ^

"Whatever God may please ..... .

God ..... ......

bless .

I ask pardon of God (= God forbid

j <.\'.:'s^
that I should think so)

In the name of God Cj1

r/ -.

In the name of God the Mer-

ciful, the Gracious
There is no might and there is


/ -.-f
no power but in ^
> <UiN*'

or o^L or
'Ali (exclamations)

My God (in prayer) (ilahi) . . . . v

Commander of the faithful ( AU is so 1

called by the Shi'ehs; the Sunnis give

all Khalifehs the title)
The Truthful: title of Abu Bakr . .

Lord of (Divinely sent) messengers :

title of Muhammad
Seal (= last) of Prophets: title of
We take refuge in God from it ...
Friend of God: title of Abraham. . .

(He who) does not die: immortal . . ,

(That which) is not cut short ....

Uncultivated (ground)
In person, in essence <^, or

On this supposition .

Upon him (her, them I

two, them) be peace }

216 Appendix A.

Peace be upon thee (greeting)

Peace be upon you
Upon you be' peace (reply)
May God be pleased with him
God's mercy be upon him (her)
God bless and preserve him .

May his prosperity continue

May his glory be glorious and He is j

most high (= God most high and |


most glorious
In this our day ..........
Founded upon that ..... (jT^.b =)
What he owns =
his property ....
The person referred to....... 4-Mjlill
The defendant ..........
In indeed .......
truth, really,
In .............
Indeed .............
What cannot be expressed, ineffable . .

In ..........
fine, in short
The moral: in short . . .
(_JJLJ^U. =)
In what follows, in future......
What between
is .........
Continuously, continually ......
As formerly, as in what precedes . . .

As far as possible .........

As is right (comme il......
In short, finally ..........
The result, in short ........
The object
= ........
in fine
Totheend=etcaetera(etc.) (>TM or
Arabic Calendar, Arabic Months. 217

Appendix B.
Arabic Calendar.
Since the Arabic conquest of Persia the Arabic
(Muhammadan) Calendar has been in use in the
country for all ordinary purposes. It is a lunar Calen-
dar, the months containing 30 and 29 days alter-
nately. The year consists of 354 days, 9 hours; and
its reckoning begins from the Hijreli (in Persian Hijrat]
or departure of Muhammad from Mecca to reside in
Medina, A. D. 622 (18 July, new Style). The year
being so much shorter than the Christian, it is not
possible to give any English equivalent for the
various months, as they begin about 11 days earlier
each year. Ramazdn in the present year (A. D. 1901)
began on 12 Dec. To find the Christian date exactly
corresponding to any Muhammadan date, it is ne-
cessary to express the Muhammadan date in years
and decimals of a year, to multiply these figures by
970225, and to the product to add 621-54 (Forbes).
The result will be right to a day. The Muhammadan
year 1319 began on 20 April, 1901.
Arabic Months.
1. Muharram *Jz \

2. Safar JL* v

3. Babi'ul avval r
4. Eabi'ussani
5. Jumadiyu'lavval (
Jumadiyu'ssani (cS^^I) jb'l^jt*- "\

7. Eajab ^*j V
8. Sha'ban jU- A
9. Ramazan jUnj ^
10. Shavval Jlj^ N .

11. Zu'l Qa'deh o-uaMjS NN

12. Zu'l Hijjeh \\
The Christian (Syrian) year not much used in

Persia,but the Arabic forms of the names of the

months are :
218 Appendix B.

7. June V 1 - December 4
8. A 2. January j'lTj/lT v
July j J/
9. August JT A 3. February JU r
10. September Jj,\ > . 4. March jbl i

11. October JjlJ.^" N S 5. April JLJ o

12. November j ITj. JLT > v 6. May jLl 1

The old Persian Year.

Since the reform of the old Persian Calendar in

1079 by Malik Shah Jalaluddm, this year begins on
the day of the sun entering Aries, the Vernal Equi-
nox. The year consists of 12 months of 30 days each,
five being added to Isfandarmuz to bring the number
up to 365, and a leap year (sal i kabiseh} being reckoned
every fourth year with an additional day. This system
of reckoning is now little used, except that its New
Year's Day (Nauruz) is still the great day for go-
vernors entering on their office, and is a festival. The
names of the months are:
7. Mihr ^ V ! Farvardin
8. Aban jtT A 2. Ard! Bihis!
9. Azur (j'jf) Jit <\ 3. Khyurdad
10. Day gi \ . 4. Tir ^ i

11. Bahman ^^ N \ 5. Murdad jb> o

Ispandarmuzj^jloi^,! N v 6. Shahrivar j^.^- "I

The Tatar Cycle. (Sanavat i Turkt.)
ATatar Cycle of 12 years is sometimes used in
historical works, e. g. in the Jahan-gusha-yi Nadiri. The
years are .named after certain animals, the words
being still used in that sense in Central Asiatic Turk-
ish. The present year 1901 is the second of a new
Cycle, and is hence "the year of the Ox". The names
with their translation are as follows:
Year of the Mouse
n Ox V

Leopard (^l) l r
The Siyaq Method of Beckoning. 219

Year of the Hare (jliiJO jU2>" i

Fish (Crocodile) (^J) J\,

Serpent ( j^) j>L "V

Horse (^) OT V

r> 7) n S^ j! A


The year (J.|, Z) is a solar one, beginning and

ending in Spring, 21 March, Vernal Equinox, and
is divided into twelve "Mansions", the twelve
signs of the Zodiac. Each entire cycle is called a
muchal. (Shaw's "Grammar of the Language of Eastern
Turkistan'I). The secondary forms given in brackets
are more usual in Persian works.

Days of the Week.

Thursday <_uif- * Sunday

Friday (^T) ^ "^ Monday
Saturday c^, y Tuesday

Appendix C.
The Siyaq Method of Reckoning.

These figures are used in mercantile transactions.

The figures denote the number of dinars (vide App. D).
It will be seen that the often hastily
figures are
written Arabic words for numbers, g. the signs e.
for 10; 20; 100; 1,000, 10,000, are evidently the Ara-
bic numbers ^IP, J-.y^, li, ^)l and the Turkish jU/
(ten thousand) written cursively. The numbers after
10,000 are multiples of that number and are read
"twenty tumam", etc. The units are corruptions of the
ordinary Arabic numerals.
220 Appendix D.

2. 3.
M ^b
5. 6.
^ '/ 2 <*

x* r"^ x~*
x*-* * f^* r^ r~* r**
10. '20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80 90.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.


19. 21. 22. 23. 35. 62. 99.

iV <n <* (& i

is *l^ '^
100. 200. 300. 400. 500. 600. 700.

800. 900. 1,000. 1.100. 1,200. 1,300.

-1 fl Hi (U ^J y ^ M_.
^x *(_- ~lP
2,000. 3,000. 4,000. 5,000. 6,000. 7,000.

8,000. 9,000. 10,000. 20,000. 30,000. 40.000.

50,000. 60,000. 70,000. 80.000. 90,000. 100,000 (ten fli

(eleven) (twelve) (thirteen) (fifteen) (twenty) (a hundred)

(tumans) (tumans) (tumans) (tumans) (tumans) (tumans)
110,000. 120,000. 130,000. 150,000. 200,000. 1,000.000.

Appendix D.
Money, "Weights and Measures.
1 dinar (An imaginary 2 muhamvuadis 4 shahis
coin). = 1 dbbasi.
5 dinars = 1 gliaz (an 5 dbbasis = 20 shahis =
imaginary coin). = 1 Qiran.
1,000 dinars
10 ghaz or 50 dinars = 10 qirans
= 10,000 dinars
1 shahi. = 1 tuman.
2 shahis = 1 muhammadi
Weights, Measures of Length. 221

Europeans in Persia generally keep their accounts

in qirans (krans)and shahis, or in tumans, qirans and
shahis, though the Banks and merchants express the
number ofghaz instead of using shahis : thus. "krs. 249/95"
means "twenty four tumans, nine qirans and ninety-
fine ghaz reckoning 20 shahis or 100 ghaz to the qiran.

The number of shahis to the qiran, however, varies

from time to time. The jg 1-0-0 is now worth a little
over 5 tumans (about 52 or 53 krans), but varies in
value from day to day. The qiran is often called a
riyal (the Spanish real), often also it is called a hazar,
being equal to 1,000 dinars.

In Persia liquids and various kinds of grain are
iveighed and not measured.
Nukhud (a chick-pea).
24 nukhud 1 misqal = (about '/g of an ounce
90 misqcd = 1 vaqqeh (about 14 oz avoirdupois).
8 vaqqeh = 1 mann i Tabrizi or Tabriz maund
(7/ to 7'/ Ibs.).
2 mann i Tabrizi = 1 mann Shahi (14/ to 15
i 8 Ibs.).
4 mann i Tabrizi = 1 mann Eai (about 29
i or
30 Ibs.).
8 mann i Shahi => 1 mann i Hashimi (abt. 116 Ibs.).
50 mann i Shahi =
1 kharvar or donkey-load (abt.
725 Ibs.).

Measures of Length.
Muyi sliutur (camel's hair in breadth).
Jau (grain of barley).
Angusht (breadth of a finger).
Bahar, length of a thumb-joint, abt. l'/4 inch.
2 bahar = 1 girih (knot) abt. 2'/ inches. =
16 girih =
1 gaz (far'), about 40 inches (rough- :

ly a yard) : also called in Turkish an arshin.

Vajab, a span : from tip of thumb to tip of little
Dost, zira', araj, a cubit (fr. elbow to tip of
middle finger).
222 Appendix E.

1 qadam, a pace (about 20 inches 2 gas). =

Saghal, a fathom, from the tip of the middle
finger of one" hand to that of the other, the arms
being extended.
KatteJi, about B'/j feet.
1 farsakh parasang)
12,000 qadam or
6,000 gaz, about 3/ or 3V* English miles. (On their
new road from Resht to Tehran, the Russians calcu-
late that 8 versts make one farsakh. The R-ussian
Verst is 0*663 of an English mile.)
(Principally from "Wollaston.)

Appendix E.

1. From Enzelli (Amali) to Tehran (Tahran).

Landing the traveller goes by boat

at Enzelli,
(4 or 5 hours' journey) up the estuary to Pireh Bazar,
whence he drives to Resht (about 6 miles). Thence
a capital coaching road, recently finished by the
Russians, runs to Tehran, By postchaise he can drive
to Tehran in 48 hours; using the same horses all the
way he will require nearly 7 days.
From Resht (Rasht) to Quhdum, 4farsakhs; 16 miles.

Quhdum Rustamabad, 4 18Ya

Rustamabad Manjil, 4 17'/2
Manjil Pa-yi-chinar, 4
Yuzbashichai, 4
Pa-yi-chinar /*
Yuzbashichal Aqbaba, 5
Aqbaba ,, Qazvin, 4
Qazvin Kavandeh, 4
Kavandeh Qaishlaq, 4
Qaishlaq Yangi Imam, 4
Yangi Imam Hisarak, 4
Hisarak Shahabad, 4
Shahabad Tahran, 4

European are to be found at Resht and

at Tehran. On
the road between these places there
are post resthouses at the stations named above. Cara-
vansarais may also be found.
Itineraries. 223

2. From Tahran to Isfahan.

From Tahran to Kahrizak about 4 farsakhs

Kahrizak Hasanabad 4
Hasanabad Qal'eh yi Muh.

224 Appendix E.

4. From Isfahan to Ahvaz; (new route).

From Isfahan to Bistagun about 30 Engi. Miles

Bistagun Qahveh-rukh 22
Qahveh-rukh Kharaji 18
Kharaji Ardal 22
Ardal ,, Dopulun 8
Dopulun Sar i Khvarm 16
Sar i Khyarm Pul i 'Amarat
(Malvari) 13
Pul i 'Amarat Dahdiz 12
Dahdiz Godar 12
Godar Mai Amir 16
Mai Amir Qal'eh-yi Tul 16
Qal'eh-yi Tul A'la'Khurshid 7
Ala' Khurshid Tauleh 15
Tauleh Jareh 9
Jareh Khandaq 15
Khandaq Va'iz 30
Va'iz Ahvaz 17

(For this Itinerary I am indebted to Taylor

Esq., in charge of the road now being made from
Isfahan to Ahvaz).
Persian Letters. 225

Appendix F.
Persian Letters.

Nr. 1.

Persian Conv.-Grammar. 15
226 Appendix F.

Nr. 2.

Persian Letters. 227

Nr. 3.
22$ Appendix F.

Nr. 4.
Persian Letters. 229

Nr. 5.


>>i/>^ -t^^x

230 Appendix F.

Nr. 6.
Persian Letters. 231

Nr. 7.


232 Appendix F.

Nr. 8.

Persian Letters. 233

Nr. 9.

234 Appendix F.

Nr. 10.
Persian Letters. 235

Nr. 11.


I *
236 Appendix F.

Nr. 12.

* L
' ^ >
Persian Letters. 237

Nr. 13.

* '^
238 Appendix F.

Nr. 14.

J*, ,w ^
Persian Letters. 239

Nr. 15.

rv - ;
'\ ,


/ .



240 Appendix F.

Nr. 16.

Persian Letters. 241

Nr. 17.


Persian Conv.-Grammar. 16
242 Appendix F.

Nr. 18.

^" J f
y ^J J
<^ >" -T> Ci^ , J- . , ^*/A^,

** " *F
Persian Letters. 243

Nr. 19.


244 Appendix F.

Nr. 20.

Persian Letters. 245

Nr. 21.
246 Appendix F.

Nr. 22.


Persian Letters. 247

Nr. 23.

A Persian Telegram.

4, ^ jl
248 Appendix F.

Nr. 24.

- /
English-Persian Vocabulary.

Abandon (to), tark kardan, Above-mentioned, mazkur, maz-

guzashtan (guzar), va guzash- biir, mushsrun ilaih (Uaiha).
tan. Abridge (to), ikhtisar n: k:
Abase (to), past sakhtan, khvar g: Abridgement, ikhtisar.
Abate (to), kam k:, takhfif n: Abroad (to go), safar k:
Abatement, takhfif: (in price) Abscess, dunbal, gaundaM (vulg.).
tanzil. Absence, (ghaibat), ghiyab.
Abbreviate (to), ikhtisar k: mukh- Absent, ghaib, ghair-i hazir.
tasar n: Absolute, mukhtar, mutlaq, bfl is-
Abbreviation, ikhtisar. tiqlal.
Abdicate (to), az taj isti'fa k:, n: Absolutely, mutlaqan.
Abdication, isti'fa az taj va takht. Absolution, maghfirat, amurzish,
Abdomen, shikam (dil vulgar). bfo.
Abet (to), madad k:, kumak k: Absolve (to), afv k: bakhsMdan,
Abhor (to), nifrat kardan az. amurzidan (of God).
Abhorrence nifrat, karahiyyat. Abstain (to), ijtinab n: az,kanareh
Abide (to), mttndan, bi-sar burdan, justan az, parhiz k: az.
manzil k:, tavaqquf n: Abstinence, ijtinab, parhizkari.
Ability, qabiliyyat, liyaqat, majal : Abstruse, daqiq, mughlaq.
fazl. Absurd, bihildeh, U-ma'ni, ghair
Abject, pasthnl, khvar, zaUl. i ma'qul.
Abjure (to), bar gashteh shudan Absurdity, bihudagi, butlan.
az, murtadd sh: az. Abundance, faraoani, kiqrat.
Able, qadir, tavana; lrak,zarang. Abundant, ba-ki*rat, faravan.
Able (to be), tavanistan, qadir Abuse (to), fuhsh dadan, ditsh-
bar-b: nam dadan.
Ablution, (of hands) vuzu, (whole Abuse, fuhsh (verbal).
body), ghusl. Abyss, lujjeh, qa'r, varteh.
Abode, manzil, khfineh, maskan. Acacia, gul i abrtsihami.
Abolish (to), mansukh k:, mau- Academy, madraseh, daru'lulilm,
quf k: daru'lfunlln.
Abominable, makrtth. Accede (to), riza bar dadan.
Abominate (to), nifrat k: az. Accent (Gram:), zttr, (pronun-
Abomination, cMz i makruh. ciation), talaffuz.
Abortive, bi-faideh, bi-Kamar. Accept (to), qabttl k:, patiruftan.
Abound (to), faracan b: Acceptable, pasandideh, maqbttl,
About (concerning), bar sar, dar manzttr.
bareh, dar khmUs; (around), Access, dukhul, taqarrub.
Accession (to throne), takht-
girdagird, daur; (nearly) naz-
dik, qarib; taqriban, takhm'inan. nishtrit, jultts. [ittifaq.
Above, bar bate, r\(, fauq az. Accident, hadiseh, vagt'eh,
250 Accidentally Admit.

Accidentally, ittifaqan, sahvan. Acquisition, tahsil.

Accompany (to), hamrah raftan, Acquit (to), ibrh

kardan, rihs k :
hamrahi k: n: - Acre, jarib.
Accomplish (to), bi-anjam rasani- Acrobat, bazigar, Itlti.
dan, tamam k: Across, an taraf i, an su-y-i.
Accord (with one ), bi-ittifaq. Act, kar, 'amal, fi'l.
According (to), bar liasb, muvajiq, Act (to), 'amal (kar) k:, n:
mutabiq, bar vifq, bans bar. A,ction (deed) 'amal; (battle),
Accordingly, pas, lihazfi, bana jang, ma'rakeh; (at law) mura-
bar in. fa'eh.
Accountant, muhasib. Active, chalak, zarang.
Accountbook, daftar i hisab. Activity, chalakt, zarangi.
Account (to), pandashtan (-dar), Actually, fi'lan, fllfi'l fllvaqi

ingashtar (-gar). Acute (severe), sakht, shadid:

Account (bill), hisab; (narrative), (clever) zarang.
qisseh, hikayat, bayan, naql. Adapt (to), muvafiq sakhtan, g:
Accoutrements, silah (pi. asla- Add jam' zadan (figures
heh), yaraq. up) afzudan bar, ilhaq n : bar.

Accumulate jam' k:, fara-

(to), Addition, izafeh; (arithmetic),
Jiam avardan, anbar k: andukh- jam'.
tan (anduz). Address (of letter), 'invan (
Accumulation, majmu'ah,majma .
Accuracy, diqqat, durustl. Address (to) mukhatab sakhtan,
Accurate, durust, sahih, rast. dashtan (speaking).
Accurately, bi-durusti, saMhan. Adequate, kaft, muvafiq, qabtt.
Accursed, mal'un, la'in. Adhere (to), diasUdan (bi, bar),
Accusation, shikayat, tuhmat mulsaq shudan.
(false). Adherent, tarafdar, tabi'.
Accuse (to), az (bar) shikayat k:, Adhesion, lusuq.
avardan, ra bi nisbat Adieu, khuda hafiz : vida .

dadan; (falsely) tuhmat zadan. Adjacent, muttasil.

Accuser, mudda-l. Adjective, ism i sifat.
Accustom (to), amukhtan, tftnu- Adjoin (to), muttasil budan.
zanidan; (oneself) adat girif- Adjourn (to), ta'khir andakhtan,
tan. ta'Viq andakhtan (andaz).
Ache, dard, vaj'. Adjournment, daf u'lvaqt, ta'mq.
Ache (to), dard k: Adjudicate, faisal k:
Acid, turush; (noun) ttzab. Administer (to), idareh k:
Acidity, turushi. [i'tiraf k: Administration, idareh, hukil-
Acknowledge (to), iqrsr n: mat.
Acknowledgement, iqrar, i'tiraf. Administrator, mukhtar, hukm-
Acorn, balut. [dshna. ran: (of a will), vast.
Acquaintance, ashnai; (person) Admirable, laiq i ta'ajjub, pasan-
Acquainted (with, to be), shi- dideh, 'ajib.
nakhtan (shinss"), sshnsi dash- Admiral, amiru'Jbahr, daryci-begi.
tan b& (person) muttali' budan,
Admiration, ta'ajjub.
ittila' dashtan az
(thing). Admire (to), pasandidan, man-
Acquiesce (to), qabul k: rizu zur dashtan.
dadan bi. Admission (entrance), dukhul;
Acquire (to), hasil k:, tahstl n: (confession), iqrar, i'tiraf.
bi-chang (tasarruf) avardan: Admit (to), andar avar-
(let in),
(learn) ynd (fara) giriftan. dan, (confess), i'tiraf n:
Admonish Algebra. 251

Admonish (to), -ra nasihat k: Affirmative (answer), tjabt.

tanbih n: Afflict (to), azurdeh s: ranjani-
Admonition, nasihat, pand: dan.
tanbih. Afflicted, parishttn-hal, dilgir,
Adopt (child), tdbanni k: pisar gham-gin.
khvandan. Affliction, musibat, gham, alam,
Adoption (of child), tdbanni, ranj.
pisar klwandagi. Afraid, tarsan, khaif.
Adoration, 'ibadat, parastish. Afresh, az sar i nau, mujaddadan.
Adore, (to), ibadat n: parastish k: After, ba'd az, pas, a'qab, pai,
parastidan, sujdeh k: sugud n: dunbal.
Adorer, 'abid, parastish kunan- Afternoon, ba'd az zuhr, 'asr.
deh: (lover), 'ashiq, muhilib. Afterwards, ba'd az an, minba'd.
Adorn (to), arasteh k: muzayyan n: Again, baz, digar, bar i digar,
Adornment, zinat, ttrayish. mukarraran.
Adroit, chalakdast. Against, bi-zidd, bar (bi-) khilaf.
Adroitness, chalakdasti. Age, 'umr, sinn: (old age) piri
Adult, baligh. (time) zaman.
Adulterate (to), makhlut s: Aged, pir, kvhansal, salkhvurdeh.
Adulterer, zani, zinakar. Agent, vakU, gumaahteh, karkun.
Adultery, zina, zinakari. Agile, chalak, zarang, dhust.
Advance (to),pish raftan: (trans.) Agio, sar/.
pish avardan. Agitate (distress, to),parishans:
Advancement, taraqqi, sar-afrazi. ashufteh s: (to put in motion),
Advantage, faideh, naf, man- junbanidan, tahrik n:
fa'at, sUd. Ago, qabl, pish az in.
Advantageous, mufid. Agony, dard i sakht,
Adventure, ma-jara. (of death) naz jan kandani.

Adverb, zarf. Agree (to), rdzi shudan, qabul k:

Adversary, mukhasim. qarar dadan.
Adverse, mukhtilif, munftqiz. Agreeable, pasandideh, dilpasand,
Adversity, bad bakhti, bala, wiw- maqbul.
sibat. Agreed, muttahid.
Advertise (to), i'lan d: t k: ish- Agreement, ittifaq, qarar.
tihnr d: Agriculture, zira'at, kisht kari,
Advertisement, Vlnn, ishtihur. falahat.
Advice, nasthat, pand. Ague, tab va larz. c
isti -
Advisable, munasib, shuyisteh. Aid, madad, kumak, imdad,
Advise (to), nasihat k:, n: anat.
Advocate, vakil. Aigrette, jiqeh.
Adze, tisheh. Aim, nishan.
AflFable, mfliraban, karim. Aim (to), did kardan, qaracul
Affair, amr, mu'amaleh, 'amal. giriftan.
Affect (pretend, to), bahftneh k:, Air, hava: (tune), nava, ahang.
(to produce effect), osar (ta'~ Alarm, Oshuftagi, tahayyur, tars.
sir k:, n:, dashtan. Alarm (to), tarsanidan.
Affection, muhabbat, ulfat, ishq. Alarming, haulnak, mi*hib.
Affectionate, muhibb; muhabba- Alas! afsHs, haif, ah.
inneh, mitshfiq. Alchemy, e kimiya.
Affiance (to), namzad s: Alcohol, araq.
Affinity, nisbat, vabastagi. Alembic, 'anbiq.
Affirmation, tasdiq, ijab; ifbat. Algebra, al jabr.
252 Alien Annoy.

Alien, gliarib, ajnabi; (adj.), Amass, jam' kardan, andukJitan

ba'id (az). (anduz).
Alight, pain amadan, nishastan. Amaze (to), hairan s: muta-
Alike, barabar, misl, yaksan, hayyir k:
nazir. Amazement, hairat, ta'ajjub, ta-
Alive, zindeh, (zandeK). htyyur.
All, hameh, tamam, jatrii', tamami. Ambassador, ilcht, saftr (pi.
Allay, task'in dctdan. sufara).
Allege (to), bar an budan kih . . .
Amber, kahruba.
Allegiance, itct'at, farmanburduri. Ambiguous, mubliam, mughlaq.
Allegory, tam.4l. Ambition, istikbar.
Alleviate (to), takhftf dadan, Amble (to), yurgheh raftan.
taskin n: Ambuscade, kamtngah.
Alleviation, takliflf, tasUn. Amend (to), islah (tashih') A;:,

Alley, kucheh: (with trees) Tchiya- durust k:.

bsn. Amethyst, yaqut i kJiamri.

Alliance, mu'ohadeh. Ammunition, barut, asbab ijang.

Allow (to), guzardan, guzashtan Among, miyan, darmiyan, mabain.
(guzar], izn (ijazeh} dadan. Amount, mablagh, jumleh.
Allowable, rava, hatrd, mujaz. Amputate (to), buridan.
Alloy, amizish, b&r. Amulet, ta'viz, tilism.
Allude (to), JeinSyeh k: az. Amuse (to), tafarruj n:
Allusion, innayeh, ishareh, 'ibarat Amusement, tafarruj.
[). Analogy, tamsil.
Ally, mu'shid, madadkar, mu'avin. Ancestors, ajdsd, nba (pis. of
Almanac, taqvtm. jadd and 06).
Almighty, qadir i mutlaq. Anchor, langar.
Almond, badam. Anchor (to), langar andakhtan
Almost, taqriban, takhminan, (andaz).
dnqartb. Anchorite, zrihid.
Alms, khairat, sadaqat (volun- Ancient, qadtrn, qadimi.
tary): zakat (commanded by Ancients (the), mutaqaddamtn.
Qur'an). And, va, o.
Aloft, beds, faraz, fara, Anecdote, qisseh, hikayat.
Alone, tanha, farA. Angel, firishteh, malak (pi. ma-
Along with, ba} hamrnh,bi-ittif(lq. Mkeh).
Aloud, bi-aeaz i buland. Angelic, malaki.
Alphabet, huruf i hijtt, alif be. Anger, ghazab, khashm, ghaiz.
Already, hanuz, tn h&l, qabl az in. Angle, gusheh (zaviyeh), kury.
Also, niz, ham, aizan. Angry, glMzabnclk, khashmnsk,
Altar, qurbangrih, mazbah.
Alter (to), taghytr d&dan, tabdil Animal, j&nivar, haivan.
k:, avaz k: Ankle, quzak t pa, ka b.
Alteration, tagliytr, tabdil. Annalist, vaqi'eh nig&r, (vaqa?
Alternately, naubdi bi-naubeh. nig&r).
Although, agarchih, harchand kih, Annals, tavarikh (pi. of tsrikli]
bs (vujud i m) kih. Annihilate (to), nist (o nabud) k:
Altitude, buland'i, irtifct . ma'dum s:
Altogether, bflkutt, kuttiyyatan, Annotation, hashiyeh.
tamanan. Announce (to), khabar dndan,
Always, hamisheh, hamvareh, pai- ittilci' d: az.
Annoy (to), ranj&nidan.
Annoyance Artificial. 253

Annoyance, ranjish, izn, zalimat. Arab, 'Arab.

Annual, saliy&neh, sanavi. Arabia, 'Arabistan.
Annul, mansukh s:, k:, naskh n: Arabian, 'Ardbi.
Anoint, mash k: Arch (of bridge), chashmeli tSq. :

Another, digar, ghair. Archa,ngel,firishteh (malak) i mu-

Answer, javttb, pasukh. qarrab.
Answer (to), javab dadan. Archbishop, raisu'l asSqifeh (pi.
Ant, murcheh: (white), muryftneh. of usquf),
Antelope, tihu. Archer, ttrandsz.
Anterior, pishin, sabiq, muqaddam. Archives, daftar.
Antichrist, Dajjnl. Ardour, ghairat.
Anticipate (to), sibqat justan Arduous, mushkil, sa'b, sakht.
bar: (to look forward to), Argue (to), mubshiseh
intizjar kashidan. zareh), namudan, bah$ kardan.
Antique, anttqeh. Argument, bahs, mubshiseh.
Anxiety, andisheh. Arise, bar khustan (khiz), pa
Anxious, andishehnak. shtidan.
Any, hich. Arithmetic, histlb.

Apart, juda, 'ala'hiddeh, mufassal. Ark (Noah's), kashti-yi-Nuh.

Aperient, mushil, (karkun). Arm, bszu.
Apologise (to), ma'zarat khvSstan Arm (to), musallah s:, siltih pusli-
(khyah). Snidan.
Apology, ma'qarat,
uzr. Arms (weapons), aslaheh (pi. of
Apoplexy, sakteh. siltih).
Apostacy, irtidad. Armoury, silfth-khsneh.
Apostate, mttrtadd. Army, fauj, sipflh, qushun, Iosh-
Apostle, rasul, havuri,(o$ Christ). kar.
Apostleship, rasslat. Around, girdBgird, daur.
Apparent, znhir, huvaidft, ashkar. Arrange (to), tartib dddan, mu-
Apparently, zahiran. rattab s:
Appear, namudan (namny), zahir Arrangement, intizam, tartib.
shudan, padid amadan (ay). Array, saff-arai.
Appearance, sUrat, shikl; zuhur. Arrest (to), giriftftr s:, dastgir 8:

Appendix, zamimeh. Arrival, vurud.

Appetite, ishtiha, mail. Arrive (to), rastdan, varid shu-
Apple, sib: (of eye) mardumak dan.
i chashm. Arrogance, takabbur, ghurftr.
Appoint mu'ayyan k:, gu-
(to), Arrogant, mutakabbir, maghrftr.
mnshtan (gumfir), muqarrar k:, Arrow, ttr, sahm (pi. siham).
mansub k: [sab. Arsenal, qurkhaneh, jabbehkhilneh.
Appointment, ma'muriyyat, man- Art, fann (pi. funun), hvrfat
Apprentice, shSgird. (pi. hiraf), hunar.
Approach, qudum, taqarrub. Artery, shnhrag, shiryan.
Approach (to), nazdik amadan Artful, Mlehbaz, daghtibaz, mak-
fat)- kar.
Appropriate, munttsib, shayisteh. Article (thing), cMz: (definite
Approve (to), pasandidan. Article), harf: ma'rifat.
Apricot, zardfllu. Articulation, talaffuz.
April, april, amil, nisttn. Artifice, Mleh, makr, firib.
Apron, futeh, pishband. Artificers, ahl i sanlli' (pi. of
Aqueduct, (underground), qanut; sana'af).
juy (jub, vulg.). Artificial, saklitagi, .ja'tt.
254 Artillery Attentively.

Artillery, tub-khaneh. Assume (suppose), pandashtan

Artist, naqqash. (-dar),ingashtan (-gar) (take ;

As, chun, chunankih. up), bar khvud giriftan (gtr).

Ascend, balft rafton; su'ud n:, Assurance (commercial), bimeli :
bar amadan (ay). (confidence), itminan.
Ascertain (to), tahqiq k: ittUa Assuredly, yaqtnan, haqiqatan.
yaftan (ySb). Astonish (to), mutahayyir (hai-
Ascetic, zahid. ran) s:
Asceticism, riyazat, zulid. Astonished, hairan, mutahayyir,
Ascribe (to), tausif k:, nisbat hairat zadeh, sarasimeh.
dadan bi. Astonishment, hairat, tahayyur.
Ash (tree), saban i gunjishk. Astray, gumrah, sargardan.
Ashamed, sharmandeh, sharmsar, Astrologer, munajjim.
khijil. Astrology, 'ilm i nujum.
Ashes, khakistar. Astronomer, rassad, ahl i hai'at.

Aside, bar taraf: bar yak su. Astronomy, 'ilm i hai'at.

Ask, pursidan, su'al kardan: Asylum (refuge), panahgah, pa-
kht:astan (khvah), talab n:, ta- nah, bast.
laMdan, darkhyast k: At, dar, nazd, bi.
Asleep, dar kJiyab. Athlete, pahlavan, kushttgar.
Asp, af'tf '.
Atmosphere, hava.
Asparagus, mftrchubeh. Atom, zarreh.
Aspect, surat, vajh. Atone (to), kaffareh kardan.
Ass, khar, ulagh: himUr. Atonement, kaffareh.
Assassin, qatil. Atrocity, fasad, satam, zulm.
Assassination, qatl. Attach (to) chasbanidan, va

Assault, hamleh; jurish; hujum. bastan.

Assault (to), hamleh A:, hugum Attachment, muhabbat, ulfat.
Svardan; yurish k: (in war); Attack, hujum, hamleh.
bar sar (i fulari) rikhtan. Attack (to), hamkh bur dan, k:
Assemble (to, trans:) faraham Attain (to), hasilk: bi-darajeli-yi
avardan, jam' kardan; (a court, rastdan.
meeting) mun'aqid s: (intr.) Attainable, muyassar: (to be ),

jam' sh : farsham amadan (ay) ; gir amadan (ay).

(a meeting) mun'aqid shudan Attainment, tdhsil, iqtina.
(sliav). Attempt, kushish, sa't, jidd va
Assembly, majlis, mahfd, anjuman. jahd, ijtihad.
Assent (to), rizs dadan bi-, Attempt (to), kusliish k: sa't n:
qabul k: jidd va jahd n:
Assert, baran budan Tcih, b& ta'kid Attend (to), mutavajjih budan,
guftan (guy). gush dadan (giriftan) (be pre- ;

Assist, madad (kumak) k:, im- sent),hazirshudan] (wait upon),

dad n:, i'anat n: khidmat k:, (the sick), paras-
Assistance, madad, kumak, i'anat, tart n:
y&ri. Attendance, khidmat: (of the
Assistant, madadkar, mu'avin. sick), parastari.
Associate, rafiq, sliarik, hamdam: Attendant, khadim, naukar, pish-
Associate (to, with), suhbat k. khidmat.
bs, mu'&sharat k: ba, uns Attention, tavajjuh, iltifat.
dsshtan ba. Attentive, mutavajjih, multafit,
Association, sharskat; suhbat. muvazib.
Assuage, ctramidan, takhfif k: Attentively, bi(ba)diqqat.
Attest Banquet. 255

Attest (to), sliahadat dadan bi Awake, bid&r.

(bar). Awaken (trans.) bidar k:, (intr.)
Attract (to), kasMdan, jazb n: Md&r sh:
Attraction, kashish, ja$b. Aware, agali, multafit, muttali'.
Attribute, sifat, vasf. Away, dur, ba'id.
Attribute (to), kaai ra bi chizi Awe, haibat, nihib, haul.
nisbat dadan, mansub k: Awful, bauAnak, muMb.
Auction, harrHj, mazad. Awning, sayaban.
Audacious, ba-ju/r'at, dilir, dil&var. Axe, tabar.
Audible, masmu', shinidani. Axiom, badiheli.
Audience (the), hszirin (pi. of Azure, nilrang, lajavardi.
~hnzi/r), Baby, tifl, bachcheh.
Augment (to), afzudan (afzsy) Babyhood, tufuliyyat.
bar, ziyad k: Bachelor, 'azab, 'arusi na kardeh.
Augmentation, afzuni. Back, pusht: (adv.) baz, pas,
Aunt (paternal), 'ammeh; mater-
nal (khaleh). Backwards, pas, bi-'aqab.
August, humftyun, sultttni, a'zam :
Bacon, gusht i guraz, (i bulbul !).
(August, month), agust, ab. Bad, bad, sharir; kharsb.
Auspicious, nlk akhtar , nik-
Badness, badi; kharabi; sharr.
shukun. Bag, kiseJi; javsl; mafrash, khur-
Austere, durusfit, sakht, tnu- jin.
ta'abbis. Baggage, asbab; (of army),
Authentic, sahih, musallam.
Authenticate (to), ifbstn: sabit Bake, pukhtan (pat).
kardan. Baker, nttn-paz, khabbaz, nanvtly.
Authenticity, sihhat vahaqqiyyat. Balance (scales), tarazil, mizan,
Author, musannif: (compiler) qapun.
mu'allif: (cause) asbub, mu- Balcony, mahtabi.
harrik. [amr. Bald, kal
Authority, igtidar, ikhtiyar,lmkm, Bale (of goods), basteh.
Autocracy, istiqlal. Ball (toV), guy, tup, kwrreh:
Autocrat, hftkim i 'ala'l istiqlal, (cannon) gululeh; (dance),
(bi'listiqlal). MihmSni yi bal, rags.
Autograph, dast-kliatt. Bamboo, nai-yi Hindi.
Autumn, paiz. Band (music), mttzikfin (pi):
Auxiliary, mu'nvin, madad kftr: (company) dasteh :
(tie), band,
(verb) fi'l i rabiteli. rifadeh.
Avalanche, shapeh, bahman. Bandage, rifadeh, band.
Avarice, Mrs, tama', bukhl. Banish (to), nafl-yi balad kar-
Avaricious, tama'kar, bakhil, dan; jala-yi vaan n:
haris. Banishment, jalai, naff.
Avenge (to), intiqam giriftan Bank (of river), kan&r, lab, sahil
(9*r). (pi. savnhit) (for money),

Avenue, khiyGbtln. Sank.

Average (on an), rttyi ham Banker, rats i bank.
rafteh. Banknote, askings.
Aversion, kirahat, nifrat. Bankrupt, var-shikasteh: (to be)
Avert (to), raf (daf) k:, radd k : var-shikastan.
Avocation, shuglil, .pisheh, kasb. Bankruptcy, var-shikastagt.
Avoid (to), ijtinab n az, ihtirazk:
Banner, 'atom, darafsh, livff.
as), parMz k:, durijitstdn (jtty). Banquet, siyflfat, milimBrit.
256 Baptism Behalf.

Baptism, ta'mid. Beach, sahil, lab i darya, kanar.

Baptist (St. John the), Sazrat Beacon, manarat, nishan.
TahyS' yi ta'mid diliandeh. Bead, dugmeh, muhreh.
Baptize (to), ta'mid dadan: (to Beak, minqar.
be -d), ta'mid giriftan, yaftan. Beam (wood), tir; (of sun),
Bar (of wood), tir, drift, chub- partau, shu'a'.
bast: (hindrance) mumana'at. Beam (to), duruklishidan, tabidan.
Barbarian, barbarous, vahshi. Bean, lubiya.
vahshiyyat; Bear, khirs.
Barbarity, (act),
zulm. Bear (to) ,
burdan (6ar), bar dssfi-
Barber, dallak. tan (dar); (suffer), tahammul
Bare, barahineh, lukTit, 'uryan. namudan; (bring forth), zai-

Barefaced, bi-haya, bi-sliarm. dan, vaz' i hand n:

Barefoot, baraliineh-pa. Beard, rish.
Bargain, mu'ahadeh, mu'amaleh. Bearer, hammal, bsrkash.
Bark (of tree), pust: (of dog) Beast, haivan, janivar, bahimeli
'afaf, 'au'au. (pi. bahairri).
Bark (to), 'af'af k:, 'au'au k: Beat (to), zadan (zari), (conquer)
Barley, jau. glialib Smadan bar; glialabeli
Barn, anbar. yaftan.
Barracks, sarbaz-khaneh. Beautiful, khvuthgil, klivubsurat,
Barrel, pip: (of gun), luldi. jamil, qashang, maqbul.
Barren (soil), bi-bar, bi-miveh: Beauty, khvubsurati, husn, jamal.
(woman) 'aqir, ndzad. Because, zira (At'ft), bans bar in
Barricade, sadd i rah, sangar. kih, clrirU kih.
Base, kamin, past, dani, khrar, Beckon, ishareh kardan.
furumayeh, dun, zalil, haqir, Become (to), shudan (shzv), gar-
shani'. didan, gashtan (gard), (befit),
Base (foundation), bunyad, asas. dar khvur (shayisteli) budan.
Baseness, zittat, khvari, pasti. Becoming, sazavar, sliayistth.
Bashful, ba-haya, sharmsttr, khijil. Bed, takht: (of river) rudkhaneh.
Bashfulness, haya, sharmsari, Bedding, bistar, rakht i khvab.
khijalat. Bedroom, khvabgah.
Bee, zunbur i asal.
Basin, lagan, taslit.
Basis, bunyad, asas. Beef, gusht i gav.
Basket, sabad, zanbil. Beehive, kund i 'asal.
Bastard, haramz&deh. Beeswax, mum.
Bastinado, chub va falaqeh. Beetroot, chuqundur.
Bastinado (to), chub zadan: (to Befall, faqi' shudan, ittifaq uftS-
be) chub kJivurdan. dan (uff).
Bat (animal), shappareh. Before, pish, qabl; jilau; muqabil,
Bath, hammam: ghusl. ru bi-ru.
Bathe (to), ghusl kardan. Beg, kJwdstan (klipah), dar khvast
Battle, Jang, karzar, muqataleh. k: gadai k:
Battlefield, ma'rakeh, masSfgaJi. Beggar, gada.
Battlement, ktmgureh. Begin (to), shuru' ft:,
bana namu-
Bawl (to), bang zadan. danbi, aghazk:, giriftan (gir).
Bay, khalij: (colour) kahar, Beginner, mubtadi.
kumait. Beginning, ibtidM, shuru', badv,
Bayonet, naizeh. awal.
Be (to), budan (basli, buv) (with
Behalf (on), bi-khstir, barayi, dar
passive voice), sliudan. bahr i.
Behave Blockade 257

Behave (to), raftttr &:, suluk n: Between, (dar) miyan, bain.

Behaviour, rafttlr, suluk. Beware (to), bar hazar budan az,
Behead (to), gardan zadan, sar ihtiyat namudan az.
Beyond, nn taraf, ma vara-yi:
Behind, pas, aqab, duribal (vulg.), (more than), ziyadeh.
pai. Bible, kitdb i muqaddas.
Behold, inak, htln: (to behold), Bier, ttibut.
didan (&*), tamaslia k :, nigaris- Big, buzurp.
tan (nigar) bar, mushfthideh n: Bigness, buzurgt.
Being (existence), vujud, hasti: Bigoted, muta'assib.
(creature) makhluq. Bigotry, ta'assub.
Belief, imftn, dqideh; i'tiqad. Bile, zalireh.
Believe, imtin fivardan bi (bar} ; Bill, hisnb.
tasdiq &:, bavar k:, giravidan. Billet, raqimeli, ruq'eh.
Believer, imandtir. Billow, mauj, (pi. amv&j).
Bell, zang, jaras. Bind (to), bastan (band) (books), ;

Bellows, minfakh, damzan. jild kardan.

Belly, shikam batn: (dil, vulg.). Bird, parandeh.
Belong (to), until i budan. Birth, tavallud.
Beloved, mahbub, ma'shuq, dust Birthday, ruz i tavattitd.
dashteh. Bishop, tisquf, (pi. asffqifeh).
Below, zir, pain, furu, taht. Bit, pdreh, rizeh, tikkeh (vulg.);
Belt, kamarband. luqtneh: (of bridle), dahineh.
Bench, nisMman. Bite (to), gaz'idan.
Bend (to) (trans.) pichflntdan: Bitter, talkh.
(intr.) kham shudan; ptchidan. Bitterness, talkhi.
Beneath, zir, p&in. Bitumen, naft.
Benediction, barakat, tabrik. Black, siyah.
Benefactor, vaU-ni'mtit, ihsftn- Blacksmith, ahingar.
kunandeh. Blame, sarzanish, mu'flkhazeh :

Beneficial, mufid. (fault), 'aib (pi. 'uyub).

Benefit, faideh; ihstln; manfa'at, Blame (to), malflmat k:, sarza-
naf. nish n:
Bent (noun), righbat, mail: (adj.) Blanket, lahaf, patu, (for horse)
kaj. jul.
Bequest (religious), vaqf. Blaspheme (to), kufr guftan
Bereave (to), mahrum s:

Berry, daneh, habbeh. Blasphemer, kafir (pi. kuffar).

Beseech, istid'a n:, iltimus k:, Blaze, sukhtan (siiz).
multamis, b : Bleed (to, trans.), khiin giriftan :

Beside, dar pahlu-y-i. (intr.) khJJn nmadan.

Besides, 'alaceh bar: ghair az, Blemish, 'aib, jurm.
juz. Bless (to), (of God's blessing),
Besiege, tnuhttsareh n:, mahsur barakat dadan: (of men), bara-
sakhtan. kat khrfistan bar, du'n yi kliair
Best, bihtarin, alisan, afzal. kardan barayi.
Bestow, bakhsMdan, 'inttyat far- Blessed, mubffrik.

mudan, arzunl dashtan, ata k :

Blessing, barakat.
Bet (to), shart k: (bastan). Blind, nabinn, kur: blindness,
Betray (to), khiyttnatk:, taslim k: TcTtri, ntibinat.
Betroth (to), namzadk:, mansttbn: Block (to), masdud s:

Better, bihtar, khvubtar. Blockade, muhtisareh.

Persian Conv.- Grammar. n
258 Blockade Breath.

Blockade (to), muhasareh k: Born (to be), tavallud ynftan,

Blood, kliun. maulud sir.

Bloodmoney, khiin-baha, diyat. Borrow (to), (an article to be

Bloodshed, Tclmnrm. returned), 'ariyeh ('Briyatari)
Bloodthirsty, khunklwar. giriftan; (money), qarz giriftan.
Blossom, gul. Bosom, sineh, aghush; baghal
Blossom (to), shikuftan. Both, har do.
Blot, dttgh, lakkeh. Bottle, sMslieh, butri.
Blot out (to), mahv k: pak k: Bottom (of sea), tali.
Blotting-paper, ksghaz i nb-kash. Bough, sltakli.

Blow, zarb. Bound (limit), hadd (pi. hudud),

Blow (to), damidan: vazidan: (a Kaglir (pi. xugiwr), sarhadd.
flower), shikuftan. Bouquet, dasteli, guldasteh.
Blue, nUrang, a'H. Bow, kaman; (rainbow), qaus,
Blunder, islitibah, ghalat. qaus i quzah.
Blunt, kund. Bow (to), salatn kardan,
Boar, khug. k: (to a great man): ta'nruf
Board, takhteh. k: (to a friend).
Boast, fakhr, gizttf, Ifif. Bowels, rudeli, ahshff (pi. of
Boast, fakhr bar dan, laf zadan, hasha), am' a (pi. of mi'if).
giznf (guftari). Bowl, kaseh, jam.
Boat, zauraq, karaji. Box, sanduq, sanduqchefi; (small)
Body, tan,jasad: (dead), mayyit, quit, qab: (on the ear), Sill.

Ush. Box (to), musht zadan.

Boil (tumour), duribal. Boy, pisar, kudak.
Boil (to), (intr.) jushidan, jusli Brace (pair), juft.
nmadan (trans.) jush&nidan, Bracelet, dastband.
jusli k: (to cook) ab-paz k: Braces, shalvar-band.
Bold, diUr, dilGvar, sliuj&'. Brackish, shur. [meh).
Boldness, dilM, dilaoari, sliujci'at. Brahman, Barahman (pi. barahi-
Bolster, btilisli, balin, pushti. Braid, qaitnn.
Bolt, cldft, kuland, tarnlik. Brain, maghz, damagh.
Bomb, khunp&reh. Branch, shctkh; (of river), shu'bat.
Bombard (to), tub andaklitan. Brand, dugh.
Bond, rcibiteli, 'alaqeli: (docu- Brandish, afshandan.
ment), tamassuk. Brass, birinj.
Bondage, asM, 'ubudiyyat. Brave, diUr, dilavar, shuja'.
Bone, itstukhvttn. Bravo !
afarin, vffh vah ; bah, bah,
Book, Ttitcib (pi. kutub), saMfeh shabash.
(pi. sah&if), sifr. Bray, 'ar'ar kardan.
Bookbinder, sahhaf, jildgar. Brazier, misgar (coppersmith).
Bookseller, kitabfurush. Breach, rikhneh, shikfif.
Boot, Tcafsh, urusi, chakmdi (top- Bread, nan.
boots). Breadth, pahinai, 'arz.
Bootmaker, kafsh-duz. Break (to), (trans.) shikastan (shi-
Booty, yaglimci, ghanimat. kan\ pureh k: (intr.), shika-
Border, hashiyeh, kanfir, hadd stan, pareh shudan: (string),
(pi. hudud). gusistan (gusikhtan, gusilidan).
Bore (to) , suftan, sunbidan, Breakfast, nashta.
sitrttkh k: Breast, sineh, bar: (woman's),
Born, zaideh slmdeli, maulud, pist&n.
mutavallid. Breath, dam, nafas.
Breathe Butterfly. 259

Breathe (to), dam zadan, dami- Bucket, dalv; sail.

dan, nafas kashidan. Buckle, sagak.
Breeches, shalvnr. Buckler, sipar.
Breechloader, tah-pur. Bud, shikufeh, ghunclich.
Breed, nasl, niznd. Buffoon, luti.

Breeze, bttd i narm, nasim. Bug, stis: ganeh, malleh.

Brevity, ikhtisttr. Bugle, shaifur, shaipur.
Bribe, rushveh. Build (to), bana kardan, snkhtan
Bribe (to), rushveh dftdaw. (to (saz).
be-d rushveh khrurdan. Builder, bani; banna, mi'mftr (the
Brick (burnt), ajur: (sundried), actual workman).
khisht. Building. imarat: ta'mir.
Bride, 'arils. Bull, gnvi nar.
Bridegroom, darnnd. Bullet, gululeli.
Bridge, pul. Bullock, gttv,
Bridle, jilau, dahineh. Bulwarks, hisftr.
Brigand, rttlizan, duzd. Bunch, khuslwli; dasteh (of flow-
Brigandage, rahzani. ers).
Bright, raushan; lami', tflbun, Bundle, basteh (a package) :

tabandeh. buqcheh (e. g. of clothes for

Brightness, raushani, raushantti, the wash).
tabish. Burden, bar.
Brimstone, gugird, kibrit. Bureau, idareh, divftn, daftar-
Bring (to), n cardan (mar, ttr); khaneh.
(-forth), zmdan: (-up), par- Burial, dafn.
vardan, tarbiyyatn: (-back) bar Buried, madfun.
gardanidan ; (-forward), pish Burn (to), sukhtan (suz) (trans.
near dan, hazir hardan, thzftr n:. andintr.): suzanidan (trans.).
Broad, pahin, vasi , farttkh (wide). Burning-glass, 'ainak i fltasli-gir.

Broker, dalM. Burnish (to), mujallfl sfiklitan

Bronze, chttdan. zidudan, saigal kardan.


Brooch, gul i yakheh, gul i sineh. Burrow, sttrnkh, naqb.

Brook, jUy (jub vulg.) Burst (to, intr.) tarakidan, cliffk
Broom, jflrub. shudan.
Broth, Ub(i)gu8lit, slinrvfl. Bury (to), dafn kardan, khffk
Brother, baradar; akhavi. sipwdan (sipnr), madfun sfikh-

Brother-in-law, (husband's), ba- tan.

rudarzan; (wife's) barftdar i Bush (a), buteh: bisheh, jangal.
shauhar. Business, knr, kar va &<7r, amal
Brotherhood, birttdari, ukhiiwat. (pi. a'mal), shughl, amr (pi.
Brown, bur, gandum-gun: (of a umJir), giriftfiri] mu'ftmaleh.
- kahar
horse), qarah (dark- Bust, mujassameh.
brown); bur (light-brown). Busy, mashgtil.
Browse (to), charidan. But, lakin (likin), valnkin (valikin)
Bruise (to), kuftan, knMdan (kftb). ammff, vali: (but on the con-
Brush, jflrub, pttk-kun, safkun. trary) balkih.
Brush (to), jnrub, kardan (a Butcher, gassab.
room); pftk kardan (clothes). Butt (target), hadaf, nishtfneh.
Brushwood, buteh. Butt sar zadan(zan).
Brutal, vahsM, zalim, bi-muruvvat. Butter, kareh; (clarified), rnit-
Brutality, vahshiyyat, zulm, bi- ghan.
muruvvati. Butterfly, shahparak, parvffneh.
260 Button Case.

Button, dugmeh. Capability, qaltiliyyat.

Buy (to), kharidan, ishtira n: Capable, qabil.
' l

Buyer, mu-shtari. Capacious, ariz, vasi- ; ttffir.

By, az, U. Capacity (size), andazeh, gun-

jaish: (ability), hausileli, qabi-
Cabbage, Jcalam. liyyat.
Cabin (in ship), utaq. Cape, ra's, sar.
Cage, qafas, qafas. Capital (city), dar u'ssaltanat,
Cake, nan i sMrin. Pa-yi takht: (stock in trade),
Calamity, afat, musibat (pi. ma- ra'&u'lmnl, sarmttyeh.
saib} balii, sadameh, badbakliti. Captain, rais, nakhuda (of ship).
Calculate, hisab k: shamurdan Captive, asir, mahbits, dastgir,
(sliamar). giriftar.
Calculation, hisab, muhasabeh. Captivity, asm, hobs, quid.
Calendar, taqrtm. Capture (to), asir (giriftar, dast-
Calf, gusaleh. gir) s.:, rnaftuh s:
Calico, cMt, qalamkar. Car, kaliskeh.
Call, (to), khvandan, sida (soda) Caravan, k fin an, qttfileh.
zcidan, talab k: (n; dashtan), Caravansarai, kartcinsara'.
(call on, visit) barayi didan Carbine, tufang, qarabineh.
amadan: (to name), namtdan, Carbineer, tufangcM.
musamma' s: nam niliadanfnih). Carcass, murdar, lasli.
Calm aram, asudeh: (we&-
(adj.), Card (playing), ganjifeh: (visit-
ther), mulayim: (noun): arami. ing) kart.
Calm (to), aramidan. Care, fikr, tavcyjuh; andislteh:
Calomel, jiveh. kliabar, ihtiyat:
Calumniate, tuhmat zadan. Care (to), parva dnshtan: (take
Calumny, tuhmat, glubat, buhtan. care dSshtan, hifz k
of), Kigali :

Camel, shutur. Careful, khabarddr, ba-hazar.

Camelion, buqalamun. Careless, bi-kliabar, glmfil.
Camomile, babuneh. Carelessness, ghiflat, bi-ihtiyffti.
Camp, lashkarguh, urdu. Caress (to), navazish k , na- :

Camp (to) dt adur (khaimeli) zadan.

Camphor, kafiir. Cargo, bar.
Canal, nahr, juy (underground) :
Carnage, khiinrizi.
qanat. Carnal, nafsarii; jismani.
Cancel (to), mahv k: naskh n: Carnation, mikliak.
Candid, sadiq, mukhlis. Carpenter, najjcir.
Candle, sham

Carpet, qatt, qalicheh (prayer-

Candlestick, sliam'dan. carpet) sajjadeh.

Candour, ikhlas,
sidq. Carpet (to), farsh n:
Cane, nai: asa. Carriage, kaliskeh.
Cannibal, mardum-khvar. Carrier, hammal.
Cannon, tub, tup. Carrion, murdar.
Cannon-hall, gululeh-yi-tup. Carrot, zardak.
Canon, qanun, qa'ideli. Carry (to), burdan (bar); (out),
Canopus, suhail. bi-'amal fbi-ja) c cardan: vafa
Canopy, shadurvan, sayaban. k : (promise).
Canter (to), yiirtmeh raftan. Cartridge, fislumg.
Canvas, karbas. Carve, tarasMdan.
Cap kulali :
(of rifle), kuluh i tu- Cascade, ab-sltsr.
fang. Case (boxj, sanduq; qTM, qffb,
Cash Cheat. 261

-dan: (state), halat, hal, chigu- Censure (to), maldmat k: sdrza-

nagi (in case) dar surat
: : nish n:
(grammar), halat. Census, ismnavM, sar-slmmGri.
Cash, naqd. Centipede, hazar-pa.
Cashier (to), vna'zul kardan. Centre, mdrkaz; vasat; miyaneJt.
Casket, quti. Centurion, yuzbashi.
Cast, andakhtan (andaz), afkan- Centviry, mi'ali, (qarn?).
dan. Ceremony, rasm (pi. Ar. rusuiri) ;

Castle, qal'eh, hisn, ark (citadel) ; takalluf.

qasr (palace). Certain yaqin. muhaqqaq; (a
Castrate (to) akhteh (khasi) k: certain person), fulan shakhs,
Cat, gurbeh. shakhsi.
Catalogue, siyaheh, fihrist. Certainly, albatteli, f'lhaqfqeh,
Cataract, nb-shar; (in eye) fib fi'lvaqic.
(i murmrid). Certainty, yaqin, tayaqqun.
Catch (hasp), chift. Certificate (School), tas
Catch (to), giriftan (gir): (an (diploma), ijazeh-nameh ; (re-
infectious disease from one), commendation) sifarishns-meh.
bu-yi urn giriftan. Chan ,
sabus: (joking) mizuh,
Caterpillar, ktrm i sad-pa. shukM.
Catholic (Koman), katulik, pa- Chain, zanjir, silstteli : (of moun-

pavi: (universal), jami .

tains), silsileh (rishteh)-yikHhh(f.
Cattle, mavasM. Chair, sandaM.
Cauldron, dig. Chalk, gil i safid.
Cauliflower, kalam i faranyi. Chamber, utaq, hujreli.
Causal / x N /..,, i .j_ .
Change, tdbdil, taghyir: (small
Causative! (verb), /W m^&iw. money) pul i khurdeh.
Cause, sabab, mujib, jiliat, ba'is, Change (to), badal k:
'avaz k:
'illat. tabdU n:, k: taghyir dadan:
Cause (to), sabab i (an) bildan. (money), khurdeh k:
Caution (to), khabar dadan. Chapel, HMdat-gah, 'ibctdat-kha-
Cavalry, savureh, (niztttri). neh.
Caviar, tukltm i mahi. Chapter, bub, fast.
Cavil (to), i'tirUz k: Character (written), khatt- (qua-
Cease (to), va istadan, buz istn- lity), khaslat; kaifiyyat, chi-
dan (of), furigh shudan. gunagt] (good) abrtl, shuhrat.
Cedar, sarv i nzttd; (red) kuj. Charcoal, zughtil.
Cede, (to) taslim n: havtileh k: Charge, hamleh, ynrish: (accu-

Ceiling saqf. sation) shikayat: (custody),

Celebrate (festival), nigffh dash- amunat, havaleh.
tan, Charge (to), (entrust), sipurdan,
Celebrated, masliliur, ma'ruf, nam- havaleh k: (a gun) pur k:
Celebrity, (fame), shuhrat. Charge d' Affaires, naib i sifffrat.
Celerity, zudi, sur'at. Charm, tilism, ta'viz (on paper).
Celery, karafs. Chase, shikar.
Celestial, asmant, samftvt, minaii. Chaste, pakdaman, 'aftf, tahir,
Celibacy, 'uzbat, iajarrud. parhlzkar.
Cell sauma'eli, takyeli, maqsJireh. Chastity, 'iffat, 'asmat.
Cellar, zirzamin. Chatter (to), pur guftan.
Cement, sarish. Cheap, arzan, kamhalia.
Cemetery, qabrisian, gjiristan. Cheapness, arzffni. qalluh n:
Censure, sarzanisli, malamat. Cheat (to), firiftan (/>), to-
26*2 Cheek Clothe.

Cheek rukli, rukhsareh, surat. Circumcision, khitneli.

Cheerful, khvush va khurram, Circumstances, surat, umur, liul.

khushvaqt, shad.- Cistern, hauz: ab-anbar.

Cheertulness, masarrat, shfidi, Citadel, ark, qal'eli.
surur, sliadmctni. Citizen, sludiri.
Cheese, panir. City, shahr.
Chemise, qamis. Civil, mu'addab, adib, ba-adab.
Cheque, burst. Civility, adab.
Cherry (black), alubalu (red); Civilisation, madaniyyat.
gilas. Claim, da'va', iddi'fl.
Chess, shatranj. Claimant, mudda'i.
Chest (box), sandiiq; (breast) Clamour, faryud, sliuluk.
sineh. Clap hands (to), chapelt, zadan.
Chestnut, shsh baliit: (colour) Clasp, sagak, chap o rast, nar o
kuran. las.
Chew (to), javidan. Class, tabaqeh: qabil.
Chicken, jujelt. Claw, chang, diangal.
Chief, muqaddam; (noun); rais, Clay, gil.
pishi-a: (of nomads) ttkhant. Clean, pcik; pnkizeh, suf.
Chiefly, glialiban, aghlab. Cleanse (to), puk kardan.
Child, bachcheJi, tifl (pi. Ar. Clear (evident), zahir, fisltkar,
atfal). fazih (bright) raushan (trans-
: :

Childbirth, vaz i Jiaml. parent) slwffaf.
Childhood, tufuliyyat. Clear (to), bar chidan (table
Chimney, dudkash. cloth etc.).
Chin, chaneh, zanakh. Clearly, ashkara, tazihan.
China, Cliin. Cleave (to), shikaftan (to split) ;

Chintz (European), chit (Per- paivastan (to adhere).

sian); qcdamkar. Clergjrman, kashish.
Chisel, ushkinelt. Clerk, mirza.
Choke, khafeh kardan. Clever, zirak, zarang, chabuk, ba-
Cholera, vabtt. hush.
Choose, bar-guzidan (guzm), ikh- Clevernes?, zirakt, zarangi,firasat.
tiyffr k:, intiJdiab n: Climate, ab va hava.
Chorus, band~gardan. Climb (to), baJa raftan, bar
Christ, Masih. amadan.
Christian, mat/Hit, 'Isavt. Clinch (to), parchln k: (a nail).
Christianity, din i maslhi. Cloak, balapUsh, (ib-dast, 'aba,
Christmas, aid i milad (i Masih). lubbadeli.
Chronicles, tavfirikli (pi. Ar. of Clock, sa'at i majlisi.

tnrikh). Clockmaker, sa'at-saz.

Chronicler, muvarrikfi. Clod, kulukli.
Church (assembly),fca7i*a: (build- Close, naedlk, qarib: (narrow)
ing) 'ibadat-gah, 'ibadat khatieh. tang.
Cigar, sigar: (-case), qabisigar. Close (to), bastan (band)] mas-
Circle, daireh. dud s:

Circular, gird, mudavvar. Closet, klialvat khaneli: (privy),

Circulate (to), intisliar dadan sar i ab, khala.
(trans) : intishar yaftan (intr.) :
Cloth, parcfieh: (woollen), ma-
(money) ratiij daslitan. hut.
Circumcise (to), khitneli n: Clothe (to), pushanldan, mulab-
makhtun s: bas s:
Clothes Completely. 263

Clothes, rakht, libas, pusltak. Comforter, tasull! dihandeh.

Cloud, abr. Command, hukm, amr, farnwn,
Cloudy (overcast), girifteh, abr- farmaish :
dar. Command (to), hukm k: amr n:
Clove, mikhak. farman d: farmudan (farmay}.
Clover, shabdar. Commander (in-chief), sardar,
Club, 'asa, gurz, clmmaq. amir-nizam, sipali-salar ; lasli-
Coach, kaliskeli, fyfiri). karkash.
Coachman, kaliskeh-chi. Commence, Una n: ,8hurTi' k:
Coal, zuglial i sang. aghaz n: giriftan.
Coalmine, ma'dan i
zuglial. Commentary, tafsir, shark.
Coarse, kuluft, qatur; durusht. Commentator, mufassir.
Coast, kanar, sahil (Ar. pi. sa- Commerce, tijarat.
vahil). Commercial, tijaratt.
Coat, sardari, qaba: (great coat) Commit (entrust), sipurdan (si-
baJapvsh. par), amanatk: (do), murtakib
Cobbler, pineh-duz. i
Cobweb, tar i 'ankabut. Common, 'amm; 'ammeh: (-peo-
Cock, khurus: (of a rifle), dang, ple), 'avvamu'n nas.
pashneh. Commonly 'umuman.
Cock a gun), pashneh-yi tu-
(to, Communion, rifaqat, muravadat;
fang-ra bala kashidan. mubasharat: (Holy C-), shirqat
Cocoa-nut, nargil: (ndlgir, vulg.). i muqaddas, 'Aslia-y-iltdbbarii.

Coffee, qaliueh. Companion, raflq (pi. Ar. ru-

Coffin, sanduq, tabTit. faqa), sharik, liamrah.
Coin, sikkeh. Company (band), dasteli, /aty.
Coin (to), sikkeh kardan. Comparative (degree), halat i

Cold, sard (adj.): sardi, sarma tafzil.

(noun): (to catch cold), c/ta- Comparatively, nisbat bi-; bi'n-
Mdeh shudan, sarma khviirdan nisbeh.
Colic, dard i dil. Compare (to), muqabalelt k:
Collar (of coat), yaklieh, yaqeh. Comparison, muqabaleh; tamfil,
Collect (to), jam,' k: faraham tashUh.
avardan. Compass, parkar :
Collection, majmu'elt, majma'. qiitb-nama.
College, madraseh. Compassion, riqqat, shafaqat.
Collyrium, surmeh. Compassionate, mushfiq.
Colour, rang, laun (Ar. pi. al- Compel (to), ijbar s:, ibram n:
vnn). majbttr n:
Coloured, rangin, mulavvan. Compensate (to), 'avaz dadan.
Colt, kurreh. Compensation, 'avaz.
Column, sutun: (in book), jad- Compilation, ta'lif.
val. Compile (to), ta'ltf k :

Comb, shaneli. Compiler mu'allif.

Comb (to), shnneh kardan. Complaint (illness), maraz: (ac-
Combat, mujadaleh, muqataleh, cusation), shikityat: (to lodge
a-), shikayat nvardan,
Tc: (<w,
Come (to), amadan (<7/),(-topass), bar).
bi-vuqu' paivastan, vuqi' sli: Complement, tatimmeii.
Comet, siiureli-yi dunbaleh-dar. Complete, kamil, tamm, tamo in,
Comfort, tasdlli, dil-asai :
asayiali. kuUi. [tan.
Comfort (to), tasalli dadan. Completely, tamitman, kulliyya-
264 Complete Contagion.

Complete (to), bi-itmam rasant- Confiscate (to), zabt k:

dan. Conformity (in), bar vifq, bar
Completion, itmam, takmil. muvafiq, mutabiq.