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quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelobis

saxelmwifo universitetis dialeqtologiis


samecniero-kvleviTi instituti

tariel futkaraZe
istoriuli sacxovrisi

dedaena

qarTvelebi dialeqtebi

nawili I
qristianobamdeli epoqa

2005
AKAKİ TSERETELİ KUTAİSİ DEVLET ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Akaki Tsereteli Kutaisi State University DİYALEKTOLOJİ BİLİMSEL ARAŞTIRMA ENSTİTÜSÜ
Dialectology Research Institute

Tariel Putkaradze
Tariel Putkaradze

Gürcüler
Kartveller
The Georgıans
The Kartvels

Historical Home Tarihsel Yerleşim


Mother Tongue Anadili
Dialects Lehçeler

Part I 1. Kısım
Pre-Christian Period
Milattan Önceki Dönem

2005

2005
wignSi ganxilulia qarTvelTa enobrivi da eTnikuri is-
Kitabın birinci kısmında, Kartvellerin (Gürcülerin)* eski tarihiyle ilgili toriis sakiTxebi, kerZod:
konular, dilbilimi, arkeoloji ve etnoloji alanlarındaki araştırmaların ve belge- - winareqarTveluri tomebisa da sakuTriv qarTvelebis
sel kaynakların karşılaştırmalı tahlilleri yapılarak istoriuli sacxovrisis sazRvrebi;
Tarih öncesi Kartveli (Gürcü) kavimlerinin ve Kartvellerin tarihsel yer- - saerToqarTveluri ena, rogorc samwignobro qarTuli
leşim alanları; enis sabazo enobrivi struqtura;
Kartvel (Gürcü) edebi dilinin dilbilimsel temeli olarak, ortak Kartvelgil - qarTvelTa dedaenis - qarTveluri samwignobro enisa
dil; da qarTveluri kiloebis fonematur-morfologiur-sin-
Kartvellerin (Gürcülerin) ana dilinin - Kartvelgil edebi dilin ve taqsur-leqsikuri mimarTebebi;
lehçelerin ses bilgisi, yapı bilgisi ve cümle bilgisi ile sözcük hazinesi - mravalsaukunovani qarTveluri samwignobro enis qmna-
arasındaki ilişkiler; dobis procesSi sxvadasxva kuTxis qarTvelTa (megrel-laz-
Çeşitli Gürcü bölgelerinde oturan Gürcü kavimlerin (Megrel-Lazlar,
Ta, svanTa, mesxTa...) monawileobis amsaxveli masala;
Svanlar, Meshler, Acaralılar, Kartlililer v.s) tarihi ortak edebi dilin
- qarTveluri mosaxleobis TviTaRqma;
oluşmasına, nasıl katkıda bulunduklarına dair kaynaklar;
Kartvelgil halkların kendilerini kime, niçin ve hangi millete ait ettikleri - qarTveli eris aRmniSvneli eTnonimebisa (qarTveli,
konular; kolxi, mosoqi, iberi, virqi, gurji, gurgani, georgian, afxa-
Gürcü ulusunu ifade eden terimlerin etimolojisi ve tarihi: Kartvel, Kolh, zi, obezi, gruzini...) da calkeul qarTvelur tomTa/TemTa
Mosok, İber, Virk, Gürcü, Gurgan, Abhaz, Obez, Gruzin gibi terimler; saxelwodebebis istoria-etimologiebi...
Özel Kartvelgil kabileler ve toplulukların isimleri; saqarTvelos gareT naklebad icnoben saqarTveloSi Seq-
Bununla birlikte topluluk, kabile, etno, ulus, edebi dil, sözlü dil (yazılı mnil qarTvelologiur kvlevebs, amitomac, qarTulis ar-
olmayan dil), lehçe, resmi dil, ulusal dil, anadil, yabancı dil, lehçe gibi mcodneTaTvis wigns axlavs SedarebiT mokle inglisureno-
terimler incelenmiştir. vani da Turqulenovani variantebi; Sesabamisad, naSromi
Kartvelgil kavimlerin bir kısmının (Megrel, Svan, Lazlar, Acaralılar, bevr siaxles Seicavs misTvis, visac sakmarisi informa-
Meshler v.s.) yazısı olmayan halklar oldukları ileri sürülerek, bu halklar ciis verflobis gamo hgonia, rom qarTvelTa nawils - me-
Kartvellerin atalarının kurduğu büyük yazı kültüründen koparılmak isten- grelebs, lazebs, svanebs, mesxebs - ara aqvT istoriuli
mektedir. Kitabımızda bu konudaki iddialara ilişkin belgelere dayalı samwignobro ena.
cevaplar bulunmaktadır.
Gürcüstan’daki Kartveloloji çalışmaları, Gürcistan dışında az bilindiği
için bu kitapta İngilizce ve Türkçe kısa bilgiler sunulmaktadır.
*Etnonimler olan "Kartvel" ve "Gürcü" kelimeleri sinonimlerdir, bu
nedenle metnin esas kısmkında "Kartvel" kelimesi kullanılmıştır.

gamomcemloba ”quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti”


“KUTAİSİ DEVLET ÜNİVERSİTESİ ” Yayınları © t.futkaraZe
© T.Putkaradze ISBN-99928-79-64-X
ISBN-99928-79-64-X
The present book deals with the questions of the linguistic-
ethnic history of the Georgians (/the Kartvels), in particular:
- The boundaries of the historical home of the proto-Kartvelian
tribes and the Georgians proper;
- The common Kartvelian language, as the basic linguistic structure
of the Georgian literary language;
- Phonemic, morphological, syntactic and lexical relations of the inglisuri Targmani - irine kucia;
mother tongue of the Georgians – the Kartvelian literary language Turquli - abdulah zorlu (arCil zoiZe), giga qa-
and the Kartvelian dialects; muSaZe; pativiscemiT aRvniSnavT, agreTve, lela
- The material demonstrating the participation of the Georgians of gaCeCilaZis, iasin msxalaZisa da roin yavreliSvilis
various provinces (Megrels, Laz, Svans, Meskhs, etc.) in the process Rvawls.
of the formation of the centuries-old Kartvelian literary language; naSromis gamoqveynebis procesSi Tanadgomas miwev-
- The identity of the Georgians/Kartvels; dnen: eka dadiani, ia vaSakiZe, levan vaSakiZe, Salva kirTaZe,
buba kudava, Teimuraz futkaraZe, fahredin CiloRlu, em-
- History and etymologies of the ethnonyms denoting the Georgian
zar WanturiZe, xaTuna javaxaZe.
Nation (Kartvel, Colchian, Mosoch, Iberian, Virk, Gurj, Gurgan,
Abkhazian, Obez, Gruzin, etc.) and individual Kartvelian tribes and
communities.
The Kartvelological studies written in Georgia are little
known abroad; therefore, the book is accompanied by comparatively
brief versions in English and Turkish, for persons not speaking
Georgian. The study will hopefully help those who, due to lack of
relevant information, think that the mother tongues of the Megrels,
the Laz and the Svans are unwritten continua.

Press “Kutaisi State University“


© T.Putkaradze
ISBN-99928-79-64-X
1.2. qarTvelTa aRmniSvneli Zveli da axali saxelebi.. 79-185
sarCevi Old and new names denoting the Georgians........................... 420-443
Contents Kartvelileri tanımlayan eski ve yeni isimler............................ 351-368
İÇİNDEKİLER
1.2.1. winareqarTvelur (iberiul-kavkasiur-winaaziur)
qarTuli asoniSnebis satransliteracio sqema................. da qarTvelur tomTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi................ 79-159
transliteration diagram................................................................................. The names denoting proto-Kartvelian (Iberian-Caucasian-
Gürcüce, Inglizce, Almanca, Türkçe, Rusça ve 23-24 Western Asian) and Kartvelian tribes...................................... 420-439
Uluslararası harflar.......................................................................... Proto-Kartvelgil (İberylı-Kafkasyalı-Ön Asyalı) ve Kart-
velgil kavimleri tanımlayan isimler......................................... 351-363
winasityvaoba ….............................................................................. 25-32
Preface …………………………………………............................... 397-403 1.2.2. qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba – qarTveli................. 160-181
Önsöz ................................................................................................... 333-337 The self-designation of the Georgians – Kart- 439-443
veli...................
Kartvelilerin kendilerine verdikleri isim - “Kartveli”.............. 363-366
Tavi I - terminologiuri problemebi …………….............. 33-200
Chapter I - Terminological problems ……........................................... 404-447 1.2.3. qarTvelebis aRmniSvnel eTnonimTa da TemonimTa
I Bölüm - Terminolojik Sorunlar………………….............................. 338-370 lingvisturi mimarTebis amsaxveli sqema....................... 182-185
The diagram of the linguistic relations of the ethnonyms and
1.1. enisa da kilos mimarTebis sakiTxi da eri.................. 33-78 themonyms denoting the Georgians......................................... 443-446
The relation of language and dialect and nation...................... 404-420 Kartvelleri tanımlayan terimlerin dilbilimsel şeması............... 366-368
Dil ile Lehçe arasındaki ilişki ve ulus...................................... 338-350
1.3. sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva
1.1.1. Temi, tomi, eTnosi, eri....................................................... 33-41 istoriuli epoqa ….......................................................... 186-200
Community, tribe, ethnos, nation............................................. 404-408 Choronyms of different languages and various historical
Topluluk, kabile, etno, ulus...................................................... 338-341 periods...................................................................................... 447-450
Çeşitli tarihi çağlar ve ülkelerin çeşitli dillerdeki
1.1.2. samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti; saxel- adlandırılmaları........................................................................ 368-370
mwifo ena, erovnuli ena, dedaena, ucxo ena.............. 42-70
Literary language, unwritten language, dialect; state Tavi II - qarTvelebi uZvelesi droidan qristianobamde;
saerToqarTveluri enis Teoriuli modelisa da
language, national language, mother tongue, foreign 201-322
language................................................................................... 408-414 daTariRebis sakiTxebi....................................................
Edebi dil, sözlü dil (yazısız), lehçe, resmi dil, ulusal dil, Chapter II - The Georgians from the ancient times to Christianity;
anadil, yabancı dil, lehçe.......................................................... 342-346 towards the theoretical model and dating of the common
Kartvelian language............................................................. 451-486
1.1.3. qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajg- II. Bölüm - Milattan Önce Kartveller; Ortak Kartvelgil dilin
71-78 tarihlendirilmesi ve kuramsal modeli .............................. 371-389
ufebis sakiTxi......................................................................
Towards the grouping of modern linguistic units of the 2.1. kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli
Georgians................................................................................. 415-420 201-259
sacxovrisis sakiTxi..........................................................
Kartvellerin çağdaş dilsel birimlerinin sınıflandırılması.... 346-350
The original home of the Caucasian-Kartvelian ethnos.......... 451-464
Kafkas-Kartvelgil etnonun anayurdu....................................... 371-379
ti'nin ülkesinin olası resmi dili olan ortak Kartvelgil dilin
2.1.1. bibliuri da miTologiuri TvalTaxedva …............... 201-209 var olduğu dönem ve bu dilin kuramsal modeli...... ........... 380-389
Biblical and mythological viewpoints................................. 451-453
Kitabı Mukaddes’te ve mitolojide görüşler......................... 371-372 2.2.1. kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeolo-
giuri monacemebis mixedviT.......................................... 259-263
2.1.2. mecnieruli mosazrebani............................................... 210-236 The boundaries of the Colchian culture according to
Scholarly views. ................................................................. 453-461 archeological evidence......................................................... 465-466
Bilimsel görüşler................................................................. 372-378 Arkeolojik bulgulara göre Kolh uygarlığının sınırları......... 380-381

2.1.2.1. migraciis Teoria ........................................................... 210-220 2.2.2. kolxuri kulturis Semqmneli eTnosis enis
The theory of migration ..................................................... 453-457 sakiTxi................................................................................ 264-279
Göç kuramı.......................................................................... 372-375 The language of the ethnos creating the Colchian 466-472
culture..................................................................................
2.1.2.2. amierkavkasiaSi avtoqTonobis Teoria ...................... 220-225 Kolh uygarlığını yaratan etnonun dili…….......................... 381-382
The theory of autochthony in Transcaucasia ...................... 457-457
Transkafkasya'da yerli topluluklarla ilgili kuramlar ........... 376-376 2.2.3. saerToqarTveluri enis Teoriuli modelis saki-
Txi da misi arsebobis dro........................................... 280-297
2.1.2.3. kavkasia-winaaziaSi avtoqTonobis Teoria …........... 225-236 The question of the theoretical model of the common
Kartvelian language and the time of its existence............... 472-474
The theory of autochthony in Caucasia – western Asia....... 457-461
Kafkasya-Ön Asya'da yerli topluluklarla ilgili kuramlar.... 376-378 Ortak Kartvelgil dilin kurumsal modeli ve var olduğu
dönem.................................................................................. 383-384
2.1.3. winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-
kavkasiuri (iberiul-kavkasiuri) enobrivi veli; 2.3. qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo; 23 saukunis
winaaziur-kavkasiur monaTesave enaTa mimarTebis winandeli saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena da qar-
sqema.................................................................................... 237-258 Tveluri dialeqtebi; qarTvelTa asomTavr-
uli damwerloba............................................................ 298-322
The cultural world of western Asia and the Kartvelian-
Caucasian (Iberian-Caucasian) linguistic field; the Georgia under Kuji and Parnavaz; the state language of
diagram of the relation of the kindred western Asian – Georgia and the Kartvelian dialects 23 centuries ago; the
461-464 Georgian alphabet................................................................ 474-486
Caucasian languages...........................................................
Ön Asya'nın kültürel dünyası ve Kartvelgil - Kafkasylı Kuci ve Parnavaz döneminde Gürcistan, 23 yüzyıl önce
(İberyalı-Kafkasyalı) dil alanı, Ön Asyalı-Kafkasyalı Gürcistan'ın resmi dili ve Kartveli lehçeler, Gürcü alfab-
378-379 esi......................................................................................... 384-389
akraba dillerin ilişki şeması.................................................

2.2. aietidan farnavazamde: kolxuri kultura; ai- 2.3.1. istoriuli realiebi .................................................... 298-302
etis qveynis SesaZlo oficialuri enis - saer- Historical realia.................................................................... 474-476
ToqarTveluri enis - Teoriuli modeli da ar- Tarihsel olgular.................................................................... 384-385
sebobis dro..................................................................... 259-297
From Aeetes to Parnavaz: the Colchian Culture; the theo- 2.3.2. qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxel-
retical model and time of existence of the probable official mwifo enis fonematuri modelis sakiTxi................ 303-307
language of the country under Aeëtes - the common Kart- The Georgian alphabet and the phonemic
velian language.................................................................... 465-474 model of the 476-478
Aieti'den Parnavaz'a kadar: Büyük Kolh uygarlığı; Aie- state language in the period of Parnavaz
............................ References …………..........................................................................
Parnavaz döneminde resmi dilin sesbirimsel Seçilmiş kaynakça…………............................................................... 493-528
modeli ve gürcü alfabesi................................................. 385-386 saZiebeli Index Dizin …………............................................... 529-566

2.3.3. Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibe- a. gaanalizebuli fuZeebi, sityvaformebi da


bis dro.............................................................................. 308-322 terminebi...............................................................................
The problem of dating the formation of the modern Kart- ... 531-544
velian dialects...................................................................... 473-486 Analyzed stems, word forms and terms .....................................
Çağdaş Kartvelgil lehçelerin oluşması ve tarihlen- Kökler, Sözcükler, Terimler.......................................................
dirilmesı............................................................................... 386-389
b. pirTa saxelebi da wyaroebi.......................................
Personal names and sources .................................................... 549-546
daskvnis nacvlad .......................................................................... 323-329 Ad-Soyadlar ve Tarihi Kaynaklar ...........................................
By way of a conclusion ...................................................................... 487-492
Sonuç olarak ......................................................................................... 390-393 g. ena-kiloebi, eTnonimebi/Temonimebi, adgilis
saxelebi...............................................................................
a. naSromSi warmodgenili ZiriTadi debulebebi 323-327 546-569
Languages-dialects, ethnonyms/themonyms, place
Main propositions of the study............................................ 487-491
names.......
Kitapta yer alan genel düşünceler....................................... 390-393
Dil-Lehçeler, Etnonimler, Temonimler ve Yer Adları
.............
b. iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis, saerToqarTveluri
enis, samwignobro qarTulisa da qarTvelTa qarTvelTa sxvadasxvaenovani (qarTuli, inglisuri, ru-
Tanamedrove dialeqtebis mimarTebis amsaxve- suli, Turquli, germanuli) eTnonimebi/Temonimebi,
li sqema.......................................................................... 328-329 qoronimebi, ena-kiloebi...........................................................
The diagram of the relationship of the Iberian-Caucasian Ethnonyms, choronyms and languages/dialects of the Georgians in 571-578
languages, the common Kartvelian language, literary various languages (Georgian, English, Russian, Turkish, German)...
Georgian and modern Georgian/Kartvelian dialects........... 491-492
Kartveliler'in çeşitli dilsel ( Gürcüce, Almanca, İngilizce, Rusça,
İberiya-Kafkas dillerin, ortak Kartvelgil dilin, edebi Türkçe...) etnonimleri, koronimleri ve lehçeleri................................
gürcü dilinin ve çağdaş gürcü lehçelerinin ilişki
392-394 I danarTi I Appendix I Ek (Eleştirim yazıları)
şeması...................................................................................
T.gvancelaZe - qarTveluri enebi Tu qarTveluri
mokle Turquli varianti...................................................... dialeqtebi? (gamoxmaureba).......................................................
Brief Turkish version.......................................................................... 331-394 T. Gvantseladze - Kartvelian languages or Kartvelian dialects ? 579-612
Kısatılmış Türkçe Metin.............................................................. (Response).............................................................................................
T.Gvanceladze - Kartvelgil Dilleri mi Kartvelgil Lehçeleri?
mokle inglisuri varianti.................................................... (Görüş yazısı)........................................................................................
Brief English version.......................................................................... 395-492
Kısatılmış İnglizce Metin............................................................. II danarTi II Appendix II Ek (Eleştirim yazıları)
sqematuri rukebi Schematic Maps Haritalar .......................... 613-622
damowmebuli literatura…………........................................
a. xuritul-xaTur-kavkasiuri mosaxleobis ganf-
enis veli Zv.w. IV-III aTaswleulebSi................... T. Tanamedrove saqarTvelos administraciuli
The area of diffusion of the Hurrian-Hattic-Caucasian ruka.....................................................................................
population and the Sumerians in the 3rd millenium BC...... 615 The administrative map of modern Georgia........................ 622
M. Ö. IV-III yüzıllarda Hurit, Hat ve Kafkas halkların Bügünkü Gurcustan´in Bögesel haritası......................
yerleşim alanı.......................................................................
b. kolxuri kultura da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri
tomebi Zv.w. II aTaswleulis dasasrulsa da
Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi............................... wignis meore nawilis (mzaddeba gamosaqveyneblad) Sinaarsi
Colchian culture and Kartvelian-Caucasian tribes at the Contents of Part Two of the Book (Forthcoming)
end of the 2nd millenium BC and the beginning of the 1st 616
Kitabın II. Kısmı (yayıma hazırlanmaktadır)
millenium BC.......................................................................
M. Ö. II. binyılın sonu ile I. binyılın başlarında Kartvelgil-
İçindekiler
Kafkasyalı kavimler ve Kolh kültürü...................................
qristianobis epoqa
g. qarTveluri da sxva iberiul-kavkasiuri tome- Period of Christianity
bi Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua periodSi................. Milattan Sonraki Dönem
The Kartvelian and other Caucasian tribes in the middle
period of the 1st millenium BC............................................ 617
Tavi III - qarTvelebi I-X saukuneebSi; qarTuli (zogadqarTuli,
M. Ö. I. binyılın ortasında Kartvelgil ve diğer Iberiyalı-
qarTveluri) samwignobro enis ganviTarebis axali etapi -
Kafkasyalı kavimler.............................................................
saeklesio mwerlobis ena
d. qarTveluri saxelmwifoebi welTaRricxvaTa Chapter III - The Georgians in the 1st – 10th centuries; a new stage of the
mijnaze................................................................................ development of the Georgian (common Georgian, Kartvelian)
The Kartvelian states at the turn of our era.......................... 618 literary language – the language of ecclesiastical writing
M. Ö. I. binyılın son döneminde Kartvelgil Prenslikleri..... III. Bölüm - I-IX. yüzyıllarda Gürcüler, Gürcü (Ortak Gürcü, Kartvelgil) edebi
dilinin gelişmesinde yeni aşama-dini yazı dili
e. saqarTvelo da misi ymadnafici (vasali) qvey-
nebi ax.w. XI-XII saukuneebSi....................................
Georgia and her vassal countries in the 11th-12th 3.1. sruliad qarTli (saqarTvelo) I-IV saukuneebSi
centuries............................................................................... 619 All Kartli (Georgia) in the 1st – 4th centuries
XI-XII yüzyıllarda Gürcistan ve Gürcistan'a tabi olan I -IV. yüzyıllarda Bütün Kartli (Gürcistan)
ülkeler...................................................................................
3.1.1. sruliad qarTlis danawevreba
v. Tanamedrove qarTveluri dialeqtebis ruka... Division of Kartli
The map of modern Kartvelian dialects............................... Bütün Kartli'nin parçalanması
Çağdaş Kartvelgil lehçelerinin haritası........................ 620
3.1.2. qristianoba - qarTveluri kulturis axali orientiri; kaba-
z. Tanamedrove kavkasiisa da anatoliis ruka........ dokia da oSkis sakaTalikoso; ioane lazi da petre iberi;
The map of modern Caucasia and Anatolia......................... qristianuli literaturis warmoqmna
Çağdaş Kafkasya ve Ön asya haritası........................ 621
Christianity as a new landmark of Kartvelian culture; Cappadocia and
the Catholicosate of Oshki. John the Laz and Peter the Iberian; rise of
Christian literature 3.3.1. dayofili saqarTvelo; didi xiznoba dasavleT saqarTveloSi;
Kartvelgil kültürün yeni simgesi Hıristiyanlık; Kapadokya ve Oşki SiSina dialeqturi wris formirebis dasasruli
piskoposluğu; Laz Iovane ve Petre İberi; Hıristiyan edebiyatın Divided Georgia; the influx of refugees into western Georgia; the fo-
oluşturulması rmation of the dialectal circle of the hushing sounds
3.1.3. saxelmwifo enis sakiTxi saqarTvelos (sruliad qarTlis) te- Gürcüstan'ın parçalanması; Batı Gürcüstan'a büyük göç; Sert
ritoriaze I-IV saukuneebSi ünsüzlerin kullanıldığı diyalektik alanın oluşumu
The state language on the territory of Georgia (Kartli) in the 1st-4th centu- 3.3.2. qarTuli mesianizmis safuZvlebi; "qeba~ qarTvelTa da qar-
ries TvelTa enisa~"
I –IV yy. Gürcüstan (Bütün Kartli)'da resmi dil Foundations of the Georgian Messianism; “Praise and Glorification of
gorgasalis epoqa - didi qarTlis nawilobrivi aRdgena; sa- the Georgian Language”
3.2.
mwignobro enaSi asaxuli qarTveluri kiloebi Kartvelgil Mesih düşüncesinin temelleri; “Kartvellerin ve Gürcü
The period of Vakhtang Gorgasali – revival of Kartli; the Kart- dilinin methi”
velian dialects reflected in the archaic literary language 3.3.3. "qarTlad friadi (/mravali) queyana~ aRiracxebis..." - qarTi-
Gorgasali dönemi -Kartli'nin kalkınması; Edebi dilde Kartvelgil zacia/qarTvelizacia Tu qarTvelTa morigi konsolidacia?

lehçeler Georgia is reckoned to consist of those numerous lands...- Kartization/


Kartvelization or a new stage of the consolidation of the Georgians
3.2.1 sruliad qarTlis sazRvrebi
"Kartli-Gürcüce ayın okunulan bölgeler"- Kartlileşme/Gürcüleşme ya
The boundaries of Kartli
da Kartvellerin birleşmesinde yeni dönem
Bütün Kartli'nin sınırları
3.2.2. qarTuli/qarTveluri originaluri qristianuli litera- Tavi IV - qarTvelebi XI-XVIII saukuneebSi; samwignobro qarTulis
turis ena stiluri variantebi
The language of original Kartvelian Christian literature Chapter IV - The Georgians in the 11th-18th centuries; stylistic varieties of
Gürcü (Kartvelgil) Özgün Hıristiyan edebi dili literary Georgian
IV. Bölüm - XI-XVIII. Yüzyıllarda Kartveller; Gürcü edebi dilinin üsluba
3.2.3. qarTvelTa dialeqtebi
ilişkin çeşitleri
The dialects of the Georgians
Kartvelgil lehçeleri saqarTvelos oqros xana
4.1.
3.3. sruliad qarTli VII-X saukuneebSi; qarTuli mesianizmi da
Georgia’s Golden Age
qarTvelTa dedaena
Gürcistan'da ''Altın Çağ''
Kartli in the 7th -10th centuries; Georgian Messianism and mother
tongue of the Georgians 4.1.1. kulturul-istoriuli foni evraziaSi; didi saqarTvelos
sazRvrebi (ymadnafici qveynebis CaTvliT)
VII-X. yüzyıllarda Bütün Kartli; Kartvelgil Mesih düşüncesinin ortaya
The cultural and historical background in Eurasia; the boundaries of
çıkışı ve anadil
Great Georgia (including the Trebizond Empire)
Avrasya'da kültürel durum, Büyük Gürcüstan’ın sınırları (Trabzon 4.3.2. qarTveluri kulturuli memkvidreobisa da saxelmwifo
Krallığı ve diğer prenslikler dahil) enis sakiTxi qarTul samefo-samTavroebSi

4.1.2. qarTvelTa kulturuli kerebi The Kartvelian cultural heritage and the state language in the Georgian
principalities
Cultural centers of the Georgians
Gürcü krallıklarında ve prensliklerinde Kartvelgil kültürel miras ve
Kartvellerin kültürel merkezleri
resmi dil
4.1.3. qarTuli samwignobro enis stiluri variantebi
4.3.3. ”iberielTa erTobis traqtati”
Stylistic varieties of the Georgian literary language
“The Treaty on the Unity of the Iberians”
Kartvelgil yazı dilinin çeşitleri
"İberyalıların Birlik Antlaşması"
4.2. monRolobidan Temur-lengamde
From the Mongol Period to Tamerlane Tavi V - qarTvelebi XIX-XX saukuneebSi; samwignobro qarTulis
Moğol'lardan Timur’a kadar olan dönem gavrcelebis velis SezRudva
4.2.1. cotne dadianisa da giorgi brwyinvalis saxelmwifoebrivi Chapter V - The Georgians in the 19th – 20th centuries; limitation of the
azrovneba diffusion area of literary Georgian
V. Bölüm - XIX-XX yüzyıllarda Kartveller, Kartvelgil yazı dilinin
State mentality of Tsotne Dadiani and Giorgi the Brilliant
yayılma alanının daralması
Tsotne Dadiani’nin ve V.Giorgi (Parlak)’ın devlete ilişkin görüşleri
4.2.2. erTiani kulturul-saganmanaTleblo veli orad gayofil 5.1. saqarTvelos aneqsia da okupacia mefis ruseTis mier
saqarTvelosa da kavkasiaSi
Annexation and occupation of Georgia by Tsarist Russia
The single cultural and educational field in Georgia divided into two Gürcüstan'ın Çarlık Rusya’sınca işgali ve ilhakı
and Caucasia
5.1.1. qarTul samTavroTa orientirebi da mkacri sinamdvile
Kafkasya’da ve ikiye bölünmüş Gürcüstan'da genel kültürel ve
Landmarks of Georgian principalities and the reality
eğitimsel alanlar
Gürcü Prensliklerinin durumu, Siyası eğilimleri ve gerçekler
4.2.3. qarTveluri anbani Crdilo kavkasiaSi
5.1.2. ruseTis imperiis Seteva qarTvelur cnobierebaze: enobrivi
The Kartvelian alphabet in northern Caucasia diversia
Kuzey Kafkasya'da kartvelgil alfabe
The attack of the Empire against the Kartvelian consciousness
4.3. qarTvelebi XV-XVIII saukuneebSi
Kartvelgil bilinç ile dile Rus İmparatorluğu’nun baskısı
The Georgians in the 15th - 18th Centuries
5.1.3. mowinave qarTuli azri ruseTis kulturuli agresiis wina-
XV-XVIII. yüzyıllarda Kartveller (Gürcüler) aRmdeg; 1918 wlis "saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxade-
4.3.1. patar-patara saqarTveloebi bis aqti" da samwignobro qarTulisTvis saxelmwifo enis sta-
Several small Georgian principalities tusis aRdgena

Küçük Gürcü krallıkları Progressive Georgian thought against Russia’s cultural aggression; the
“Act of the Declaration of Independence of Georgia" in 1918 and the re-
establishment of literary Georgian as the state language putsch organized by the empire
Rusya'nın kültürel baskısı karşısında entelektüel gürcü düşüncesi, 1991 yılında Gürcüstan'ın bağımsızlığını ilan etmesi, Sovyet
1918 yılında Gürcüstan'ın bağımsızlığını ilan etmesi ve Gürcüce’nin İmparatorluğunun Gürcüstan’da düzenlediği yeni darbe.
resmi dil kimliği kazanması 5.3.1. politikuri situacia msoflioSi; 1991 wlis "saqarTvelos
5.2. saqarTvelos aneqsia bolSevikuri ruseTis mier; sabWoTa damoukideblobis aRdgenis aqti" da maltis SeTanxmeba
imperiis enobrivi politikis ori aspeqti Political situation in the world; the Malta deal and the 1991 Act of Inde-
Annexation of Georgia by Bolshevik Russia; two aspects of the pendence
language policy of the Soviet empire Dünyada politik durum, Malta antlaşması ve 1991 yılında
Bolşevik Rusya’nın Gürcüstan'ı ilhak etmesi, Sovyet Gürcüstan'ın bağımsızlığını ilan etmesi
İmparatorluğunun dil politikasının iki yönü 5.3.2. 1991-93 wlebis imperiul-kriminaluri putCi da qarTvelTa
5.2.1. kulturul-istoriuli foni evraziaSi; saqarTvelos okupa- enobrivi da eTnikuri daSlis mcdelobis axali etapi; e.w.
cia da aneqsia; qveynis teritoriis morigi Semcireba samenovani gazeTi “gali”
The cultural and historical background in Eurasia; occupation and The 1991-1993 putsch and a new attempt to divide the language and
annexation of Georgia; further reduction of the frontiers consciousness of the Georgians; the so-called trilingual newspaper
Avrasya’nın kültürel ve tarihi durumu, Gürcüstan'ın ilhakı ve işgali, “Gali”
sınırlarının daralması 1991 – 1993 yıllarındaki yasadışı emperyal darbe, Gürcülük bilincini
5.2.2. imperiis enobrivi diversiis axali etapi; stalinis e.w. "mcire ve gürcü dilini parçalamak için yeni teşebbüs ; sözde üç dilli gazete
erebi" da isak Jvanias "yazaxiSi gazeTi" “Gali”
New attempt of the empire to undermine the Georgian language; Stalin’s 5.3.3. qarTvelebi vulgaruli globalizmis winaaRmdeg; qarTve-
so-called small nations and Isak Zhvania’s “Qadzakhishi Gazeti” lologTa IX simpoziumis memorandumi (quTaisi, 2002
weli)
İmparatorluğunun Gürcü Dili’ni yok etmek için yeni teşebbüsü,
Stalin'in sözde küçük ulusları ve İshak Jvania'nın gazetesi (Kadzahişi The struggle of the Georgians against vulgar globalism; the
memorandum of the Ninth Symposium of the Kartvelologists (2002)
Gazeti)
Kartvellerin vulgarist, küresel, kültürel işgale karşı mücadelesi,
5.2.3. qarTvelTa brZola "internacionaluri" kulturuli aneq-
siis winaaRmdeg (gr. robaqiZe, p. ingoroyva, k. gamsaxurdia...) Kartvelologların IX. sempozyum bildirisi (2002)
The struggle of the Georgians against "international" cultural annexation
ZiriTadi daskvnebi
(G.Robakidze, P.Ingoroqva, K.Gamsakhurdia...)
Main conclusions
Gürcüler’in kültürel işgale karşı savaşı (P. İngorokva, G. Robakidze, Genel Sonuçlar
K. Gamsahurdia...)
5.3. 1991 wlis "saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis aqti";
ruseTis imperiis mier organizebuli axali putCi
“The Act of Restoration of Independence of Georgia” in 1991; new
o o o o o o o о
qarTuli asoniSnebis saerTaSoriso (laTinuri), inglisuri,
qarTuli anbani saerTa- ingli- german- Turq- rus-
germanuli, Turquli da rusuli Sesatyvisebi
mxedr. asomT. nusx. Soriso suri uli uli uli
(satransliteracio sqema)
anbani anbani anbani anbani anbani anbani anbani
The international (Latin), English, German, Turkish and Russian ú ö ö ö
correspondences of the Georgian letters and graphemes p p p p p p p п
(transliteration diagram) J J J ž dz dsj j ж
Ortak Kartvelgil yazı diline veya Gürcü lehçelerine ait kelime r r r r r r r р
köklerinin analizi sırasında, Gürcüce sesleri (fonemleri) Latin alfabesine s s s s s s s с
dayanarak yazabilmek için aşağıdaki şema kullanılmaktadır. t t t ţ t t t т
Gürcüce, Inglizce, Almanca, Türkçe, Rusça ve Uluslararası harflar. u Q(Â) u u u u u у
qarTuli anbani saerTa- ingli- german- Turq- rus- å ū ū
mxedr. asomT. nusx. Soriso suri uli uli uli O ü ü ü
anbani anbani anbani anbani anbani anbani anbani f f f p p f (v) p ф
a a a a a a a а q q q k k q k
K ā ā
q° k°
@ ä ä R R R ğ gh ğ
b b b b b b b б
R° ğ°
g g g g g g g г y y y q q
d d d d d d d д Ï ¥
e e e e e e e е S S S š sh sch ş ш
L ē ē C C C č ch tsch ç ч
v/E v v v(w) v(w) w v в c c c c ts c ц
z z z z z z z з Z Z Z ĵ dz
T T T t t t t w w w ċ ts
i i i i i i i и W W W ĉ ch ch
k k k ķ k k k к x x x ħ kh ch х
l l l l l l l л B Ã O ĥ
m m m m m m m м j j j j j dsh c
n n n n n n n н h h h h h h h
~ Á U y y H ŭ
riisa... Sesabamisad, mocemuli xalxis istoria enisa da kul-
turis istoriasTan SepirispirebiT unda miewodos momaval
winasityvaoba Taobas Tu ucxoels, rac sulac ar aris iolad gadasaWreli
probleba.
eris werilobiT wyaroebamdeli warsuli SeuZlebelia SeniSvna: Tanamedrove gamokvlevebSi erad iwodeba moce-
SeviswavloT am xalxis enis istoriis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe; muli saxelmwifos mTeli mosaxleoba; aseT SemTxvevaSic ki
garda amisa, bibliidan moyolebuli dRemde, eri (eTniuri ga- gverds ver avuvliT qveynis ZiriTadi mosaxleobisa da sa-
gebiT) da ena lamis sinonimur cnebebad iTvleba; magaliTad, xelmwifo enis istoriis urTierTmimarTebiT ganxilvas.
qarTvelur saazrovno sivrceSi, ZvelTaganve, ena, eri da sa- sakuTari erisa da enis istoriis codna arsebiTia pirovne-
xelmwifo erTmaneTis ganmsazRvrelad miiCneva: bis TviTaRqmis TvalsazrisiTac:
giorgi merCule: "qarTlad (saqarTvelod) friadi (mrava- pirovnebis erovnuli meobis (TviTobis) ganmsazRvrel
li) queyana~ (mxare) aRiracxebis (iTvleba), romelsaca Sina faqtorTagan, rogorc wesi, ZiriTadia dedaenis codna; dedae-
qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva~ yoveli aResrule- nis flobaSi vgulisxmobT an samwignobro enis, an misi romeli-
bis”; me kilos (mag., qarTvelis SemTxvevaSi: aWarulis, lazuris, me-
grigol orbeliani: "ra ena waxdes, eri daeces"; grulis, laSxuris, lentexuris, imerxeulis, samcxur-javaxu-
ilia WavWavaZe: "ena istoriaa erisa… pirveli niSani eris ris, livanuris da sxv.) bazaze azrovnebasa da, sul mcire, sao-
vinaobisa - enaa"; jaxo komunikacias. dedaenis floba TavisTavadi, imanenturi
vaJa-fSavela: “eri dedaa enisa"; codnaa sakuTari erovnulobisa. aqve unda aRiniSnos isic,
zviad gamsaxurdia: "…qarTulSi, iseve rogorc sxva Zvel rom individis erovnuli meobis ganmsazRvrel waxnagTa (de-
daena, tradiciuli sarwmunoeba, eTnikuri fesvebis codna...)
enebSi, ena mxolod enas ki ar niSnavda, aramed xalxs, erovne-
Zala erTgvarovani ar aris samSobloSi mcxovreb, samSoblos
bas, modgmas"… gareT mcxovreb da sakuTari miwa-wyliTurT sxva saxelmwifos
Sdr.: v.humboltis, l.vaisgerberis, g.ramiSvilisa da mra- iurisdiqciaSi moxvedril pirTa TviTaRqmaSi; mag., TurqeTis
val sxvaTa mixedviT, eri ganimarteba, rogorc enobrivi er- respublikis iurisdiqciis velSi mcxovreb SavSel Tu
Toba; Sdr., agreTve, g.ramiSvili, 2000, gv.172: "ena sxva arafe- izmiTel qarTvelTa nawils aRara aqvs arc dedaena (daviwyebu-
ria, Tu ara eris msoflxedva". li aqvs qarTuli samwignobro enac da mSobliuri kiloc), arc
erisa da enis mimarTebis sakiTxs sxva mxriTac SevxedoT: istoriuli sarwmunoeba, magram Tavs mainc TurqeTis moqalaqe
rogorc wesi, msoflioSi arsebuli enobrivi erTeulebi qarTvelad aRiqvams Tavisi qarTuli warmomavlobis codnis
enad Tu kilod iwodeba ara sakuTriv lingvisturi (fonematu- gamo: dedaenis verflobis pirobebSi sakuTari eT-
ri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri, leqsikuri, semantikuri) pa- nokulturulri fesvebis codna didwilad gansazRvravs erov-
rametrebis, aramed mocemuli xalxis eTnokulturul-erovnu- nul TviTmikuTvnebas, Sesabamisad, erovnul meobas. Sdr., qar-
li TviTaRqmis mixedviT; kerZod, Tuki konkretuli sazogadoe- Tvel muhajirTa nawili, mSobliuri miwa-wylisa da dedaenis
ba Tavs damoukidebel erad/naciad, an naciis Semadgenel erTe- daviwyebis pirobebSi, sxvebs emijneba Tundac mxolod Tavisi
ulad Tvlis, misi metyvelebac, Sesabamisad, enad an kilod ga- cekvis stiliT, ojaxSi SemorCenili qarTuli tradiciuli
nisazRvreba; sazogadoebis TviTaRqmas (meobas, TviTobas) gan- kerZebiTa Tu TviTobis ganmsazRvreli sxva niSniT maSin, roca
sazRvravs ara mxolod genetikuri kodi, aramed codna Tavisi aWaraSi (saqarTvelos amJamindel sazRvrebSi) mcxovrebi aWa-
tradiciuli (werilobiTi Tu umwerlobo) kulturis isto- relisTvis Tavisi qarTvelobis mTavari niSani dedaenis flo-
baa. mwignobroba, aramed sxva qarTvelebic:
yvela adamians ufleba aqvs, icodes sakuTari enobriv-eT- qarTveloba warmoidgineboda ramdenime damoukidebel
nikuri istoria, magram sxva eTnosis saxelmwifoSi mcxovreb naciad: sakuTriv qarTvelebad, xevsurebad, TuSebad, svanebad,
individs yovelTvis ara aqvs obieqturi codna sakuTari lazebad, megrelebad, aWarlebad, mesxebad... sabWouri inercia
fesvebis Sesaxeb (mag., TurqeTSi mcxovreb lazebs). dResac arsebobs; gareSe Zalebi dResac cdiloben
obieqturi swavlebis process arTulebs isic, rom yoveli saqarTveloSi enobriv umciresobad gamoacxadon da am gziT
eris istoriis ramdenime varianti iqmneba; kerZod, istorias did samwignobro kulturas mowyviton: lazebi, megrelebi,
qmnian JamTaaRmwerni, mocemuli qveynis saxelisuflebo svanebi (amgvari enobrivi diversia zogsac uneburad gamosdis
struqturebis rogorc obieqturi, ise medrove mematianeni da
sakmarisi samecniero informaciis verflobis gamo; ix., mag.,
sxvadasxva xedvis mqone istorikosebi; agreTve, Soreuli war-
"evropis enebis centris" grifiT 2002 wels espaneTSi gamo-
sulic ki aRbeWdilia xalxis mexsierebaSi, vinaidan ambavTa
cikli, gadadis ra Taobidan Taobaze, legendur-fragmentuli qveynebuli wigni "Europe of the Peoples"); maTi mizani
saxiT eZleva STamomavlobas... Tqmulebeb-gadmocemebidan, do- ucvlelia: qarTvelobis jer enobrivad daSla, Semdeg
kumenturi wyaroebidan Tu miwas SemorCenili arqeologiuri eTnikurad, bolos ki - teritoriulad.
monacemebidan mkvlevarni aRvadgenT savaraudo warsuls, Tum- mecnierebis politizebis TvalsazrisiT, saintereso msje-
ca, Tavisi konkretuli erovnul-enobrivi Tu erTdargobrivi loba aqvs g.meliqiSvils:
xedvis gamo, samwuxarod, mecnierTa nawilic Tavs ver aRwevs “qarTvelTa erovnuli TviTSegneba Zlierdeba XIX sauku-
mikerZoebas (rac yovelTvis maqsimalurad unda daiZlios)... nis bolos; amave periodSi gamoqveynda f.homelis axali samec-
sinamdvilis kvlevas didad uSlis xels samecniero aspare- niero Teoria, romlis mixedviTac qarTvelobis winaprebad mi-
zis politizebac, rac, rogorc wesi, imperiuli saxelmwifoe- iCneoda kavkasiaSi, axlo aRmosavleTsa da evropis did nawil-
bis nebisamebr xorcieldeba. samwuxarod, bolo 80 wlis gan- Si ganfenili winareindoevropuli mosaxleoba - “xalxTa
mavlobaSi, roca mecnieruli azri mTel msoflioSi STambeW- alarodiuli ojaxi: elamelebi, kasitebi, urartuelebi (maTi
davad ganviTarda, qarTveli eris cxovrebis, kulturis Tu STamomavlebi arian qarTvelebi), pelazgebi, etruskebi, baske-
enis istoria, ZiriTadad, sabWoTa imperiis sqemiT iwereboda; bi... f.homelis samecniero Teoriam gaaZliera qarTvelTa kon-
mag., "ratomRac" naklebperspeqtiulad iTvleboda: qarTvelu- solidacia, magram am dros qarTvelobis winaaRmdeg antago-
ri da Zveli winaaziuri kulturebis mimarTebis hipoTeza, iva- nisturad ganewyvnen ruseTis imperiis mesveurni da amierkavka-
ne javaxiSvilisa da arnold Ciqobavas mier naloliavebi iberi- siaSi arsebuli Zlieri somxuri burJuazia…” (g.meliqiSvili,
ul-kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis Teoria da sxva; samagierod,
narkvevebi, I, gv.329)… qarTvelTa istoriis mimarT Tvisobri-
metismeti subieqturobiTa da intensivobiT Suqdeboda ru-
seT-saqarTvelos "megobruli" Tanacxovreba; umwerlobo ene- vad amgvari (“gaTiSe da ibatone”) dapirispireba gagrZelda sa-
bad miCneuli qarTveluri dialeqtebis bazaze, ruseTis impe- bWoTa imperiis periodSi da sazRvargareTul garkveul wreeb-
riis ideologiuri mrwamsis (dasapyrobi teritoriis mflob- Si grZeldeba dResac (ix., mag., j.hiuitis, i.zeirekisa da v.foi-
eli eris daSla-daqucmaceba!) Sesabamisad, kulturuli rStainis Semoqmedeba).
sabWoTa imperiis daSlis Semdeg saqarTveloSic SesaZle-
qvelmoqmedebis niRbiT, daCagrul "xalxebs" uqmnidnen
beli gaxda mecnieruli azris bunebrivi da Tavisufali ganvi-
"samwignobro enebs" (iwyebdnen mocemul kiloze saxarebis
Tareba; gaiolda sazRvargareTul (evropul, amerikul, azi-
TargmniT); am gziT cdilobdnen qarTvelTa erTi nawilisTvis ur) centrebTan Tavisufali TanamSromloba. gansakuTrebuli
gaeucxoebinaT ara mxolod sakuTari istoriuli
keTilganwyobiT aRsaniSnavia is, rom TurqeTisa da iranis xe- deba institutis samecniero krebulSi: “qarTveluri memkvid-
lisuflebam qarTvel mkvlevrebs ufleba mogvca, dagvewyo maT reoba”). am STambeWdav samecniero forumebze warmodgenili
saxelmwifoebSi mcxovrebi qarTveluri warmoSobis mosaxleo- diskusiebic aisaxa winamdebare wignSi. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom,
bis metyvelebis, eTnografiisa da folkloris Seswavla; am- ramdenadac "qarTvelebi" moicavs momijnave samecniero dar-
gvari kulturul-samecniero TanamSromloba gadaarCens did gebs, misi zogi monakveTi ufro mimoxilviTi xasiaTisaa, mag.,
kulturul memkvidreobas da Cveni qveynebis keTilmezobluri zogad StrixebSi warmodgenili winareqarTvelur da qarTve-
urTierTobebis myari safuZvelic gaxdeba (am mimarTulebiT lur tomTa istoria ufro gankuTvnilia araistorikosTa-
gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia evropuli orientaciis Tvis, xolo saxeluri da zmnuri ZiriTadi paradigmebi - ara-
TurqeTi)... lingvistTaTvis.
ukanaskneli wlebis lingvisturi, kulturologiuri, ar- wignis ZiriTad struqturul modelad Camoyalibda Sem-
qeologiuri, istoriul-wyaroTmcodneobiTi, eTnografiuli degi bibliur-miTologiur-istoriuli qarga:
da anTropologiuri gamokvlevebis SejerebiT, agreTve, zogi Zvel mematianeTa warmodgeniT, sxva ZirZvel xalxTa msgav-
problemis, cnebisa Tu terminis kritikuli gaazrebiT, sa- sad, qarTvelTa istoriac saTaves RvTaebrivi kalTidan iRebs;
fuZveli momzadda, sabWouri "tradiciisgan" gansxvavebulad - noe-iafet-iavan-TarSiS-Targamosis bibliuri gzis miTologi-
arapolitizebulad, mecnierul debulebebze dayrdnobiT ur saxesxvaobad pirobiTad SeiZleba davsaxoT zevsamdeli
- ganvixiloT qarTvelTa enobrivi erTeulebis istoriuli RvTaebis - iafetis Zis - amiran-promeTeosis - protoiberiuli
urTierTmimarTeba da qarTvelTa istoriis zogadi qarga; Se- (winareberZnuli) kulturis periodi; qarTvelTa winareisto-
sabamisad, naSromSi "qarTvelebi" miznad davisaxeT qarTveli riul xanad vvaraudobT kavkasiasa da wina aziis did nawilSi
eris istoriis logikuri sqemis ageba (Sdr., a.toinbi: enis ganfenil mtkvar-araqsis kulturis qmnadobis periods. vaviTa-
istoria, eris istoriis konspeqti). rebT azrs, rom kolxuri kultura Seiqmna saerToqarTve-
sagangebod aRvniSnavT, rom warmodgenili naSromis xasia- luri enis mqone xalxisgan da igi moicavda:
Ti didwilad gansazRvra “quTaisurma saubrebma”: pitiuntidan (biWvinTidan) sinopimde SavizRvispireTs,
dialeqtologiuri xasiaTis kvlevebi warmatebuli ver iq- anatoliis nawilis, rion-yvirilas, Woroxis, mtkvris zemo we-
neba istoria-eTnologiis gareSe da, piriqiT; Sesabamisad, is- lis (mcxeTamde) xeobebs, agreTve, cxinvalisa da yobanis regio-
toriuli dialeqtologiis problemebze muSaobisas Tavidan nebs; pirobiTad, am kolxur/saerToqarTvelur saxelmwifos
did sirTuleebs qmnida specialur literaturaSi arsebuli aietis qveyanas vuwodebT.
terminologiuri siWrele da momijnave samecniero dargebs qarTveli mematianeni konkretul mefeTa aRricxvas azos,
Soris informaciis gaucvlelobis xelovnuri, sabWouri tra- farnavazisa da qujis istoriiT iwyeben - swored am droidan
dicia; amitomac, Cveni iniciativiTa da reqtoratis aqtiuri berZenTaTvis kargad cnobili "oqromravali aia-kolxeTi" isev
xelSewyobiT 1994 wlidan quTaisis ak.wereTlis saxelobis sa- aRorZinda erTian saxelmwifod, oRond ufro mcire teri-
xelmwifo universitetis dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvlevi-
Ti instituti organizebas uwevs qarTvelologTa yovelwli- toriaze da ZiriTadi centriT - mcxeTaSi (pirobiTad - far-
navazis saxelmwifo).
ur saerTaSoriso (Tematur) simpoziums - “quTaisuri saubre- welTaRricxvaTa mijnidan ukve iolia qarTvelTa samwig-
bi”, romelzec viwvevT lingvistebs, eTnografebs, folklo- nobro enisa da, zogadad, qarTvelobis istoriis konkretul
ristebs, istorikosebs, arqeologebs, kulturologebs, an-
Tropologebs; ramdenime simpoziumi mieZRvna terminologiur monakveTebad warmodgena…
problemebsac (simpoziumebis masalebi yovelwliuradve ibeW- uZvelesi periodidan dRemde qarTveli eris savaraudo is-
toriuli jaWvi aseT saxes miiRebs: visTavadobis (erovnuli meobis, TviTobis) SenarCunebisaTvis
winareqarTveluri (iberiul-kavkasiur-axloaRmosav- imeddaukargavi brZolis kargi magaliTia qarTveli eris isto-
luri kulturis) epoqa - Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebi; ria, Tumca qarTvelobam Tavisi teritoriis didi nawili da-
kolxuri (saerToqarTveluri) kulturis epoqa - Zv.w. II karga... kvlevis am etapze qarTvelTa qveyanaSi semitebis, xeTe-
aTaswleulis Sua periodidan Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua pe- bis, Zveli berZnebis Tu bizantielebis, sparsebis, arabebisa da
riodamde; Turqebis imperiuli enobrivi politikis amsaxvel masalaze me-
sruliad saqarTvelos aRorZineba azos, qujisa da farna- tia is dokumenturi wyaroebi, romlebic saqarTveloSi (kavka-
vazis qarTlad - Zv.w. I aTaswleulis meore naxevari; siaSi) imperiuli ruseTis enobriv politikas asaxaven, amde-
gardamavali Jami - welTaRricxvaTa mijna; nad, erT-erT TavSi samagaliTod vrclad ganvixilavT ruseTis
qristianobidan gorgasalis mkvlelobamde - ax.w. IV-V sa- enobriv agresias XIX-XX saukuneebis saqarTveloSi.
ukuneebi; bolos, xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom wina Taobebis mkvlevar-
arabobidan qarTul mesianizmamde - VII-IX saukuneebi; Ta (m.brose, n.mari, iv.javaxiSvili, s.janaSia, arn.Ciqobava, g.ax-
daviT aRmaSenebeli da Tamari - oqros xana; vlediani, a.SaniZe, v.Tofuria, g.meliqiSvili, m.qaldani, g.ra-
miSvili, g.rogava, o.jafariZe, o.lorTqifaniZe, gr.giorgaZe,
dro laSa-giorgidan giorgi brwyinvalemde;
b.jorbenaZe, q.lomTaTiZe, T.gamyreliZe, T.uTurgaiZe, i.zica-
spars-Turqobis didi periodi - patar-patara saqarTve-
ri, h.fenrixi...) didi pativiscemiT, magram, garkveulwilad,
loebad daSla;
maTgan gansxvavebuli xedviT Seqmnili Cveni wignis pirveli
rusobis periodi - mefe giorgi meTormetedan - prezi-
gamocema miznad isaxavs diskusiis gaSlas ganxiluli problem-
dent zviad gamsaxurdias mkvlelobamde.
atikis irgvliv. aqve madlierebas gamovxatavT profesorebis:
warmodgenil istoriul qargasTan mimarTebiT ganxilu- Teimuraz gvancelaZis, qevin TuiTis, manana sanaZis, manana tabi-
li qarTvelTa enobrivi istoria, vfiqrobT, adekvaturad da Zis, giorgi qavTaraZisa da vaxtang jafariZis mimarT, romelTac
argumentirebulad warmoaCens erTiani eTnokulturuli sis- gamoqveynebamde waikiTxes naSromi; maTi rCeviT ganivrco ram-
temisa da mravalsaukunovani samwignobro enis mqone qarTve- denime sakiTxi. wignis meore gamocemisas siamovnebiT gaviTva-
li eris - mravalwaxnagovani eTnografiuli Taviseburebebisa liswinebT axalaRmoCenil wyaroebsa da sxva specialistTa ar-
da mravalferovani dialeqtebis patroni xalxis - mozaikur gumentirebul msjelobebs.
saxes.
  
qarTveli eris istoria da awmyo TviTgadarCenisTvis
brZolaa; rogorc wesi, momxdurni agresiis or ZiriTad for-
mas iyeneben: xalxis fizikuri mospobisa Tu gadasaxlebis Sem-
deg imkvidreben cariel teritorias, an TavianTi enisa da re-
ligiis TavsmoxveviT TandaTanobiT imsgavseben adgilobriv
mosaxleobas... dapyrobis orive saxe agresiuli globaliza-
ciis gamovlinebaa. istoria adasturebs, rom xalxis fizikur-
genetikuri mospoba TiTqmis SeuZlebelia: erisTvis yvelaze
did safrTxes agresiis meore saxeoba - enobriv-kulturuli
(cnobieri) asimilacia warmoadgens; erovnul-kulturuli Ta-
lurad ixmareba; mag., l. tolstovas tajikebisa da uzbekebis gver-
diT gamoyofili aqvs iseTi eTnografiuli jgufebi, rogorebic
Tavi I arian: Sua aziis boSebi, ironebi, qurTebi, Turqebi, yivCayebi da
terminologiuri problemebi sxv. (msjelobisaTvis ix. m.gegeSiZe, 1971, gv.117)... eTnografiis sa-
xelmZRvanelos Sesavlidan gamodis, rom rogorRac gaorebuli
cnobiereba SeiZleba hqondes qarTlels, kaxels, megrels, aWa-
1.1. enisa da kilos mimarTebis sakiTxi da eri rels, guruls, TuSs... rac TavisTavad gamoricxulia, vinaidan
qarTleli, kaxeli, megreli, guruli, aWareli Tu TuSi imitomaa
1.1.1. Temi, tomi, eTnosi, eri qarTveli, rom qarTlelia, kaxelia, megrelia, gurulia, aWarelia,
TuSia! "gaorebuli cnobiereba" SeiZleba hqondes safrangeTSi
gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis mixedviT, eTnikuri erTobis, axaldamkvidrebul italiels, TurqeTSi - berZens, saqarTvelos
eTnikuri jgufis, eTnosis, eris ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebia: is- moqalaqe somexs da a.S. Sesabamisad, saqarTveloSi kompaqturad
toriuli dedaena (erTiani enobrivi xedva-aRqma), istoriuli mcxovrebi araqarTvelebi CaiTvlebian eTnikur Tu eTnografiul
kultura (tradiciuli religiur-kulturuli Rirebulebani), jgufad, subeTnosad Tu eTnikosad...
istoriuli mexsiereba, istoriuli fsiqikuri wyoba (tradici- terminologiuri TvalsazrisiT, winaaRmdegobani gvaqvs TviT
ul garemosTan mimarTebiT formirebuli enobriv-kulturuli arn. Ciqobavas redaqtorobiT gamoqveynebul qarTuli enis gan-
mentaloba) da istoriuli teritoria/saxelmwifo (Sdr.: didi martebiTi leqsikonis rvatomeulSic (rom aRaraferi vTqvaT
warsuli - maRali Rirsebis gancda). calkeul lingvistur, eTnologiur Tu istoriografiul gamo-
mecnierTa erTi nawili terminebSi: eTnosi, eTnikuri jgu- kvlevebze), romelic, TavisTavad, metad Zvirfas da akademiur
fi,”eTnografiuli jgufi moiazrebs rogorc ersa da toms, ase- gamocemas warmoadgens; kerZod, leqsikonSi gurulebi, imerle-
ve, ama Tu im kuTxis mosaxleobasac; sanimuSod SevexebiT qarTu- bi, fSavelebi, kaxelebi, megrelebi da sxva ganmartebulia, ro-
lad Targmnil erT saxelmZRvanelos: gorc "saqarTvelos erT-erTi kuTxis mkvidrni;" xolo aWarlebi,
1991 wels gamocemuli "eTnografiis" SesavalSi vkiTxulobT: TuSebi da svanebi - rogorc "erT-erTi qarTveli tomi"...
"eTnografiuli jgufis qveS igulisxmeba eTnosis garkveuli aq, pirvel rigSi, miuRebelia aWaris, TuSeTisa da svaneTis
nawili, romelic gamoirCeva salaparako enis, kulturisa da yo- Tanamedrove mcxovrebTa mimarT termin tomis gamoyeneba, vinai-
fis lokaluri specifikiT, zogjer gaaCnia TviTsaxeli da rogor- dan eTnologiur literaturaSi am cnebis qveS igulisxmeba pir-
Rac gaorebuli TviTSegneba... qarTvelTa eTnografiuli jgufe- velyofili eTnikuri ujredi; aseve, gaugebaria svanis, TuSisa
bia: qarTlelebi, kaxelebi, xevsurebi, imerlebi, gurulebi, ingi- da aWarelis gansxvavebuli terminologiuri kvalifikacia xev-
loebi, megrelebi, raWvelebi da sxva"... samecniero literatura- surTan, gurulTan, kaxelTan SedarebiT... samwuxarod, zog enaT-
Si eTnografiuli jgufis paralelurad gamoiyeneba termini - mecnierul fundamentur gamokvlevaSic ki dasanani uzustobebia;
subeTnosic.
mag., b.jorbenaZis mier calkeul eTnosebadaa CaTvlili: kaxeli,
winaswarve SevniSnavT, rom amgvari mcdari kvalifikaciebis sa-
guruli, qarTleli da sxva; am "eTnosTa" sacxovrisebi miCneulia
Tave terminologiuri aRrevaa: termini "eTnografiuli jgufi"
eTnikur kuTxeebad, xolo metyvelebebi - "eTnikur dialeqtebad"
rusul samecniero literaturaSic ki "eTnikuri jgufis" parale-
(b.jorbenaZe, 1989, gv.29, 42).
ucxour Tu zog qarTul gamocemebSic (sainterneto cnoba- ris asparezze "gamoyvana" sWirdebaT; Sesabamisad, cdiloben, am
rebSi, enciklopediebSi, saxelmZRvaneloebSi, calkeul gamokvle- uZvelesi werilobiTi kulturis mqone qarTvelebs (amis Sesaxeb
vebSi), araiSviaTad, saqarTvelo warmodgenilia arabunebrivad ix. qvemoT) umwerlobo enebad "monaTluli" kiloebis mixedviT
mravalenovan da mravaleTnikur qveynad; zogjer komentarebis sa- Seuqmnan anbani, samwignobro ena, uTargmnon saxareba,
xiT damatebulia isic, rom saqarTveloSi sxva eTnosTa uflebebi klasikosTa Semoqmedeba da sxv.
ilaxeba; garda amisa, zogi politizebuli ucxoeli dResac aqti- samwuxarod, asea dResac: zogi Tanamedrove qarTveli
urad iRvwis, qarTvelTa nawili, mag., megrel-lazebi, gamocxad- mkvlevaric ver izRvevs Tavs uneblie Secdomebisgan; mag., k.gabuni-
des sxva xalxad/xalxebad (naciad/naciebad) da, Sesabamisad, aris as azriTac, megrelebi, svanebi, lazebi da qarTebi calkeuli qar-
mcdeloba, megrul da lazur kiloebze Seiqmnas axali salitera- Tveluri eTnikuri jgufebia, xolo zanuri da svanuri - umwer-
turo enebi (ix. j.hiuiti, 2004; v.foirStaini, 2003). xazgasmiT aR- lobo enebi (k.gabunia, 2004, gv.172-177).
vniSnavT, rom megrel-lazebs gamorCeulad aqtiuri monawile- pirvel rigSi, aRvniSnavT, rom qarTi xelovnurad Seqmnili
oba aqvT miRebuli saerToqarTvelur enobriv koineze dafuZne- terminia (ix. qvemoT), garda amisa, mocemuli sazogadoebis eTno-
buli mravalsaukunovani qarTuli (qarTveluri) samwignobro sad Tu Temad saxeldeba gaumarTlebelia erTi romelime niSniT
enis SeqmnaSi; vis sWirdeba laz-megrelTa kiloebis mixedviT, ”ga- (genetikuri, eTnografiuli, lingvisturi Tu religiuri Tavise-
TiSe da ibatones” principiT Seqmnili saliteraturo enebi? vis
burebiT), ramdenadac, eTnosi da eri enobriv-kulturul-fsi-
aZlevs xels didi qarTveluri kulturis Tanaavtori
qikuri istoriuli erTobaa, xolo konkretuli Temi eris, ro-
sazogadoebebis gamocxadeba damwerlobis armqone enobriv
gorc zogaderovnuli erTobis konkretuli variantia (Semadgene-
umciresobebad?
li nawilia); Sesabamisad, mocemuli sazogadoebis statusze msje-
araiSviaTad, laz-megrelebi araqarTvelebadaa CaTvlili zo-
lobisas sakiTxs kompleqsurad unda mivudgeT; Cvens SemTxvevaSi,
gi evropeli mecnieris mierac. keTilsindisieri ucxoeli avtore-
qarTveli eri, rogorc istoriuli superorganizmi, Camoyalibe-
bis mier qarTvelur sinamdvilesTan mimarTebiT daSvebuli amgva-
ri Secdomebis saTave, zog SemTxvevaSi, laz-megrelTa istoriis bulia ramdenime aTeuli monaTesave tomisgan; qarTveluri erov-
arcodnaa, zogjer ki - qarTvel mecnierTa Sromebi; kerZod, rode- nuli meobis, qarTuli kulturis da qarTuli samwignobro enis
sac adgilobrivi mecnieris gamokvlevaSi uzustodaa gamoyenebu- CamoyalibebaSi Tav-Tavisi wvlili Setanili aqvs qarTvelur dia-
li lingvistur-eTnologiuri terminebi da qarTvelTa calkeu- leqtebze molaparake yvela sazogadoebas - istoriuli Tu Tana-
li jgufebi - eTnosebad, Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva kuTxis qarTvel- medrove saqarTvelos yvela kuTxis qarTvels, amdenad, roca vla-
Ta kiloebi damoukidebel umwerlobo enebadaa gamocxadebuli, parakobT dRevandeli qarTveli eris eTnostruqturasa da kul-
saqarTvelos istoriis armcodne ucxour sazogadoebaSi buneb- turaze, TavisTavad moiazreba is zogadqarTveluri fenomeni,
rivad Cndeba azri, daexmaro "daCagrul" da "CamorCenil" eTno- romelic samwignobro enisa da erTiani TviTsaxelwodebis Camo-
sebs: Seuqmna maT damwerloba, saxelmwifo da a.S. magaliTad, ara- yalibebis Semdeg mainc erTian eTnosad unda ganvixiloT...
qarTvel mecnierTa erTi nawili miiCnevs, rom vinaidan svaneTis, qarTul sinamdvileSi eTnikur terminTa araswor gamoyenebas
lazeTisa da samegrelos mcxovrebTa saojaxo-saSinao metyveleba- ramdenime naSromi mieZRvna (g.gegeSiZe, v.iToniSvili), sadac aRi-
ni saliteraturo qarTuli enisagan metad gansxvavebulia, vidre niSna araqarTvel avtorTa mcdeloba, qarTveli eris Semadgen-
sxva qarTveluri dialeqtebi, svanebi, lazebi da megrelebi umwer- lobidan gamoacalkevon svanebi, megrelebi, gurulebi, kaxelebi
lobo enebis mqone damoukidebeli eTnosebia, romelTac kultu- da sxv... eTnologTagan ukanasknelad am problemas sayuradRebo
werili uZRvna r. TofCiSvilma (r.TofCiSvili, 1995; r.TofCiSvi- saxe (rogorc, magaliTad, aWaruli kilo aris qarTuli enis erTi
li, 2005); qarTveli eris istoriisa da eTnostruqturis safuZ- mikrovarianti), terminma xazi unda gausvas swored am aspeqts: Ta-
vliani analizis Semdeg is samarTlianad askvnis: namedrove qarTveloba ar warmoadgens megrelTa, gurulTa, svan-
"saqarTvelos sxvadasxva istoriul-eTnografiuli mxaris Ta, aWarelTa, imerelTa da sxvaTa meqanikur jams; mag., megreli Tu
mosaxleobis _ aWarlebis, gurulebis, megrelebis, imerlebis, kaxeli qarTvelis kerZo gamovlinebaa; zogadad, qarTveli, ro-
svanebis, TuSebis... moxsenieba ar SeiZleba eTnosad, eTnikur gorc eTnofsiqikur-enobrivi erTeuli, konkretulad ganxorcie-
erTobad, eTnikur jgufad, xalxad, tomad, eTnografiul jgu- lebulia sxvadasxva Taobis svanad, megrelad, aWarelad, guru-
fad, subeTnosad da misT; aseTi aRreva garedanaa Tavs moxveuli. lad, kaxelad, TuSad, imerelad, taoelad... da, amdenad, TiToeu-
dasaxelebuli terminebi eTnologiur literaturaSi aRniSnaven li es jgufi iseve miemarTeba qarTvelis cnebas, rogorc saerTo
ers, erovnebas, an jer erad Camouyalibebel enobriv-kulturuli enas misi regionaluri nairsaxeobani - kiloebi...
TviTSegnebis mqone erTobliobas; eTnosebia: ingliselebi, germa- am da sxva mizezebis gamo, Cveni azriT, sxvadasxva kuTxis qar-
nelebi, frangebi, qarTvelebi da a.S., xolo tomi mxolod winafe- Tvelebis: aWarlebis, gurulebis, svanebis, kaxelebis da a.S. aRsa-
odaluri gaerTianebebis aRsaniSnavad SeiZleba iyos gamoyene- niSnavad mizanSewonilia, gamoviyenoT istoriuli termini Temi.
buli da ara Tanamedrove mosaxleobis mimarT." Temi berZnulidanaa Semosuli; dasavlur-qarTul dokumen-
warmodgenili mniSvnelobiT termin tomis gamoyeneba imito- tebSi XIII saukunis ukanaskneli meoTxediTaa damowmebuli (T. be-
mac aris gaumarTlebeli, rom Zvel qarTul originalur Tu Tar- raZe, 1976, gv.225) ); sabasTan Temi ganmartebulia, rogorc "qveynis
gmnil ZeglebSi saSualo sparsulidan nasesxebi es sityva damou- erTi nawili," d.CubinaSvilTan - rogorc "xalxi erTi Temisa"
kidebel eTnoss aRniSnavda (ix., mag., "SuSanikis wameba", saxarebis ("народ одной области"); CvenTvis saintereso mniSvnelobiT damowme-
Targmanebi da sxv.; terminis istoriisaTvis ix. d.meliqiSvili, bulia qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSic: "am TveSi guriis
1998). termini "tomi" unda damkvidrdes, rogorc mxolod pir-
Temi Seiyris Tavs Cvens sofelSi" (e.ninoSvili). saqarTvelos is-
velyofili sazogadoebrivi gaerTianebis - winareeTnosis - aR-
toriul-geografiuli provinciebis mosaxleobis aRsaniSnavad
mniSvneli sityva.
Tems iyenebs mixako wereTelic, ivane javaxiSvilic da niko berZe-
saqarTvelos istoriul-geografiuli provinciebis mosaxle-
niSvilic...
Ta aRsaniSnavad Tanamedrove avtorebi inerciiT mainc iyeneben
qarTulSi Tems sxva mniSvnelobebic aqvs: is, rogorc teqniku-
arazust terminebs. magaliTad, v.iToniSvilTan dafiqsirebulia:
ri termini, niSnavs sazogadoebis erT socialur-ekonomikur
eTnografiuli jgufi, eTnolingvisturi jgufi, eTnote-
mTlianoba; gamoyenebulia "xevis" Tu "erTi gvaris" xalxis aRsa-
ritoriuli jgufi... r.TofCiSvili gvTavazobs axal termins -
niSnavadac da a.S. magaliTad, svaneTSi termini "Temi" gulisxmobs
eTnografiul-dialeqtologiuri erTeuli; Cveni azriT, mis
rogorc dasaxlebul punqts (magaliTad, lenjeris Temi, latalis
damkvidrebasac ramdenime garemoeba SeuSlis xels: a) mouxerxebe-
lia samsityviani termini; b) cneba “"eTnografiul-dialeqto- Temi) aseve, mTel xeobas: Cube Tem /Cube xeE (qveda Temi /qveda xevi -
logiuri" mainc ver gamoricxavs eTnikurobis gagebas... igulisxmeba balsqvemo svaneTi), Jibe Tem /Jibe xeE (zeda Temi /ze-
aRniSnuli mniSvnelobiT iseTi erTsityviani termini unda da xevi - igulisxmeba balszemo svaneTi)... al.WinWaraulis cno-
gamoviyenoT, romelic ufro teqnikuri xasiaTisa iqneba da Tavis- biT, xevsureTSi gamoiyeneba Temwyali: "Cveni Temwylisa aris," e.i.
TavSi ar moiazrebs eTnikurobas; garda amisa, vinaidan, saqarTve- Cveni xeobis, Cveni Temis kacia (Sdr.: makroTemi - kuTxis, mxaris mo-
los ama Tu im mxaris mosaxleoba aris qarTveli eris erTi kerZo saxleoba, mikroTemi - xeobis mosaxleoba).
amgvarad, eTnikuri terminebiT: "eTnosi", "eTnikuri jgufi", lobis miuxedavad, hqondes patriotuli grZnoba Tavisi samSob-
"subeTnosi" da misT. unda aRiniSnos damoukidebeli eTnostruq- los - saqarTvelos - mimarT, SeeZlos Tavisufali urTierToba
turisa da enis mqone adamianTa erTobebi; teqnikuri terminiT: saqarTvelos saxelmwifo eniT da gaaCndes moTxovnileba, dae-
Temi ki - erTi eTnosis SigniT arsebuli lokaluri jgufebi morCilos saqarTvelos konstitucias. mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi
(Sdr.: eTnosi - Temi - pirovneba ise miemarTeba erTmaneTs, ro- iqneba is Tavisufali sazogadoebis srulfasovani wevri saqar-
gorc ena - kilo - idioleqti); mag., eTnologiuri Tu lingvis- TveloSi... mxolod amis Semdeg SegveZleba Cven vTqvaT, rom, msgav-
turi aspeqtiT, qarTveli eris calkeuli Temebia: aWarlebi, gu- sad frangi, germaneli, espaneli… erebisa, qarTvel nacias, Ziri-
rulebi, CaRmaTuSebi, wovaTuSebi, imerlebi, herebi (ingiloebi), Tad - qarTul (qarTvelur) eTnosTan erTad qmnian sxva zemoT da-
megrelebi, lazebi, mTiulebi, imerxevelebi, maWaxlelebi, samcxe- saxelebuli eTnikuri jgufebic...
lebi, SavSelebi, livanelebi, taoelebi, moxeveebi, svanebi, fere- bevr seriozul Secdomas udebs saTaves, agreTve, termin eT-
idnelebi, javaxebi, xevsurebi, qarTlelebi, fSavelebi, kaxelebi, nonimis araswori gamoyeneba; specialur literaturaSi "eTnoni-
raWvelebi, leCxumlebi... mad" CaTvlilia ara mxolod eris/naciis aRmniSvneli sityvebi
SeniSvna: warmodgenili sityvebis (eri, tomi Temi...) myar terminebad (qarTveli, rusi, osi...) aramed, TemTa saxelebic; mag.: kaxeli, qar-
qcevas garkveulwilad xels uSlis maTi polisemanturoba...
Tleli, megreli, imereli da sxva (v.iarceva, l.tolstova, p.cxa-
istoriulad qarTveli eris erT-erT Temad moiazreba afxa- daia, n.xazaraZe, T.oCiauri, b.jorbenaZe, g.Tofuria, v.iToniSvili
zebic, magram ruseTis imperiis zewoliT maTi erTi nawili Tavs da mravali sxva); Cven mier zemoT warmodgenili msjelobidan lo-
qarTvelad aRar aRiqvams (metic, maTs gaorebul cnobierebas gikurad gamomdinareobs, rom eTnonimad CaiTvalos mxolod is
dResdReobiT antiqarTuli mimarTuleba aqvs; afxazTa TviTaR- istoriuli leqsika, romelic eris, eTnosis, eTnikuri jgufis,
qmisa da erovnuli meobis gaorebis istoriisaTvis ix.: z.papaskiri, tomis aRmniSvnel sakuTar saxelad damkvidrda (samecniero li-
1994; z.papaskiri, 1998; T.gvancelaZe, 2000; T.gvancelaZe, m.tabiZe, teraturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa eTnonimis sakuTar saxelad mi-
r.Serozia, r.Wanturia, 2001 da sxv.). Cnevis Sesaxebac: zogi mas Tvlis onimad, zogi nomenad).
evropul saxelmwifoebSi, eTnikuri warmomavlobis miuxeda- Temis aRmniSvnel saxels SeiZleba vuwodoT Temonimi; igi
vad, sxva kontinentidan Camosulic ki, Tuki is mocemuli qveynis sxva enebSic SeiZleba gamoviyenoT (temonym), an axali termini
moqalaqe gaxdeba, saxelmwifos ZiriTadi (saxelmdebeli) eris
SevqmnaT inglisuri sityvidan community "Temi", "erToba", "mxa-
Semadgenel nawilad iTvleba, ramdenadac is ukve flobs saxel-
ris mosaxleoba". Sdr.: qomiunonimi/komunonimi... Tuki moveride-
mwifo enas da emorCileba saxelmwifo kanonebs. saqarTveloSi
biT axali terminis SemoRebas, aseT SemTxvevaSi, umjobesi iqneba,
Camosaxlebuli eTnikuri jgufebis: osebis, TaTrebis, rusebis,
gamoviyenoT sintagma warmomavlobis saxeli da ara - eTnonimi;
somxebis (da sxv.) erTi nawili istoriis am etapze qarTveli eris
gurulis, mesxis, svanis, kaxelis, qarTlelis... mimarT eTnonimis
nawilad ver miiCneva, vinaidan es adamianebi ver floben saqarTve-
gamoyeneba aSkarad gaumarTlebelia.
los saxelmwifo enas, ar aRiareben saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobas
amgvarad, ramdenadac qarTveli eris Temebad anu qarTveli
da saxelisuflebo struqturebTan dRemde rusuli politikis
eris Semadgenel nawilebad erTnairad ganixilebian: svanebic, me-
interesebis Sesabamisad urTierToben. damoukidebeli saqarTve-
grelebic, lazebic, aWarlebic, gurulebic, kaxelebic, qarTle-
los Semdgomi ganviTareba swored im mimarTulebiT unda wari- lebic, raWvelebic, imerlebic, fSavlebic, xevsurebic, TuSebic,
marTos, rom saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqes, eTnikuri warmomav- ingiloebic, taoelebic, SavSelebic, imerxevelebic, fereidnele-
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

bic… maTi aRmniSvneli saxelebi erTnairad unda CavTvaloT ara 1.1.2. samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti;
"eTnonimebad", aramed warmomavlobis saxelTa gansakuTrebul saxelmwifo ena, erovnuli ena, dedaena, ucxo ena
jgufad - Temonimebad.
zog lingvistur leqsikonSi "eTnonimebis" gverdiT ganxilu- Tanamedrove saxelmZRvaneloebsa da enciklopediebSi msof-
lia aramxolod Temonimebi, aramed - regionebis mcxovrebTa aR- lioSi arsebul enaTa raodenoba meryeobs 4000-dan 7000-mde. daax-
mniSvneli saxelebic da lokalur jgufTa saxelwodebebic; Sdr., loebiT sami aTasi enobrivi erTeulis statusi specialistebis
magaliTad: "К энтонимам близки названия жителей, образующиеся от разл. mier sxvadasxvagvaradaa warmodgenili; Sdr., arn.Ciqobava, 1952,
типов топонимов. Это могут быть этнохоронимы - названия от имен обширных gv.119: "msoflioSi ori aTasze met enas iTvlian; es cifri udavod
регионов (хоронимов): "Европа - европейцы" и т. п. - или названия жителей gadaWarbebulia: bevri dialeqti enadaa miCneuli, radgan bevri
крупных или малых поселений: "Москва - москвичи" и т.п. а также неофициальные,
ena Tu dialeqti jerovnad ar aris Seswavlili”…
исторически сложившиеся прозвищные обозначения групп насселения, напр.,
"Казаки", "москали", "чалдоны"... (Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь, mravali enobrivi erTeulis statusis gansazRvras dResac
М., 1990, gv.598). abrkolebs: enisa da kilos gasamijn sakvalifikacio kriteriumTa
Cveni azriT, aseTi gaudiferencirebeli masala erTi termi- sxvadasxvaoba, msjelobisas gamoyenebuli terminebis (cnebebis)
nis qveS ver gaerTiandeba; dasaxelebuli sityvebis erTi nawili siWrele, eTnosis istoriis sxvadasxvagvari gaazreba da sxv. (saki-
warmomavlobis saxelia, xolo meore nawili (kazakebi, moskalebi) Txis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. m.tabiZe, 2000).
ki - Temonimebi. warmodgenil problemaze msjelobisas, Cveni azriT, termine-
calke samsjeloa qarTul lingvonimTa (ena-kiloebis saxel- bis mkafio ganmartebis Semdeg, arsebiTia, erTmaneTisagan mkveT-
Ta), eTnonimTa, TemonimTa, qoronimTa da warmomavlobis saxelTa rad gansxvavdes problemis xedvis ori aspeqti:
ucxoenovani dawerilobac; gansakuTrebuli tradiciis arar-
_ istoriulad (tradiciulad) ra principebis mixedviT mo-
sebobis SemTxvevaSi daculi unda iyos qarTulisTvis damaxasia-
xda ukve arsebuli enobrivi erTeulebis saxeldeba enebad Tu ki-
Tebeli ZiriTadi mimarTeba eTnonimsa (Temonimsa) da qoronims
loebad;
Soris; Sdr.: qarTulSic zogjer Temis/tomis saxelia amosava-
_ Tanamedrove mecnierTagan ra kriteriumebia SemoTavazebu-
li kuTxisTvis (svani - svaneTi), zogjer ki - qoronimisgan iwarmo-
li enisa da dialeqtis gasamijnavad.
eba sazogadoebis saxeli (aWara - aWareli). garda amisa, geogra-
aseve, sxvadasxva ganzomilebis mixedviT, gansakuTrebuli yu-
fiuli saxelebis ucxourad dawerilobisas daculi unda iyos
radRebiTaa Sesaswavli is enobriv-eTnikuri da istoriul-poli-
qarTuli sityvis struqtura (sqema ix. gv. 567-575).
SeniSvna: wignis daskvniT nawilSi warmodgenil TemonimTa, tikuri viTareba, sadac mZafri kamaTia lingvisturi erTeulis
eTnonimTa, qoronimTa da lingvonimTa leqsikinSi zogjer mocemulia enad Tu dialeqtad miCnevis gamo.
fuZis erTze meti varianti (mag., Бальсземойский / Верхнобальский...), msoflios tradiciul enebze dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom enad
rac aixsneba imiT, rom Cven miznad ar dagvisaxavs qarTveluri kvalificireba xdeba "sistemuri igiveoba-sxvaobebis" miuxedavad,
eTnonimebis, qoronimebis... ucxouri Sesatyvisebis sarekomendacio
kerZod, eTnikur-politikuri niSniT enebadaa kvalificirebu-
variantebis warmodgena: pirvelad vwerT CvenTvis misaReb
variantebs. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom wignis SesavalSi mocemuli li analogiuri fonematur-gramatikuli sistemis mqone er-
satransliteracio sqemis (gv. 23-24) laTinuri variantebi SevarCieT Teulebi (belorusuli da rusuli, ruminuli da moldovuri,
kompiteruli simboloebis mixedviT. azerbaijanuli da Turquli da sxv.) da piriqiT, fonematur-gra-

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samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

matikuli sistemis mixedviT sagrZnoblad gansxvavebuli buxaru- atad - mcire imperiebad (ruseTis politikis SedegebisaTvis afx-
li da alJiruli, prusiuli da bavariuli (da sxv.) erTi enis ki- azeTSi, CeCneT-inguSeTSi, daRestanSi... ix., T. gvancelaZe, m. tabi-
loebadaa miCneuli. rogorc wesi, monaTesave enobrivi erTeu- Ze, r. Serozia, r. Wanturia, 2001).
lebis erTi enis variantebad Tu sxvadasxva enebad CaTvla uSu- sakuTriv qarTul sinamdvileSi i.stalinma Tavisi ”enis" mqo-
alod ukavSirdeba mocemuli sazogadoebis (sazogadoebebis) ne erovnebebad gamoacxada ara mxolod megrelebi, lazebi da sva-
miCnevas erTi istoriuli kulturis mqone eTnosad (Tu naci- nebi, aramed - aWarlebic, qobuleTlebic, ingiloebic; misi azriT,
ad). araiSviaTad, enis statusi ganisazRvreba religiuri an poli- jer unda ayvavebuliyvnen am patara "daCagruli" erebis enebi, Sem-
deg ki yvelas gza unda daeTmo erTi msoflio enisTvis - TavisTa-
tikur-saxelmwifoebrivi midgomis mixedviTac (sakiTxis mimoxil-
vad cxadia, didi rusi eris enisTvis (ix. i.
visaTvis ix. m.tabiZe, 1999; m. tabiZe, 2002; m.tabiZe, 2003); es ukanas-
i.stalinis naSromebi: "marqsizmi da nacionaluri sakiTxi",
kneli ki mWidro kavSirSia saxelmwifoTa Soris sazRvrebis prob-
"nacionaluri sakiTxi da leninizmi"; msjelobisaTvis ix., agreTve,
lemasTan da qveynebis saSinao Tu sagareo politikur orienta-
a.nikoleiSvili, 2000, gv.34-35). i.stalinma daiwyo kidec erTa da,
ciebTan; kerZod, eTnikur-politikuri konfliqtebi zogjer "en-
Sesabamisad, enaTa daaxloeba-Serwymis politikis ganxorcieleba,
obrivi konfliqtebidan" iwyeba (p.h.nelde); Sdr., g.ramiSvili,
romelic momavalSi enaTa sruli SerwymiT unda dasrulebuliyo
2000, gv.172: "gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom erTa Soris
(T.bolqvaZe, 2003, gv.9). sastiki sabWouri ideologiuri wnexis pi-
konfliqtis mizezi, agreTve, lingvisturia". araiSviaTad, agre- robebSi saxelganTqmuli mecnierebic ki veRar bedavdnen am saki-
sori qveynebis mesveurni TviTmiznur enobriv politikas ideo- Txebze profesionaluri azris gamoTqmasa Tu msjelobas...
logiur iaraRad iyeneben (globalizaciis enobrivi aspeqti!): i.stalinis sabWoTa epoqis suliskveTebis gagrZelebasa da re-
dasapyrobi teritoriis mcxovrebTa erTiani erovnuli cidivs warmoadgens j.hiuitis, v.foirStainis da sxvaTa msjeloba
cnobierebis dasaSlelad dialeqtebs acxadeben enebad; am e.w. (j. hiuiti, 2004; v. foirStaini; 2000; kaCkari, 2003…) lazuri da me-
enebisTvis qmnian anbans, saliteraturo enas da aseTi formiT gruli saliteraturo enebis Seqmnis aucileblobis Sesaxeb; ne-
axal ”erad” Sobil xalxs ubiZgeben kulturul-saxelmwifoebri- bsiT Tu uneblieT, es ucxoelebi megrelebsa da lazebs arTme-
vi damoukideblobisaken; paralelurad, imperia am ”damoukideb- ven sakuTar udides werilobiT kulturas - qarTvelur mwig-
el” xalxs Tavs axveves imperiul enasa da kulturas. mag., sabWoTa nobrobas, romelsac, ax.w. V saukunis moRvawe ioane laziT dawye-
imperiis mSeneblobis dasawyisSive i.stalinis mier daixvewa mefis buli dRemde, sxva qarTvelebTan erTad qmnian Woroxisa da rion-
ruseTSi SemuSavebuli imperiuli koncefcia, romelic TiTqosda enguris auzebSi mosaxle laz-megrelebic.
monaTesave enobriv erTeulTa SefardebiTi gansazRvra-kva-
emyareboda enebisa da erebis Tanasworobisa da "Cagruli" "erebi-
lifikacia, rogorc wesi, iolad xerxdeba erTi istoriuli naci-
sadmi", "enebisadmi" daxmarebis ideas; sinamdvileSi, erTi romel-
is/erovnebis farglebSi (sabWoTa periodSi xelovnurad garTul-
ime kuTxis mosaxleobis damoukidebel eTnosad, xalxad, xolo mi-
da qarTveluri enobrivi erTeulebis kvalifikaciis sakiTxi); me-
si dialeqtis enad gamocxadebiT imperiis mesveurni miznad isaxav- tic, adrec da Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSic, xan-
dnen istoriuli eris (enis) da axalwarmoqmnili "xalxis" ("enis") grZlivi Tanacxovrebis Sedegad gaCenili msgavsebebis gamo, aramo-
"gaTanasworuflebianobas", Sesabamisad, dasapyrobi qveynebis is- naTesave lingvisturi erTeulic ki mocemuli enis dialeqtad kva-
toriuli mosaxleobis warmodgenas eTnikur-enobriv konglomer- lificirdeba; kerZod, samecniero literaturaSi aramonaTesave

- 43 - - 44 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

enobrivi erTeulis dialeqtad qcevis gansasazRvravad SemuSave- tomberSi internetiTac gamoqveynda (Lazebura.com); werilis saTa-
bulia e.w. gadafarvis kriteriumi (ix. i.gosensi, 1977); sanimu- uria: "erTi qalaqeli gogonas ”egoisturi" siyvaruli"; moviy-
Sod ganvixilavT prusiuli metyvelebis istorias: vanT werilis ZiriTad fragmentebs:
1230-1284 wlebSi germanelebma daipyres litvuri modgmis to-
"wlebis manZilze megona, rom me musikis armqone kulturis Svili vi-
mebi – prusielebi; droTa ganmavlobaSi prusiis mosaxleoba ga- yavi, radganac, lazur garemocvas mowyvetili, erTi Soreuli qalaqis
germanelda (g.tivaZe, 1970, gv.101-102); me-17 saukunemde arsebuli kulturis pirobebSi gavizarde...
Zveli prusiuli enis - litvuris monaTesave baltikuri enis - rizes findiklis raionis sofeli pizxala Cemi sofelia. me pizxalas
"memkvidre" axali prusiuli metyveleba dRes ukve ramdenime ger- xeobis Svili var. dedaCemic imave raionis sofel derbentidanaa. ese igi,
me orive mxridan lazi var. magram 1972 wels izmiTis goljuqis raionSi
manul (brandenburgul) dialeqtad ganixileba; Sdr., aseve, v.
davbadebulvar. Tvramet wlamde iqve, Semdeg ki, universitetis wlebis
Jirmunskis pozicia slavTa teritoriaze - saqsoniis miwaze - gamoklebiT, sul stambolSi vcxovrobdi da vcxovrob.
Camoyalibebuli aRmosavlur Suagermanuli dialeqtebis Sesaxeb vxedav, rom lazebi, rogorc eTnikuri koleqtivi, viSlebiT da sada-
(v.Jirmunski, 1956, gv.24); Sdr., a.onianis Sefaseba: germanuli eni- caa im wertilze mivalT, roca aRar viarsebebT.
sa da dialeqtebis specialistebi zemogermanul da qvemoger- Cemi mSoblebi sakmaod axalgazrdul asakSi, rogorc yvela, realur
sinamdviles gamoeqcnen da movidnen ucxo qalaqSi... deda - saswavleblad,
manul enebs, erovnul-politikuri interesebidan gamomdina-
mama ki - samuSaod.
re, dialeqtebs uwodeben (ix. a.oniani, 2003, gv.139-140). yovel zafxuls davdiodiT sofelSi. Cemi mSoblebis iq yofna da ga-
mecnierTa mier enisa da dialeqtis problemis araarsebiTad CaRebuli keria axlac maxsovs. yvavilian da msxlis xeebian baRs, viwro
CaTvla an politikis interesebis sferod miCneva kacobriobisa- arxiT orad gayofil ezosa da ded-mamisagan uCumrad gasaxmobad gafeni-
Tvis zianis momtani SeiZleba gaxdes. garkveviT unda iTqvas, rom li Txilis moparvas roca vigoneb, Tvalebi cremlebiT mevseba xolme...
1992 wlis 10 ivliss ded-mama davkarge. ori wlis Semdeg ki 90 wlis
enisa da dialeqtis mimarTebis TiTqosda uwyinar lingvistur
da CemTvis ”mosiarule biblioTekad” miCneuli babuac mivabareT miwas...
problemasTan dakavSirebulia ara mxolod erTi konkretuli
maT didi monatrebiT vixseneb...
qveynisa da eris bedi, aramed sxvadasxva erTa mSvidobiani Tana- maTTan gamomSvidobebis Semdeg arc sofeli SemrCa da aRarc saxli.
cxovrebis perspeqtivac. qalaqma ufleba ar momca, maT davpatronebodi. ukve aRarc moxucebi
Cveni azriT, enisa da dialeqtis mimarTebis problema sinqro- myavs, aRarc yanebi da baRebi maqvs da arc sofelSi wasvlis SesaZlebl-
nuladaa gansaxilveli sazogadoebriv-istoriuli, eTnikur-kul- oba. 1997 wlis oqtombris TveSi, roca bolos Cavedi sofelSi, saxlis
Weridan cis kamara moCanda ukve. arada, sityva mqonda micemuli, rom ro-
turuli, religiuri da sakuTriv lingvisturi aspeqtebiT; aseve,
ca gavizrdebodi, aRvadgendi. diax, gavizarde, magram me saxli aRar dame-
saWiroa mecnierTa kvlevis Sedegebis gasazogadoebrioba, vinai- loda. Cavikece Sua oTaxSi da vitire Cveni daqcevis gamo.
dan, aseT SemTxvevaSi, SeuZlebeli gaxdeba mocemuli sazogadoe- yvela es Cemi ubedoba da naRveli cota xniT daviviwyoT da imas mogi-
bis mowyveta Tavis kulturul warsulTan: xalxs eqneba gacnobie- TxrobT, Tu dRevandel Segnebamde rogor mivedi.
rebuli arCevani TviTidentifikaciisaTvis da, rac mTavaria, da- 1994 wels Jurnal OGNI-s saSualebiT Sevityve zugaSi berepes musi-
kaluri moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. xazis radioTi lazuri programebisa da zo-
culi iqneba adamianis Tu eTnosis ufleba, icodes Tavisi war-
gierTi gadacemis, aseve birol TofaloRlus "HEYAMO"-s wyalobiT Seg-
suli; samagaliTod moviyvanT TurqeTSi mcxovrebi lazi gogonas
nebam imisa, rom me lazi var, mTlianad momicva.
werils, romelic daibeWda Jurnal mJoraSi (Sdr.: laz. mJo- gudastviris sulSi Camwvdomi xma, lazur enaze siamovnebiT mosmeni-
ra/bJora, megr. bJa, svan. miJ da samwign. qarT. mze) da 2002 wlis oq- li nawarmoebebi, maTSi gamoTqmuli arsi da Sinaarsi me TiTqmis Tavs ma-

- 45 - - 46 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

kargvinebs... mixaria, rom Cvenc gvqonia desTanebi da Setirebebi, musika- laSqari osmaleTis dasaxmareblad, magram lazTa razmebi Turquli jarisa-
luri kultura; bolo or weliwadSi lazurs kargad daveufle. nawar- gan yovelTvis gancalkevebiT idgnen da masTan arasodes hqondaT urTierTo-
moebebis sityvebis gagebac daviwye da ukve lazurad SemiZlia laparaki. ba" (АКТЫ КАК, t. 3 gv.53)...
axla lazuri Jurnali MJORA-c gvaqvs. me mjera, rom, misi wyalobiT, miuxedavad didi survilisa, rom waSalon yvelaferi, rac miuTiTebs
erTmaneTis Sesaxeb ufro meti informacia gveqneba, erTmaneTs ufro ga- lazebis (qarTvelebis) araTurqul warmoSobaze, TurqeTis mmarTveli wree-
vuwvdenT daxmarebis xels. bi iZulebulni arian aRiaron, rom lazebi miekuTvnebian kavkasiuri jgufis
uwinares yovlisa, mimaCnia, rom, iseve rogorc yvela xalxma, lazebmac xalxebs da warmoadgenen erT-erT qarTvel toms. amasTan, cdiloben, es
TavianTi warsulisa da warmomavlobis Zieba unda daiwyon. amisaTvis Ta- problema moaqcion wminda lingvistur CarCoebSi. yvela Turquli leqsiko-
nadgoma da mxardaWera aucilebelia, radganac Tanadgomis gareSe darCe- ni erTxmad amtkicebs, rom "lazebi arian lazurad molaparake, patara kavka-
nili koleqtivi TandaTan mcirdeba, degradirdeba da evropis qveynebis siuri tomis warmomadgenlebi, xolo stambolSi miRebuli azri, aRmosav-
universitetebSi "mkvdar enaTa kaTedrebze" mxolod sakvlevad iyeneben. leT SavizRvispireTis yvela mcxovrebs ewodos lazi, mcdaria" (Turquli
Cvenc aseve SeiZleba dagvemarTos, magram, sabednierod, varsebobT da nab- enis didi leqsikoni, stamboli, 1977, gv.786; axali Turquli leqsikoni, sta-
ij-nabij win mimavali kultura varT. mboli, 1980, gv.649; Turqul enaze).
me, siyvaruliTa da pativiscemiT, rwmeniTa da enTuziazmiT savse er- oficialur Turqul istoriografiaSi lazi moRvawis lazad xseneba
Ti lazi gogona, uaxloes momavalSi Sexvedris da azrTa gaziarebis sur- miRebuli ar aris da Turqi erisaTvis mavned aris miCneuli. rogorc i.da-
viliT yvelas gesalmebiT". pativiscemiT: refika yadioRlu (Turqu- niSmendi wers, "saxelwodeba "laz"-s akuTvnebdnen trapizonelebs. iqauri
lidan Targmna giga qamuSaZem). mosaxleoba amayad iCemebda lazobas. am cudi Cvevis bevri magaliTi gvaqvs"
(i.daniSmendi, osmaleTis istoriis ganmartebiTi qronologia, IV tomi,
aSkaraa, rom TurqeTSi mcxovreb lazTa udidesi nawilisa-
1955, gv.492; Turqul enaze). magram imave istorikoss ratomRac aviwydeba
Tvis jerjerobiT miuwvdomelia ara mxolod TavianTi istoriuli imis Tqma, Tu ratom iCemebdnen ase amayad lazebi lazobas da ara albanel-
warsulis, samwignobro enis Tu mSobliuri literaturis, ara- obas, arabobas da a.S.; meore mxriv, islamis enciklopediaSi garkveviT weria,
med sakuTriv lazuri folkloris arsebobis codnac. mag., refika rom "lazebi" arian samxreT kavkasiuri (qarTuli) tomis warmomadgenlebi
qadioRlum ar icis, rom ioane lazi, stefane sananoisZe, iovane da istoriulad ukaviaT Savi zRvis sanapiros samxreT-aRmosavleTi" (isla-
minCxi, iovane petriwi, giorgi Wyondideli, iovane maruSisZe da mis enciklopedia, VII tomi, stamboli, 1955, gv.25; Turqul enaze). doRan av-
jioRlu Tavis "Turqul istoriaSi" pirdapir uTiTebs, rom "XI saukunis da-
mravali sxva lazi Tu megreli didi qarTveluri werilobiTi
sawyisSi Turqmenebis (seljukebis - w.b.) mosvlamde, Crdilo-aRmosavleT
kulturisa da saxelmwifoebrivi azrovnebis burjni arian; aseve, TurqeTSi Warbobdnen qarTvelebi da lazebi, maT enaze laparakobda mosax-
mas ara aqvs informacia imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor xdeboda lazTa leobis umravlesoba" (d.avjioRlu, Turqebis istoria, wigni I, stamboli,
dagegmili asimilacia: ra gulmodginebiT cdilobda qemalistu- 1979, gv.44, 144; Turqul enaze).
ri TurqeTi lazTaTvis sakuTari warsulis daviwyebas - lazTa ga- fars TuRlajis enciklopediur leqsikonSi vkiTxulobT: "lazuri ena
Turqebas. am sakiTxs mravali naSromi mieZRvna, mag., davimowmebT wa- axloa qarTulTan da warmoadgens megruli enis kilos" (f. TuRlaji, encik-
lopediuri leqsikoni "okeane", IV tomi, me-2 gamocema, gamomcemloba "jemnie-
Te bawaSis mimoxilvis vrcel fragments (w.bawaSi, 1988, gv.13-15):
Ti", 1978, maisi, gv.1776; Turqul enaze). "ena, romelzec laparakoben lazebi,
"sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom sulTnis "qveSevrdomni" Tavis Tavs mkveT- miekuTvneba kavkasiuri enebis samxreTul jgufs da Zalian axloa qarTulTan"
rad ganasxvavebdnen eTnikuri gagebiT. bunebrivia, rom qarTvelebi (lazebi), (i.a.govse, axali leqsikoni da enciklopedia ilustraciebiT, gv.1954; Tur-
albanelebi, arabebi da sxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebi arasodes uwodebd- qul enaze). qemal qaradenizli Tavis "trapizonis istoriaSi" ambobs: "tra-
nen Tavs Turqebs. amasTan erTad, lazeTis mTavrebi, ramdenadac es SesaZ- pizonis, giresunis, rizes, Torulis da sxva adgilebis mosaxleoba Sedgeba
lo iyo, inarCunebdnen erTgvar damoukideblobas. amas isini axerxebdnen lazebisagan, romlebic cxovroben qarTuli wes-CveulebebiT da aqvT saerTo
XIX saukunis Sua wlebamde, Tumca evalebodaT, omis SemTxvevaSi gamoeyvanaT warmoSoba, rjuli da adaTi" (q.qaradenizli, trapizonis istoria, stambo-

- 47 - - 48 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

li, 1877, gv, 68; Turqul enaze). avtori iZulebulia aRiaros: "es qveyana da- viTareba gviCvenebs, rom am periodSi megrel-lazebsa da iberielebs (qar-
saxlebuli iyo WanebiT, lazebiT da qarTvelebiT, romlebic, marTalia, Tvelebs) Soris kavSiri an ar arsebobda, anda iseT doneze iyo, rom er-
sulTnis qveSevrdomebad iTvlebodnen, magram ar cnobdnen centralur xel- TmaneTze gavlenas ver axdendnen. kolxuri kultura, megrel-lazTa ga-
isuflebas da eqvemdebarebodnen mxolod Tavis begebsa da aRebs"... qristianebis periodamde, ese igi, Cv. w. aR-is me-4, me-5 saukuneebamde
Turquli istoriografia ver axerxebs, uaryos lazebisa da qarTvele- grZeldeba (afaqiZe). elinuri da romauli kolonizacia da am kulture-
bis naTesaoba da eTnikuri erToba, magram mainc cdilobs, "mecnierulad" da- bis gavlenaze damokidebuli megrel-lazebi gaqristianebis Semdeg saber-
amtkicos laz-WanTa Turquli warmoSoba. am sakiTxs garkveul adgils uT- ZneTis marTlmadideblur eklesiaze iyvnen damokidebulni da eklesiis
moben saxelmZRvaneloebsa da popularul gamocemebSi. ewevian imis propagan- ena berZnuli iyo.
das, TiTqos laz-Wanebi ganekuTvnebian alTauri warmomavlobis Turqul eT- qarTvelebisa da megrel-lazebis SesaZlo pirveli seriozuli kul-
nikur jgufs". turuli Sexeba megrel-lazTa adreul saukuneebSi qarTul orTodoq-
lazTa sakiTxi ufro da ufro rTuldeba: sul eklesiasTan dakavSirebiT daiwyo...
sakuTari erovnuli istoriis arcodnis gamo, qarTvelobas qarTvelebi da megrel-lazebi daaxloebiT 3000 weli erTmaneTisagan
sruliad damoukideblad viTardebodnen. kolxuri kultura iberiuli
Tavisi nebiT emijneba TurqeTSi mcxovreb lazTa erTi nawili; maT
(qarTuli) kulturidan daaxloebiT 700 wliT gvian iwyeba.
ar ician, rom qarTuli (qarTveluri) samwignobro enis, kultu- gnebavT enobrivi, gnebavT istoriuli ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, na-
risa da saxelmwifoebriobis SeqmnaSi arsebiTi wvlili swored Tlad Cans, rom megrel-lazebi qarTvelebisagan (qorTuebisgan) gansxva-
laz-megrelebisaa; rom, gansxvavebiT germanuli, italiuri, vebuli eTnikuri jgufia. am ori xalxis fizionomiuri saxeebic ki Tavi-
espanuri da sxva enebisgan, qarTvelTa samwignobro ena suflad SeiZleba ganvasxvavoT. mokled rom vTqvaT, megrel-lazTa da
qarTvelebs Soris yvelaze axlo kavSirebi mxolod am ori enis erTi da
saerToqarTveluri enis bazaze Seiqmna (da ara romelime kilos
imave enaTa ojaxis wevrobaa...
mixedviT); rom maTi winaprebi saukuneebis manZilze sxva qarTve-
megrel-lazTa, qarTvelTa da svanTa erT xalxad gamocxadeba da "qar-
lebTan erTad saerTo enaze qmnidnen samwignobro kulturas... Tvelianebad" saxeldeba istoriulad da lingvisturad alogikuria.
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi da ganaTlebuli lazebisTvis cnobilia Tuki yvelani qarTvelebi varT, ese igi, erTi xalxi varT, maSin mecniere-
es istoriuli simarTle; Sdr.: ucxoeTSi myof zog lazs es bisa da literaturis enad qarTulis gamoyeneba faruli asimilaciis
sinamdvile e.w. qarTuli imperiuli azrovnebis gamovlineba hgo- tolfasia. aq arsebuli alogikuroba qarTulis Cv. w. aRricxvamde 4000-
5000 wlebSi daSlis Sedegad warmoqmnili enis verdanaxva, anda, danaxvis
nia. araiSviaTad, lazTa amgvari ganwyoba marTulia romelime im-
usurvelobaa. lazebi ukve Tavisi nebiT, qarTvelebisa da Turqebis sur-
periis mesveurTa mierac.
vilebs ar TanaugrZnoben; maTi asimilaciis msurvelTa umarTebuloba
qarTvelur kulturasTan lazTa TviTgaigivebas, TviTident- cxadia" (Turqulidan Targmna giga qamuSaZem).
ifikacias arTulebs saerTo qarTveluri enis divergenciis is gubaz Cibarisis msjeloba efuZneba qarTvelur dialeqtTa da-
mcdari qronologiebic, romlebic aqamde iyo damkvidrebuli; sa- Slis im mcdar qronologias, romelic pirvelad warmoadgina
nimuSod moviyvanT germaniaSi moRvawe lazi gubaz Cibarisis msj- g.klimovma. aq mokled vityviT (vrclad ix. qvemoT): dRes bunebaSi
elobis fragments werilidan: "megrel-lazebi da saqarTvelo" ar arsebobs Tvisobrivad ucvleli arc erTi ena, romelic arseb-
(statia Turqulad gamoqveynda Lazebura.com-is gverdebze 2003 obda 5000 wlis win; raRa svanuri, qarTuli Tu lazur-megruli
wlis martSi): SemorCa dedamiwas? bevri wyaro da logikuri argumenti arsebobs
"megreli (? - t.f.) arqeologi da istorikosi lorTqifaniZe aRniS-
navs, rom iberiuli kultura da kolxuri kultura erTmaneTisagan sru-
saimisod, rom vTqvaT: saerTo qarTveluri enis kiloebad di-
liad gansxvavebuli materialuri kulturis mflobelebi arian. aseTi vergenciis ufro logikuri da realobasTan axlo myofi Tari-

- 49 - - 50 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

Ria welTaRricxvaTa mijna (t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv.98-100); mkvidreobis" IX tomSi; teqstebs da gamokvlevas gamosaqveyneblad
garda amisa, am dros saerToqarTveluridan iRebs saTaves sa- amzadebs mixeil labaZe).
mwignobro qarTulic (Sdr., arn.Ciqobava, 1966, gv.92), megrul- saukuneebis manZilze romeli xalxi inaxavs "sxvaTa" mefis
Wanuric, qarTlur-kaxuric da sxva qarTveluri kiloebic. Se- saxels aseTi didi siyvaruliT? dampyrobel-asimilatorTa me-
sabamisad, qarTuli samwignobro kultura isevea lazebis kuTvni- fis xotba-dideba imperiis dacemasTan erTad kvdeba... aSkaraa,
leba, rogorc - aWarlebis, qarTlelebis, raWvelebis, svanebis, ka- rom Tamaris saxe erT-erTi arsebiTi maxasiaTebelia qarTvelTa
xelebisa Tu mesxebisa. saerTo istoriuli mexsierebisa, Sesabamisad, qarTvelTa erov-
kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT: eTnikur-erovnuli TviTaRqmis nuli TviTaRqmisa.
TvalsazrisiT, arsebiTia codna sakuTari fesvebisa; Sdr.: saqar- megrul-lazur enobriv velSi samwignobro enis saxis Sesaxeb
Tvelos amJamindel sazRvrebSi mcxovrebi Tanamedrove megrel- uTuod sayuradReboa prokopi kesarielis msjeloba quTaisis sa-
lazebis mier kargadaa gacnobierebuli, rom maTi winaprebis xelis Sesaxeb; kerZod, is wers: lazebma berZnuli ena ar ician,
Rvawlis Sedegicaa qarTuli/qarTveluri samwignobro kul- amitom amaxinjeben da kotiaions quTaTiss/qoTaiss eZaxian (geor-
tura; TurqeTSi/ruseTSi mcxovrebTaTvis ki ukve gaucxoebulia gika, 1965, gv.195). cnobilia, rom megrul-Wanurad quTaiss quTe-
ioane lazis, Wyondidlebis, bagrationebis da sxva moRvaweTa mier Si hqvia; gamomdinare aqedan, prokopis dros an lazuri (megrul-
naloliavebi samwignobro enac da kulturuli tradiciac (vinai- lazuri) metyveleba CvenTvis cnobili saxiT jer Camoyalibebuli
dan maTi ganaTlebis ena Turqulia/rusulia); Tumca, gubaz Ciba- ar aris, an lazTa ZiriTadi saurTierTo-saxelmwifo ena
riss kargad rom Seeswavla Tundac TurqeTis moqalaqe lazTa iyo samwignobro qarTuli; Sdr., bagrati, giorgi I Tu saqar-
folkori, is iolad aRmoaCenda, rom lazebisTvis sayvareli Tvelos gamaerTianebeli da qarTuli mwignobrobis amRorZineb-
winaparia Tamar mefe (ix., magaliTad, i.yifSiZe, 1917): eli sxva mefeebi, aseve, Wyondidlebi da mravali sxva moRvawe la-
XII saukunis erTiani saqarTvelos didi mefe Tamari lazuri zeT-klarjeT-egrisidan iyvnen (dawvrilebiT ix. qvemoT).
xalxuri Tqmulebebis gamorCeuli gmiria, msgavsad svanuri, meg- tradiciulad, erTi eris Svilebs erTi ena aqvT, swored ami-
ruli, heruli, taouri, aWaruli, fSav-xevsuruli, qarTl-kaxuri tomaa, rom, mag., Zveli mematianeni da Cveni didi moRvaweni (gri-
Tu imerxeuli gadmocemebisa; garda amisa, saqarTvelos sxva ku- gol xanZTeli, leonti mroveli, vaxuSti, sulxan-saba, ilia WavWa-
TxeTa msgavsad, lazeTSic Tamaris saxels ukavSirdeba vaZe, akaki wereTeli, iakob gogebaSvili, konstantine gamsaxur-
mravalsaukunovani xidebis, cixesimagreebis, taZrebis mSenebloba dia...) arasodes saubroben qarTvelTa ramdenime enis arsebobaze;
da a.S. aqve sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac, rom sofel makrialis metic, Cveni mwignobari winaprebi xazgasmiT weren, rom qarTvel-
(amJamindeli xofis raionis sofeli qemalfaSa) mkvidri memd-ali Ta istoriuli kulturis tradiciuli enaa - dedaenaa - samwig-
veziroRli-anCabaZis cnobiT, lazebi Tamar mefes lazad Tvlian; nobro qarTuli, xolo odiSuri (megruli), mesxuri, kaxuri, sva-
metic, makrialelTa (qemalfaSelTa) rwmeniT, Tamar mefis nuri da qarTvelTa sxva metyvelebani kuTxur-sofluri kiloebia
saflavi makrialis taZarSia (bagrationTa lazur (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. arn.Ciqobava, 1948; b.jorbenaZe, 1989,
warmomavlobas qarTuli saistorio wyaroebic amowmebs; memd- gv.22-23; a.jafariZe, 1996, gv.58-63, 114-118; ix., agreTve, t.futkaraZe,
ali veziroRli-anCabaZis Canawerebi daibeWdeba "qarTveluri me- 2000; t.futkaraZe, n.nakani, 2001; T.gvancelaZe, 2003).

- 51 - - 52 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

adreul saukuneebSi enis statusis gansazRvrisa da qarTvel- qarTuli enis - Sesaxeb msjeloba pirvelad warmodgenilia n.maris
Ta erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis TvalsazrisiT gansa- naSromSi (n.mari, 1922, gv.5); ak. SaniZem da mecnierTa didma jgufma
kuTrebiT sainteresoa "iverielTa erTobis traqtati", romel- ukritikod miiRo amgvari Sefaseba. arn. Ciqobavam aCvena, rom saSu-
sac 1790 wels xeli moaweres qarTl-kaxeTis, samegrelos, imereTi- ali qarTuli aris "Zveli" da "axali" normebis Sereva, Sesabami-
sa da guriis mefe-mTavrebma; traqtatSi mkafiodaa naTqvami: sad, man ganaviTara mosazreba, rom sinamdvileSi arsebobs mxolod
"vinaidan yovelTave iverielTa, msaxlobelTa samefosa Si- Zveli da axali qarTuli ena. b.jorbenaZis azriT, qarTuli samwig-
na qarTlisa, kaxeTisa, imerTa, odiSisa da guriisaTa aqvsT erT nobro enis ganviTarebaSi SeiZleba gamoiyos xuTi an eqvsi etapi
morwmuneoba, arian Svilni erTisa kaTolike eklesiisagan So- (sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix., t.futkaraZe, 1993).
bilni da erTisa enisa mqonebelni, aqvsT mavasxelobiTica ( - ur- Cveni azriT, gaumarTlebelia samwignobro qarTulis
TierTvaldebulebiTi - t.f.) siyvaruli viTarca sisxliT naTe- warmodgena e. w. Zvel, saSual da axal qarTul enebad (an Zvel
savTa da moyvarobiT SekrulTa urTierTTa Soris. da axal enebad) berZnulisa da sxva enaTa msgavsad (Zveli qarTu-
amisaTvis Cven zemoxsenebulad qveyanaTa iveriisa da mefeni li enisa da axali qarTuli enis arsebobis dausabuTeblobis Se-
da mTavarni damamtkicebelni saukunosa amis pirobisa saxeliT saxeb ix.: r.TvaraZe, 1985, gv.19; z.gamsaxurdia, 1991, gv.534; t. futk-
yovlad Zlierisa RvTisaTa aRvsTqvamT mtkicesa amas erTobasa, araZe, 1993; t.futkaraZe, 1998; c.bendeliani, 2003...).
romelica TviTeulad SemdgomTa Sina hazrTa cxad iqmnebis..." Zveli da axali berZnuli marTlac sxvadasxva struqturis
sayuradReboa istorikosTa da eTnografTa daskvnac: “da- enebia da maT Soris gagebinebac SeuZlebelia; Sdr., qarTvelur
qucmacebul saqarTveloSi “marto sakuTriv qarTli ar aris sa- sinamdvileSi Zveli da axali qarTuli enobrivi qvesistemebi er-
qarTvelo, sxva samefo-samTavroebic Tavs saqarTveloebad TmaneTisagan Tvisobrivad ar gansxvavdeba: "gansxvavebul droTa
warmoadgenen. aseTi mravlobiTi Segnebidan ibadeba uCveulo Wrilebsa da horizontalur ganStoebebSi qarTuli ena struq-
forma “saqarTveloni anu saqarTveloebi; aseTi saqarTveloe- turul saxes arsebiTad yvela doneze inarCunebs" (T.uTurgaiZe,
2002, gv.19; Sdr., T.uTurgaiZe, 1966, gv.12); garda amisa, saukuneebis
bia: mesxeTi, kaxeT-hereTi, qarTli, imereTi, guria, odiS-afxazeTi
manZilze leqsikuri fondis gasaocari simyaris gamo, arc gagebi-
(msjelobisa da literaturis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. a.jafariZe, 1996;
neba gamxdara problema. samwignobro qarTulis amgvari stabilu-
r.TofCiSvili, 2002); yvela am mcire samefoSi samefo kancelariis
roba gansazRvra unikalurma situaciam: igi TiTqmis oci sauku-
ena qarTuli, xolo kultura - zogadqarTuli iyo.
nis manZilze erTdroulad aris saxelmwifo enac, saeklesio
naTelia: tradiciulad, qarTvelebi vTvlidiT, rom mxo-
enac da samwerlobo enac; amdenad, ufro logikuria, vilapara-
lod erTi enis mqoneni varT.
koT qarTuli samwignobro enis stilur variantebze; kerZod, sau-
ra safuZvlis, kriteriumis Tu mecnieruli argumentis mixed-
kuneebis manZilze gverdigverd funqcionirebda da dResac arseb-
viT gaCnda mosazrebebi, rom gvaqvs ori Tu sami samwignobro ena
obs erTi samwignobro enis saeklesio, saliteraturo, sakancela-
(Zveli, axali, saSuali), sami Tu oTxi qarTveluri ena: qarTuli,
rio, samecniero stilebi da xalxuri metyvelebis nairsaxeobani.
zanuri (megruli, Wanuri) da svanuri da... ramdenad Seesabameba ukanasknelad am Temas Seexo g.gogolaSvili (2004, gv.32-37;
realur viTarebas amgvari kvalifikaciebi? TandarTuli SeniSvniT, naSromis saboloo varianti Seqmnilia
qarTvelTa sami sxvadasxva samwignobro enis - Zveli litera- 2000 wels), romelic Seecada daesabuTebina, rom arsebobs sami sa-
turuli enis, saSualo saukuneebis literaturis enisa da axali erTo-saxalxo qarTuli ena (Zveli, saSuali da axali) da ori qar-

- 53 - - 54 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

Tuli saliteraturo ena (Zveli da axali). g.gogolaSvilis msje- Tveluri enis (qarTulis, zanuris, svanuris) Sesaxebac. dRes am-
loba aseTia: "Zveli qarTuli ena da axali qarTuli ena Cvens gvar daskvnebs akeTeben isini, vinc Tvlis, rom ena-kilos sakvali-
warmodgenaSi sxvadasxva donis enobrivi erTeulebia" (gv.35); fikaciod sakmarisia gagebineba, rogorc lingvisturi kriteri-
"ar arsebobs erTiani saSuali qarTuli saliteraturo ena, umi (bolo amgvari msjelobis Sesaxeb, ix. T.gamyreliZe, z.kiknaZe…
magram arsebobs saSuali qarTuli ena, rogorc enobrivi rea- 2003, gv.615).
loba Tavisi mravalgvari nairsaxeobiT" (gv.37). Tavidanve aRvniSnavT, rom gagebineba ar aris lingvisturi
vfiqrobT, qarTuli samwignobro enis stiluri variantebi ar kriteriumi (vrclad ix.: t.futkaraZe; 2002, T.gvancelaZe, 2003).
warmoadgenen "klasikuri gagebiT or saliteraturo enas" (Sdr., garda amisa, sayovelTaodaa cnobili (ix., mag., h.paulis, h.hirtis,
g.gogolaSvili, 2004, gv.35); isini erTmaneTs arc droSi enacvle- v.Jirmunskis, g.t.Sarbatovis, n.v.iuSmanovis, v.a.Jukovskis da sxva-
bian: XI saukuneSi ar wydeba "e.w. Zveli qarTuli"; amave stiliT Ta gamokvlevebi), rom gagebinebis ararsebobis Tu sakuTriv lin-
iwereba saeklesio xasiaTis Sromebi XII-XVIII saukuneebSic da gvistur maxasiaTeblebSi didi gansxvavebis miuxedavad, arabTa,
XIX s. pirvel naxevarSic ki; garda amisa, qarTuli marTlmadideb- germanelTa, sparselTa, CinelTa, espanelTa, italielTa, frang-
eli eklesiis RvTismsaxureba amJamadac am eniT mimdinareobs; e.i. Ta, iaponelTa da mraval sxva xalxTa "saSinao metyvelebani" saer-
qarTuli samwignobro enis saeklesio da saero-samecniero sti- Toerovnuli samwignobro enis dialeqtebad iTvleba; metic, ara-
lebi dResac Tanaarseboben saeklesio da saero velebis mixedviT; iSviaTad, adamianebi ver floben samwignobro enas, magram maT de-
es stiluri variantebi ar arian sxvadasxva drois enobrivi donee- daenad mainc zogaderovnuli ena miiCneva. sanimuSod moviyvanT
bi. garda amisa, Tavisi funqcionirebis yvela periodSi qarTuli n.i.konradis daskvnas: "iaponiasa da CineTSi ara mxolod sofelSi,
saerTo-erovnuli ena warmodgenilia Tavisi "mravalgvari nairsa- aramed qalaqSic mosaxleobis nawili saerTod ver flobs saerTo
xeobiT". Sesabamisad, Cven SeiZleba vilaparakoT qarTuli saer- saliteraturo enas da zepiri urTierTobebis dros iyenebs Ta-
To-saxalxo erovnuli enis stiluri variantebis funqcionire- vis dialeqts" (n.i.konradi, 1960); es sulac ar niSnavs, rom iapo-
bis periodebze (da ara ramdenime qarTuli samwignobro enis ar- nels, romelic ver flobs samwignobro enas da mxolod dialeqt-
sebobaze), mag.: ze metyvelebs, dedaena ara aqvs, an misi dedaena misive dialeqtia:
damwerlobamdeli periodi: funqcionirebs zogadqarTuli saerTo-samwignobro enis armcodne iaponelisTvisac dedaenaa sa-
enobrivi koine, misi oficialuri (saxelmwifo), sakulto saxes- literaturo iaponuri. swored msgavsi faqtebis aralogikuri
gansjis gamo zogs gauCnda azri, rom SeiZleba arsebobdes ori
xvaobebi da qarTveluri kiloebi;
dedaena (ix., mag., a.oniani, 2003, gv.143); iqve, erTmaneTSia aRreuli
V-X saukuneebi: funqcionirebs saeklesio ena da qarTvelTa
dedaenisa da samwignobro enis cnebebi.
zepiri metyvelebis oficialuri da xalxuri nairsaxeobebi;
dedamiwaze arsebuli enobrivi erTeulebi, rogorc wesi, ene-
IX-XX saukuneebi: gverdigverd arsebobs samwerlobo enis
bad da dialeqtebad kvalificirebuli ar aris gagebinebis krit-
normirebuli saeklesio, saliteraturo (saero-sakancelario),
eriumis mixedviT; Tumca am faqtors arsebiTi mniSvneloba Sei-
samecniero stilebi, teritoriuli da socialuri dialeqtebi,
Zleba mieniWos werilobiTi tradiciis armqone enobrivi erTeu-
Jargonebi da a.S.
saerToqarTvelurisgan momdinare erTiani qarTveluri lebis statusis gansazRvrisas: Tu monaTesave sazogadoebebs
erovnuli samwignobro enis uwyvetad arsebobis pirobebSi, ar gaaCniaT winaprebisgan Seqmnili saerTo mwignobroba, aseT
vfiqrobT, naklebargumentirebulia msjeloba sami Tu oTxi qar- SemTxvevaSi, ar arsebobs erovnuli meobis CamomZerwavi, gama-

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samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

erTianebeli kulturul-enobrivi sistema; Sesabamisad, enisa da kilos gammijnavi kriteriumebis Sesaxeb msjelobis ga-
saerTo eTnokulturuli erTobis codnis ararsebobisa da grZelebamde, ganvmartavT samecniero literaturaSi gamoyene-
metyvelebis gagebinebis dabali xarisxis pirobebSi, umwer- bul terminebs - ena, dedaena:
lobo monaTesave kontinuumebi am sazogadoebebis mier enebad ena. ena aris garkveuli semantikis mqone bgeriT niSanTa - en-
SeiZleba iqnen miCneulni. obriv niSanTa - istoriulad Camoyalibebuli sistema, romelic
werilobiTi tradiciis mqone sazogadoebis zepiri (xalxu- warmoadgens samyaros xedva-aRqmis, azrovnebis, codnis Senaxvis
ri) metyvelebis statusis gansazRvrisas gagebinebis kriteriums da komunikaciis saSualebas; Sdr.: calke aRebuli dialeqtic
ver daveyrdnobiT, vinaidan, logikaSi gagebineba metad pirobiTi (rogorc mocemuli enis qvesistema/mikrosistema) bgeriT niSanTa
bunebrivad mowesrigebuli sistemaa; dialeqtic warmoadgens sa-
cnebaa da, rac mTavaria, amgvari e.w. araprofesionalur-xalxu-
myaros xedva-aRqmis, azrovnebis, komunikaciis saSualebas; Sesaba-
ri midgomiT, iZulebulni gavxdebiT, werilobiTi tradiciis
misad, enis am logikuri definiciis mixedviT ver gavmijnavT enasa
mqone TiTqmis yvela ena ramdenime enad davSaloT: msoflioSi
da kilos.
arsebul TiTqmis yvela enas moepoveba iseTi dialeqti, rom- enis ganmartebis sxva variantebic ar iZleva saSualebas,
lis gageba gauWirdeba sxva dialeqtis mflobels; araTu ki- gavmijnoT ena da kilo; Sdr., mag:
loebs Soris, aramed kilokavebs Sorisac ki xSirad ara gvaqvs ga- "ena aris urTierTgagebinebis saSualebaTa sistema: sistema
gebineba. pirobiTi bgeriTi niSnebisa, romelic azris gamoxatvisa da urTi-
aqve aRvniSnavT, rom msoflios sxva enebisa da maTi kiloebis erTgagebinebisaTvis gamoiyeneba" (a.oniani, 2003, gv.142-143). bevri
msgavsad, momijnave qarTvelur kiloebs Soris gagebinebis prob- qveynis (iaponiis, CineTis, espaneTis, saqarTvelos, arabeTis...)
lema naklebadaa; mag., qvemoimerulsa da megruls Soris abaSis ra- zog raionSi ZiriTadad dialeqtiT xdeba komunikacia; aseve, ur-
ionSi arsebuli gardamavali zonis metyveleba SemaerTebel xids TierTgagebinebis saSualebaTa sistema SeiZleba iyos morzes
warmoadgens megrulsa da imeruls Soris (Sdr., v.boederi, 2003 anbani, cxovelis bgeriTi ena, raime pirobiTi bgeriTi niSnebi
da k.gabunia, 2004, gv.171). saqarTveloSi sustadaa Seswavlili da sxv. a.onianis ganmartebaSi sakamaToa bgeriTi niSnebis pirobi-
gardamavali sametyvelo zonebi; samwignobro enis normebis da- Tobis sakiTxic; saxeldebis motivaciisa da enobrivi niSnis nebis-
woliT amJamad gardamavali zonis metyveleba ufro da ufro ni- mierobis - am uZvelesi problematikis - Sesaxeb vrclad sxvagan
velirdeba, Tumca, qsu dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi in- vmsjelobT; aq ki sakiTxs mokled SevexebiT (ix., agreTve, t.futka-
stitutis TanamSromlebis mier mainc moxerxda gardamavali me- raZe, 1996):
enobrivi niSnis arsze mecnieruli msjeloba saTaves iRebs
tyvelebis saintereso nimuSebis Cawera; ix., agreTve, "qarTul di-
C.persisa da f.sosiuris naSromebidan; mag., f.sosiuri, gulis-
aleqtologiaSi" gamoqveynebuli teqstebi (1961, gv.479-480).
xmobs ra aRmniSvnelisa da aRsaniSnis mimarTebis pirobiTobas,
momijnave monaTesave enobriv erTeulebs Soris gagebineba
wers: "aRmniSvneli motivirebuli ar aris; e.i. pirobiTia aRsaniS-
rTuldeba mTagoriani landSaftis pirobebSi (samegrelo da sva- nis mimarT" (f.sosiuri, 2002, gv.76). ramdenad zustia amgvari mi-
neTi, kaxeTi da TuSeTi…): bunebrivi barierebi xels uSlis in- dgoma maSin, roca Tanamedrove lingvistikaSi enobrivi niSnis
tensiur komunikacias; Sdr., TiTqmis yvela enaSi mkveTrad gansxva- cneba moiazrebs: morfemas, damxmare sityvas, damoukidebel si-
vebulia aramomijnave kiloebic. tyvas, Sesityvebas, winadadebas; esenia pirobiTi bgeriTi niSne-

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samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

bi? aqve moviyvanT g.ramiSvilis mier dasmul kiTxvas (g.ramiSvili, pirobebSi, enis (rogorc niSanTa sistemis) ganmartebaSi enobrivi
2000, gv.93): niSnis ucilobeli pirobiTobis moazreba, rbilad rom vTqvaT,
Tu pirobiTia niSnis kavSiri sityvasa da sagans (warmodgenas) uzustobaa...
Soris, maSin rogor SeiZleba ena, rogorc pirobiT niSanTa siste- dedaena. dedaena (Muttersprache; Mather tongue, Native language)
ma, gamodges sagnobrivi viTarebis Sesaxeb codnis mopovebis in- aris winaprebis mier Seqmnili kulturis ena, romelic, rogorc
strumentad? samyaros xedva-aRqmis sistema, mraval Taobas aerTianebs (magram,
anda: Tu mag., romelime afrikeli daibada safrangeTSi da is Tavis ded-
ras niSnavs f.sosiuriseuli motivirebuloba: bgeriTi xati- aenad franguls Tvlis, bunebrivia, mis dedaenad franguli miiC-
sa da cnebis Sepirobebulobas? zogadad, saxeldebis gamWvirva- neva); dedaena mTavari enaa da ara maincdamainc mxolod biologi-
lobas? uri dedis ena (Sdr.: dedamiwa, dedaboZi... Sdr., mamazecieri!).
saxeldeba motivirebuli SeiZleba iyos ara mxolod xmabaZvi- miCneulia, rom erovnuli ena, rogorc konglomerati, aerTi-
Ta da bgerweriT, aramed sagnobrivi mimarTebiTac; mag.: anebs saliteraturo enasa da dialeqtebs (ix., mag., b.jorbenaZe,
Seneba: mSenebeli, asaSenebeli, amSenebeli, auSenebeli, aSe- 1989, gv.151; Sdr., i. boduen de kurtene, 1963, gv.76: "erovnuli/to-
nebs, uSenebs, gadaSenebuli da a.S. mobrivi ena warmoadgens garkveuli raodenobis individTa metyve-
aSkaraa, rom Tanamedrove aglutinaciur enebSi amgvari si- lebebis tolqmeds").
tyvebi umravlesobas Seadgens; garda amisa, f.sosiurive gvaf- qarTul enobriv sinamdvileSi konglomerati sqematuri,
rTxilebs, rom uxsovari enobrivi tradicia anu "warsulTan kav- pirobiTi enobrivi sistemaa, romelic samwignobro enis mixedviT
Siri erTTavad abrkolebs arCevanis Tavisuflebas. vambobT "ada- igeba; Teoriulad navaraudevi sxvaenobrivi modelebi naklebad
miani" da "ZaRli", radgan Cvenamdec ase ambobdnen" (f.sosiuri,
emTxveva arsebul enobriv erTeuls; is, rac ar aris realuri
2002, gv.80).
enobrivi sistema, rogor SeiZleba iyos dedaena? dedaenad ver mi-
enobrivi niSnis nebismierobis kritikis TvalsazrisiT, sayu-
viCnevT savaraudo (Teoriul) models. Sdr., amgvarive daSvebiT,
radRebo daskvna warmoadgina T.gamyreliZem naSromSi:
oTxi svanuri da ori zanuri kiloebis mixedviT, Teoriulad
"damatebiTobis principi" da enobrivi niSnis pirobiTobis
warmosaxaven e.w. zogad svanur da zogad zanur enebs da maT deda-
problema" (T.gamyreliZe, 2000, gv. 246): aRsaniSnTa "horizontalu-
ri" mimarTebebi garkveulwilad apirobebs aRmniSvnelT; Sesabami- enebad (a.oniani, m.qurdiani…) Tu erovnul enebad miiCneven (j.hi-
sad, amgvari motivirebuloba gasaTvaliswinebelia enobrivi niS- uiti, v.foirStaini…). amave principiT vinmem SeiZleba aRadginos
nis daxasiaTebisas. fxouri "ena" (miT umetes, arsebobs fxouri koine – poeziis ena),
vfiqrobT: mesxuri ena da a.S.
morfemebi, frazebi Tu winadadebebi ver miiCneva pirobiT faqtia:
niSnebad; garda amisa, saxeldebis procesSi sagnobrivi mimarTe- qarTvelTa saerTo enis - samwignobro qarTulis - fonze ar-
bis arsebiTi rolis gamo, Tanamedrove enebis sityvaTa didi nawi- sebobs fxouri xuTi, svanuri xuTi da zanuri ori kilo, magram
lic motivirebulad unda miviCnioT (ZiriTadad, nawarmoebi si- bunebaSi ar arsebobs saerTo fxouri, saerTo svanuri da saerTo
tyvebi; mag.: sakace, kacuri, kacoba); Sesabamisad, aRmniSvnelisa da zanuri enebi. Tuki, mag., zanuri kiloebis amosaval enobriv siste-
aRsaniSnis mimarTebis sxvadasxvawaxnagovani Teoriebis arsebobis mazea laparaki, aseTad SeiZleba aRdges saerToqarTveluri ena,

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samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

misi zanur-svanuri dialeqti, an sakuTriv zanuri dialeqti "enis niWi" da romel sazogadoebaSic aidgams is enas, im sazogado-
(Sdr., kaxuri kilosgan sam saukuneSi kaxelisTvis Znelad gasagebi ebis enis mixedviT realizdeba misi enobrivi unari).
fereidnuli kilo warmoiqmna). qarTvelTa Tanamedrove dialeq- mocemuli saxelmwifos mTel teritoriaze oficialuri ur-
tebica da saliteraturo enac momdinareoben saerToqarTve- TierTobebis (saxelisuflebo struqturebis, mecnierebisa da
luri enobrivi koinesgan (ix. qvemoT); amosavali viTareba kulturis) ena saxelmwifo enaa; mocemuli eTnosisTvis saxel-
ZiriTadad daculi aqvs samwignobro enas, Sesabamisad, qar- mwifo ena SeiZleba iyos dedaenac da ucxo enac. araiSviaTad, sa-
TvelTaTvis zogaderovnuli ena, dedaena da samwignobro qarTu- xelmwifo enis sinonimad dasturdeba termini erovnuli ena;
li sinonimebad unda davsaxoT: erovnuli ena am mniSvnelobiT SeiZleba gamoviyenoT, Tuki ter-
qarTvelTa samwignobro ena Tvisobrivad erTnairad iqmnebo- min ers moviazrebT mocemuli qveynis moqalaqeebis aRsaniSnavad;
da istoriul lazeTSic, samegreloSic, svaneTSic, mesxeTSic, roca eri erT eTnoss gulisxmobs, maSin erovnuli ena” erTi na-
imereTSic, saqarTvelos mTianeTSic da kaxeT-hereTSic, ciis, erTi modgmis xalxis enas aRniSnavs; aseT SemTxvevaSi erov-
Sesabamisad, saerToqarTvelur enobriv koineze aRmocenebu- nuli enis sinonimad dedaena ufro gamodgeba (dedaenasa da
li samwignobro qarTuli yvela am kuTxis qarTvelis dedaenaa, erovnul enas sinonimebad miiCnevs cnobili enaTmecnieri g.ra-
xolo zanuri, svanuri, mesxuri, heruli, fxouri, raWuli, mesxu- miSvili). warmodgenil msjelobaSic da sxvaganac CvenTvis amosava-
ri da centraluri jgufis dialeqtebi qarTvelTa mSobliuri lia mimarTebani:
kiloebia... Sdr.: iaponiaSi, indoeTsa Tu CineTSi, mravali adamia- eris (eTnosis) metyveleba - ena
ni ver flobs oficialur saxelmwifo enas, magram maT dedaenad eris Semadgeneli nawilis (Temis) metyveleba - kilo
mainc iTvleba samwignobro ena (iaponuri, Cinuri, induri). zoga- rogorc wesi, erT ers (eTnikuri gagebiT) erTi dedaena aqvs
dad, dedaena SeiZleba iyos umwerlobo enac, Tuki konkretul (frangebs, qarTvelebs, somxebs…), erT saxelmwifos - erTi an ram-
sazogadoebas werilobiTi kultura ar Seuqmnia. Sdr.: qarTu- denime saxelmwifo ena, Sesabamisad, erTi saxelwifos moqalaqeebs
li enis semantikuri velis mixedviT, sxvaTa enas ucxo ena hqvia ramdenime oficialuri enac SeiZleba hqondeT (Sveicarielebs, ka-
(Sdr.: иностранный язык - sityvasityviT: "sxva qveynis ena"). nadelebs…), xolo erTi ena ramdenime saxelmwifos saxelmwifo
samecniero kvlevebisas, bunebrivia, hipoTezis saxiT unda da- ena SeiZleba iyos (am sakiTxebis garSemo vrclad ix. wignis meore
vuSvaT zogaderovnuli enis Teoriuli modeli. vfiqrobT, nawilSi).
erovnuli enobrivi modeli arsebobs genetikur kodSic: civilizebuli sazogadoebis kulturis ena (RvTismsaxure-
z.jafariZis gamokvlevebma daadastura, rom memkvidreobiTia bis, mecnierebis, mwerlobis, TviTSemoqmedebis) da saxelmwifo
bavSvis saartikulacio Cvevebi (z.jafariZe, i.strelnikovi, 1981); ena, rogorc wesi, aris tradiciuli damwerlobis mqone ena. kul-
aseve, savaraudoa, rom genetikurad kodirebulia mocemuli enis turis an saxelmwifo ena mocemuli xalxisTvis SeiZleba iyos: sa-
(kilos) percefciuli bazac... Tanamedrove neirolingvisturi kuTari ena - dedaena, sxvisi ena - ucxo ena (mag., ukve ramdenime
kvlevebi daadasturebs, rom dedaenac iseTive memkvidreobiTi fe- aTeuli welia, afxazebis kulturis enaa Tavsmoxveuli rusuli
nomenia, rogorc adamianis sxva pirovnul-genetikuri maxasiaTeb- ena). bunebaSi ori dedaena ar arsebobs, amdenad, e.w. diglosiis
lebi (Sdr., gansxvavebuli midgoma: adamians genetikurad eZleva pirobebSi gvaqvs: dedaena da mSobliuri dialeqti; orenovno-

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samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

bis (bilingvizmis) dros ki arsebul or enaTagan erTi dedaenaa, damkvidrebuliyo terminebi: mSobliuri ena da meore mSobliu-
meore - ucxo ena... zogi mkvlevari iswrafvis, mis mier orenovnad ri ena... "mSobliuri ena" rusulis kalkia da saqarTveloSi mis
gamocxadebuli qarTvelTa nawilis (megrelebisa da svanebis) er- damkvidrebas mizanmimarTulad cdilobdnen wlebis ganmavloba-
Ti ena CaTvalos dedaenad, meore ena ki - erovnul enad (ix., mag., Si; am kalkis, agreTve, terminebis: "pirveli ena"(first language), "ba-
m.qurdiani 1999: "svaneTsa da samegreloSi istoriulad damkvid- zisuri ena" miuReblobis Sesaxeb msjeloba ix. g.ramiSvili, 2000,
rebulia orenovneba: svanur-qarTuli da megrul-qarTuli…"; aq- gv.70-71, sadac mimoxilulia germaniaSi gamarTuli diskusiac
ve, es mimarTebani bilingvur diglosiad cxaddeba). Cveni azriT, termin Muttersprache-s (dedaenis) Sesaxeb.
igive mkvlevari winaaRmdegobaSi vardeba maSinac, rodesac saqar- Cvens Semdgom msjelobebSi gamoyenebuli iqneba naTlad gansa-
TveloSi mcxovreb zanTa (qarTvelTa!) metyvelebas (misi termino- zRvruli Semdegi terminebi: saxelmwifo ena, saeklesio ena,
logiiT - "lingvisturad ueWvel enas") ganixilavs qarTulis so- dedaena (eTnosis, anu eTnikuri gagebiT, eris ena), ucxo ena, dia-
ciolingvistur dialeqtad, xolo TurqeTSi mcxovreb zanTa me- leqti (kilo).
tyvelebas - Turquli enis sociolingvistur dialeqtad (ix. warmodgenili zogadi mimoxilvis fonze sainteresoa enisa da
m.qurdiani, 1996, gv.42). Sdr., amgvari midgomiT, saxelmwifo enis kilos gamijvnis is sxva kriteriumebic, romlebic arsebobs Tana-
statusis mqone dedaenis mimarT erTnairi rangiT ganixileba: medrove samecniero literaturaSi. Cvens xelT arsebul ganmart-
ucxo ena, ucxo enis erT-erTi kilo da dedaenis organuli kiloe- ebebs garkveuli pirobiTobiT vajgufebT debulebaTa msgavsebis
bi; mag., TurqeTSi Turqulis mimarT: qarTuli, afxazuri, ubixu- mixedviT (aqve, madlobas movaxsenebT marburgis universitetis
ri da Cerqezuli enebi, lazuri kilo da Turquli enis kiloebi. germanuli enis kvlevis institutis direqtors, prof., doqt.
moyvanili aRrevebic cxadyofs, rom gaumarTlebelia enobrivi gurgen erix Smidtsa da mis asistents, doqt. stefan rabanuss,
erTeulebisadmi enisa Tu kilos statusis miniWeba gansxvavebu- romelTac CemTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxades ara mxolod TavianTi
li (e.w. sakuTriv lingvisturi, e.w. sakuTriv sociolingvistu- Sexedulebebi, aramed zog sxva mkvlevarTa mosazrebanic); qvemoT
warmodgenili kriteriumebi dadgenilia monaTesave enobrivi er-
ri, eTnopolitikuri, religiuri, normirebulobis da sxva) kri-
TeulebisTvis:
teriumebiT; enobrivi erTeulebis statusis gansazRvrisas sakva-
g.e.Smidti, u.amoni, a.baxi, T.levandovski, p.vizingeri, b.sovin-
lifikacio niSnad erTi saxis kriteriumi unda aviRoT; rogorc
ski, a.linke da sxv.:
wesi, dRes arsebuli ZiriTadi enebis statusi gansazRvrulia eT- ena - ganfenis xarisxis mravalferovneba (prestiJuloba) -
nopolitikuri TvalsazrisiT (Sdr., k.gabunia, 2004); aqve aRvniS- gamoyenebis maRali xarisxi, kodificirebuli damwerloba, sta-
navT: sxvadasxva ojaxis enebi erTmaneTis kiloebad sociolingvis- ndartuloba, samwerlobo statusi, garkveulwilad xelovnuroba.
turi aspeqtiTac ki ar unda ganvixiloT; umjobesia sxvagvari mi- dialeqti - gamoyenebis dabali xarisxi, arastandartuloba,
dgoma, mag., lazuri metyveleba TurqeTis respublikaSi Turqu- zepiri komunikaciis saSualeba, bunebrioba...
lis sociolingvisturi dialeqti ki ara, saojaxo enis funqciis p.finke, b.jorbenaZe, g.nebieriZe (dialeqtebis mflobelTa So-
mqone qarTveluri kiloa (Sdr.: saojaxo enis funqciiT SeiZleba ris gagebineba unda iyos)...
iyos: samwignobro ena, dedaena, sxvaTa ena, mSobliuri kilo...). v.Jirmunski, e.koseriu, i.qloupeki, j.hergeni da mravali sxva
sabWoTa periodSi iyo mcdeloba, agreTve, dedaenis nacvlad (dialeqtebs Soris gagebineba araarsebiTia):

- 63 - - 64 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

ena - ZiriTadi sistemaa, dialeqti ki aris sistemis (erovnu- msjeloba sakamaTo statusis mqone enobrivi erTeulis Sesaxeb;
li enis) nairsaxeoba, varianti. lingvistikis Tu sociolingvistikis fardobiTi cnebebiT ar un-
mecnierTa erTi jgufis azriT, monaTesave enobriv erTeulebs da xdebodes saukuneebis manZilze ukve arsebuli tradiciuli
Soris Tuki aris bgeraTSesatyvisoba, maSasadame, isini enebad un- kvalifikaciebis TviTmiznuri gadasinjva, mag., rusuli ramdenime
da kvalificirdes (m.qurdiani)... saukunea damoukidebel enadaa miCneuli da risi momtania Tana-
g.belmanis, v.konigis da sxvaTa azriT, dialeqtsa da enas So- medrove rusulis CaTvla erT-erT slavur kilod? anda, megruli
ris zRvari Zneli gasavlebia; dialeqtidan enaSi gadasvla Tavi- (odiSuri) metyveleba mravali saukunis manZilze qarTvelTa
suflad xdeba... erT-erT dialeqtad iTvleboda (qarTvelTa sxva kiloebis msgav-
h.harmani, p.aueri da sxv. Tvlian, rom enobrivi erTeulis st- sad) da ras moemsaxura, an moemsaxureba XX saukuneSi misi statu-
atusi misma mflobelma sazogadoebam unda gansazRvros. sis Secvlaze msjeloba? miT umetes, svanTa, megrelTa da lazTa
prestiJuloba-standartulobis mixedviT SeiZleba samwig- zepiri metyvelebebisaTvis axali damwerlobebis Seqmna? pasuxi
nobro enisa da dialeqtis daxasiaTeba, magram, Cveni azriT, Seu- erTia: amgvari "aqciebiT" dasaxelebul qarTvelT gauucxovdebaT
Zlebelia umwerlobo enisa da dialeqtis gamijvna. da, faqtobrivad, daekargebaT qarTul-qarTveluri mwignobr-
enobrivi sistemis variantulobis mixedviT msjelobac me- obis saxiT arsebuli sakuTari didi kulturuli warsuli,
tad pirobiTia, vinaidan, magaliTad, fonematuri, morfologi- Tundac is Teqvsmetsaukunovani warsuli, romelic ioane lazisa
ur-sintaqsuri da leqsikur-semantikuri struqturebis mixedviT (ix.a.jafariZe, 2002) da petre iberis moRvaweobiT iwyebs Tavisi
rusuli, belorusuli, ukrainuli, polonuri enebi erTmaneTTan ganviTarebis axal etaps. warsuldaviwyebul xalxs ki Tavisi inte-
mimarTebiT ufro axlomdgomi variantebi arian, vidre, magali- resebisaTvis iolad iyenebs xolme esa Tu is imperia.
Tad, germanuli enis dialeqtebi; aqve, kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, sagangebod aRvniSnavT: enisa da dialeqtis gamijvnis problema
ver gadaiWreba mxolod sakuTriv lingvisturi kriteriumebiT; me-
rom xelovnuri da problemis kvlevisaTvis TiTqmis arafris
tic, kulturuli tradiciis mqone msoflios arc erTi ena sa-
momcemia enobrivi erTeulebis enebad Tu dialeqtebad kvali-
kuTriv lingvisturi niSnebiT (bgeraTSesatyvisoba, morfo-
ficireba, erTi mxriv, sociolingvisturi, meore mxriv ki, "sa-
logiuri da sintaqsur-semantikuri kategoriebi, leqsika) ar
kuTriv" lingvisturi kriteriumebis mixedviT.
SeniSvna: ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, qarTvelur sinamdvileSi
aris saxeldebuli enad; garda amisa, jer aravis daudgenia enob-
pirveli amgvari mcdeloba hqonda niko mars i.vostorgovis antiqar- riv cvlilebaTa Tu TaviseburebaTa is zRvari, ris Semdegac mona-
Tveluri poziciis mxilebisas; ix. n.mari, 1905, gv.7-10 da arn. Ciqobava, Tesave enobriv erTeulTa Soris arsebuli raodenobrivi gansxva-
1952, gv.358, sadac warmodgenilia n.maris kritika: "lingvisturad er- vebani gadadis TvisobrivSi, Sesabamisad, sistemis varianti iqce-
Ti" enis or dialeqts "kulturuli daSorebis" gamo n.mari or enad - va damoukidebel sistemad. Cveni es mosazreba adre gamoqveynda
lazur da megrul enebad miiCnevda). statiis saxiT (t.futkaraZe, 2003); am debulebis sapasuxod da mas-
Tu mkvlevris mizania mocemuli enobrivi erTeulis statusis ze dayrdnobiT k.gabuniam Tavis msjelobaSi gamoiyena e.w. "siste-
kvleva sakuTriv lingvisturi Tu sociolingvisturi aspeqtebiT, murobis kriteriumi" (k.gabunia, 2004); misi azriT, "megrul-lazu-
Sesabamisad, man jer unda Seiswavlos ukve arsebuli (sayovelTa- risa da qarTulis brunebebi sxvadasxva sistemebia, vinaidan rao-
od miRebuli) enebisa da dialeqtebis saxeldebis principebi da denobrivi cvaleba gadasulia TvisobrivSi; Sesabamisad, isini
Semdeg, miRebuli daskvnebidan gamomdinare, unda ganaviTaros sxvadasxva enebia”.

- 65 - - 66 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

sapolemiko werilSi k.gabunia ver pasuxobs mTavar kiTxvas: ro- marTebac da sociolingvisturi statusic; miT umetes, Tu Cveni
meli kriteriumiT Tu samaniT ganisazRvreba raodenobrivi cva- kvlevis mizania ara enobriv erTeulTa istoriulad Camoyalibe-
lebis gadasvla TvisobrivSi? is sxvaoba, romelic gvaqvs, mag., me- buli statusebis gadasinjva, aramed sadavo statusis mqone ena-ki-
grulsa da samwignobro qarTuls Soris, sakmarisia enebad misaC- loTa argumentirebuli kvalifikacia.
nevad? Sdr., saliteraturo arabulsa da buxaruls Soris ufro enisa da kilos gamijvnisTvis lingvistur niSanTagan yvelaze
meti sxvaobaa, magram mainc buxaruli arabulis dialeqtadaa mi- sando kriteriumad zogs enobriv erTeulebs Soris arsebuli
Cneuli maSin, roca metad axlo mdgomi rusuli da belorusuli bgeraTSesatyvisoba miaCnia. bgeraTSesatyvisobis arseboba-
aRiarebuli enebia... ararsebobis mixedviT, msoflioSi arsebuli arc erTi ena Tu dia-
garda amisa: samwignobro qarTulisgan met-naklebad gansxva- leqti ar aris kvalificirebuli; garda amisa, mraval monaTesave
vebulia qarTveluri qvesistemebic (imerulic, xevsurulic, me- enas Soris bgeraTSesatyvisoba ar gvaqvs da piriqiT: kanonzomie-
grulic, lazuric, balszemouric...) da sxva enebic: afxazuric, ri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobebi gvaqvs dialeqtebad mi-
rusulic, Cinuric... romeli myari kriteriumiT vavlebT zRvars Cneul enobriv erTeulebs Soris (germanulSi, CinurSi, iaponur-
qvemoimerulsa da megruls Soris? megruli fonematuri struq- Si...), metic, mag., Crdilokavkasiur enebSi bgeraTSesatyvisobebi
tura imerulis analogiuria; saxeluri paradigmac ZiriTadad dadasturebulia TqmebSic ki...
imeorebs ara mxolod adrindeli samwignobro enis brunvaTa enisa da dialeqtis statusis gansazRvra Tavad mocemuli en-
sistemas, aramed qarTuli enis xevsuruli dialeqtisac ki; aseve, obrivi koleqtivis mier adekvatur Sedegebs mogvcems axalSeq-
Tvisobrivad erTgvaria megrulisa da imerulis mwkrivTa sistema mnili mwignobrobis mqone an werilobiTi kulturis armqone en-
da sxv. garkveuli sxvaobebic arsebobs, magram sakmarisia isini me- obrivi erTeulis SemTxvevaSi: werilobiTi kulturis armqone
grulisa da imerulis Tvisobrivi sxvaobis samtkiceblad? xalxis TviTaRqma xdeba gagebinebis mixedviT gansazRvruli um-
Sdr.: Cveni azriT, sistemuri sxvaobaa, mag., qarTulsa da mis werlobo enis farglebSi (Sdr., Crdilokavkasiuri enebi). am me-
monaTesave afxazurs Soris, qarTulsa da arabuls Soris, da ara Tods gadaulaxavi problemebi Seeqmneba xangrZlivi werilobiTi
samwignobro qarTulsa da megruls, an TuSurs Soris. kulturis mqone sazogadoebis gamokiTxvisas, radganac, sazoga-
arsebobs Tu ara enobriv cvlilebaTa Tu TaviseburebaTa doebis ganaTlebuli fenisTvis Tu gasagebi da mSobliuri iqneba
(sistemur sxvaobaTa!) is zRvari, romlis Semdegac monaTesave arqauli ena da kultura, sazogadoebis gaunaTlebeli fenisTvis
enobriv erTeulTa Soris arsebuli raodenobrivi gansxvaveba- is ucxo aRmoCndeba; mag., saliteraturo iaponuris an sinhalu-
ni gadadis TvisobrivSi? ris armcodne glexisTvis Tu Tavisi mSobliuri dialeqti aRiqme-
aseTi zRvris dadgena SeuZlebelia: ba dedaenad, igi misdauneburad emijneba sakuTar uZveles kultu-
dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom sxvadasxva enad saxeldebul sist- ras; Sdr., agreTve: istoriulad afxazebic qmnidnen zogad qar-
emebs Soris arsebul lingvistur sxvaobaTa procentuli maC- Tul-afxazur samwignobro kulturas; meoce saukunemde afxazTa
venebeli SeuzRudavad meryeobs. ganaTlebulma nawilma kargad icoda, rom, sxva qarTvelTa darad,
"wesi" Tu "kanoni" erT sasurvel kerZo SemTxvevas ar unda mo- didi qarTveluri kulturis memkvidre iyo. ruseTis imperiis mes-
vargoT; Tuki Cveni mizani enobrivi situaciis realuri aRweraa, veurTa mecadineobiT XX saukuneSi aqtiurad ganviTarda afxaz-
unda gaviTvaliswinoT mocemuli enobrivi koleqtivis tradici- Ta jer kulturul-enobrivi separatizmi, Semdeg ki sabWoTa impe-
ac, monaTesave enobriv erTeulebTan sakuTriv lingvisturi mi- riis mier afxazTa ganaTlebuli nawilis - aristokratiisa da

- 67 - - 68 -
samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti... samwignobro ena, umwignobro ena, dialeqti...

inteligenciis - gaJletiT, am kuTxis mosaxleobam dakarga bune- vfiqrobT, naTelia, rom arsebuli enebis statusi, rogorc
brivi kavSiri zogadqarTul kulturul warsulTan. dRes afxaz- wesi, gansazRvrulia eTnokulturuli da politikur-reli-
Ta nawili uars ambobs qarTvelebTan saerTo saxelmwifozec ki... giuri niSnis mixedviT.
ase rom, ganaTlebis simwiris (erovnuli kulturisa da sa- enisa da dialeqtis gamijvna rTulia umwerlobo sametyvelo
mwignobro enis verflobis) pirobebSi, adamianTa jgufma dedae- erTeulis SemTxvevaSi. damwerlobis mqone kontinuumi, rogorc we-
nad SeiZleba CaTvalos mSobliuri kilo. si, enadaa kvalificirebuli (Sdr., erTi mxriv, Tanamedrove mol-
Cveni azriT, enisa da dialeqtis gamijvna arc am e.w. plebisci- davuri ena, meore mxriv ki - italiuri kiloebi); Sesabamisad, pir-
turi meTodiTaa SesaZlebeli da seriozulad arc aravin cdi- vel rigSi, erTmaneTTan mimarTebiT naTlad unda ganvsazRvroT
lobs am kriteriumis gamoyenebas; Sdr., rogorc wesi, enobrivi umwerlobo ena da dialeqti.
TviTmikuTvneba Sedegia erovnul-eTnikuri TviTmikuTvnebisa.
dialeqti unda ganimartos, rogorc mocemuli eris/naciis sa-
SeniSvna: qarTul samecniero literaturaSi dRes mkvidrdeba
erTo-saxalxo (oficialuri) enis ganStoeba, romelic qveynis ter-
ucxouri termini identoba (identity), arada, masze bevrad moxerxe-
bulia tradiciuli TviTobac da m.tabiZiseuli TviTaRqmac; ag- itoriis erTi nawilis mosaxleobis an romelime socialuri fenis
reTve, rig SemTxvevebSi, identity-s warmatebiT Secvlis Cveneuli zepiri (araoficialuri) urTierTobis saSualebas warmoadgens.
TviTmikuTvnebac. sxva sityvebiT:
enisa da kilos gasamijn kriteriumebze msjelobis dasasruls, konkretuli sametyvelo erTeuli monaTesave struqturis
kidev erTxel sagangebod aRvniSnavT, rom Tu romelime specia- mqone oficialuri, samwignobro (standartuli) enis dialeqtad
listi kriteriumad aiRebs bgeraTSesatyvisobas, misTvis monaTe- CaiTvleba, Tuki am sametyvelo kodis mflobel sazogadoebas is-
save enobriv erTeulTa ena-kiloebad kvalifikacia, bunebrivia, toriulad monawileoba miRebuli aqvs mocemuli samwignobro
sxvagvarad moxdeba (mag., germanuli enis bavariuli da meklenbur- enis SeqmnaSi.
guli kiloebi sxvadasxva enebad CaiTvleba); Tu gagebinebas aiRebs Sesabamisad, umwerlobo enad unda miviCnioT enobriv-eTni-
kriteriumad, bevri enobrivi erTeulis statusi gaxdeba gadasa- kuri erTobis mqone im sazogadoebis metyveleba, romelsac saku-
sinji (mag., arabuli kiloebi: alJiruli da buxaruli, qarTvelu- Tar dedaenaze ara aqvs werilobiTi kultura da Semoqmedebis Tu
ri kiloebi: ingilouri da guruli sxvadasxva enebad misaCnevi ga- saqmiswarmoebis procesSi iyenebs sxvaTa mier Seqmnil samwignob-
xdeba) da a.S. bunebrivia, yvela mkvlevars aqvs ufleba, airCios ro enas. umwerlobo ena zepiri formiT (dialeqtebis, kilokave-
romelime kriteriumi, imsjelos, mis mixedviT gadaajgufos enebi bis, Tqmebis, Jargonebis saxiT...) arsebobs.
Tu kiloebi (ix., mag., gagebinebis mixedviT, T.gamyreliZe slavuri msoflios xalxebisa da ena-kiloebis mimarTebebze dakvirveba
enebis mxolod sam zonas gamoyofs; T.gamyreliZe, z.kiknaZe.. 2003, gviCvenebs, rom enobrivi variantebis ierarqia TavisTavad reg-
gv.616) da samsjelod gamoitanos… ulirdeba samwignobro enis istoriasTan mimarTebiT; kerZod, aq-
Cveni mizani Tavidanve naTlad iyo gansazRvruli: tualuria sqema:
sasurvelia, dadgindes is zogadi logikuri sqema, romlis mi- eri _ misi samwignobro ena _ am eris
xedviTacaa enebad kvalificirebuli ukve arsebuli erTeulebi calkeul TemTa saSinao metyvelebani.
da amis Semdeg moxdes sadavo statusis mqone kontinuumis - enob-
rivi erTeulis - saxeldeba enad Tu kilod.

- 69 - - 70 -
qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi

1.1.3.qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi eris saxelTan dakavSirebul palestinis monasterSi dasturde-


erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi ba); samwignobro-kulturuli mZlavri kerebi iyo egrisSi, lazeT-
Si, svaneTSi, tao-klarjeTSi, mesxeTSi, afxazeTSi, qarTl-kaxeTsa
msoflioSi cnobili bevri mecnieris mier qarTveluri ena-ki- da sxv., Sesabamisad, am qarTul kuTxeTa mosaxleobas aqvs istori-
loebi Tanamedrove Crdilokavkasiuri da wina aziis Tu evropis ulad formirebuli erTiani samwignobro ena da Tav-Tavisi kilo-
Zveli enebis (Sumeruli, xaTuri, urartuli... agreTve, etrusku- ebi. aqve, dasamowmebelia, agreTve, arn.Ciqobavas daskvna: qarTuli
li, pelazguri, baskuri...) monaTesaved ganixileba. Cveni azriT, samwignobro ena Seiqmna zanuri da svanuri dialeqtebis monawi-
iberiul-kavkasiuri saerTo kontinuumis arsebobis periodi qro- leobiT (arn. Ciqobava, 1948; sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonSi
nologiurad SeiZleba daukavSirdes mtkvar-araqsis arqeologiu- megrul-Wanuri leqsikisaTvis ix. k.danelia, 1984; T.bolqvaZe,
ri kulturis arsebobis periods, xolo iberiul-kavkasiurisgan 2003...); Sdr., agreTve, n.maris mosazreba:
momdinare saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro da gavrcele- "qarTuli saliteraturo enis Seqmna-ganviTarebaSi monawileo-
bis areali _ did kolxur kulturas (dawvrilebiT ix. qvemoT). bas iRebdnen: qarTlelebi, imerlebi, megrelebi, svanebi, laz-Wanebi,
saerToqarTvelur enas uSualod agrZelebs qarTvelTa samwig- da sxvani… saRvTo werilis teqstSi Cven vpoulobT wminda Wanur
nobro ena, romlis dokumenturi nimuSebi uwyvetad arsebobs bo- anu megrul, imerxeul da sxva tomTa sityvebs. am realuris kultu-
lo 16 saukunis ganmavlobaSi; misi fonematuri, morfologiur- rul-istoriulis SexedulebiT, qarTuli saliteratoro ena imde-
sintaqsuri da leqsikur-semantikuri struqturebi saerToqar- naTve svanuria da megruli, imdenaTve gurulia da imeruli, ramdena-
Tveluri Teoriuli modelis struqturuli adekvatia. gansxvave- Tac qarTluri. is aris RviZli samwerlo ena yvela saqarTvelos to-
biT bevri sxva samwignobro enisgan, qarTuli samwignobro ena ar misaTvis…" (n.mari, 1905, gv.9-10).
momdinareobs arc erTi cnobili dialeqtisgan. samwignobro enas saerToqarTveluridan zanur-svanuri wris (e. w. SiSina ti-
yvela zepiri qarTveluri metyveleba Tvisobrivad erTgvarad mie- pis) dialeqtebis Camoyalibebis dasawyisad vvaraudobT Zv. w. pir-
marTeba, ramdenadac yvela erTeuli saerToqarTveluridan mo- veli aTaswleulis dasasruls (dawvrilebiT ix. qvemoT); aqve aR-
mdinareobs da yvela met-naklebad Secvlilia; amosavali viTareba saniSnavia, rom T.gamyreliZisa da g.maWavarianis adrindeli mo-
metadaa daculi samwignobro enaSi, vidre kiloebSi; dialeqtebSi sazrebiT, amave periodSi emijneba erTmaneTs qarTuli da zanuri
cvlilebebi matulobs samwignobro enis velis Sesustebis pirda- (T.gamyreliZe da g.maWavariani, 1965, gv.14).
pirproporciulad. saukuneebis manZilze qarTveloba ara mxolod qmnida samwig-
SeniSvna: Sdr., iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.20, 49: "Tanamedrove qristiano- nobro enas, aramed masSi, rogorc dedaenaSi, iwrToboda kidec;
bis niadagze aRmocenebuli qarTuli mwerlobis ena qarTluria;
Sesabamisad, qarTvelTa kulturul-erovnul da saxelmwifoe-
"strabonisa da pliniusis dros saqarTvelos "barad sxvebis garda sa-
briv cnobierebas saukuneebis manZilze gansazRvravs erTiani da
mi umTavresi tomi unda yofiliyo: kaxni, qarTlelni, romelTa enac
Semdeg yvela qarTveli modgmis tomebis sazogado da samwerlobo tradiciuli werilobiTi kultura (rogorc, magaliTad,
enad gadaiqca, da iberni, anu imerni/imerelni, romelnic megrul-la- berZenTa, CinelTa, arabTa da sxva Zvel xalxTa cnobierebas -
zur Stos ekuTvnodnen". TavianTi tradiciuli werilobiTi kultura)...
sagangebod aRsaniSnavia isic, rom qarTuli samwignobro enis dRes arsebuli qarTvelTa zepiri Tu saSinao metyvelebani
SeqmnaSi Tavidanve yvela qarTveluri modgma iRebda monawile- samwignobro enis (saerToqarTveluri modelis) meoreuli vari-
obas (mag., pirveli qarTuli warwerebi ioane lazisa da petre ib- antebi arian rogorc fonematuri da morfologiur-sintaqsuri,

- 71 - - 72 -
qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi

aseve, leqsikur-semantikuri struqturebis mixedviT; magaliTad, besarion niJaraZe, 1904 (gazeTi "iveria"): "svanuri namdvi-
qvemoT CamoTvlil qarTvelur dialeqtebs saerTo aqvT ZiriTadi lad qarTulia, mxolod aqa-iq Secvlilia, magram zogierTebi ver
xmovnebi da maTi refleqsebi (mxolod zog ganapira kiloSi, ker- Sehrigebian am azrs da gaiZaxian, svanebi sul sxva xalxiao! netav
Zod, sam svanur, erT zanur, ramdenime mesxur da fxour, agreTve, vicode, visTvis an risTvisaa saWiro is daJineba da svanebis ga-
herul kiloebSi dasturdeba sxva enaTa gavleniT warmoqmnili pa- sxvistomeba".
latalizebuli xmovnebi), TiTqmis identuria TanxmovanTa da so- sabWoTa imperiis pirobebSi moRvawe mecnierTagan iSviaT
nantTa raodenoba da xasiaTi; svanuri dialeqtebis gamoklebiT, gamonakliss warmoadgenda akad. giorgi wereTeli, romelic me-
erTgvarovania V-XXI saukuneebis samwignobro qarTulisa da yve- grul-lazur-svanurisTvis ufro Sesaferisad miiCnevda termin
la sxva dialeqtis saxelisa da zmnis paradigmebi (Sdr., T.uTur-
qarTvelur dialeqtebs (nacvlad qarTveluri enebisa); cnobi-
gaiZe, 1966, gv.12; k.gabunia, 2004, gv.170); garkveuli superstratu-
li mecnieri oTar gigineiSvilic analogiur pozicias emxroboda,
li gavlenebis miuxedavad, svanur kiloTa paradigmebic ZiriTa-
kerZod, lazuri paramiTefes (1982, gv. 3) winasityvaobaSi is
dad qarTvelur modelebs mihyveba (ix. mag., v.Tofuria, 1967; g.ma-
Wavariani, 2002, gv.78-79)... wers: "lazuri zRaprebi dawerilia qarTuli enis lazur-me-
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, qarTveluri (zogadqarTuli) grul dialeqtze. es dialeqti Seqmnes saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma
samwignobro ena yvela qarTvelis istoriuli dedaenaa da, ramdena- qarTvelebma, romlebic antikur samyaroSi kolxebis saxeliTac
dac, adamians ar SeiZleba hqondes ori dedaena, qarTvelTa sxva sa- iyvnen cnobilni; amitom lazur-megrul dialeqts kolxur dia-
Sinao metyvelebani CvenTvis dialeqtebad kvalificirdeba. leqtsac uwodeben" (wigni Seadgina naTela quTeliam, leqsikoni
SeniSvna: Sdr., qarTveluri musikaluri dialeqtebis Sesaxeb n.mai- daurTes naTela quTeliam da sergi jiqiam; wignis redaqtoria
suraZe (2002, gv.242) askvnis: svanuri da megruli musikaluri erTeu- zurab Tandilava; n.quTelias cnobiT, am winasityvaobis avtoria
lebi "qarTul musikalur fuZe-enas mxolod musikaluri dialeqte-
o.gigineiSvili).
bis doneze gamoeyofian".
SeniSvna: sabWoTa periodis enaTmecnierebaSi aqtiurad damkvidrda
aqve aRvniSnavT, rom saqarTveloSi sabWoTa imperiis gabato-
termini qarTveluri enebi; adre gamoqveynebul gamokvlevebSi mas
nebamde megrul-Wanur da svanur enobriv erTeulebs kiloebad
Cvenc viyenebdiT. qarTveluri enobrivi erTeulebis statusisa da
Tvlidnen qarTvelTa wina Taobebic da mecnierebic; mag., megruls zanur-svanuri dialeqturi teqstebis samwignobro enaze Targmanebis
kilod, ena-kavad, damaxinjebul anu arastandartul qarTulad (da ara - Targmnis!) principebis problema samsjelod warmovadgineT
(Sdr.: "mrudi qarTuli", "wamxdari qarTuli") e.i. samwignobro 1994 wels "quTaisur saubrebze" (quTaisSi gamarTul samecniero se-
qarTulis dialeqtad moixseniebdnen: saba, vaxuSti, ilia, akaki, minarze); 1997 wlis 4-11 aprilis "literaturul saqarTveloSi" da-
iakob gogebaSvili, petre Waraia, konstantine gamsaxurdia, besa- beWdil werilSi: "eTnosis, eTnonimisa da sxva terminTa Sesaxeb" qar-
rion niJaraZe, giorgi wereTeli, oTar gigineiSvili, zviad Tveluri enobrivi erTeulebis statusi germanuli enis kiloebTan
gamsaxurdia da sxv; Sdr., k. danelia, 1984, gv. 68); ix., mag.: SepirispirebiT ganvixileT; kerZod, vwerdiT: "qarTul sinamdvileSi
konstantine gamsaxurdia, 1983, gv. 411: "Cemis azriT, unda bavarielebisa da saqsonelebis enobrivi mimarTebis xarisxiT SeiZle-
xdebodes enis reparacia adgilobrivi dialeqtebis saSualebiT. ba ganvixiloT zanebi da svanebi, xolo bavarielebisa da prusielebis
unda SemouSvaT qarTul (samwignobro) enaSi rogorc megrul- xarisxiT - qarTvelebi, wovaTuSebi, udebi, qistebi da sxva". 1999 wels
svanuri dialeqtebis sityvebi, ise fSav-xevsuruli... vaJa-fSave- me-6 "quTaisur saubrebze" termin "qarTveluri enebis" paralelurad
lam am mxriv didi samsaxuri gauwia qarTul enas, miuxedavad imisa, Cven ukve viyenebT terminebs: "qarTveluri ena" da "qarTveluri saSi-
rom akaki wereTeli enas uwunebda mas". nao sametyvelo kodebi" (t.futkaraZe, 1999). samwignobro qarTulisa

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qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi

(qarTveluri samwignobro enisa) da qarTveluri kiloebis (da ara rom d.meliqiSvili wovaTuSur metyvelebas qarTul Sereul dia-
qarTveluri enebis) istoriuli mimarTebis amsaxveli axali sqema pir- leqtad miiCnevs (d.meliqiSvili, 2001, gv.16).
velad daibeWda "quTaisuri saubrebi - VII" masalebSi (ix. t.futkara-
raWuli kiloebi: barisraWuli, mTaraWuli;
Ze, 2000). enisa da kilos cnebebis gaanalizebis fonze qarTvelTa dia-
svanuri kiloebi: laSxuri, lentexuri, Coluruli, balsqve-
leqtebis axleburi klasifikacia gamoqveynda 2001 wels (t.futkara-
Ze, 2001). enaTmecnierTa da istorikosTa erTma nawilma gaiziara
mouri, balszemouri (Sdr., germanuli enis almenuri metyveleba
Cven mier warmodgenili sqema, meore nawili ki polemikaSi CaerTo. iyofa sam dialeqtad: Svaburi, qvemoalmenuri da zemoalmenuri;
aq davimowmebT mxolod erT niSandobliv mosazrebas: "qarTul enas v. Jirmunski, 1956, gv.39).
enaTmecnierebi qarTvelur anu iberiul enaTa ojaxs miakuTvneben. am zanuri kiloebi: megruli, lazuri (xofuri, viwur-arqabu-
ojaxSi Sedian qarTuli, megruli, svanuri, lazuri enebi, ufro zus- li, aTinuri; muhajir lazTa STamomavlebis metyvelebis nimuSebi
tad, dialeqtebi" (T.beraZe, m.sanaZe, 2003, gv. 29). sakiTxis istoriis
mcire gvaqvs, Sesabamisad, maTi dialeqtebis/kilokavebis
ufro sruli mimoxilvisaTvis ix. T.gvancelaZis naSromi, romelic
wignis danarTSia warmodgenili. aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom enaT-
kvalificireba momavlis saqmed rCeba).
mecnierTa erTi nawili (r.Serozia, a.lomTaZe, m.tabiZe, T.gvance- saqarTvelos istoriuli teritoriis gareT arsebuli
laZe, e.dadiani, t.futkaraZe...) miviCnevT, rom qarTvelTa erTa- qarTvelTa kiloebi:
derTi samwignobro enis qmnadobis istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT, sa- fereidnuli (Sua sparseTSi Sah-abasis mier gadasaxlebul
qarTvelos saxelmwifo enas unda ewodos qarTveluri (samwignob- qarTvelTa metyveleba), "Cveneburebis qarTuli" (bursa-inego-
ro) ena, Sesabamisad, qarTvelTa sxva enobriv erTeulebs - qarTve- lSi, adafazar-izmiTSi, gonensa da kaizeris midamoebSi
luri dialeqtebi.
gadasaxlebul muhajirTa qarTuli) da yizlar-mozdokel qar-
Cveni azriT, samwignobro qarTulis gavlenis velis Sesabami- TvelTa metyveleba.
sad, qarTvelTa Tanamedrove saSinao-sametyvelo erTeulebi unda qarTvelTa sametyvelo kodebis magaliTze istoriulad erTi
daiyos centralur, ganapira da saqarTvelos istoriuli ter- eTnokulturuli sistemis mqone xalxis - eris - ori enobrivi er-
itoriis gareT arsebul dialeqtebad; Tavis mxriv, ganapira dia- Teulis Tanaarseboba e.w. diglosiad SeiZleba warmovadginoT,
leqtebs eqvs qvejgufad warmovadgenT, kerZod: sadac istoriuli samwignobro ena (standartuli ena) dedaenaa,
centraluri kiloebi: xolo saSinao metyveleba (mag., balszemouri kilo) - mSobliuri
kaxuri, qarTluri, imeruli, leCxumuri, guruli. dialeqti (Sdr., q. TuiTi, 1997, gv. 2-3).
ganapira kiloebi:
SeniSvna: bolo dros isev gaaqtiurdnen adamianebi, romelTac surT
mesxuri kiloebi: aWaruli, livanuri, maWaxluri, imerxeuli saqarTveloSic enobriv/eTnikur umciresobebad warmoadginon
(SavSuri), taouri, samcxuri, javaxuri (aqve Semova ordus lazebi, megrelebi, svanebi... (ix., mag., am mxriv v.foirStainis, j.hiu-
regionSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa metyveleba); itis da sxvaTa "moRvaweoba"). saqarTveloSi am TvalsazrisiT aqtiu-
heruli kiloebi: kakuri, aliabaTuri; roben saqarTvelos garedan dafinansebuli politikuri Zalebi; mag.,
i.Jvanias, g.siWinavas, m.ZaZamiasa da sxvaTa dausabuTebel mosazrebebze
fxouri kiloebi: CaRmaTuSuri, fSauri, xevsuruli,
dayrdnobiT, (pro)rusi politikosi a.WaWia wers: "faqtia, rom wle-
moxeuri, mTiulur-gudamayruli; aqve SeiZleba ganvixiloT wova- bis ganmavlobaSi ena, romelzec qarTvelTa erTi mesamedi nawili la-
TuSuri, romelSic STambeWdavadaa warmodgenili rogorc qar- parakobs, uZvelesi ena, romlis leqsikuri maragi erT-erTi umdidre-
Tveluri, aseve vainaxuri enobrivi Sreebi; CvenTvis sainteresoa, sia msoflioSi, qarTvelebis mier xan kiloTi, xan dialeqtiT, xan da-
maxinjebuli qarTuliT iwodeboda" (a. WaWia, 2002, gv.264)... aqve, a.Wa-

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qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi

Wia acxadebs, rom arsebobs megrelebis TviTmyofadi ena da kultura hqondes yovel enobriv erTeuls, xolo prosodiuli - idio-
(gazeT „galis" 2004 wlis 16-31 agvistos nomerSi analogiurad msje- leqtsac ki (warmodgenil cxrils ara aqvs srulyofilebis
lobs j.hiuitic)... am problematikas wignis meore nakveTSi SevexebiT; pretenzia).
aq mokled vityviT: specialistebs ar dasWirdebaT imis Sexseneba, rom
megrelTa da sxva qarTvelTa TviTmyofadi ena da kultura maTi winap-
rebis mier saukuneebis manZilze Seqmnili zogadqarTuli ena da kul-
turaa, xolo metad Zvirfas megrul kilos - udides ganZs da dauS-
retel mravalsaukunovan wyaros qarTveluri samwignobro enisas,
mofrTxileba da Seswavla sWirdeba (amJamad megruli masalis uwyve-
ti programuli Cawera-damuSaveba, ZiriTadad, quTaisis saxelmwifo
universitetis dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviT institutSi
xdeba, rac sulac ar aris sakmarisi; qarTvelur kiloTa Seswavlisa da
SenarCunebisTvis specialuri saxelmwifo programa unda SemuSav-
des). sagangebod aRvniSnavT imasac, rom isak Jvaniasa da mis mimdevarTa
faruli miznebi Tavis droze amxiles didma sazogado moRvaweebma:
konstantine da zviad gamsaxurdiebma (ix., mag., z.gamsaxurdia, 1989).
vfiqrobT, svanTa, megrelTa, lazTa da qarTvelTa sxva calke-
uli jgufebis saSinao metyvelebis aRsaniSnavad aseve araadekva-
turi da aralogikuria samecniero literaturaSi gamoyenebuli
terminebi: erovnuli ena da eTnikuri ena, vinaidan warmodgeni-
li Sesityvebebi uSualod gulisxmoben damoukidebel eTnokul-
turul erTobas - ers: eTnikuri ena damoukidebeli eTnosis
enaa (eTnosi - Tavdapirveli teritoriis, enisa da kulturis er-
Tobis safuZvelze Camoyalibebuli adamianTa istoriuli jgufi,
sazogadoeba); Sdr.:
eri (erovneba) _ Temi (eris regionaluri saxe) _ pirovneba
dedaena _ kilo (enis regionaluri saxeoba) _ idioleqti
sxvagvari mimarTebani myardeba aramonaTesave enobriv-eTniku-
ri sistemebis SereviT warmoqmnili pijinis, kreolisa da postkre-
oli kontinuumis SemTxvevaSi, agreTve, maSin, roca sazogadoeba
iyenebs sxvaTa mier Seqmnil samwignobro enas. SesaZlo mimarTebani
Semdegi sqemis saxiT SeiZleba gamoixatos (yoveli sqema garkveulwi-
lad pirobiTad asaxavs SesaZlo sinamdviles; Sdr.: t.futkaraZe,
2002, gv.73 da T.bolqvaZe, 2003, gv.7):
SeniSvna: qvemoT warmodgenil sqemaSi socialur dialeqtSi
moviazrebT: pijinsac, Jargonsac da argosac (pijini met Tavise-
burebebs avlens, amitom bolo grafaSi moTavsebuli meore
niSnebi mas miemarTeba). intonaciuri Taviseburebani SeiZleba

- 77 - - 78 -
qarTvelTa Tanamedrove enobrivi erTeulebis dajgufebis sakiTxi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

enobrivi erTeulebi
samwignobro umwerlobo ena dialeqti
formob- ena 1.2. qarTvelTa aRmniSvneli Zveli da axali sa-
riv-funqciuri postkre- adgil- socialu-
maxasiaTeblebi
istori-uli
oli
istori-uli kreo-li
obrivi ri xelebi
sakuTriv gansxvaveb. fo-no-
+ + + + + _ +
lingvisturi taqt. wesebi
maxasiaT- morfologiur-sin- 1.2.1. winareqarTvelur (iberiul-kavkasiur-winaaziur)
+ + + + + _ +
eblebi taqs. Tavis. da qarTvelur tomTa aRmniSvneli saxelebi
leqsik. Tavis. + + + + + +
weril.normebi + + _ _ _ _ samecniero literaturaSi arsebobs mosazreba, rom uZvelesi
normatiuli
maxasiaTeb- zepiri normebi + + + + + _ droidanve (mag., Zv.w. III aTaswleulidan, zogis mixedviT ki - V
lebi bunebrivi me- aTaswleulidan!) arsebobda sami qarTveluri tomi sami gansxvave-
+ + + + + +_
tyveleba
buli eniT: qarTebi, zanebi (megrel-Wanebi) da svanebi; varaudo-
eTnosis, eris, na-
+ + + + _ _ ben, rom Semdgom periodSi qarTebisgan moxda sxva tomTa asimila-
eTnikur- ciis ena
sazogadoebri- cia-qarTizacia... gaCnda saocrad araadekvaturi frazac: qarTi -
Temis ena + + + + + _
vi maxasia- tomiylapia (n.berZeniSvili). arada, arc erTi wyaros mixedviT
Teblebi socialuri
+ + + + + + ar Cans qarTis tomis arsebobis kvalic ki; am fonze sruliad
fenis ena
eTnosis kul-turas- usafuZvloa e.w. qarTizacia-qarTvelizaciis Teoria; miT umetes,
kulturul- Tan uwy-veti + _ + _ + _ ara mxolod Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebSi, aramed I aTaswleulis da-
istoriuli ma- kavSiri
xasiaTeblebi praenasTan uSu-
sasrulsac ki ocamde qarTveluri tomis arseboba dokumenturad
+ _ + _ + _ dasturdeba (Sdr., pontos qalaq amasiaSi dabadebuli strabonis
alo kavSiri
werilobiTi tra- cnobiT, dioskuriaSi Tavs iyris sul mcire 70 tomi, romlebic
+ _ _ _ _ _
dicia
Tav-TavianT enebze saubroben; T.yauxCiSvili, 1957, gv.123); ro-
pirveladi msof-
SemecnebiT- laRqm. ena + + + + + + gorc wesi, TiToeul toms sakuTari sacxovrisi da gansxvavebuli
Semoqmede- xalxuri Semoq- metyveleba (ena Tu kilo) hqonda, mag., qsenofonte sagangebod la-
biTi maxasia- medebis ena _ _ + + + _ parakobs adgilobriv tomebTan salaparako enebis (kiloebis) Se-
Teblebi profesionalu-ri
msoflaRqma + + _ _ _ _
saxeb; kerZod, makronebTan mimarTebiT is wers:
saero funq- saxelmwifo ena + + _ _ _ _ makronebTan urTierToba gaWirda; bedad, aTenSi tyvedmox-
ciuri maxasia- regionaluri mety- vedril molaSqres gaaxsenda bavSvobisdroindeli ena da qseno-
+ + + + + _
Teblebi veleba fontes Tarjimnoba gauwia (qsenofonte, 1967, gv.86); Sdr., qseno-
saSinao ena + + + + + +
sasuliero fun- wm. werilis ena + + _ _ _ _
fontem (435-355) mtkvris saTaveebidan ordumde teritoriaze na-
qciuri samRvdel. ena + + + + + _ xa: karduxebi, kolxebi, xaldebi, xalibebi, tibarenebi, mosinoike-
maxasiaTebl. bi, fasianebi, taoxebi...
mrevlis ena + + + + + +
Tu Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi 20-mde qarTveluri tomi arsebobs,

- 79 - - 79 -
winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

rogor unda virwmunoT Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi mxolod im sami to- ramdenad logikuria 4000-5000 wlis winandeli da amJaminde-
mis arseboba, romlebic ar Canan Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua periodis li sazogadoebebis (maTi enebis Tu eTnonimebis) gaigiveba? mag.,
wyaroebSic ki, da romlebic dRes arseboben? aseT SemTxvevaSi da- zogi mecnieri xaTebs afxazebTan akavSirebs, zogic - qarTveleb-
ismeba upasuxo kiTxva: Tan... uZvelesi kulturebis werilobiT ZeglebSive dadastur-
saidan, rogor gaCndnen da maleve sad gaqrnen danarCeni tome- ebuli zogi sxva eTnonimic specialistTa erTi nawilis mier qar-
bi? an: e.w. qarTebi, zanebi da svanebi Tuki iyvnen 5000 wlis win (da TvelTa aRmniSvnelad miiCneva, meore nawils isini sxva iberiul-
SemTxveviT ar aisaxnen wyaroebSi), ram ganapiroba mxolod am sami kavkasiuri (araindoevropeli da arasemiti) xalxebis, mesames ki in-
tomis uprecedento unikaluroba - 5000 wlis manZilze arseboba doevropelebis aRmniSvnelad warmoudgenia da a.S.
Tvisobrivi cvalebis ganucdelad maSin, roca aseT xangrZliv pe- winaswarve vityviT, rom Zv.w. IV-III aTaswleulSi mcxovrebi
riods udidesma kulturebmac ki ver gauZles? Sumerebis, subarelebis (xuritebis) da xaTebis, Zv.w. II aTas-
Cveni xedviT: wleulSi mcxovrebi abeSlaelebisa Tu Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasa-
termini qarTveluri tomebi (aseve: Cerqezuli/afxazur- wyisis xubuSqielebis enis (/xalxis) gaigiveba Tanamedrove qar-
adiRuri, vainaxuri, lekuri/daRestnuri...)SeuZlebelia gamo- Tvelebis (CeCnebis, inguSebis, afxazebis, adiRelebis... qurTebis,
viyenoT Zv.w. IV-III aTaswleulebis kavkasiis da mcire aziis sazoga- somxebis... miT umetes, Turqebis, arabebis...) romelime enobriv
doebrivi jgufebis aRsaniSnavad; rogorc Cans, am periodSi arse- erTeulTan, rbilad rom vTqvaT, gaWirdeba; 4000-5000-wliani in-
bobda winareqarTveluri, pirobiTad, iberiul-kavkasiuri mo- tervali Zalian didia amgvari identifikaciisaTvis; sakiTxze
saxleoba, romlis divergenciiTa da sxva xalxebTan met-nakle- msjelobisas uTuod gasaTvaliswinebelia enaTa da eTnosTa isto-
bi konvergenciiT Zv.w. II aTaswleulSi CamoiZerwnen - Crdilo- riis tipologiac; kerZod:
kavkasiuri tomebic da maSindel kavkasiaSi dominanti saerTo- Tanamedrove msoflioSi arsebuli yvela eris (eTnosis) enam,
qarTveluri eTnosic, romelmac Seqmna STambeWdavi "kolxuri fsiqikurma wyobam, xasiaTma Tu kuTvnilma teritoriam bolo 10
kultura" (t.futkaraZe, 1999, gv.11-13); Semdeg, mravalricxovani saukuneSic ki seriozuli cvlileba ganicada; miT umetes, arsebi-
omebisa Tu migraciis Sedegad, es xalxic daiqsaqsa 20-ze met qar- Tad Seicvleboda 40-60 saukunis manZilze; mag., Zv.w. IV-III aTas-
Tvelur tomad. am tomTagan Zv.w. I aTaswleulis meore naxevar- wleulebSi mcxovrebi didi tradiciebis damwerlobebis mqone
Si isev Seikra qarTveli eri, aRdga qarTvelTa saxelmwifoc, xalxebic ki (Sumerebi, egviptelebi...) gaqrnen istoriis asparezi-
romelic Semdeg periodebSi drodadro calkeul TemTa kuTxur
dan da, warmoudgenelia, damwerlobis armqone, gacilebiT mcire-
samTavroebad iSleboda da isev erTiandeboda...
ricxovan eTnikur jgufebs dRemde Tvisobrivad ucvlelad Semo-
SeniSvna: aqve aRvniSnavT: kavkasia (teritoria Sav da kaspiis zRvebs
Soris) aerTebs dasavleT evropas, aRmosavleT evropas, mcire aziasa enaxaT TavianTi ena/dialeqti, kultura (rogorc zemoT vnaxeT,
da Sua azias; Sesabamisad, mas ver ganvixilavT verc oden evropis da am mxriv, garkveulwilad, iSviaTi gamonaklisia qarTuli samwig-
verc aziis nawilad; gaumarTlebelia, agreTve, kavkasiis moazreba ax- nobro ena: qarTulis unikaluroba ki gansazRvra sruliad gansa-
lo aRmosavleTis cnebaSic. Tavisi evro-aziuri enobriv- kuTrebulma garemoebam: sul mcire, 15 saukunis manZilze qarTu-
kulturuli da geografiul-klimaturi maxasiaTeblebis gamo,
li uwyvetad aris saeklesio, saxelmwifo da saliteraturo ena).
kavkasia evraziis centralur/gardamaval, Sesabamisad, TavisTavad
regionad unda miviCnioT. ufro logikuria davuSvaT, rom Zv.w. VI-II aTaswleulebSi
kidev erTi kiTxva: qarTvelur-Crdilokavkasiur-winaaziuri modgmis bevri tomi ar-

- 80 - - 81 -
winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

sebobda, romelTa nawili saerTod daikarga, mezoblebTan airia, gv. 006). Sdr., g.meliqiSvili, 1999, gv.19:
nawili ki, xangrZlivi konvergenciis procesiT, met-naklebad "ai- "xuris ena da masTan dakavSirebuli eTnikuri elementi meore
saxa" Tanamedrove iberiul-kavkasiur eTnosebSi; uZvelesi droi- aTaswleulSi Cvens eramde metad farTo teritoriazea gavrce-
dan vidre "did kolxur kulturamde" arsebuli tomebi, pirobi- lebuli, Tumca am xalxis umTavres keras, politikuri da saxel-
Tad, saerTokavkasiur-axloaRmosavlur modgmad SeiZleba mi- mwifoebrivi cxovrebis centrs, am dros zemo mesopotamia da va-
viCnioT, xolo Zv.w. II aTaswleulis dasasrulidan ukve SegviZ- nis tbis sanaxebi warmoadgenen; zemo mesopotamiaSia miTanis same-
lia vilaparakoT sakuTriv qarTvelur da Crdilokavkasiur fo, vanis tbis sanaxebSi ki - xuris samefo (adre, xuris nacvlad,
tomebze. am naSromSi miznad ar visaxavT qarTvelur-kavkasiur- kiTxulobdnen xaris). "Tavisi fizikuri tipiTa da eniT xuri-mi-
winaaziur tomTa istoriis kvlevas; mxolod gvsurs, cxadliv tanis (Semdgomi urartus) mosaxleobasTan dRes mcxovreb xal-
vaCvenoT, rom Zv.w. III-I aTaswleulebSi aTobiT qarTveluri tomi xTagan yvelaze axlos qarTveluri, kavkasiuri modgmis xalxebi
arsebobda (da ara mxolod sami!); Sesabamisad, qvemoT zogad dganan".
xuritebis gansaxlebis sazRvari ZiriTadad emTxveva mtkvar-
StrixebSi warmovadgenT qarTvelur Tu winareqarTvelur (ibe-
araqsis kulturis gavrcelebis arealis nawils (specialuri li-
riul-kavkasiur-winaaziur) im eTnonimebs, romelTa didi nawili
teraturis mimoxilvisaTvis ix.: o.jafariZe, 1976; g.avaliSvili,
qarTvelTa winaprebis aRmniSvneli Cans (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis
1994; gr.giorgaZe, 2002). miTani daemxo Zv.w. XIII saukuneSi. savara-
ix.: f.homeli, 1889; iv.javaxiSvili, 1908; a.svaniZe, 1937; s.yauxCiSvi-
udoa, rom amis Semdeg gaZlierdnen daiani/daiaene, kolxa, urar-
li, 1964; T.yauxCiSvili, 1967; gr.giorgaZe, 2002; S.gabeskiria, 2003; tu da e.w. nairis sxva qveynebi. iTvleba, rom xuritulis uSualo
g.qavTaraZe, 2004 da sxv.): memkvidrea urartuli, romelic TvalsaCinodaa Secvlili, rac
xuritebi, miTanelebi, matienebi (miTani/miTanis mosaxle- sxva monaTesave Tu ucxo enebTan intensiuri interferenciiT aix-
oba), urartuelebi - Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebSi xuris enaze mo- sneba: Zvel msoflioSi tomTa dapyrobiTi omebi Serevis did per-
laparake tomebi binadrobdnen mdinare evfratis Suawels zemoT speqtivebs qmnidnen; Sdr., mag.: "eniT semiti asurelebi anTropo-
CrdiloeTiT gadaWimul olqebSi (Crdilo mesopotamiaSi); am qve- logiurad narev xalxs - semituri elementisa da xuritebis Sere-
yanas Sumerebi - subirs, aqadelebi da asurelebi subarTus eZax- vis produqts warmoadgenen" (g.meliqiSvili, 1999, gv. 29).
dnen (Sdr., subarTu - geografiuli cneba). Zv.w. XVI saukunidan logikuria mosazreba, rom xuritul-urartul enaze/enebze
maT Seqmnes miTanis didi saxelmwifo. specialistTa daskvniT, xu- (abruptivebisa da ergatiuli konstruqciis mqone enaze) molapa-
ritebis/miTanis ena aglutinaciuri tipis da ergatiuli kon- rake xalxis erTi nawili monawileobda qarTveli eris formire-
struqciisa iyo; mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis azriT (arn.Ciqobava, baSi, meore nawili asaxulia sxva iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, mesame
i.diakonovi, s.starostini, n.nozaZe), igi enaTesaveba iberiul-kav- nawili ki asimilirda mosuli indoevropeli armenebis mier (swo-
kasiur enebs: red urartuli an qarTveluris monaTesave sxva romelime enis
arn. Ciqobavas azriT, iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi (maT Soris substratiT unda aixsnas somxurSi abruptivebis arseboba). Sdr.:
qarTulic - t.f.) enaTesaveba axlo aRmosavleTis Zveli kultur- hekata~os miletelis (Zv.w. 549-472), herodotes (Zv.w. 484-425) da
is mkvdar enebs: xeTurs, haruls/xurituls, mitani-enas, urar- sxvaTa cnobebiT, matienebi cxovrobdnen mcire aziis Crdilo-
tuls, elamurs... qarTuli ena aris xeTur-iberiuli wris co- aRmosavleTiT, mesopotamiis CrdiloeTiT mosxebis, saspe~rebi-
cxali ena; arsebuli gansxvavebani meoreulia (arn. Ciqobava, 1950, sa da alarodielebis mezoblad (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.42, 144;

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

herodote, 1975, gv.61, 111, 332). mxreT amierkavkasiaSi - araratis sanaxebSi.


Sdr.: s.janaSias mtkicebiT, "qarTlis moqcevis" arian-qarTli iv.javaxiSvilis azriT, alarodeb/urartuelebSic unda vigu-
warmoadgens mogonebas hari-qveynis, rogorc qarTvelTa uZvele- lisxmoT qarTvelTa uSualo winaprebi (iv.javaxiSvili, 1960,
si sacxovrisis Sesaxeb. realurad, aq SesaZlebelia, igulisxmebo- gv.437). misive azriT, ramdenadac qsenofonte am regionSi alaro-
des rogorc mitani, ise urartuc - vanis tbis midamoebi, radgan debis nacvlad ukve armenielebs asaxelebs, SesaZlebelia, vimsje-
hari-qveyana Seicavda erTsac da meoresac" (s.janaSia, 1952, gv.70); loT armenebis kavkasiaSi mosvlis SedarebiT zust TariRzec;
es mosazreba gaziarebulia Tanamedrove zog samecniero litera- Sdr., armenebs ar axsenebs hekata~os mileteli.
turaSic (ix., mag., k.z. gamsaxurdia, 1997, gv.66; e.TayaiSvilis da- qsenofontesave cnobiT, armenebs didi brZolebi aqvT xal-
kvirvebiT, arian-qarTli aris hari-qveyana - xuritebis adgilsam- debTan; rac metyvelebs imazec, rom urartuelTa mezoblad mo-
yofeli). suli armenebis damxvduria urartuelTa moZme tomi - xaldebi;
SeniSvna: garkveuli albaTobiT, xurit- fuZeSi SesaZloa gamoi- yovel SemTxvevaSi, SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos eTnonim xaldisa da
yos xur- Ziri, romelic har-/hal-/*xar-/*xal- variantebis saxiT
urartuelTa RmerTis saxelis - xaldis fonetikuri damTxveva;
SeiZleba veZioT hal-is-, xal-ib-, xal-d-, qal-d-, qar-T- formeb-
Sdr., mkvlevarTa yvela Taobis mier xaldebi qarTvelur tomad
Si, xolo xmovnis labializebuli variantiT - kol-/kul-x-
(<*qol-/*qul-<*xul-/hur-); sakiTxi sagangebo kvlevas moi- miiCneva.
Txovs; Tumca, am mimarTulebiT formobriv analizs Seaferxebs - SeniSvna: urartuelebi eomebodnen diaoxsac, kolxasac, magram arc
it- (-et-/eT?), -T- (/eT?), -d- (/-ed-?) da -ib- (-eb-?) segmentebis kva- erTi maTganis saxeli ar uqceviaT zogadad mtris saxelad; g.meliqiS-
lifikaciis sirTule (ix., agreTve, qvemoT). vilis cnobiT, maT mtris sinonimad aqcies mteri qveynis mosaxleobis
Zv.w. IX-VI saukuneebSi samxreT amierkavkasiisa da dRevandeli saxeli - lulu (g.meliqiSvili, 1999, gv.21); savaraudoa, rom eTnonimi
iran-TurqeTis momijnave teritoriaze arsebobda im droisaTvis lulu miemarTeboda mosul indoevropuli enis mqone tomebs.
erT-erTi uZlieresi saxelmwifo - urartu; Tavad urartuelebi
TavianT qveyanas biainilis uwodebdnen (Zveli aRmosavleTis xaTebi - Zv.w. XXIII saukunidan aTasi wlis manZilze centra-
xalxTa istoria, 1971, gv.407), xolo TavianT Tavs - xaldebs (i.me- lur anatoliaSi (kabadokiisa da pontos teritoriaze) arsebobda
SCaninovi, 1927, gv.3; Sdr., g.meliqiSvili, 1954, gv.28-29: TviTsaxel- Zlieri xaTis saxelmwifo (specialuri literaturis mimoxilvisa-
wodebaa bia/bianili); Tvis ix. gr.giorgaZe, 2002).
Sdr., urartuelTa RmerTi iyo xaldi. Sumerulisa da xuritulis msgavsad, xaTuri ena iTvleba er-
asurul wyaroebSi urartus saxelad dadasturebulia uru- gatiuli konstruqciisa da aglutinaciuri tipis enad; specia-
atri; Sdr., agreTve: bibliuri ararati da berZnuli alarud. listTa varaudiT, igi enaTesaveba Tanamedrove qarTvelur da
sayuradReboa, rom movses xorenaci ar imowmebs am toponims afxazur-adiRur enebs (qr. girbali, i.dunaevskaia, v. ivanovi). lo-
da irCevs aSkarad Zvel, armenielebis mosvlamdel saxelwodebas - gikuria, vifiqroT, rom xaTuri, rogorc oficialuri ena, Secva-
masis mTa. urartuli ena uaxlovdeba xurituls. miiCneven, rom la mosuli indoevropuli eTnosis enam - xeTurma, magram xaTuri
urartuelebi arian herodotes mier matienebisa da saspe~rebis tomebis ena-kiloebi darCa yoveldRiur gamoyenebaSi da garkveu-
gverdiT moxseniebuli alarodielebi/alarodebi (herodote, li transformaciebiT Semogvenaxa qarTvelur da sxva iberiul-
1976, gv.226), romlebic armenielTa mosvlamde cxovrobdnen sa- kavkasiur enebSi siRrmiseuli dafenebis saxiT.

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

SeniSvna: qarTvelurisa da xuritulis msgavsad, qarTvelur-xaTuri misi azriT, saerToqarTveluri (resp. qarTuli) abaS- formisgan
naTesauri mimarTebis kvlevas seriozuli perspeqtiva uCans (ix.: arn.
warmoiqmna abeSal- da zanuri xubuSq- varianti; aq logikuri
Ciqobava, 1948; arn.Ciqobava, 1950; S.gabeskiria, 2003; Sdr., gr.giorgaZe,
Cans abaS- fuZis dakavSireba abaz- da abeSal- formebTan (ix. qve-
2002, gv.90)...
moT). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom specialistTa daskvniT, xubuSqias mo-
saxleoba ZiriTadad xuritulenovani iyo...
qasqebi/qaSqebi da abeSlaelebi - Zv.w. XVII-XIII saukuneebis iv.javaxiSvilis, p.uSakovis da sxvaTa azriT, qaSqebi merminde-
xeTur lursmul wyaroebSi, aseve, asurul, egviptur ugaritul li kolxebis winaprebi arian; gr.giorgaZis varaudiT, tomTa gaer-
teqstebSi moxseniebulia xalxi, romelTa aRmniSvneli saxeli Tianebani qasqebi da abeSlaelebi megrul-lazuri warmoSobisa-
iyo: qasqa, qaSqa, gaSga, kaSka, kaSqa, qaSka; kaSkaS (egvipt.), kaSkaia, ni SeiZleba iyvnen, ramdenadac, eTnonim muSqSic da sxva toponi-
kaSka, kaSku (asur.); Ktkym (ugarit.)... isini cxovrobdnen xeTebis- mebSic xSiria sq/sg/Sq TanxmovanTkompleqsebi, romlebic zanur-
gan CrdiloeTiTa da Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT mogviano xanis ana- svanuri rigis kompleqsebia (gr.giorgaZe, 2000, gv.16; gr.giorgaZe,
toliaSi (pontoSi). 2002, gv.121).
mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis (g.meliqiSvili, i.dunaevskaia, i.dia- pirvel rigSi, savaraudoa, rom mosx-/muSq- fuZeSi gamoiyofa
konovi, a.kamenxuberi, v.arZinba, g.Cirikba) azriT, qasqebis ena -x- ( > q krebiTobis gamomxatavi sufiqsi. SesaZloa, qasq- fuZeSic
erT-erTi afxazur-adiRuri enaa (terminis fonetikuri variante- veZioT Sexorcebuli uZvelesi -x/-q morfema; Sesabamisad, s-q (S-q)
bisa da literaturis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. gr.giorgaZe, 2000, gv.9- xom ar aris morfemaTa zRvari (Sdr.: qaSagi "tyve" saba; yabardo-
17). asuruli da xeTuri wyaroebis qaSqeb/qasqebis erT-erT saxe- eli - m.andronikaSvili)?; meorec, sq/Sq kompleqsi ar ikrZaleba
lad (sinonimad) miCneulia asurul lursmul teqstebSi moxseni- arc saerToqarTveluris, arc samwignobro qarTulis da arc sxva
ebuli abeSlaelebi. miuxedavad imisa, abeSla da qasqa sinonime- qarTveluri dialeqtebis fonematuri struqturiT; amdenad,
bad gamocxaddeba, Tu monaTesave tomebad (msjelobisaTvis ix.: mxolod am kompleqsis mixedviT msjeloba gaWirdeba.
g.qavTaraZe, 1985, gv.125; gr.giorgaZe, 2002, gv.113-121), xazgasmiT ufro logikuria, vTqvaT, rom xaTebisa da xuritebis mona-
aRvniSnavT, rom SeuZlebelia 30-40 saukunis winandeli da Tana- Tesave qasqebi, abeSlaelebi, xubuSqielebi, urartuelebi...
medrove enebis igiveobaze laparaki; Sdr., agreTve, mag., m.qurdia- winareqarTvelur-kavkasiur tomTa aRmniSvneli saxelebia; am da
nis azriT, daaxloebiT 30 saukunis win arsebobdnen zanurenovani sxva tomebisgan Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebSi CamoiZerwnen qarTve-
xubuSqielebi; avtoris varaudiT, paralelurad iyvnen qarTu- lebic, Cerqezebic, vainaxebic da lekebic... sxvagvarad ver aix-
lenovani abaSebic, romelTa saxelic Semonaxulia toponim aba- sneba is faqti, rom Zveli winaaziuri enebis kvali STambeWda-
via qarTvelurSic da sxva iberiul-kavkasiur (afxazur-adiR-
Sas saxiT (arada, swored dRevandeli Tu istoriuli abaSelebi
ur, vainaxur, daRestnur) enebSic; aseve, Zvel eTnonimebTan ma-
metyveleben erT-erT zanur dialeqtze - t.f.); misive varaudiT,
salobrivad axlos myofi terminebi dasturdeba rogorc qarTve-
xubuSqielebi abaSidan erT-erTi samxedro eqspediciis dros ami-
luri, aseve Crdilokavkasiuri sazogadoebebis mimarTebiT (qaSa-
erkavkasiidan gadasaxldnen vanis tbis midamoebSi; salmanasar III-
gi, abaza/ebze...).
sTan damarcxebis Semdeg maTgan mxolod "qveynis saxeli da samefo
dinastia darCa" (m.qurdiani, 2001, gv.130-131)... m.qurdiani am da-
muSqebi, muSqa/muSqi, mosxebi, mosoxi/meSexi, mosxikes
skvnebs akeTebs xubuSqias saTuo etimologiis mixedviT; kerZod,

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

mcxovreblebi - samecniero literaturaSi miRebuli azris mosazrebebis analizi ix. n.xazaraZe, 2001, gv.283); Sdr.: xeTebi qas-
Tanaxmad, Zv.w. XII-VII saukuneebis asurul lursmul wyaroebSi qebTan debdnen sxvadasxva xasiaTis xelSekrulebas, qasqebi da xa-
moxseniebuli muSqebi, bibliuri mosoq-/mosox-meSex- saxelwo- Tebi ki monaTesave tomebad iTvlebian. ramdenadac, araindoevro-
debebi (Sesaqme, X 2, 22-32), berZnul-romauli teqstebis mosoxe- peli xaTebis teritoriaze indoevropeli xeTebi mosulebi arian,
bi, Zv. w. IV saukuneSi arsebuli saxelmwifo mosxike (iv.javaxiSvi- logikuria varaudi, rom xaTebis SesaZlo memkvidre qasqebsa da
li, 1908, gv.22; iv.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.18; n.xazaraZe, 1998, gv.177; xeTebs Soris daZabuli urTierToba iyo; Sesabamisad, sxvagvarad
n.xazaraZe, 2001, gv.273; Sdr., i.diakonovi, 1984) - mosxebis/mesxebis dadgeba qarTvelur tomTa migraciis mimarTulebis sakiTxic.
qveyana, "qarTlis cxovrebis" arian qarTli da qarTvelTa erTi SeniSvna: k.f.leman-haupti fiqrobda, rom qarTvelebi saqarTvelos
jgufis aRmniSvneli Temonimi mesxi erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli teritoriaze Camoyalibdnen Crdilo mesopotamiidan mosuli kardu-
cnebebia; kerZod, isini miemarTeba qarTvelur modgmas, romlis xebis (istoriuli gorduenes - korduqis mkvidrebis) da mcire azii-
dan mosuli mesxebis Serwymis Sedegad (vimowmebT g.meliqiSvilis mi-
gansaxlebis (Tu moZraobis) ZiriTadi teritoriaa zemo evfr-
xedviT; g.meliqiSvili, 1965, gv. 19-20).
atispireTi (Zv.w. XII s.)-kabadokia-halisis Sua dinebis samxre-
Ti (Zv.w. VIII s.)-pontos teritoris nawili da, bolos, samxreT- berZnul wyaroebSi mosxebis tomi pirvelad naxsenebia Zv.w.
dasavleTi amierkavkasia. VI s. berZeni mwerlis - hekata~os miletelis mier; misi mowmobiT,
Sdr.: "feodaluri xanis nomenklaturiT, mosxebis qveyana mo- mosxebi kolxuri tomia (Cveni azriT, aq kolxuri qarTveluris
icavda: samcxes, javaxeTs, klarjeTs, aWaras, egriss, SavSeTs, kola- sinonimia - t.f.); isini cxovrobdnen matienebis (miTanis) mezob-
artaans, amier da imier taos, basians, spers, anu mTel samxreT-da- lad - mesopotamiis CrdiloeTiT, anda mcire aziis Crdilo-aRmo-
savleT saqarTvelos" (msjelobisa da vrceli samecniero litera- savleTiT (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43-44).
turis mimoxilvisaTvis ix.: n.xazaraZe, 1984, gv.36-70; gr.giorgaZe, herodotes (Zv.w. V s.) mixedviT, mosxebi kolxebTan (aq ukve
1985; gr.giorgaZe, 2002).
kolxebi mxolod erT-erTi qarTveluri tomis saxelia - t.f.), sa-
Zv.w. XII saukuneSi (1165 wels) zemo mesopotamiaSi gamoCenili speirebTan, xalibebTan (qalibebTan), makronebTan, tibarenebTan,
muSqebi e.kaveniakma istoriuli saqarTvelos samxreT-dasavleT mosinoikebTan da marebTan erTad cxovrobdnen mcire aziis Crdi-
olqebidan Camosulebad miiCnia (g.meliqiSvili, 1965, gv.22); n.xa- loeTiT Savi zRvis aRmosavleT Tu samxreT sanapiroze sparseTis
zaraZis azriTac, "muSqebi, abeSlaelebis msgavsad, CrdiloeTi- mefe darios I (Zv.w. 524-485) dros (ix. herodote, 1976, gv.634; T.ya-
dan unda gavrcelebuliyvnen samxreTisaken xeTebis samefos dace- uxCiSvili, 1976, gv.47, 660).
mis Semdeg (n.xazaraZe, 2002, gv.124); mkvlevris varaudi efuZneba strabonis (Zv.w. 64 - ax.w. 24) mixedviT, mosxebi cxovroben am-
imas, rom xeTur lursmul teqstebSi muSqebi saerTod ar arian Jamindel dasavleT saqarTveloSi - Savi zRvis sanapiroze kolxe-
moxseniebuli. bis gverdiT, henioxebisa da kerketebis samxreTiT (sakiTxis mimo-
Cveni azriT, savsebiT dasaSvebia, rom muSqTa winaprebad movi- xilvisaTvis ix., g.qavTaraZe, 1985, gv. 82-86); strabonisve cnobiT,
azroT xaTebisa da xuritebis monaTesave da maTi gansaxlebis adrindeli mosxuri qveynis (ivaraudeba Zv.w. IV saukuneSi arse-
velSi mcxovrebi qarTvelur-kavkasiuri modgma; logikuri Cans buli mosxike? albaT, ufro Zveli muSqebis sacxovrisi - t.f.)
muSqebisa da qaSqebis monaTesaveobis daSvebac (qaSqi da muSqu erTi nawili aqvT kolxebs, meore - iberebs da mesame - armenie-
eTnonimebis mimarTebis Sesaxeb gr.giorgaZisa da e.fon Suleris lebs (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.140-145).

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ioseb flaviusis azriT (37-95), mosoxenebi dafuZnebulni r.abaSia, 2001), romelic krebiToba-warmomavlobas gamoxatavs:
arian mosoxis mier da "axla maT kabadokielebi ewodaT; kabadoki- *mas-x-; fuZisaTvis Sdr.: mas-is-i, fas-is-i da bas-ian-i.
elTa es Zveli saxeli SemorCenilia maTi dedaqalaqis saxelad, Cveni azriT, *mas-x- marTlac SeiZleba iyos amosavali forma,
romelic aris mazaxa" (ioseb flaviusi, 1987, gv.103). magram warmodgenili formebi (mosx-/musx-) iseve ver miiCneva qar-
evstaTi antioqelTan (280-360) kabadokielTa winaprebad da- Tvelur dialeqtur (zanur-svanur-) variantebad, rogorc, mag.,
saxelebulia mesxenebi, maT eTnarqad ki - osoxi (georgika, 1961, sxvadasxva Zvel enaSi dadasturebuli Targamosi/Togarma/Tor-
gv.34). ori saukunis Semdeg ki prokopi kesarieli mesxTa (mesxoi) goma/Tegerama/Tilgarimu, ararati/urartu da sxva paralelu-
sacxovrisad miiCnevs iberiis gaswvriv arsebul mTebs (georgika, ri formebi; am rigis masala ise Zvelia, rom saTave (mizezi) wina-
1965, gv.127). reqarTvelur-kavkasiur periodsa da sxvadasxva msesxebeli enis
stefane bizantielTan (IV-VII s.s.) dadasturebulia eTnonimi fonematur TaviseburebebSi unda veZioT (Sdr., iv.javaxiSvili,
mosxi; igi, mihyveba ra strabons, mosxebs asaxelebs kerketebis ze- 1960, gv.401-402; g.Tofuria, 1970, gv.120; m.qurdiani, 2000, gv.189;
moT (e.i. samxreTiT - t.f.). XI saukunis moRvawe leon gramatikosi n.xazaraZe, 2001, gv.285 da sxv.).
ucvlelad imeorebs wina Taobebis mosazrebebs da iafetis Svilad SeniSvna: mesxi/masxi eTnonims saerToqarTveluri eTnosis TviTsa-
miCneul mesxosisgan momdinared miiCnevs mesxebs, romelTac ax- xelwodebad aRadgens m. qurdiani (m.qurdiani, 2000, gv.188); mesx-/mosx-
la kabadokielebi ewodebaTo...(georgika, 1963, gv.3-4). termini qarTvelTa erTi jgufis aRmniSvneli romaa, es ueWvelia, mag-
ram iyo Tu ara is saerToqarTveluri eTnosis TviTsaxeli, saTana-
mosx-/mesex-/mesx- terminTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa Crdi-
dod argumentirebuli ar aris; am mosazrebis kritikisaTvis ix.: gr.
lokavkasiur enaTa monacemebi:
giorgaZe, n.xazaraZe 2002, gv.191)...
p.uslarisa da a.diris cnobebiT, daRestnur enaTa samyaroSi
sadavo ar unda iyos, rom mosxebi/mesxebi erT-erTi Zveli
qarTvelebis aRsaniSnavad iyeneben termins - mosoqi/museqi; igi
qarTveluri tomis saxelia, romelic mezobel Tu aramezobel
miemarTeba, agreTve, wovaTuSebsac (g.burWulaZe, b.SavxeliSvili, xalxTagan istoriis erT monakveTSi ganzogadebuli iyo "yo-
1993, gv.325).
velTa qarTvelTa" saxelad.
logikuria, davuSvaT, rom qarTlis mosaxleoba muSq-mesxebis
uSualo memkvidrea; toponim mcxeTisa da qoronim samcxis mimar- daianelebi, diauxelebi, taoxebi - Zv. w. XII-VIII saukuneebis
Teba amis kidev erTi argumenti Cans: sa-mesx-e > *samsxe > samcxe; asurul da urartul lursmul teqstebSi damowmebulia daiae-
mesx-eT-a > *msxeTa > mcxeTa (literaturis mimoxilvisa da gan- nis qveyana; mkvlevrebi am saxelwodebas ukavSireben urartuli
sxvavebuli msjelobisaTvis ix. g.bedoSvili, 1981). lursmuli teqstebis diauxs, berZnuli wyaroebis taoxois, Zve-
Sdr.: i.zicaris azriT (i.zicari, 1998): mes-x- > vesk > bask-; li somxuri wyaroebis taiqs da istoriuli saqarTvelos erT ku-
bask- fuZis amgvari etimologia damatebiT argumentebs moiTxovs. Txes - taos (literaturis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. gr.giorgaZe, 2002);
varaudoben, rom mesx-, mosx- musx- fuZeebi qarTveluri di- varaudoben, rom es iyo Zlieri qarTveluri tomi (Sdr.: g.meli-
aleqturi variantebia; maTTvis amosavali SeiZleba iyos *mas- Zi- qiSvili, i.diakonovi da sxv. diaoxis mosaxleobas xuritulenov-
ri (Sdr.: masisi - maRali mTa istoriul mesxeTSi - parxalis nad miiCneven), romlis mefe senze gamarjvebiTac sagangebod tr-
axlos; masis mTa - araratis Zveli saxeli), xolo -x- iyos xuri- abaxobda asureTis mefe tiglaTfileser I (1115-1077).
tul-urartul-kavkasiuri sufiqsi (sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix.

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daianelebi/taoxebi/taoelebi cxovrobdnen TorTumis, ev- romelsac SeeZlo moeca, erTi mxriv, aia (< *haia), meore mxriv -
fratisa da mtkvris saTaveebSi; sarwmuno Cans, diaoxis dedaqala- *xaia (< *haia). aia SeiZleba gamoiyos aiet- fuZeSic: -et- sufiqsi
qi SaSilu (SaSilo/sasiro) mdebareobda cnobili TorTumis ci- berZnulSi warmomavloba-kuTvnilebiTobis mawarmoebelia, Sesa-
xis mimdebare teritoriaze - amJamindeli esendurakis adgilas bamisad, mefe aietis saxeli miRebulia aia-sgan: aia-eti > aieti;
(g.qavTaraZe, 2005, gv. 13-18). Sdr. o.lorTqifaniZe, 1986, gv.32: "argonavtebis uZveles versieb-
berZnul-bizantiur wyaroebSi taoxebi pirvelad gvxvdebian Si, qveyana, sadac argonavtebma ilaSqres, iyo aia; ufro gvian am
qsenofontesTan (Zv. w. V_IV s.s.): taoxebi, romlebic cxovroben qveyanas kolxidad moixsenieben".
mermindel olTisis olqSi, sparseTis mefes ar emorCilebian da SeniSvna: diodore sicilieli (Zv.w. I s.), romelic qsenofontes teq-
xalibebTan erTad sparseli satrapis - tiribaZis - moqiravneebi sts mihyveba, taoxebis nacvlad axsenebs xaebs: karduxebi, armenielebi,
arian (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.52). mogvianebiTac, mag., stefane bi- xaebi (e.i. taoxebi), fasianebi, xaldebi, skotinebi, makronebi, kolxebi,
motvinoikebi, tibarenebi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.124); Sdr., heka-
zantielic (IV-VII s.s.) taoxebs Sida pontoSi mosaxle tomad
ta~os mileteli (Zv.w. 549-472) mosxebsa da beqe~rebs Soris asaxelebs
Tvlis; misi cnobiT, "zogierTebi maT taoelebsac eZaxian, ro-
xo~ebs; rizes maxloblad mcxovreb xo~ebs Cveulebriv taoxo~s Se-
gorc ambobs sofainete Tavis "anabazisSi" (georgika, 1936, gv.284). ryvnil formad miiCneven, magram s. yauxCiSvilis azriT, maTi sacxov-
Zveli berZnebis cnobiT, aia igive kolxeTia; ix., mag., hero- risi imdenadaa daSorebuli taoxebis sacxovriss, rom xo~ebisa da ta-
dote: argonavtebi "micuravdnen a~aSi, kolxidaSi, sawmisisa- oxebis identifikacia gaWirdeba (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.44).
Tvis"; "movida es kitisorosi a~a-kolxididan da gaaTavisuf-
la igi"... (herodote, 1975, gv.472-473); amave azrs imeorebs apolo- kolxebi - Zv. w. XII-VIII saukuneebis asurul da urartul
nios rodoselic Tavis "argonavtikaSi". Sesabamisad, logikuria lursmul teqstebSi dadasturebulia kilxi da kulxa/kolxa ge-
T.miqelaZis azri, rom daiaeni SeiZleba iyos igive aia; Sdr., aia ografiuli terminebi, romlebic gaigivebulia berZnul-romau-
da xaiasa (Semdgomi suxmis qveyana) gaigivebuli aqvs g.hiusings (sa- li wyaroebis kolxoi da kolxis saxelwodebebTan; iv.javaxiSvi-
kiTxis istoriisaTvis ix.g.qavTaraZe, 1985, gv. 161, 163; g.qavTaraZe, lis azriT, kolxebi asuruli wyaroebis kaskebi arian (iv.javaxiS-
2005). dentalur da velarul TanxmovanTa monacvleobis, agreTve, vili, 1908, gv.30).
maTi dakargvis TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa sxva kavkasiur-aRmo- samecniero literaturaSi gaziarebulia n.maris azri, rom
savleTanatoliur toponimTa variantebic: xalibi/alibi, xaba- kolxTa politikuri gaerTianeba Zv.w. II aTaswleulis dasasruls
reni/obareni, xarimati/arimati, qaRzevani/aRzevani, tapi- da I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi (Zv.w. VII s. 20-ian wlebamde) iyo sa-
ri/apiri, toreti/oreti, Tuni/uni (magaliTebi moiZia g.qavTa- mxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, centriT Woroxis xeobaSi;
raZem; ix. 1985, gv. 53-58); Sdr., agreTve: aia, daia-en-i da xeTuri VII saukunidan misi centri gadadis dasavleT saqarTveloSi - ri-
onispireTSi (g.meliqiSvili, T.miqelaZe, n.lomouri, m.inaZe; msje-
wyaroebis xaia-sa (-sa da qarTv. -is-: Sind-is-i)... d > x, q > 0, x >
lobisaTvis ix., agreTve: o.lorTqifaniZe, 1986, gv.68-69).
0, t > 0 procesebi Znelad dasaSvebia, Sesabamisad, gardamaval fo-
Sdr., o.lorTqifaniZe, 1986, gv.4: "argonavtebis oqros sawmi-
rmebad savaraudoa s/h fonemebis Semcveli fuZeebi, ramdenadac,
sisaTvis laSqrobis Sesaxeb berZnuli Tqmuleba mWidrodaa dakav-
bunebrivia s > h > 0 procesi (winaenismieri yru Tanxmovnis h-d
Sirebuli Cvens qveyanasTan - Zvel kolxeTTan, romelic dRevan-
qcevisaTvis Sdr.: saerToqarTv. w > svan. W > h); Sdr., mag., SesaZlo
del dasavleT saqarTvelos miwa-wyals moicavda..."(adreul gamo-
transformaciebi: *daia > *taia > (*waia/*Waia, an *saia >) *haia,

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kvlevaSi o.lorTqifaniZes sakamaTod ar miaCnda g.meliqiSvilisa fsevdo-skilaqsi trapezuntisa da kerasuntis midamoebSi asa-
da T.miqelaZis mtkicebulebani "argonavtikaSi" warmodgenili xelebs biZerebs, ekeqe~riebs, beqe~rebs, makrokefalebs da mosi-
qarTveluri saxelebis Woroxis xeobasTan kavSiris Sesaxeb; ix., no~kebs; amave periodSive qsenofonte trapezunt-kerasuntis re-
o.lorTqifaniZe, 1966, gv. 21, I SeniSvna). gionSi asaxelebs mxolod kolxTa toms (T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.97);
ak. uruSaZis da sxvaTa varaudiT, Tavdapirvelad, berZnebi Sdr., apolonios rodoseli (III s.): "qedmaRal mefes ver uSvelian
kolxeTSi mTel qarTvelur samyaros gulisxmobdnen (ak.uruSa- kolxTa tomebi" (argonavtika, 1975, gv.113).
Ze, 1964, gv.6). urartuli warwerebica da Tanamedrove arqeolo- miTridate-pompeusis brZolebTan dakavSirebiT kolxebs ax-
giuri monacemebic cxadyofs am azris siswores (ix. qvemoT, II Ta- senebs II saukunis moRvawe apiane (apiane, 1959, gv.198); savaraudoa,
vi); aSkaraa, rom Zveli kolxeTi mxolod dRevandel dasavleT sa- rom kolxebad igi miiCnevs tomTa did gaerTianebas, romlebic Sa-
qarTvelos ar moicavda; kolxeTis gacilebiT didi teritoria vi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze cxovrobdnen; Sdr., aRmosavleT
(mtkvris zemo welisa da Woroxis xeobebi) dRes TurqeTis res- saqarTveloSi am dros iberebi saxeldebian.
publikis SemadgenlobaSia moqceuli; Sdr.: kolxa/aia/tao. arianes mixedviT, trapezuntelebis mosazRvreni arian kolxe-
varaudoben, rom werilobiT ZeglebSi kolxida formis pir- bi; amaT gverdiT arian sanebi (qsenofontes mixedviT, igive dri-
veli damowmeba gvaqvs Zv. w. XIV saukunis B-xazovan teqstebSi ko- lebi), makronebi da henioxebi (berZeni mwerlebi... 1983, gv.158).
kida/kokide~o variantebis saxiT (l. gordeziani, 2004, gv. 226- dRevandeli dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas ariane (II s.)
228). berZnul wyaroebSi termini "kolxida gaia" ueWvelad das- ukve lazebis saxeliT ixseniebs: "lazikas Camoudis mdinare, saxe-
turdeba Zv. w. VIII saukunis poetTan - evmile korinTelTan; sava- lad reoni, sadac kolxebs Zvelad cixe augiaT"...(berZeni mwerle-
raudoa, rom kolxidis paralelurad berZnebi iyenebdnen termin bi... 1983, gv.188). am periodidan erTmaneTs xSirad enacvleba ter-
aiasac (arsebuli mdidari literaturis mimoxilva ix.: m. inaZe, minebi: kolxi da lazi; mag., V saukunis anonimi avtori wers: "di-
1955; g. meliqiSvili, 1965; n. lomouri, 1962; S. asaTiani, 1993; m. oskuriidan vidre afsaris wylamde winaT cxovrobda is xalxi,
inaZe, 1993). romlebsac kolxebi ewodebodaT da mere gadaerqvaT lazebi" (ge-
fsevdo-skilaqsis azriT, kolxebiT dasaxlebuli teritoria orgika, 1965, gv.6)...
vrceldeba dioskuriidan mdinare afsarosamde e.i. soxumidan Wo- ipolite romaeli (III s.), amiane marceline (IV s.), epifane
roxamde (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.84)... fsevdo-skilaqsis cnobebs kvipreli (314-403 ) da mravali sxva mogvianebiTac termin kolxebs
imeorebs skilaqs kariandeli (Zv.w. VI-V s.). irCeven, sxvebi ki lazebs iyeneben (ix. qvemoT); mag., ioane lide
herodote amtkicebda, rom kolxebi egviptidan iyvnen wamosu- (VII s.) wers: "kolxikes amJamad lazikes eZaxian lazebis hegemono-
bis gamo" (georgika, 1970, gv.3; s.yauxCiSvilis komentari); agaTia
li; misi azriT, samxreTis (mewamuli) zRvidan CrdiloeTis
sqolastikosi (VI s.): "lazebs rom Zvelad kolxebi ewodebodaT
(pontos) zRvamde cxovrobda oTxi tomi: sparselebi, midie-
da swored isini arian, amaSi eWvi ar Seepareba aravis, Tuki is ga-
lebi, sasperebi da kolxebi (herodote, 1975, gv.156, 262); aSkaraa,
ecnoba fazisis, kavkasiisa da maT garSemo mdebare qveynebis mosax-
rom aq kolxebic da sasperebic ufro tomTa gaerTianebebis aR-
leobas... lazebi amayoben kolxTa Zveli saxeliT" (georgika, 1936,
mniSvnelia, vidre calkeuli tomebisa (kolxebis Sesaxeb ix. iv.ja-
gv.27, 50)...
vaxiSvili, 1950, gv.12). amas adasturebs qsenofontes mogzaurobis
Sdr., ioane cece (1110-1180 ): "kolxebi indoeli skviTebi ari-
dRiurebisa da fsevdo-skilaqsis cnobebis Sedareba; kerZod:

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an, maT lazebic ewodebaT da cxovroben abazgebis, winandeli masa- logikuria vivaraudoT, rom Zv.w. II aTaswleulis Sua pe-
geTebis maxloblad"; "kvitaia kolxeTis qalaqia, xolo kolxebi riodidan kerasuntis regionSi, halisisa (kizil-irmakis) da
lazuri tomia, cxovroben abazgebis maxloblad"; kolxebs azieli Woroxis auzebSi, Tanamedrove dasavleT saqarTvelosa da
skviTebic da levkosirebic hqviaT; isini cxovroben aziis mxareSi mtkvris zemowelis mxareebSi Camoyalibda Zlieri politiku-
mdinare fazisis irgvliv"... (georgika, 1967, gv.32, 36-37)... ri gaerTianeba, romlis Tavdapirveli berZnuli (?) saxeli Se-
Sdr.: II saukunis aleqsandrieli moRvawis - dinisios periege- iZleboda yofiliyo aia (Sdr.: aieti; Sdr., agreTve: daiaeni,
tis "dedamiwis aRwerilobis" mixedviT, kolxebi evropidan mo- tao); Semdeg am saxels Caenacvla kolxa/kolxida.
sulni arian (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.93); am cnobaSi SeiZleba asa- Zv.w. XII-VIII saukuneebSi am gaerTianebaSi hegemonobda
xuli iyos evropidan pontos zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze ibe- kolxebis Zlieri tomi, romlis saxelis mixedviT aisaxa es sa-
rielTa mosvlis legenda. xelmwifo mezobeli saxelmwifoebis dokumentebSi Tu berZeni
SeniSvna: hekata~osis "dedamiwis aRwera" cxadyofs, rom Zv.w. VI s. mwerlebisa da mogzaurobis mexsierebaSi; igi am periodSi ukve
berZenTaTvis cnobili iyvnen Semdegi tomebi: melanqla~nebi, koraqse- moicavda Savi zRvis mTel aRmosavleT sanapiros aRmosavleT
bi, kolebi, mosxebi, xo~ebi, beqe~rebi, diZerebi, makronebi, marebi, mo- saqarTvelos nawilis CaTvliT (Sdr., g.meliqiSvili, 1954,
sino~kebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi. fsevdo-skilaqsis (Zv.w. IV) "perip- gv.412)... metic, rogorc zogi berZnuli wyaro, aseve, Tanamedrove
lusSi" ki Savi zRvis sanapiroze md. donidan Tanamedrove TermeCai- arqeologiuri gaTxrebi cxadyofen, rom e.w. "didi kolxuri kul-
mde dasaxelebulia Semdegi tomebi: savromatebi, ma~otebi, sindebi,
tura" moicavda dRevandel qarTlsac da Crdilo kavkasiis did
kerketebi, toretebi, aqa~ebi, henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolebi, melan-
qla~nebi, gelonebi, kolxebi, biZerebi, ekeqe~rebi, beqe~rebi, makroke- nawilsac.
falebi, mosino~kebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43,
81-82). T.yauxCiSvilis azriT, herodotesTan qarTvel tomebad misaC- kolebi - kolebi pirvelad dasturdebian hekata~os mile-
nevia: kolxebi, saspe~rebi, xalibebi, makronebi, mosxebi, tibarenebi, telTan (Zv.w. 549-472); fsevdo-sqilaksis (Zv.w. IV s.) cnobebis mi-
mosino~kebi, marebi; maTi monaTesave tomebi arian: alarodielebi, ma- xedviT, koraqsebi da kolebi daaxloebiT bzifis SesarTavis rai-
tienebi. mosxebi da tibarenebi omSi erT meTaurs emorCilebodnen; onSi arian sagulvebeli (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.83). axali wel-
makronebi da mosino~kebi - meores; marebi da kolxebi - mesames, xolo,
TaRricxvis V saukunis anonimuri periplusis avtori kolebis
alarodiebi da saspe~rebi - meoTxes (herodote, 1975, gv.27-28; ix. ag-
qveyanas - kolikes asaxelebs, erTi mxriv, henioxebis, koraqsebisa
reTve, T.yauxCiSvili, 1955).
da, meore mxriv, melanqlainebis, maqelonebis, kolxebis mezoblad
kolxa unda momdinareobdes Zveli qarTuli provinciis ko- (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.105); Sdr., stefane bizantieli: kolebi -
las saxelisgan (i.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.12): tomi kavkasionTan; kavkasionis qveda ferdebs ewodeba kolebis
kola/kol-i - kol-x-i; qarTul wyaroebSi fuZe kola adri- mTebi, qveyanas ki kolike hqvia (georgika, 1936, gv.281).
danve dasturdeba, xolo qoronimis meoreuli varianti kolxeTi logikuria davuSvaT, rom saqarTvelos istoriuli provin-
qarTulSi berZnulis analogiiT gvian iqmneba. Sdr., patriarq ni- cia kola, eTnonimi kol-x-i/kol-x-a da kolebi/kolike saerTo fu-
konis matianeSi saqarTvelos aRmniSvneli erT-erTi terminia Zisgan warmomavali sityvebi iyos (Sdr., p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.138:
kolxekia (g. paiWaZe, 1993). p.ingoroyvas azriT, kolxisganaa na- kolxi da kolaelebi sinonimebia); aseve, SesaZlebelia, vivarau-
warmoebi qluxori (kolxori > kluxori > qluxori; Sdr., koda > doT, rom trapizonisa da biWvinTis regionebSi erTsa da imave
kod-or-i; p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.143). dros dafiqsirebuli kolxebi da kolebi monaTesave tomebi ari-

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an. p.ingoroyvas azriT, kolasganaa nawarmoebi klarji: kol-ar-i > nevs kolxur tomad (Sdr., misTvis lazebi skviTuri tomia; geor-
kolarji (p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.138); mas axsnili ara aqvs j-s warmo- gika, 1936, gv.280-281); amave avtoris mixedviT, "kerketebis zemoT
mavloba, magram dakavSireba swori Cans: cxovroben mosxebi da qarimatebi, xolo qvemoT henioxebi da ko-
SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom *kolar- da dialeqturi kolaj- (za- raqsebi..." (georgika, 1936, gv.289).
nurSi bunebrivia r > j procesi sityvis bolos: xari > xoji, qmari > iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, koraqs- fuZe daiSleba kor- Zirad da
qomonji...) formebis kontaminaciiT miviReT kolaraj- forma, ro- -qs- sufiqsad, sadac, -qs- igive "sakveci" -x- aris, rac gvaqvs kol-x-
melmac mogvca klarj- fuZe; aseve, araa gamoricxuli, -r fonetikur formaSi (iv.javaxiSvili, 1960, gv.411).
CanarTad miviCnioT: kolar- > kolaj- > klaj- > klarj- (sakiTxi Se- logikuria kol-, kor- fuZeebis, aseve, kolxebis, kolaele-
mdgom kvlevas iTxovs). bis, koraqsebis, gviandeli klarjebis saerTo warmomavlobis sa-
kiTxis dasma; xazgasmiT unda iTqvas, rom ukve hekata~osis dros
koraqsebi - Zv.w. VI saukuneSi moRvawe hekata~os miletelis
koraqsebi, kolebi da kolxebi monaTesave, magram sxvadasxva to-
cnobiT, koraqsebi kolxuri tomia (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43).
mebi arian; Sdr.: sxva SemTxvevebSic monaTesave qarTvelur tomebs
skilaqs kariandeli (Zv. w. VI-V s.) koraqsebs asaxelebs henio-
erTi fuZidan nawarmoebi msgavsi saxelebi aqvT (ix.: sani, zani, Wa-
xebis Semdeg (T. yauxCiSvili, 1967, gv. 47). koraqsebs axsenebs fsev-
ni... xalibi, qaldi, xaldi, karduxi...).
do-sklaqsic (Zv. w. IV s.); misi azriT, koraqsebi cxovroben henio-
xebze samxreTiT da kolebze CrdiloeTiT Savi zRvis aRmosavleT
karduxebi - qsenofontes cnobiT, es meomari da ubatono to-
sanapiroze. amaTze kidev ufro samxreTiT aris tomi kolxebisa da
mi ebrZvis rogorc berZnebs, aseve sparselebsa da armenebs; maTi
mis teritoriazea dioskurisi. ase rom, am avtoris Tanaxmad, ko-
sacxovrisi am dros miuval mTebSia: "molaSqreebma tyveebisgan ga-
raqsebis tomi Tanamedrove soxumze ufro CrdiloeTiT aris nava-
raudevi (T. yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.10). koraqsebi da kolebi daax- iges, rom Tu isini SeZleben karduxebis mTebis gadalaxvas da mdi-
loebiT dRevandeli bzifis (klavdios ptolema~osis mixedviT, nare tigrosis saTaveebze gadasvlas, mivlen armeniaSi" (qseno-
mdinare koraqsis) SesarTavis raionSi arian sagulvebeli (T.yaux- fonte, 1976, gv. 63-66, 74-75).
CiSvili, 1976, gv. 83; ix. agreTve n. lomouri, 1963, gv. 22). karduxebiT dasaxlebuli teritoriis sazRvrebia: Crdiloe-
Sdr., aristoteles (Zv. w. 384-322) "meteorologiaSi" vkiTxu- TiT - Tanamedrove botan-Cai, dasavleTiT - tigrosi, samxreTiT -
lobT: Tanamedrove qurTistanis mTianeTis dasavleTi nawili.
"kavkasionis qvemoT aris tba (kaspiis tba), romelsac adgi- berZnul-romaul wyaroebSi karduxebis saxelis variantebia:
lobrivi mcxovreblebi zRvas uwodeben. radgan am tbas mravali gordueno~ da Cordueni (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv. 52). tomi kar-
da didi mdinare erTvis da cxadi gamosavali ki ara aqvs, igi miwis duenebi amave teritoriaze dasturdeba mogvianebiTac; ix., mag.,
qveS miedineba koraqsebisken da gamodis pontos e.w. siRrmeebTan petre patrikiosi (VI s.): romaelebsa da sparselebs Soris mola-
(T.yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.36); aristotele ar sazRvravs maTs sa- parakebis erT-erTi sadavo sagani iyo qveyana karduene (mas romae-
cxovriss da arc maT eTnikurobas, vinaidan, Cans, rom mis mkiTxvel lebi iTxovdnen), romelic tigrosis saTaveebTan mdebareobda
Tu msmenel sazogadoebas amisi sagangebo axsna ar sWirdeboda" (georgika, 1936, gv.193)...
(T.yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.10). stefane bizantieli (IV-VII s.) Tavis kardu/kardu-x- fuZesTan akavSirebda qarTu(-el-) fuZes iv.
"geografiul leqsikonSi", hekates "aziis" kvalad, koraqsebs miiC- javaxiSvili (1960, gv.411-412); kardu- formas xald- fuZisgan mo-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

mdinared Tvlis a.svaniZe (a.svanaZe, 1937, gv.14); Sdr., ufro adre, nur-megruli) variantebi iyon, vinaidan identur saxelTa msgavsi
qarTu-el- formas qald-e (qaldea) saxelTan akavSirebda ilia variantuloba xSiria asurul, xeTur, ieroglifur-luviur,
WavWavaZe: "Zalian WkuasTan axloa da advilad safiqrebeli, rom Zvel ebraul da Zvel berZnul enebSi; mag., Sdr.: asuruli gamir-,
lursmul warwerebSi moxseniebuli "qaldi", "qaldisi" igive muSqu da ZvelberZnuli gomer-, meSeh-; xeTuri kummani da asuru-
"qarTlisi" iyos..." (i. WavWavaZe, 1941, gv.376). li kammanu; xeTuri Tegerma da ZvelberZnuli Togorma...
qsenofontes mier dadasturebuli karduxebi mecnierTa erTi n.xazaraZis logikuri daskvniT, "TabalisaTvis navaraudevi
jgufis mier qurTTa winaprebad miiCneva; amgvar dakavSirebas sxvebi teritoria ZvelTaganve xeTur-luviuri tomebis gavrcelebis
usafuZvlod Tvlian da karduxebs qarTvelTa winaprebad miiCne- arealSi Sedioda" (n.xazaraZe, 1978, gv.64, 82; n.xazaraZe, 2001; aqve
ven (msjelobisaTvis ix. a.svanaZe, 1937, gv.14; S.gabeskiria, 2003). vfiq- ix. sakiTxis Seswavlis istoria). sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac, rom
robT, ufro logikuria, indoevropel tomebTan mebrZoli kar- Tu bibliuri meSehi da Tobeli sxvadasxva xalxebis winaprebad
duxebi da maTi mezobeli xaldebi monaTesave tomebad ganvixi- ivaraudebian: bibliis ganmmartebelni Tobelis STamomavalT ibe-
loT: Zvel berZnul wyaroebSive xaldebi qarTvelur tomad iT- rebTan aigiveben, im iberebTan, romlebic, amave dros, mkvlevarTa
vleba (ix. qvemoT), xolo Zvel somxurSi kordu-k qarTvelTa aRmniS- azriT, tibarenebis Camomavlebi arian. sainteresoa isic, rom qa-
vneli eTnonimia (ix. S.gabeskiria, 2003). problema Semdgom kvlevas laqi mazaxa/mazaka, romelic muSqTa/mosxTa dedaqalaqad moiaz-
iTxovs. reba, masalobrivad aSkarad uaxlovdeba *masx-/masax-/mesx- fuZes;
n.xazaraZis daskvniT ki, swored am qalaqis siaxloves cxovrob-
Tabalebi, Tobelebi - Zv.w. IX-VII saukuneebis asuruli wya- dnen Tobalebic.
roebis Tabalis qveyanas (Ta-ba-lu) mkvlevarTa umravlesoba an- xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom berZnul-bizantiuri wyaroe-
tikuri xanis did kabadokiaSi aTavsebs; mag., b.landsbergeris va- bis Tobelebi/Teobelebi da qarTuli Targanebis Tovilebi sa-
raudiT, Tabali mdebareobda Zveli mazakas, dRevandeli kaiseris xeldebian mxolod bibliur konteqstSi; kerZod: ioseb flaviusi
raionSi - samxreT-dasavleT kabadokiaSi; miCneulia, rom Tabale- (I s.): "... Tobelma daafuZna Tobelebi, romlebsac axla iberebi
bis saxeli asaxulia bibliuri eTnarqis - Tubal-/Tobelis sa- ewodebaT" (georgika, 1961, gv.34; Sdr., XII saukunis qarTuli Tar-
xelSi (Sesaqme, IV,22; X,2; XI, 28). gmani: "daamkvidrebs ukue Tovilissa TovilTasa, romelni aw ivi-
istoriul wyaroebsa da samecniero literaturaSi arsebobs rad iwodebian"); evstaTi antioqeli (280-360 ): obelisgan warmo-
mtkicebulebani, rom Tubal/Tobalis Camomavalni arian tibare- iSven Teobelebi, dRes rom iberebi ewodebaT (georgika, 1961,
nebi, tibarebi, iberebi anu qarTvelebi (ioseb flaviusi, vivian de gv.34); leon gramatikosi (XI): "... Tobelisgan - Tobelebi, axlan-
sen marteni, n.mari, i.javaxiSvili, p.ingoroyva... msjelobisaTvis deli iberebi, mesoxisgan - mesxenebi, axlandeli kabadokielebi"
ix.: iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.22-23; s.janaSia, 1959). (T.yauxCiSvili, 1983, gv.49)... Sdr., giorgi singelozi (VIII-IX):
Tabalebsa da tibarenebs sxvadasxva xalxebad miiCnevs n.xaza- Tobelisagan warmodgnen Tetalielebi, xolo mosoxisgan - iliri-
raZe (Sdr.: Tabali - gviandeli xeTuri politikuri gaerTianeba elebi (georgika, 1941, 61-62)... Cveni azriT, kvlevis am etapze upa-
mcire aziaSi); misi azriT, asuruli Tabal-, Zvelebrauli Tu- suxoa kiTxva: Tabalebi indoevropuli tomia Tu qarTvelur-kav-
bal- da Zvel berZnulad naTargmn bibliaSi damowmebuli Tobel- kasiuri?
SeuZlebelia qarTveluri dialeqturi (Sesabamisad, qarTul-sva-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

tibarenebi/tibareni - hekata~os miletelis (Zv.w. 549-472) mi- renebi da iberebi erTi da igive xalxia; i. javaxiSvilisa da s. jana-
xedviT, tibarebi cxovrobdnen Tanamedrove ordus midamoebSi Sias kvlevebis Semdeg tibarebisa da iberebis igiveoba qarTul
(T.yauxCiSvili, 1978, gv.44). herodotes (Zv.w. 484 -425 ) cnobiT, me- samecniero literaturaSi sayovelTaod miRebulia; Cven SesaZ-
fe dariosisgan (524-485) "mosxebs, tibarenebs, makronebs, mosi- leblad migvaCnia tiber-en-/tibar- da iber- fuZeebis saerTo
no~kebsa da marebs Sewerili hqondaT 300 talanti" (herodote, warmomavlobis daSvebac (tiber-/hiber-/iber-?) da am tomTa naTes-
1975, gv.226). aobac (da ara igiveoba): aSkaraa, rom tibarenebic da iberebic
qsenofontem (Zv.w. IV s.) tibarenebi naxa mosinoikebs damorCi- qarTvelur tomTa gansaxlebis velSi cxovroben da isini qarTve-
lebuli xaldebis mezoblad, Savi zRvis sanapiroze; misi rwmune- lur tomebad unda miviCnioT.
biTac tibarenebis qveyanaSi iyo elinTa axalSeni kotiora/ordu
(T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.106-107). fsevdo-skilaqsi tibarenebs mosini- saspe~rebi, svispiritebi, iberebi (iberia/kavkasiis ibe-
kebis mezoblad asaxelebs (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv. 84-85). ria) - herodotes mixedviT, saspe~rebi cxovrobdnen kolxidasa
apoloniosi (Zv.w. 295-215) tibarenTa qveyanas aTavsebs xalibe- da midias Soris:
bis (/xaldebis) CrdiloeTiT (a.rodoseli, 1975, gv.107). "kolxididan midiaSi gadasasvleli didi araa, mxolod erTi
strabonis mixedviT, tibarenebi trapezuntisa da farnakiis tomia am qveynebs Soris, esaa saspeirebis tomi" (herodote, 1975,
zemoT cxovroben, xald-xalibebsa da sanebTan erTad (aqvea mosxu- gv.76). ramdenadac herodotesTan saerTod araa naxsenebi iberebi,
ri mTebi, romlebic kolxidis zemoT mdebareoben (T.yauxCiSvili, specialistebi varaudoben, rom saspe~rebi igive hiberebi/ibere-
1976, gv. 146). bi arian (i.javaxiSvili, s.janaSia...). herodotesTanve saspeirebi,
diodore sicilieli (Zv.w. I s.) tibarenebs asaxelebs mosvino- matienebi (miTanelebi) da alarodielebi (urartuelebi) gver-
ikebis Semdeg: karduxebi, armenielebi, xaebi (e.i. taoxebi - T.yaux- digverd moixsenieba; Sdr., tomTa meore jgufi: mosxebi, tibarene-
CiSvili), fasianebi, xaldebi, skitinebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mo- bi, makronebi, mosino~kebi da marebi (ix. iqve, gv.227)... es cnobebi
xels SeuSlis hiberebis, tibarenebisa da saspeirebis identifika-
svinoikebi, tibarenebi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.124).
cias; tibarenebi da saspeirebi aSkarad sxvadasxva qarTveluri
macxovris wyalobiT velurobidan gamosul tomTa Soris
tomia, xolo saspe~rebisa da iberebis igiveobis daSveba SesaZ-
asaxeleben tibarenebs evsevi kesarieli (260-340 ) da Teodorite
lebelia; ix., mag., s.janaSia:
kvireli (393-457 ).
saspe~rebiT dasaxlebuli teritoria romaul xanaSi sispi-
Savi zRvis sanapiroebis aRweris dros amiane marceline
ritad iwodeboda; igi moicavda iberia-qarTlis samefos teri-
(IV s.) wers: mdinare halisis auzSi cxovroben: xalibebi (strabo-
toriasac; mxolod, misi politikuri centri mcxeTa-armazis rai-
nis azriT, igive qaldeebi, romlebmac pirvelad moipoves da daa-
onis samxreTiT aris saZiebeli. saspe~r-iberebi cxovrobdnen
muSaves rkina), bizerebi, sapirebi, tibarenebi, mosinikebi, makro-
araqsis xeobaSi, Woroxis xeobis zemoTa nawilSic da evfratis sa-
nebi... "romlebic CvenTvis sruliad ucnobni arian" (georgika, TaveebSic (s. janaSia, 1952, gv.21, 101; msjeloba ix., agreTve, qvemoT).
1961, gv.110-111). stefane bizantielis mixedviT, qveyana tibarenia Sdr., qsenofontes mier dasaxelebul hesperitebsa da stra-
aris pontoSi, xalibebisa da mosinikebis mezoblad (georgika, bonis svispiritebs saspeirebTan akavSirebda p.ingoroyva (p.ingo-
1936, gv.285)... royva, 1957, gv.506-507; ix., agreTve, T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.145-146;
berZnul-romaul wyaroebSi arsadaa miTiTebuli, rom tiba-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

g.qavTaraZe, 1985, gv.133-134). cxovroben kavkasionidan vidre armeniamde da kolxidamde (ibere-


g.meliqiSvilis azriT, saspe~rebi igive taoxebi arian (g.me- bis Sesaxeb ix. qvemoT); iberiaSi aris patara qalaqi friqsipolo-
liqiSvili, 1959, gv.268), T.miqelaZisa da v.liCelis azriT ki, da- si, gviandeli idesa anu oZrxe.
savlur-qarTuli, kerZod, megrul-Wanuri enis mqone eTnikuri sayuradReboa termin iberias sparsuli variantebi:
jgufia (T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.129; v.liCeli, 2001, gv.23); aqve aRvniS- Zv.w. III saukuneSi Zvel sparsulad (parTulad) saqarTvelo
navT, rom v.liCelis azriT, saspe~ritebs unda SeeqmnaT "proto- (iveria) ixsenieba rogorc virSan/virCan, xolo saSual sparsul-
qarTuli aso-niSnebi", romlebic Zv.w. IV saukuneSi Sevida Si - v.ruCKn; Sdr., Sapur I samenovan warweraSi sparsulis parale-
kolxeTsa da iberiaSi (iqve, gv.19-25).
lur berZnul teqstSi gvaqvs - iberias (g.wereTeli, 1993, gv.98).
istoriuli dokumentebidan aSkarad Cans, rom saspe~re-
strabonis azriT, iberebis monaTesaveni arian aRmosavleT sa-
bi/svispiritebi karduxebisa da taoxebis mezoblad cxovroben;
qarTvelos mTianeTis mkvidri sarmatebi da skviTebi (T.yauxCiS-
Sdr., qsenofontes cnobiT, hesperitebi/esperitebi fasianTa me-
vili, 1976, gv.145-149); Sdr., amave periodSi berZnebi werdnen, rom
zoblebi arian da orives erTi mmarTveli - tibarizi hyavT (T. mi-
mosxebis qveynis erTi nawili aqvs iberebs.
qelaZe, 1955, gv. 24-27); hesperitebi berZnuli Hespera-s mixedviT strabonis (da miTridates istorikosebis) Semdeg ucxouri
warmoqmnili warmomavlobis saxeli Cans da dasavleT armeniis wyaroebi dRevandel aRmosavleT da istoriul samxreT-aRmosav-
mosaxleobas aRniSnavs (g. qavTaraZe, 1985, gv. 132). leT saqarTvelos, ZiriTadad, iberiis/iveriis saxeliT (an misi
vfiqrobT, istoriuli toponimebic (tao da speri/ispiri) fonetikuri variantebiT) moixsenieben; amave periodidan dasav-
cxadyofen taoxebisa da sperebis cal-calke arsebobas; SeuZ- leTi da istoriul samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTvelo lazikad
lebelia sperebis metyvelebis gamocxadeba lazur-megrulad, iwodeba. istoriuli, Tundac farnavazisdroindeli qarTlis
ramdenadac, pirvel rigSi, dasasabuTebelia, saerTod iyo Tu amgvari danawevrebis safuZvelia sparseTisa da romis mier sa-
ara am dros megrul-Wanuri; meorec, Tuki kolxuri tomebi qarTvelos ganawileba da ara sakuTriv qarTuli realoba.
mxolod megrul-Wanurad molaparake mosaxleobis winaprebia Cveni azriT, welTaRricxvaTa mijnidan terminebi: iberia/ibe-
da herodotes mier dasaxelebuli meore didi xalxic - saspei-
rebi da lazika/lazebi bizantiur wyaroebSi politikuri viTa-
rebic megrul-Wanurad metyveleben, kavkasiasa da wina aziaSi
rebis amsaxveli iyo da ara eTnikuri sinamdvilisa; Sdr.:
sxva qarTveluri tomebis adgili saerTod aRar gvrCeba (hero-
ioseb flaviusisTvis bibliuri Tobelis (Tovilis) kuTvni-
dote: zRvidan zRvamde cxovroben: sparselebi, midielebi, sa-
li teritoria aris iberia/iviri; klavdios ptolemaiosi (100-178
spe~rebi, kolxebi)...
) ki iberiis sazRvrebs ase warmoadgens:
saspeirebis gviandel saxelad, savaraudoa, ganzogadda CrdiloeTiT sarmartia, dasavleTiT - kolxida (suramis qe-
termini iberebi, romelic adre erTi patara tomis saxeli un- di), samxreTiT - didi armenia, aRmosavleTiT - albania (T.yauxCiS-
da yofiliyo.
vili, 1976, gv.149).
Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebis istorikos megasTenes "indikas" mixed- apianes (90-170) cnobiT, iberebma 70 000 kaci daaxvedres pompe-
viT, nabuqodonosor II (Zv.w. 605-562) iberebi pirineidan ayara da uss mtkvarTan (apiane, 1959, gv.199). dionisios periegetis (II s.)
pontos marjvniv daasaxla; savaraudoa, am SemTxvevaSic "iberebSi" "msoflios aRwerilobaSi" Tanamedrove Woroxis Crdilo-aRmo-
kolxebic igulisxmebian. strabonis cnobiT (XI,2,18), iberebi savleTiT kaspiisa da Sav zRvebs Soris arsebul yelSi cxovroben

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

aRmosavleTis iberebi; Sdr., misi rwmeniT, henioxebi da Zigiebi pe- marto megrul-Wanuri tomebiT, aramed iberebiTac (gv.117). Sdr.,
lazgebis Camomavlebi arian, xolo kolxebi - egviptelebis (T.ya- agreTve, laonike xalkokondile (XV s.): iberia gadaWimulia eg-
uxCiSvili, 1967, gv.149-151). Sdr., sokrate sqolastikosi (380-440): reTwodebul baTumidan da mdinare fazisidan vidre axalcixe-
"es iberebi cxovroben evqsinis pontosTan; eseni gamosulebi ari- mde; istorikosis azriT, iberiaSi Sedis samegreloc, guriac...
an ispaniis iberTagan" (georgika, 1961, gv.229-230); Sdr., agreTve, (georgika, 1970, gv.91).
stefane bizantieli: "iberia oria, erTi herakles svetebTan, mdi- sayuradReboa kidev ori cnobac: strabonTan damowmebuli
nare iberisagan atarebs saxels; mas ixseniebs apolodore... meore gadmocemiT (straboni, 1964, gv. 473: XI, II, 19; T.yauxCiSvili, 1957,
iberia sparselebis gverdiTaa. eTnikuria iberebi, rogorc piere- gv. 126; Sdr., miuSenkos Targmani: straboni, 1879, gv. 507), oqros
bi, bizerebi" (georgika, 1936, gv.278-279). sawmisi aRmosavleTis iberTa qveyanaSi, kerZod, svanTa
ipolite romaeli (III s.) iberebs aTavsebs kabadokielTa gada- mxareSia; xolo dedis mxridan abazguri (megrul-Wanuri? - t.f.)
Rma, marjvena mxares: warmomavlobis iovane ceces azriT, iberebis tomisani arian
"marjvena mxareebSi cxovroben armenielebi, iberebi da berane- abazgebic (georgika, 1967, gv.23).
bi, xolo marcxena mxareebSi, skviTebi, kolxebi da bosporelebi" Tuki verwmunebiT samecniero literaturaSi arsebul mtki-
(georgika, 1961, gv.19). Sdr., gelasi kesarieli (IV s.): "imave xaneb- cebebs (ix.: i. javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.23; i. javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.18; s.ja-
Si RmerTis cneba miiRes pontos gaswvriv mdebare miwa-wyalze naSia, 1959, gv.48) da davuSvebT, rom Zvel qarTul wyaroebSi mo-
mcxovrebma iberebma da lazebma, romelTac RmerTi ar swamdaT" xseniebuli qarTuli provincia speri/ispiri (Sdr., "qarTlis
(georgika, 1961, gv.186). iberiis amgvar mdebareobas adasturebs cxovreba": mdinare speri - Woroxi; speris zRva - Savi zRva), hero-
epifane kvipreli (314-403 ), Temistiosi (317-338 ), evsevi kesarieli dotes mier naxsenebi Temonimi saspe~rebi, qoronimi iberia da sa-
(260-340 ), armenieli agaTangelosi (IV s.), amiane marceline (IV s.), qarTvelos sparsuli saxelwodeba virSan/virCan saerTo warmo-
eremia sozomene (V s.), rufinusi (V s.), Teodorite kvireli (393- mavlobis fuZeebia, maSin iberiis qarTul variantad da, saerTod,
458 ), menandre protiqtori (VI ), giorgi amartoli (IX s.). warmodgenil variantTa amosaval saxed unda davsaxoT swored
gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa nikifore qsanTopulosis (XIII-
speri (Sdr., speri/ispiri Woroxis erT-erTi saxelia; s.janaSia,
XIV s.) cnoba, romelic iberiad miiCnevs dasavleT saqarTvelos
1952, gv.274). SesaZloa, drois garkveul monakveTSi, mezoblebma
nawilsac:
speri - erTi qarTuli mxaris/tomis saxeli - ganazogades qar-
"im mxareSi, sadac aris didi sebastopolisi, afsaris cixe, pi-
TvelTa zogad saxelad.
sis navsadguri da mdinare fazisi, mosaxleoben iberielebi, suse-
bi, fustelebi da alanebi"; Sdr., agreTve: "xolo igi andria wamo- warmodgenil analizs mxars dauWers sper-, iber- ber-, ver-...
vida amisodan da movida trapezuntSi, lazikas qalaqSi... iqidan formebis fonetikur variantebad miCnevis SesaZleblobac; ker-
wamovida da SeCerda iberiaSi; mas Semdeg, rac man zRvis piras Zod: logikuri sqemis mixedviT, sper- fuZisgan kanonzomierad
mcxovrebni mravalni gananaTla, is Cavida ierusalimSi" (georgika, qarTulSive SeiZleboda migveRo, erTi mxriv:
1967, gv.113-114); aqvea s.yauxCiSvilis Semdegi komentari: sper > ~per > ~ber/iber (s > ~ > i, s > ~s/~h da s > h > 0 proce-
"amrigad, dadgenilad unda CaiTvalos, rom uaRresad Semcda- sebi bunebrivia qarTveluri dialeqtebisaTvis), meore mxriv:
ria dRemde moqmedi Teoria dasavleT saqarTvelos eTnikuri Se- sper > hper > hber > ber/Eer/ver/vir;
madgenlobis Sesaxeb: dasavleT saqarTvelo dasaxlebuli iyo ara Sdr.: sparsul-somxuri variantebi: veria/virqi/vrkan/vir-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

qan/EaruCan, gurgan, gurC/gurj (aqedan ki, aziuri Tu evropuli qreebma gaiares; aqve asaxelebs im xalxebsac, romlebic Tavisu-
sxva variantebi: georgia, jeorjia, gurjistan, gruzia; Sdr., agreT- falni arian; maT Sorisaa ko~tebi:
ve: arabuli wyaroebis jurzaani/jurjaani da saqarTvelos erTi "karduxebi, xalibebi, xaldebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mosinike-
qalaqis, raionis saxeli - gurjaani). bi, ko~tebi da tibarenebi damoukidebelni arian" (qsenofonte,
1967, gv.115).
Sdr., g.wereTlis (1993) mixedviT, qarTvelTa sparsul-somxu-
ri saxeli momdinareobs saerToindoevropuli fuZidan, romel- pliniusi ko~tebis toms savromatebis siaxloves asaxelebs.
sac Zvel sparsulSi Seesabameboda vrka > virSan > varuC > gurCan m.maqsimova ki maT mcireaziel xalxad Tvlis.
T.yauxCiSvili am xalxs qarTuli modgmisad miiCnevs da mis sa-
> gurgan > gurj; aqedanaa nawarmoebi arabuli, siriuli, rusuli,
inglisuri da sxva variantebic). xelad aRadgens quT-/kvit- fuZes, romlisganac miRebulad miaCnia
sper- > ber- > ver-/vir- gzis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi naTeli ga- quTaisis saxelic (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.58-59).
xdeba somxur vir-q formaSi -q segmentis arsi: sayuradReboa, rom mogzaurobis aRwerisas qsenofonte
somxuri -q momdinare Cans kavkasiur-winaaziuri enobriv vel- ko~tebis Sesaxeb arafers ambobs, magram mosinoikebsa da tiba-
Si gavrcelebuli -x- morfemidan, romelic krebiToba-warmomav- renebs Soris asaxelebs erT toms, romelic berZnebisadmi megob-
loba-mravlobiTobas gamoxatavda; Sesabamisad, vir-q-i, Sdr.: ib- rulad ganwyobilia; maTac xalibebs uwodebs (Sdr.: manamde qse-
er-n-i, iber-eb-i. somxuri formis amgvar warmomavlobas cxadyofs nofontes jarma gamoiara berZenTa mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili,
somxurSive dadasturebuli veria formac, romelic jer kidev taoxebis mezobeli xalibebis qveyana). SesaZloa, qsenofontes (an
fsevdo movses xorenecis geografiis mokle redaqciaSi dastur- mis romelime redaqtors) morCil-megobruli "xalibebi" da
deba. ko~tebi erTmaneTSi aeria...
SeniSvna: patriarq nikonis matianeSi saqarTvelos aRsaniSnavad er- aseve, ver gamoiricxeba, rom ko~tebis aRmniSvnel saxelTan
Tdroulad sxva sami terminia gamoyenebuli: kolexkia/kolox, iveri iyos dakavSirebuli amave teritoriaze arsebuli qalaqi kotio-
da gurzi (g.paiWaZe, 1993). sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac, rom evropaSi ra (gviandeli ordu). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom quTaisis saxelis yve-
saqarTvelos saxelad adridanve icodnen berZnul-laTinuri (dasav- la variantis morfologiuri analizi (gansakuTrebiT svanuri
luri) warmomavlobis kolxidac, mosoxic, iberia (ix., mag., g.zedgini-
quT@S << *quTa-Si << *quTa-iS-i) mxars uWers toponimis fuZed
Ze, 1993), magram, saboloo jamSi, evropaSic da ruseTSic saqarTvelos
saxelwodebad damkvidrda sparsul-arabuli (aRmosavluri) varianti quTa-s (berZnuli formiT: kota/ko~ta) ganxilvas (ix. qvemoT).
gurj/jurj/georg- fuZis saxiT. p.ingoroyvas azriT, SemTxveviTad ar unda CaiTvalos is gare-
sapirebi - sapirebs/sabirebs Suagul pontos mcxovreblebad moeba, rom erTmaneTs emTxveva jiqeTSi mdebare "Zveli lazikis"
Tvlis stefane bizantieli (georgika, 1936, gv.284); Sdr., apoloni- Temis saxelwodeba (quTasi/qoTaSi) da amJamindeli qalaqis - qu-
os rodoselis mixedviT, sapirebsa da kolxebs Soris mosaxle Taisis - saxeli.
tomia biZerebi (ap. rodoseli, 1975, gv.91); sapirebic igive sa- vfiqrobT, ko~tebi formisTvis amosavalia *quTebi; Sdr.: VI
spe~rebis modgmisani Canan. saukunis moRvawis - prokopi kesarielis - cnobiT, Zvelad quTaiss
ko~taioni erqva); Sdr.: m.inaZis mixedviT, quT- fuZiani saxeli
quTebi, koitebi/kvitebi - "anabasisis" dasasruls qsenofon- kolxTa miwas, mxares aRniSnavda (m.inaZe, 1994, gv.64).
te CamoTvlis im qveynebis mmarTvelebs, romlebic berZenma molaS- warmodgenili quT- fuZe SeiZleba gacilebiT Zveli droidan

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

momdinareobdes, kerZod, Seusabamoba ar iqneba, Tuki davuSvebT homerosi (Zv.w. VIII s.): "haliZonebi epistrofoss, odios mo-
varauds, rom quT- fuZe Zveli xaTebis aRmniSvneli saxelis fone- hyvnen vercxlis Soreul sabadodan - alibes mxridan" (homerosi,
tikuri varianti iyos: xaT-/qaT- > quT- (Sdr.: *mas-x- /mosx-/musx-...) 1975, gv.95). tibarenebis mezoblad asaxeleben xalibebs hekata~os
sakiTxs Semdgomi kvleva esaWiroeba. mileteli (Zv.w. VI s.) da fsevdo-skilaqsi (Zv.w. IV s.). herodotes
marebi - hekata~os miletelTan (Zv.w. 549-472) dasturdeba ma- mixedviT, xalibebi cxovroben mcire aziis Crdilo sanapiroze mi-
rebis tomi; marebi cxovroben makronebsa da mosino~kebs Soris siebs, mariandinebsa da paflagonelebs Soris (herodote, 1975,
trapizon-kerasuntis regionSi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1972, gv.44); Sdr., gv.45, 660).
g. meliqiSvili: "marebi cxovrobdnen samxreT-aRmosavleT Savi- qsenofonte (Zv.w. IV), strabonisgan gansxvavebiT, xalibebsa
zRvispireTSi, CrdiloeT anatoliis mTebSi" (g.meliqiSvili, da xaldebs sxvadasxva tomebad miiCnevs, kerZod: berZenma moqirav-
1970, gv.414). herodotes mixedviT, marebsa da kolxebs erTi meTau- neebma jer mZime brZolebiT gaiares karduxebis qveyana, Semdeg maT
ri hyavdaT (herodote, 1975, gv.435). vanis tbis mezoblad mcxovrebi xaldebi Sexvdnen, Semdeg aseve
beqe~rebi - pirvelad hekata~os miletelTan (Zv.w. 549-472) mZime brZolebiT gaiares taoxebisa da xalibebis qveynebi da Sem-
vxvdebiT beqe~rebsac; beqe~rebi saxloben xoiebs (taoxebs?) da deg, kerasuntsa da ordus Soris isev Sexvdnen mosino~kebs da-
diZerebs Soris rizes raionSi; beqeirebs icnobs fsevdo-skilaq- morCilebul da berZnebisadmi keTilganwyobil xalibebs (wyaro-
sic (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43-44, 81-86), dionisios periegetic ebisa da msjelobisaTvis ix. T.miqelaZe, 1967).
(III s.) da mravali sxva. Sdr., straboni: "xaldebi Zvelad xalibebad iwodebodnen"
XI, 14,12; XII, 3,12).
haliZonebi, xalibebi da xaldebi/qaldebi - haliZonebis qsenofonte, rogorc TviTmxilveli, bevrad sarwmuno cno-
tomi dasturdeba homerosTan; maTi qveyana alibe Savi zRvis sa- bebs unda gvawvdides; amdenad, terminebis: xalibebisa da xalde-
mxreT-aRmosavleT sanapirozea sagulvebeli. strabonis azriT, bis sinonimebad miCneva gaWirdeba (Sdr.: iv.javaxiSvili, 1960,
homerosis haliZonebi, xalibebi da qaldebi (romlebic cxovro- gv.419; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.147), miuxedavad imisa, rom konstan-
ben trapizontisa da farnakiis zemoT), erTi da igive xalxia (XII, tine porfirogeneti (912-959 ) xaldiis Temis dedaqalaqad trape-
3,19-24). es azri gaziarebulia Tanamedrove mecnierebaSic (ix., zunts asaxelebs (georgika, 1952, gv.300).
mag., T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.34-35). ufro logikuri Cans, vivaraudoT, rom xalibebi da xaldebi
antikur wyaroebSi xalibebi kolxur tomadaa miCneuli ukve qsenofontes dros ori sxvadasxva, magram monaTesave qarTve-
(sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix., r.gordeziani, 1966, gv.267); aRsaniS- luri tomia; ar aris gamoricxuli, rom maTi saxelebi erTi si-
navia isic, rom xalibebi/haliZonebi gaigivebuli aqvs stefane bi- tyvis variantebi iyos; amosavali fuZe xal-/hal- sagulvebelia
zantielsac (georgika, 1936, gv.288); es tomebi rkinis (liTonis) toponim xanZTaSi (< xald-Ta) da mdinare halisis saxelSic; xal-
damuSavebis pionerebad miiCnevian. d-, hal-is- da xal-ib- formebSi qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros
varaudoben, rom urartul wyaroebSi moxseniebuli didi ga- gareT sakvlevi darCeba mxolod -ib- sufiqsis sakiTxi, Tuki gamo-
erTianeba xalitu xalibTa tomebis saxelmwifo iyo (i.diakonovi, iricxeba, rom -ib ar momdinareobs qarTveluri -eb- krebiToba-
1952, gv.111; T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.109). xalibebi gaigivebulni arian mravlobiTobis sufiqsisgan (*xal-eb-i > xalibi); Sdr.: xal-d-
xaldebTan; xalibebs mogvianebiT Wanebad ixsenieben; mivyveT is- /qal-d- fuZeSi -d-/-ad- warmomavloba-kuTvnilebiToba-krebiTo-
toriul cnobebs qronologiuri TanamimdevrobiT: bis iseTive mawarmoebeli SeiZleba iyos, rogorc -l-/-al-/-el-, -n-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

/-an-/-en-, -s-/-is-/-es- da sxv. Sdr., agreTve: xar- (xari) fuZe da xal- ri..." (qarTuli proza, I, gv.128-129); ix., agreTve: georgika, 1952,
di/qarTu - mamrobiTi RvTaeba (fuZeTa mimarTeba sakvlevia). gv.232 da georgika, 1966, gv.111 (s.yauxCiSvilis komentari anna kom-
xaldebi/qaldebi cxovrobdnen vanis tbis midamoebSic; urar- nenes cnobaze, sadac gaziarebulia azri, rom xaldebi lazur-Wa-
tus dacemis Semdeg am teritoriis nawili daipyres mosulma arme- nuri tomia).
nebma. rogorc Cans, am periodidan xalibTa centri gadmodis Savi- SeniSvna: Zv.w. VIII saukunis epikosis - evmelos korinTelis "korinTia-
zRvispireTSi. kaSi" naTqvamia, rom heliosisa da antiopes vaJi aieti/aietesi iyo pe-
xalibebs iafetis STamomaval tomad miiCnevs berZnuli tradi- lazguri korinTos (imave efires) patroni; mas ar moswonda korin-
cia (ix., mag., georgika, 1961, gv.13). xalibebs meomar da rkinis dama- To, amitom wavida kolxeTSi (Sdr., berZnuli TqmulebiT, iazonTan
konfliqtis Semdeg Tavis mamiseul samemkvidreoSi - korinToSi -
muSavebel xalxad Tvlian apolonios rodoseli, straboni, dioni-
brundeba medea). kolxeTis mefe aietis pelazgur warmomavlobas
sios periegeti (II s.), amiane marceline (IV s.) da mravali sxva. adasturebs epimenidec; kolxebisa da pelazgebis naTesaobis sakiTxs
sayuradReboa kidev erTi garemoeba: specialistebic ndobiT ekidebian (ix.: ak. uruSaZe, 1964, gv.21-26; g.
ioane ceces azriT, skviTuri warmoSobis xalibebis tomi qavTaraZe, 1985, gv.31...). antikur wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, ak. uruSaZe
cxovrobs trapizuntTan Zalian axlos; maTTan moipoveba saukeTe- askvnis: berZnuli (indoevropuli) tomebis samxreT evropaSi Camosax-
so rkina (georgika, 1976, gv.27-37). aSkaraa, rom termini skviTebi lebis periodSi pelazgi makriselebi-makronebi, sxva pelazguri tome-
bis msgavsad, egeosis zRvis raionidan ayrilan da aRmosavleTiT jer
am SemTxvevaSi an qarTvelur-kavkasiur tomebs miemarTeba, an ucxo
marmarilos zRvis, Semdeg ki Savi zRvis sanapiroebisken gamoxiznulan
tomTa zogadi saxelia (Sdr.: barbarosi); ramdenadac romaul-bi- da iq ZvelTaganve damkvidrebuli naTesavi tomebis mezoblad dabina-
zantiur wyaroebSi skviTebad ixseniebian kolxebic, monRolebic, vebulan (ak. uruSaZe, 1964, gv.135); Sdr., ap. rodoseli: makriebi - to-
TaTrebic, xvarazmelebic. logikuria samecniero literaturaSi mi pelazguri (ap. rodoseli, 1975, gv.70); Sdr., makrisi (evbei) kunZu-
gamoTqmuli varaudi, rom skviTebi zogadi terminia, magram gamoi- lia egeosis zRvaSi. ix., agreTve, r.gordeziani: haliZon-xalibebic, pe-
yeneba ara saerTod araberZenTa, aramed, mocemul konteqstSi, lazgebis msgavsad, egeosis zRvis auzidan unda iyvnen gadmosaxlebul-
ucnob tomTa aRsaniSnavad. ni. maT erTianobas troasTan, etyoba, haliZonTa da egeosur tomTa
Cans, mogvianebiT, zog ucxour wyaroSi terminebi: xaldebi Soris arsebuli xangrZlivi kavSiri gansazRvravda (r. gordeziani,
1970, gv.168). makriselebi-makronebi, haliZon-xalibebi, henioxebi
da xaldia ganzogadda qarTvelur tomTa erTi jgufis aRsaniSna-
(Sdr., dionios periegeti: henioxebi da zigiebi - pelasgidebis qveynis
vad; ix., mag., ioseb genesiosi (X s.): "Semdeg Seqmna saxelganTqmuli Svilebi) da sxva qarTveluri tomebi odiTganve mkvidrad Canan mcire
saerTo jari agarianTa, indTa, egviptelTa, asirielTa, midielTa, aziaSi (ara mxolod Savi zRvis gaswvriv!), amdenad, Cveni azriT, pelaz-
abazgTa, jiqTa, iberTa, kabirTa, slavTa, hunTa, vandalTa da get- gur tomebTan erTianoba-siaxlove Sepirobebulia ara egeosis zRvi-
Tagan da yvela imaTgan, vinc manis mwvaleblobas iziarebda, ag- dan qarTvelur tomTa gadmosaxlebiT (Tumca tomTa erTi nawilis mi-
reTve lazTa da alanTagan, xaldTa da armenielTagan da yovel- gracia, SesaZloa, marTlac moxda!), aramed pelazgur da qarTvelur
tomTa saerTo warmomavlobiT. am konteqstSi ufro logikuri gaxde-
gvar sxva tomTagan Seqmna jari da mTel aRmosavleTSi gabatonda".
ba s. yauxCiSvilis mier aRniSnuli faqtis komentireba: kolxur-kavka-
Sdr., iovane sabanisZe: afxazeTSi (dasavleT saqarTveloSi) siuri xalxebis monaTesave troelebma elene moitaces adre gatacebu-
Sedis SavizRvispireTi qaldiis qalaq trapizuntidan nikofsia- li kolxi medeas sanacvlod (Sdr., r.gordeziani, 1970, gv.168).
mde: "...sazRvar ars zRva~ igi ponto~sa~, samkAdrebeli yovladve
qristianeTa~, misazRvramde qaldia~sa, trapezuntia~ mun ars, mosino~kebi, massini/mossinebi/mossvini, heptakometebi - he-
sayofeli igi afsarea~sa~ da nafsa~s (e.i. nikofsiis) navTsadgu- kata~os miletelis Tanaxmad, mosino~kebi cxovroben kerasuntisa

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

da farnakiis midamoebSi; qsenofontes cnobiT, mosino~kebis qve- dros am adgilebSi xalibebi Canan (iv.javaxiSvili, 1960, gv.419).
yana iyo mTagoriani, magram maT zRvac hqondaT; mosino~kebis me- sakmarisi safuZveli gvaqvs, vivaraudoT: mosinikebic qarTve-
zoblebi aRmosavleTiT iyvnen kolxebi da drilebi, dasavleTiT - lur-kavkasiuri modgmis tomia.
maTive qveSevrdomebi, xalibebi (T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.97, 103-105;
T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43, 58). mosino~kebs asaxelebs herodote diZerebi, biZerebi/bizerebi, buzerebi - hekata~os mile-
(Zv.w. V s.), fsevdo-skilaqsi (Zv.w. IV s.), evdoqse rodoseli (Zv.w. telTan (549-472) dadasturebuli diZerebi cxovroben mdinare
III s.), apoloniosi (Zv.w. III s.), fsevdo skimnos qioseli (Zv.w. II s.), Woroxis samxreTiT, daaxloebiT mdinare orxofidan mdinare ar-
diodore sicilieli (Zv.w. I s.), dionios periegeti (II s.), epi- xavemde (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.44). qsenofonte biZerebs saerTod
fane kvipreli (314-403), amiane marceline (IV s.), stefane bizan- ar axsenebs, xolo iq, sadac man kolxebi naxa (trapezunt-kerasun-
tieli (IV-VII s.)... tis midamoebi), 50 wlis Semdeg fsevdo-skilaqsi aRwers biZerebis
mosino~kebze vrclad msjelobs straboni; misi azriT, xalibe- toms, romlebic kolxTa uSualo mezoblebi arian; T.yauxCiSvi-
bis mezoblebi - heptakometebi cxovroben xis koSkebSi, amitom lis azriT, am cnobaTa gansxvavebuloba Sepirobebulia imiT, rom
maT Zvelad mossvinikebs eZaxdnen (msjelobisaTvis ix.: iv.javaxiSvi- qsenofontes dros kolxebis saxeli aerTianebda iq mcxovreb
li, 1960, gv.419; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.146). wvril-wvril tomebs (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.81-84).
berZeni da romaeli avtorebis rwmeniT, mosino~kebis saxeli apolonios rodoseli biZerebs sapirebsa da kolxebs Soris
momdinareobs berZnuli mossun "xis koSki" da oikos "saxli" saxe- mosaxle tomad miiCnevs (ap. rodoseli, 1975, gv.91); straboni maT
lebisgan. heptakomebi-mosinikebis gverdiT aTavsebs (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976,
iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, "mossviniki" aris qarTveluri warmo- gv.146); dionios periegetTan (II s.) biZerebi beqirebisa da makro-
mavlobis sityva: mo-/ma- TavsarTia, ssvin- igivea, rac Wan- (WaneTi) nebis mezoblebi arian (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.92). V saukunis ano-
fuZe, xolo -i-k- aris mravlobiTobis -x- sufiqsis refleqsi (iv. nimi avtori bizerebs aTavsebs afsaris wylidan vidre arqabamde
javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.25; iv. javaxiSvili, 1960, gv.405; ix., agreTve, T. (georgika, 1965, gv.3).
yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv. 56, 133, 146; aqve ix. msjeloba muSvan- da mo- T.yauxCiSvilis sayuradRebo SeniSvniT, biZerebis saxelTan
svin- fuZeebis SesaZlo kavSiris Sesaxeb). iv.javaxiSvilis msjelo- SeiZleba iyos dakavSirebuli toponimi viwe; Sdr., g. meliqiSvi-
bas agrZelebs s.janaSia (1959, gv. 31, 60); misi azriT, sanig- fuZe ls am terminis danaSTad miaCnia saqarTvelos erT-erTi istoriu-
amosavalia mosinik- fuZisaTvis; am ukanasknelSi gamoiyofa ma-/me- li olqis saxeli oZrxe (g. meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.382). Cven
/mo-/mu- saerToqarTveluri prefiqsi (Srd. svanuri dialeqtebis SesaZleblad migvaCnia viw- da biZ- fuZeebis kavSiri: biZ-er-; -er-/-
mu-/mH-), sin-/san- Ziri da -ik- sufiqsi. q. lomTaTiZe, iziarebs ra ar- qarTveluri krebiTobis sufiqsia; Semdgom dakvirvebas
amgvar analizs, damatebiT argumentad warmoadgens qarTvelur saWiroebs biz-/biZ-, bas-/fas- (fas-ian-i) fuZeTa mimarTeba.
enobriv arealSi s-s gavleniT g-s k-d gamkveTrebis logikurobas biZerebis qarTvelur-kolxuri warmomavloba sadavo ar
(q. lomTaTiZe, 2000). Cans. Cveni azriT, am da sxva SemTxvevebSic sakamaToa drois mo-
saxelwodebis fuZis (san-) qarTulobis garda, niSandobli- cemul monakveTSi arsebuli yvela tomis (xalibebis, tibarene-
via, rom mosino~kebi qarTveluri warmomavlobis xaldebsa da bis, mosvinikebis, drilebis...) metyvelebis miCneva sakuTriv la-
kolxebs Soris mtrobis gareSe cxovroben (Sdr. karduxebisa da zur-Wanurad (Sdr., mag., iv. javaxiSvili, 1960, gv.423). vfiqrobT,
armenebis mZime Tanaarseboba). sayuradReboa isic, rom strabonis ufro marTebuli iqneba iTqvas, rom es tomebi laparakob-

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dnen Zvel qarTvelur dialeqtebze, romelTa didi nawili SeuZlebelia, makron- da ekritik- fuZeebiT nawarmoebi saxe-
saerTod daikarga, nawili ki sxvadasxva plastebis saxiT Semo- lebi erTsa da imave qarTvelur toms miemarTebodes erTsa da ima-
rCenilia Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtebSi (megrul-Wa- ve enasa da droSi, miT umetes, makronebi trapizonSi cxovrob-
nurSi, svanurSi, mesxurSi, maWaxlurSi, taourSi da a.S.). dnen, imdroindeli egrisi/ekritikes qveyana ki rionsa da RaliZ-
gas Suaa; Tumca, dasaSvebia am fuZeTa saerTo warmomavloba
Zidritebi - arianes mixedviT, "makronebisa da henioxebis me- (oRond, ara rogorc e.w. qarTuli da zanuri variantebisa!). Tum-
zoblebi Zidritebi arian, eseni farsmanis qveSevrdomebi arian" ca, TiTqosda, winaaRmdegobas qmnis is, rom sxva wyaroebis mixed-
(berZeni mwerlebi... 1983, gv.158). Zidritebi pritanididan (fur- viT, Wanebi aSkarad kolxTa memkvidreni arian, aq ki makronebi, sa-
tun-su) afsarosamde cxovrobdnen (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100); nebi da kolxebi sxvadasxva tomia; faqti axsnadia: kolxi viwro ga-
n.lomouris azriT, Zidritebs eWiraT dRevandeli aWaris teri- gebiT mxolod erT qarTvelur toms aRniSnavda, farTo gagebiT
toria (n.lomouri, 1968, gv.10). ki bevr qarTvelur toms aerTianebda.
arianes TxrobaSi farsmanis samflobelos Sav zRvamde ga- Sdr., fsevdo-skilaqsi (Zv.w. IV s.): trapezunti makronebis
vrcobis aRiareba metyvelebs, rom farsmanis mier aRdgenili qar- elinuri qalaqia;
Tli moicavda SavizRvispireTsac. apolonios rodoseli (Zv.w. III s.): "filirebs zemoT makrone-
bia, makronebs iqeT beqirTa gvari, Semdeg sapirTa tomi, maT gver-
makrokefalebi, makronebi - hekata~os mileteli (549-472) diT - biZerebi da zemoT - meomar kolxTa tomebi" (1975, gv.90-91).
makronebs asaxelebs diZerebsa da marebs Soris; misi azriT, makro- arianec sxvadasxva tomebad Tvlis makronebs, sanebs, kolxebs,
nebi cxovrobdnen trapezuntis raionSi. sanigebs... (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.99).
herodotes (Zv.w. V) cnobiT, makronebi sirielebis mezoblebi dionios periegeti (II s.) makronebs e.w. pontoel tomebSi asa-
arian. hipokratesTvis (460-356) cnobili makrokefalebi, igive mak- xelebs: biZerebi, begirebi, makronebi, filirebi, mosinikebi, tiba-
ronebi, cxovroben trapezuntisa da kerasuntis midamoebSi (T.ya- renebi, xalibebi; eseni cxovroben "evqsinis pontos sanapiroze,
uxCiSvili, 1976, gv.63, 84). fasisidan dasavleTisken, vidre Trakiis srutemde"; T.yauxCiSvi-
qsenofonte (435-355) makronebs asaxelebs skviTinebsa da kol- lis SeniSvniT, dionios periegetis azri efuZneba Zvel cnobebs
xebs Soris; makronebi da kolxebi sxvadasxva xalxia: makronebi qse- (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.92).
nofontes berZen molaSqreebs exmarebian, kolxebi ki - ebrZvian; makronebs asaxelebs amiane marcelinec (IV s.): "Savi zRvis na-
qsenofontesve cnobiT, termini makroni am tomis TviTsaxelwo- pirze xalibebis Semdeg vrceli miwebi uWiravT... tibarenebs, mo-
debaa (qsenofonte, 1967, gv.86-87). sinikebs, makronebs... xalxebs, romlebic CvenTvis sruliad ucnob-
herodotes cnobiT, makronebma kolxebisgan iswavles wina- ni arian" (georgika, 1961, gv.111).
dacveTa (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43, 52, 63; herodote, 1975, gv.156); miuxedavad imisa, rom memnonsa da strabons makronebis gvian-
Sdr., makronebi igive sanebi/Wanebi arian (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, del saxelad sanebi miaCniaT, ariane maT mainc gverdigverd asaxe-
gv.100); Sdr., agreTve, makronebs aigiveben Tanamedrove megreleb- lebs, rogorc sxvadasxva tomebs:
Tan. egr- ZirTan akavSireben ptolemaiosis mier dadasturebul trapezuntidan Zvel lazikamde (nikofsiamde) cxovrobdnen:
ekritike fuZesac (sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. T. yauxCiSvili, kolxebi, sanebi, makronebi, henioxebi, Zidritebi, lazebi, afsile-
1976, gv.55, 100)... bi, abaskebi, sanigebi, Zilqebi (ix. T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.99); Tavad

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

ariane sanebsa da Wanebs miiCnevs sinonimebad... es winaaRmdegobri- araqsia (sxvagan fasisi Woroxicaa, rionicaa)...
vi cnobebi, erTi mxriv, saTuos xdis makronebisa da san-Wanebis Sdr., esqile "ganTavisuflebul promeTeosSi" evropisa da
igiveobas, magram, meore mxriv, cxadyofs am tomTa naTesaobas. aziis sazRvrad fasiss Tvlis, xolo fasianebi taoxebis, xalibe-
V saukunis anonimi avtori, romelic arianes eyrdnoba, mak- bis da hesperitebis (svispiritebis, saspeirebis) mezoblebi arian.
ronebis nacvlad asaxelebs maqelonebs (georgika, 1965, gv.7-8): fasianebs amave teritoriaze asaxelebs diodore sicilieli (Zv.w.
"Zveli aqeidan Zvel lazikamde da mdinare aqeuntamde (soWis mida- I s.): karduxebi, armenielebi, xaebi (e.i. taoxebi), fasianebi, xal-
moebSi) uwin cxovrobdnen tomebi: henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolikebi, debi, skotinebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mosvinoikebi, tibarenebi
melanxlenebi, maxelonebi, kolxebi da lazebi, axla ki cxovroben (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.124).
zixebi" (T.yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.130; aqve ix. agreTve: maxeron- da konstantine porfirogenetis (X s.) cnobebis mixedviT, araqsi
manral- fuZeebi); m.inaZis azriT, maxelonebi igive makronebia fasisia, aqvea qarTuli (iberTa) provincia fasiani/basiani (geor-
(m.inaZe, 1953, gv.231-233). gika, 1952, gv.271-272).
maxelon-/maqelon- da makron- fuZeebs Soris didi msgavsebaa logikuri Cans varaudi, rom araqs-fasisis regionSi arsebu-
da, Sesabamisad, mosalodnelia maTi meqanikuri damTxveva/aRre- li Zveli termini fasianebi Semonaxuli iyos toponim basianis sa-
vac, Tumca, SeiZleba vilaparakoT saxelTa fonetikur variantu- xiT. T. miqelaZis azriT, fasiani eTnikur-geografiuli termi-
lobazec: nia; misi mtkicebiT, erTi xalxi - fasianebi - cxovrobdnen araqsis
*ma-qar-on- _ ma-xel-on- _ ma-qr-on/ma-kr-on-: saTaveebidan kavkasionamde (T. miqelaZe, 1955, gv. 35). fas- Ziri Cans
sayrdeni fuZea *kar-/qar-/kr-/xel- (Sdr.: qar-T-/kar-d-); ma- da amosavali -fsa (< fas-) morfologiuri erTeulisaTvis: su-fsa.
-on- qarTveluri afiqsebia; Sdr., agreTve, makrielebi: ma-kr-iel- Tuki fasianebs monaTesave tomTa ganzogadebul saxelad ar
(sqoliastis ganmartebiT, makrielebi makronebi arian; ap. rodo- CavTvliT, fasianTa sazRvrebis amgvari gansazRvra gaWirdeba (ama-
seli, 1975, gv.70, 231). ve periodSi araqsidan kavkasionamde aTze meti sxva tomi ivarau-
deba!), magram sayuradReboa T.miqelaZis dakvirveba berZnul mi-
fasianebi - amgvari saxelwodebis toms axsenebs qsenofonte TologiaSi kolxebis eTnarqosis - kolxis Sesaxeb; kerZod, eTnar-
(Zv. w. V_IV s.): qi kolxi fasisis Svilad aris miCneuli, fasisi ki wylis RvTae-
"...[strategosebi] movidnen qsenofontTan da uTxres, rom baa (T. miqelaZe, 1955, gv. 33-34). aq sainteresoa is, rom berZenTa
isini inanieben [yovelives]. amasTan, gamoTqves azri, rom umjobe- cnobierebaSi wylis RvTaeba (Sesabamisad, mdinareebis aRmniSvne-
sia fasisisaken gacurva, raki xomaldebi aris, da fasianTa qveynis li sityva) fasisi da kolxida (mxare mdinareebuxvi?) faqtobriv
dapyroba. iq maSin aietis SviliSvili mefobda" (T.miqelaZe, 1967, sinonimebadaa miCneuli, rac logikuria, magram, amis miuxedavad,
gv.113); teqstis TargmanisTvis Sdr., T.yauxCiSvili: paflagoniaSi ara gvaqvs safuZveli, rom Tundac qsenofontes dros araqsidan
myofi moqiravneebi amboben: "Cven gvaqvs xomaldebi, amitomac um- kavkasionamde arsebuli teritoria erTi qarTuli tomis - fasi-
jobesia gavcuroT fasisisken da davipyroT fasianTa qveyana. iq ma- an-kolxebis - sacxovrisad gamovacxadoT; rogorc aRvniSneT, am
Sin aietis Camomavali mefobda" (T.yauxCiSvili, 1983, gv.125). regionSi gacilebiT meti qarTveluri tomi cxovrobs; mag., fsev-
mdinaris saxelis mixedviT xalxis saxeldeba (an piriqiT!) do-skilaqsis (Zv.w. IV s.) mixedviT: biZerebi, kolxebi, gelonebi,
ucxo ar aris berZnuli samyarosTvis. qsenofontesTan fasisi melanqla~nebi, kolebi, koraqsebi, henioxebi, aqa~ebi, toretebi,

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

kerketebi... Tavad qsenofonte mxolod araqsisa da Woroxis xeo- deba aTinas (fazaris) regionSi; g.meliqiSvili amaT saxelwodebas
baSi asaxelebs: taoxebs, xalibebs, skviTinebs; Sdr., araqsidan kav- ukavSirebda -egr- (egrisi) Zirs (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.84). Sdr.,
kasionamde ariane (ax.w. II s): henioxebi, Zidritebi, lazebi, afsi- V saukunis periplusSi daculi cnoba: "mdinare arqabidan moki-
lebi, abaskebi, sanigebi, Zilqebi... debuli vidre ofiuntis wylamde winaT cxovrobda egreT wode-
erTi ram faqtia: fasianebi da kolxebi sxvadasxva qarTvelur buli ekxirielebis tomi (xolo amJamad cxovroben maqelonebi
tomTa saxelebia, romlebic drois garkveul monakveTebSi, sxva da henioxebi). afsaris wylidan vidre mdinare arqabemde winaT
TemonimTa msgavsad, ganzogadebuli iyo qarTveluri modgmis xal- cxovrobdnen egreT wodebuli bizirebi; amJamad cxovroben zid-
xis aRsaniSnavad. ritebi" (georgika, 1965, gv.3).
melanqlainebi da gelonebi - melanqlainebis tomi pirvelad aSkaraa, rom saqme gvaqvs dawerilobis mcdar wakiTxvasTan: ek-
saxeldeba hekata~os miletelTan; fsevdo-skilaqsi (Zv.w. IV s.) me- xirielebi da ekeqe~rebi erTi da igive xalxia; aqve gansaxilve-
lanqlainebisa da gelonebis tomebs aTavsebs koraqsebs, kolebsa lia termini ekriktike, Tumca, ptolemaiosis mier damowmebuli
da kolxebs Soris; melanqlainebis qveyanaSi aris mdinareebi meta- ekriktikes qveyana aris rionis midamoebSi (amave termins imowme-
sosisi da a~giposi. ben pomponius mela, pliniusi...). warmodgenil sityvaTa, agreTve,
T.yauxCiSvilis varaudiT, melanqlainebi da gelonebi cxov- makron-, maxeron- manral-, kerket-, kegritike- fuZeTa amosaval
robdnen koraqssa (bzifs) da dioskurias Soris (T.yauxCiSvili, formad ganixileba egr- Ziri (literaturisa da msjelobisaTvis
1976, gv.81-82; Sdr., n.lomouri, 1963, gv.22; Sdr., agreTve: miule- ix. T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.233, 257); eger-/egir- fuZe marTlac Se-
ris, tomaSekis, hermanis da kislingis pozicia; isini am tomTa sa- iZleba davsaxoT ekeqe~rebi /ekxirielebi /ekriktike /ekreqti-
cxovriss dRevandel oCamCireSi aTavseben, T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, ke sityvebis amosavlad, magram makron-, maxeron- da manral- fuZe-
gv.86). herodotec (Zv.w. V s.) icnobs melanqlainebsa da gelonebs; TaTvis amosavlad misi miCneva gaWirdeba.
misi azriT, melanqlainebi arian araskviTuri modgmis xalxi; isi-
ni Sav tanisamoss atareben, amitomac hqviaT maT es saxeli (hero- henioxebi/henioqebi - Zveli wyaroebis mixedviT, henioxebi Sa-
dote, 1975, gv.262-286). vi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT napirze cxovroben, xolo Sedare-
ramdenadac, es ori tomi cxovrobda saqarTvelos istoriul biT axali, I-II saukuneebis cnobebis mixedviT ki, isini Savi zRvis
teritoriaze kolebsa da kolxebs Soris, bunebrivia msjeloba ma- samxreT-aRmosavleT napirze - rize-afsarosis regionSi Canan;
Ti qarTveluri warmomavlobis Sesaxeb; sakiTxi Semdgom kvlevas kerZod:
iTxovs; Sdr.: herodotes "skviTeTSi" miCneulia, rom gelonebi fsevdo-skilaqsis (Zv.w. IV s.) cnobebis mixedviT, aqa~ebi da he-
warmoSobiT elinebi arian; Sdr.: olbieli berZnebi gelonebs bu- nioqebi Tanamedrove tuafsesa da gagras Soris unda vivaraudoT,
dinebs (cxovrobdnen donis Suawelze, savromatebis mezoblad) saidanac, Semdgom, jiqebis dawolis gamo, isini samxreTiT gadaad-
miakuTvneben (qse, t. III, gv.39). gildnen (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.83; T.yauxCiSvili, 1980); Sdr.: m.
inaZe, 1955, gv.13-17, sadac gatarebulia azri, rom kolxTa gabato-
ekeqe~rebi/ekxirielebi, ekriktike/ekreqtike - fsevdo-ski- nebamde, Zv.w. IX-VIII saukuneebSi, henioxebi flobdnen samxreT-
laqsis (Zv.w. IV s.) cnobebis mixedviT, ekeqe~rebi cxovrobdnen aRmosavleT Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiros centralur da sa-
mdinareebs: arqabissa da ofiunts Soris; maTi sacxovrisi ivarau- mxreT raionebs, kerZod, Cildiris tbisa da Woroxis mimdebare
teritorias; m.inaZisve azriT, argonavtebi swored henioxTa

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saxelmwifoSi movidnen; maT saxels eTnonimi kolxebi gvian Ca- va da s.janaSia megrel-Wanebad miiCnevdnen; ix., mag., p.ingoroyva,
enacvla... kolxebis dawoliT, henioxebi gadaadgildnen Crdi- 1954, gv.124, 135).
loeTiT. kislingi henioxebs sanebisa da lazebis monaTesaved Tvlis da
aristoteles azriT (384-322), "fasisSi Tavdapirvelad henio- maT qarTvelur tomad miiCnevs; rac metad sayuradReboa, igi sa-
xebi cxovrobdnen, kaciWamia da adamianTa tyavisgamxdeli tomi, Sem- nebsa da lazebs kerketebTan (CerqezebTan!) akavSirebs, miiCnevs ra
deg ki miletelebi" (T.yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.19, 57, 73). maT erTi warmoSobis xalxad (mimoxilvisaTvis ix. T.yauxCiSvili,
pliniusi (Zv.w. I s.): "am mxareSi mTebs iqiT mdebareobs iberia, 1980, sadac gaziarebulia kislingis mosazreba).
xolo sanapiroze cxovroben henioxebi, lazebi...". lingvistur gamokvlevebSic heniox- fuZe dakavSirebulia
straboni vrclad msjelobs henioxTa Sesaxeb; misi rwmeniT, Wan- ZirTanac: Wan-/Wen- > hen-; hen- fuZe Wan-is svanur variantad
kavkasieli henioxebi arian berZeni (lakoneli) henioxebis STamo- miiCneva; amosaval saerToqarTvelur formad ivaraudeba *wen-
mavlebi, romlebic pontos Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze (b.gigineiSvili, 1975).
gadmosaxldnen iasonis laSqrobis Semdeg da romlebic zRvaze me- warmodgenil saxelTa dakavSireba logikuri lingvisturi
kobreobiT cxovroben; maT hyavT 4 basilevsi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, wesebiT xdeba, magram rTuli warmosadgenia Wanebis svanuri sa-
gv.137). xelwodebis urartuli sufiqsiT gaformeba; aseve, aralogikuria
kolxTa mezoblad asaxelebs henioxebs ioseb flaviusi (I s.).
dasaxelebul tomTa gaigiveba, vinaidan welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze
afsarosamde (goniomde) naxa henioxebi arianem (II s.); misi
arianec, strabonic da sxvebic gverdigverd da sxvadasxva tomebad
cnobiT, henioxebsa da makronebs erTi mefe anqiale hyavT (T.yaux-
adastureben Wanebs/sanebs, sanigebs, henioxebs da svanebs. aqve aR-
CiSvili, 1976, gv.101).
vniSnavT, rom Wan- da hen- Zirebs Soris Wan- formis ZiriTadobas
apiane (II s.) henioxebs asaxelebs miTridates mokavSireebSi
xeli SeiZleba SeuSalos im faqtmac, rom berZnul wyaroebSi heni-
tavrebis, aqeelebis, levkosirebis, xalibebis, skviTebisa da arme-
nielebis gverdiT (apiane, 1959, gv.23, 25, 144, 196). ox- Ziri TiTqmis 500 wliT adre fiqsirdeba, vidre Wan-; hen- da
V saukunis anonimi avtori, romelic arianes mihyveba, heniox- Wan- fuZeTa saerTo warmomavloba SesaZlebelia, magram foneti-
Ta toms narevad acxadebs da maT asaxelebs sakuTriv kolxebis (ag- kuri procesebis sxva gza unda davuSvaT (ix. qvemoT).
reTve, sanebad CaTvlili drilebis) da maqelonebis Semdeg, zid- Cveni azriT, welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze cal-calke tomebad Tu
ritebamde da lazebamde, e.i. Savi zRvispireTis samxreT-aRmosav- Temebad arsebobdnen henioxebic, sanebic, sanigebic, Wanebic... maT
leT nawilSi (georgika, 1965, gv.7-8). Savi zRvis sanapiroze asaxe- konkretuli sacxovrisi da TavianTi sametyvelo ena/dialeqti
leben henioxebs ufro gvianac; II saukuneSi isini makron-maxelo- hqondaT. cxadia, droTa ganmavlobaSi zogi maTgani qreba.
nebTan erTad rize-afsaross Soris qmnian erTian saxelmwifos;
sanebi, Wanebi - memnonisa (I s.) da strabonis (I s.) mtkicebiT,
IV-V saukuneebSi ki Savi zRvis sanapiroze henioxebi aRar Canan
(T.yauxCiSvili, 1980, gv.68-71). "isini, vinc winaT makronebi iyvnen, axla sanebi arian" (T.yauxCiS-
samecniero literaturaSi miCneulia, rom henioxi aris vari- vili, 1987, gv.22; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.94, 146, 233).
anti satomo saxelisa - "sanigi"; mag., i.orbeli da n.mari heniox- Wanebi pirvelad moixseniebian arianesTan (II s.):
formas ganixilavdnen san-/sanig- fuZeebis paralelurad da maT kolxebis mezoblebi arian Wanebi, igive sanebi; T.yauxCiSvilis
svanebad miiCnevdnen; Sdr., sanebs, sanigebs da henioxebs p.ingoroy- daskvniT, ramdenadac ariane iyenebs oTx paralelur formas (san-

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noi, tsannoi, Tiannoi/tiannoi, tuannoi), cxadia, rom berZens saTvis armenielebTan da mardebTan erTad sparseli satrapis,
uWirs qarTuli W-s warmoTqma (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.99-100). orontas da misi sardlis - artuxas moqiravneebi arian..." (T. ya-
arianes azrs exmianeba dinisios periegetis (II s.) komentato- uxCiSvili, 1976, gv.53).
ris - evstaTi episkoposis (XII s.) komentaric: am TvalsazrisiT, metad faseulia m. xorenacis cnoba keisar
"Zvel makronebs axla sanebi ewodebaT, rac adgilobrivi gamo- takites mkvlelobis Sesaxeb: "takitusi Tavisianebma mokles pon-
TqmiT "Wanebs" niSnavs (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.94); Sdr., prokopi toelTa WaneTSi, ese igi xaldeTSi" (movses xorenaci, 1984, gv.162,
kesarieli: lazebi kolxebi arian" (georgika, 1965, gv.120). 277); Sdr., s.yauxCiSvilis Targmani: "takite moklul iqna pontos
Cven ufleba ara gvaqvs, ar vendoT TviTmxilvelsa da mkvle- provincia WaniukSi, ese igi xaltikSi (georgika, 1936, gv.262, Se-
vars - prokopi kesariels: lazebisa da Wanebis gaigiveba marTlac niSvna). Wanikes qveyanas pontoSi moiazrebs ioane malalac (491-
SeuZlebelia, isini ufro monaTesave qarTveluri tomebi arian. 578): "imave takites mefobis dros moxda omi pontoSi da TviT me-
Wanebisa da sanebis saxelTa dakavSireba albaT realuria; SesaZ- fe gaemarTa iq saomrad da is mokluli iqna pontos erT qveyanaSi
loa maTi saerTo warmomavlobis mtkicebac. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom WanikeSi..." (georgika, 1936, gv.262).
somxuri Waniv-/WaneT- formis damowmebiT Wan- da san- fuZeebis prokopi kesarieli vrclad msjelobs Wanebis Sesaxeb; igi
sinonimuroba naTladaa dasabuTebuli b.gigineiSvilis mier (b.gi- Tvlis, rom Wanebi ar arian trapezuntelTa mosazRvreni; Wanebi -
gineiSvili, 1975). arazRvispira xalxi - cxovroben mTebSi, SuaxmeleTze, armenie-
arn. Ciqobavas varaudiT, sani igivea, rac zani (arn.Ciqobava, lebis gverdiT:
1936, gv.3). s. janaSias azriT, amosavalia san- Ziri, romlis Tavki-
"...im adgilebis marjvniv aRmarTulia WaneTis mTebi, romelTa
duri bgeridan CrdiloeT samegreloSi warmoiqmna zan-/wan-, xolo gadaRma romaelTa qveSevrdomebi, armenielebi cxovroben. am Wane-
samxreT samegreloSi (WaneTSi) - Wan- (s.janaSia, 59, gv.27-34). Tis mTebidan Camodis mdinare, saxelad - boasi, romelic mas Sem-
amiane marcelines "istoriaSi", erTi mxriv, Wanebis qveyana, me- deg, rac gamoivlis mraval Walas, lazikis soflebis maxloblad
gaswevs da erTvis e.w. evqsinis pontos, magram ukve aRar ewodeba
ore mxriv ki - lazika armenebis mezobladaa; mematianis cnobiT,
boasi, vinaidan, rodesac zRvis maxloblad midis, icvlis am sa-
sparselebTan brZolaSi daiRupa Wanebis legionis meTauri vet-
xels... mas, sxvaTa Soris, adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi akamfsis
ranioni. Zveli komentatorebi - anri valua da lindenbrogi aR-
uwodeben..." (georgika, 1965, gv.120-122).
niSnaven: am konteqstSi moxsenebuli Zianni, igive Zanni, Tzanni, Sdr., agreTve: "armeniis adgilebidan pers-armeniaSi rom mi-
Sanni da Thanni, lazebisa da somxebis mosazRvre xalxia (georgika dixar, marjvniv aris tavri, mimavali iberiaSi da iq mosaxle xalxe-
I, 1961, gv.89, 124, 128, 161, 173); aqve sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac, rom bamde, xolo marcxniv metad daqanebuli, did manZilze gaWimuli
qsenofontes mier nanaxi xaldebic karduxebis mezoblad (igive gza aris da aRmarTulia metad cicabo da mudam nisliTa da Tov-
armenebis mier dapyrobili miwebis!), mTebSi cxovroben, Sesabami- liT dafaruli mTebi, saidanac gamodis mdinare fazisi da midis
sad, SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom xaldebic da Wanebic karduxebis mo- kolxeTis qveynisaken. aq mosaxleobs Wanebis tomi, Tavidanve bar-
naTesave Tu Semadgeneli tomebi arian. barosebi, romelnic aravis qveSevrdomebi ar arian, wina xanebSi
Sdr.: "xaldebi, romlebic Cveulebriv erT-erT Wanur tomad sanebad wodebuli, irgvliv mosaxle romaelebis mZarcvelni" (ge-
aris miCneuli, aseve ganTavisuflebulan sparsTagan da am droi- orgika, 1965, gv.53).

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

Sdr., agaTia sqolastikosi (VI s.): "am dros WanTa tomi gaxda maT pliniusic da arianec; mag., ix. ariane:
sazrunavi. Wanebi cxovroben evqsinis pontos samxreTiT q. trape- "trapezuntidan Zvel lazikamde (nikofsiamde) cxovroben
zuntis qvemoT; Tumca es Wanebi ZveliTganve romaelebTan dazave- kolxebi, sanebi, makronebi, henioxebi, Zidritebi, lazebi, afsile-
bulni da maTi qveSevrdomni iyvnen, magram maSin maTi erTi nawili bi, abaskebi, sanigebi, Zilqebi".
winandel mSvidobian wesebs icavda... umetesi maTgani ki Seqmnili Sdr., ariane: lazebi cxovroben Woroxidan kodoramde; ko-
mdgomareobiT sargeblobda da yaCaRobas misdevda... Tavs esxmoda doris xeobaSi cxovroben afsilebi; afsilebis sacxovrisis (ko-
armeniasac... amitom maT winaaRmdeg igzavneba Teodore, maTive doris xeobis) Semdeg mdinare Saxemde - sanigebi; sanigebis teri-
Tvistomi" (georgika, 1936, gv.181-182). toriazea qalaqi sebastopolisi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1987, gv.23, 99,
lazebi da Wanebi sxvadasxva qarTveluri tomia mogvianebiTac; 171-172). mecnierTa nawili sanigebs zanebad miiCnevs, nawili -
kerZod, termin lazikas gverdiT bizantiur wyaroebSi (ix. IX sa- svanebad (mimoxilvisaTvis ix. T.miqelaZe, 1974).
ukunis moRvawe konstantine porfirogeneti; georgika, 1952, gv Cveni azriT, sulac ar aris aucilebeli sanigebis gaigiveba
292) arsebobs Wanaria (Wanaris erisTavebi). zanebTan Tu svanebTan; sxvadasxva avtorTan sanigebi sanebis, la-
ix., agreTve, nikifore grigorasi (XIVs.): zebis da svanebis paralelurad saxeldebian da, bunebrivia, isini
XIV saukunis I naxevarSi trapizonis imperiaSi mefe basilis im erT-erT qarTvelur tomad CavTvaloT, romelic an saerTod
qaliSvilsa da cols Soris dawyebuli Sina brZolebis dros la- gaqra asparezidan, an sxva qarTvelur tomebs Seerwya, an afsua-
zebi, Wanebi da yvela sxva adgilobrivni TavianT mSobliur, kom- afxazebis mier asimilirda.
nenosTa ojaxidan gamosul, dedofal ana xuTlus aZlevdnen upi- ipolite romaelis (III s.) cnobiT, kapadukielTa gadaRma, mar-
ratesobas, paleologosTa gvaridan gamosul irinesTan Sedare- jvena mxareebSi cxovroben armenielebi, iberielebi da beranebi,
biT (georgika III, 1967, gv.146). xolo marcxena mxareebSi - skviTebi, kolxebi da bosforelebi.
Sdr.: "sanebi, egreTwodebuli sanigebi, romlebic gadaWimuli arian
laonike xalkokondile (XV s.): "...Wanidebs uWiravT kolxi- vidre pontomde, im adgilamde, sadac aris parembole afsarosi
dis adgilebi vidre qalaq amastriamde..." (georgika, 1970, gv.107). [da sebastopolisi], hisos navsadguri da mdinare fazisi, vidre
s.yauxCiSvili: "erT-erTi SesaZlebeli axsna (imisa, Tu ratom trapezuntamde cxovroben da gadaWimuli arian es tomebi" (geor-
ver moaxerxa bizantiis imperiam, iseve SeeerTebina trapezonis sa- gika, 1961, gv.20).
mefos teritoria, rogorc bizantiis imperiis danarCeni teri- Sdr., evsevi kesarieli (260-340):
toriebi) is iqneba, rom Cven vaRiaroT: "trapizonis samefos" mo- "kabadokiis gadaRma marjvniT arian armenielebi, iberebi da
saxleobis udidesi nawili qarTuli tomisagan - Wanebisagan - Se- beranebi, xolo marcxniT - skviTebi, kolxebi da bosporanebi, ag-
dgeboda" (georgika, 1967, gv.164). reTve [sannebi], romelTac sannigebi ewodebaT da romlebic
SeniSvna: V saukunis anonimi avtori imeorebs arianes azrs da qseno- vrceldebian pontomde, sadac aris banaki afsarosi, sebastopoli
fontes drilebs xazgasmiT sanebad ixseniebs; Semdeg maT kolxebSi [kausilimani], da mdinare fazisi. vidre trapezuntamde gadaWimu-
aerTianebs (berZeni mwerlebi... 1983, gv.158; georgika, 1965, gv.7). li arian es tomebi" (georgika, 1961, gv 31-32).
afsilebTan, beqe~rebTan da lazebTan erTad abazgiis mezoblad
sanigebi/sanixebi/sanikebi - memnonis mixedviT (I s.) sanigebi
mcxovrebi sanigebi skviTur tomadaa CaTvlili stefane bizantielis
Canan dioskuriis midamoebSi lazebTan erTad. aqve adasturebs

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(IV_VII) mier. Sdr., agreTve, basili sofeneli (IX s.): arianesTan lazebi da kolxebi Tanaarseboben da sxvadasxva
"...romaelTa TviTmpyrobel traianes dros iq, vidre lazebis tomebi arian (Zveli berZnebi... 1983, gv.159). ariane (II s.) Tavis "pe-
da sanigebis qveynamde, dafuZnebul iqna romael jariskacTa razme- riplusSi" wers: "amJamad lazebs uWiravT teritoria Zidritebi-
bi..." (georgika, 1952, gv.201). dan abaskebamde"; e.i. daaxloebiT Woroxidan kodoramde (T.yaux-
samecniero literaturaSi sanigi/sanixi, erTi mxriv, miCneu- CiSvili, 1987, gv.23; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100). "lazebs iqiT
lia henioxis fonetikur variantad, Sesabamisad, henioxTa meore cxovroben afsilebi, afsilebis mosazRvreebi arian abazgebi,
satomo saxelad (marTlac, henioxebic da sanigebic erT sacxov- abazgebis mezoblad arian sanigebi, romelTa qveyanaSi mdebareobs
risSi moiazrebian), meore mxriv ki, sanigebi da sanebi erTmaneTTa- sebastopolisi"; maSasadame, sebastopolisi-cxumi abazgebis te-
naa gaigivebuli. ritoriaze ki ar yofila, aramed sanigebis qveyanaSi..." (georgika,
ramdenadac sanigebi, henioxebi da sanebi arianesTan erTdro- 1952, gv.235; s.yauxCiSvilis SeniSvna).
ulad saxeldebian, Tanac, sanigebi da sanebi sxvadasxva adgilze Sdr., V saukunis "periplusis" anonimi avtori:
cxovroben, ufro logikuria, davuSvaT, rom es samive qarTvelu- "Zveli aqeidan Zvel lazikamde da md. aqeuntamde (es ki aris
ri tomi drois raRac monakveTSi damoukideblad arsebobda. maTi soWidan daaxloebiT 30 km.-iT daSorebuli - T. y.) uwin cxovrob-
naTesaobis samtkiceblad sakmarisi Cans ara mxolod maTi sacxov- dnen tomebi: henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolikebi, melanxlenebi, maxe-
risis saerTo qarTveluri veli, aramed maT aRmniSvnel saxelTa lonebi, kolxebi da lazebi, axla ki cxovroben zixebi. am ukanas-
saerTo warmomavlobac; Sdr.: knel SemTxvevaSi Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze mo-
san-/*han- > hen-: san-i, san-i-x-i, san-i-g-i/saniki da *hen-i, hen-i- saxleobad Canan maxelonebi (kolxebi da lazebi Cveulebriv uf-
o-x-i; x-/-g- krebiTobis sufiqsia. ro samxreTiT igulisxmebodnen xolme), magram aq yvela tomi er-
niSandoblivia: Tad aris xsenebuli am nakveTze; ase rom, aq sagangebo viTarebaa (T,
sanebis, sanigebis da henioxebis gaigivebisa Tu erTmaneTSi aR- yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.130). periplusis (V s.) anonimuri avtori aq-
revis romaul-bizantiuri tradicia am tomTa saerTo warmomav- ve wers: "dioskuriidan anu sebastopolisidan md. afsarosamde
lobiTa da axlo naTesaobiTaa ganpirobebuli. winaT cxovrobda xalxi, kolxebad wodebuli, axla lazebad saxe-
Secvlili" - e.i. anonimma icis lazTa da kolxTa mimarTeba, kol-
lazebi - berZnul-romaul wyaroebSi lazebs pirvelad axse- xuri da lazuri saxelmwifoebis gavrcelebis are (T. yauxCiSvi-
nebs miTridates istorikosi memnoni (I s.) Tavis "herakles isto- li, 1976, gv.105).
riaSi" (da ara pliniusi, rogorc zogi avtori wers); memnoni Sdr., ariane: trapezuntidan Zvel lazikamde (nikofsiamde, am-
lazTa sacxovrisad mkafiod gansazRvravs dioskuriis midamoebs Jamindel novomixa~lovska~amde) cxovroben Semdegi tomebi: kol-
(soxumi-anakofiis regions); lazebTan erTad memnoni asaxelebs xebi, sanebi, makronebi, henioxebi, Zidritebi, lazebi, afsilebi,
sanegebs/sanigebs (T.yauxCiSvili, 1987, gv.24; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, abaskebi, sanigebi, Zilqebi. sakuTriv lazebi cxovrobdnen afsaro-
gv.171-172). sidan (gonio Tu sarfi) daaxloebiT md. kodoris (Zveli hoposi)
arianes (95-175) cnobiT, arsebobda qalaqi Zveli lazike, ro- SesarTavamde.
melic man Tavisi TvaliT naxa; mogvianebiT am qalaqs nikofsiad mo- Sdr., stefane bizantieli (IV-VII s.): lazebi - skviTuri tomi,
ixsenieben (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.99); aSkaraa, rom axal welTaR- aris [pontoSi], aqvea sofeli "Zveli lazike", rogorc ambobs ari-
ricxvamde lazebi dioskuriis CrdiloeTiT cxovrobdnen. ane... (georgika, 1936, gv.281).

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astronomiisa da geografiis fuZemdebeli klavdios ptole- tis (?) - lazTa sardlis winaaRmdeg" (georgika, 1961, gv.261-262).
ma~osi (100-178) kolxidas uwodebs teritorias md. koraqsidan nikifore konstantinopoleli (IX s.) lazikis samxreT-da-
(bzifidan) md. fasisamde (rionamde), sadac cxovroben tomebi: savleT sazRvrad miiCnevs trapezunts; kerZod, irakli keisris
lazebi, manralebi da ekriktikis (egrisis) qveynis mcxovrebni; laSqrobis aRwerisas is wers: "iraklim scada, lazikis gziT Se-
am kolxidis CrdiloeTiT - sarmatiaSi - cxovroben: aqa~ebi, kerke- Wriliyo sparseTSi; rodesac moaRwia trapezuntamde - lazikis
tebi, henioxebi da suanokolxebi (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100, 160). sazRvramde, misma colma Sva Ze"; 1042 wels qarTulad gadmoRe-
Semdgom periodSi lazebi ufro aqtiurad ixseniebian; ter- bul am teqstSi lazika Targmnilia samegrelod: "da mo~wia ra
mini lazika ukve politikuri erTeulis saxelad zogaddeba, ro- trapezunted - sanaxebTa samegrelo~saTa..." (georgika, 1952,
melsac zog wyaroSi afxazeTic enacvleba; mag., amiane marceline gv.207-208). Sdr., agreTve: niketa xoniates (XII s.) bizantiis keis-
(IV s.) wers: imperatori valenti "daTanxmda iberiis gayofas ise,
ris - manuelis titulebSi Seaqvs: lazTa, iberTa, bulgarTa,
rom sazRvrad SuaSi md. kirosi (mtkvari) dadebuliyo da savro-
serbTa... RvTivmmarTveli (georgika, 1966, gv.131).
maks armeniisa da lazebis mosazRvre (mxare) rgeboda"; Saburis
"mosvliT SeSinebulma papam da aseve kilakem ...scades Seefarebi- Sdr., Tamaris istorikosi: 1204 wels Tamarma berZenTa mefes
naT Tavi maRal mTebSi, romlebic Cvenebs [e.i. Cvens miwebs] la- waarTva: lazia, trapizoni, limoni, samisoni, sinopi, kerasundi,
zikisagan hyofen" (georgika, 1961, gv.90, 128). kitiora, amastria, araklia... (qarTlis cxovreba, 1959, gv.141-142).
Sdr., agreTve, agaTangelosi (IV s.): "wminda grigoli... zog aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom qarTvel mefeebs lazeTi/lazia araso-
des ucvniaT TurqeTis SemadgenlobaSi (p.ingoroyva, 2003, gv.40).
[mRvdels] gzavnida iberTa qveyanaSi, zogs lazTa qveyanaSi." sa-
romaul-bizantiur wyaroebSi miRebulia azri kolxebisa da
interesoa arabuli Targmani, sadac iberiis nacvlad aris misist ad
lazebis igiveobisa; Sdr., mag., ioane lide: "kolxike, romelsac ax-
Georgian, xolo lazikis nacvlad - ad regionem Abchazorum (georgi- la lazikes eZaxian..." (georgika, 1965, gv.242); ioane cece: "kolxebi
ka, 1961, gv.71)... skviTebi arian, maT lazebic ewodebaT da cxovroben abazgebis, wi-
sayuradReboa, rom epifane kvipreli (314-403) lazebs semis nandeli masagetebis maxloblad (georgika, 1952, gv.7; T.yauxCiSvi-
STamomavlad Tvlis (semisa: kabadokielebi, finikebi, pontoele- li, 1987, gv.132)... miuxedavad amisa, aralogikuria, vilaparakoT am
bi, marmaridebi... xalibebi, lazebi, mosinikebi, iberebi, frigie- terminTa sinonimurobaze, ramdenadac orive gamoyenebulia ro-
lebi...), xolo kolxebs - iafetisad (iafetisa: midielebi, armenie- gorc viwro eTnikuri, aseve, farTo politikuri mniSvnelobiT;
lebi, amazonebi, kolebi, kabadokielebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi, mo- miT umetes, SeuZlebelia, identuri iyos maTi zogadi Sinaarsi,
sinikebi, kolxebi, skviTebi...); semis teritoriaSi Sedis: palesti- vinaidan Zveli kolxeTi gacilebiT farTo areals moicavda; erTi
na, siria, evropa, lazia, iberia, kaspia... (georgika, 1961, gv.39-41). ki udavoa:
ix., agreTve, priske panioneli (V s.): "mis Semdeg, rodesac ro- lazebisa da Wanebis winaprebic, saspeirebic, xalibebic, xal-
debic, muSqebic da bevri sxva tomic Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua peri-
maelebi mividnen kolxidaSi da omi awarmoes lazebis winaaRmdeg,
odis kolxur Tu mosxur modgmad SegviZlia miviCnioT. am tomTa
romaelTa jari Tavis qveyanaSi gamobrunda..." (georgika 1961,
gaerTianebas sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva saxeli erqva (amis Sesaxeb
gv.254); priske panioneli: "didi uTanxmoeba hqondaT svanTa tom-
ix. qvemoT).
Tan romaelebsa da lazebs, svanebma sastiki brZola gaaCaRes sema-
laz- fuZes fonetikuri variantebi ar uCans; Tumca, gansa-

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xilvelia misi kavSiri, erTi mxriv - laS-x-, meore mxriv ki - riz-e inaaRmdegobrivia abaz-x-i > afxaz-i gzis daSveba, sadac -x- krebi-
formebTan; ix., agreTve, iv. javaxiSvili (1960, gv. 405): la-zan-ik-a > Tobis sufiqsia. jer mivyveT wyaroebis Cvenebas:
lazika, sadac la- svanuri mawarmoebelia. dasaSvebia, rom laz- ariane (II s.): trapizonidan Zvel aqaiamde Semdegi tomebi gavi-
fuZe ucxouri warmomavlobisa iyos (Sdr., qarTveluri warmomav- areT: kolxebi, sanebi (qsenofontes drilebi), makronebi, henioxe-
lobis eTnonimebs fonetikuri variantebi udasturdebaT). bi, Zidritebi, lazebi, afsilebi, abaskebi, sanigebi, Zilqebi; "la-
zebis mezoblebi afsilebi arian; maTma mefem - iulianem mefoba
abazebi, afxazebi, ebzeebi/obezebi, abazgebi/abaskebi, abaZa- Seni mamisgan miiRo. afsilebis mezoblebi abaskebi arian. abaskTa
xebi/abazaxebi mefe resmagaa. abaskTa mezoblebi sanigebi arian" (berZeni mwerle-
bi... 1983, gv.158-159). abaskebi sanigebs zemoT, mTebSi saxloben
afxaz- fuZesa da masTan formobriv-semantikurad dakavSire- (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100-101); amave konteqstSi abazgebs axsene-
bul leqsemebs, afxaz da abaza tomTa istorias mravali mecnieri ben V s. moRvawe Teodorite kvirieli (georgika, 1961, gv.227), V s.
ikvlevda; bolo periodis Semajamebeli xasiaTis gamokvlevebi anonimi avtori (georgika, 1965, gv.8), stefane bizantieli (geor-
ekuTvnis T.gvancelaZes (T. gvancelaZe, 1993; T. gvancelaZe, 1998; gika, 1936, gv.284) da sxvebi. Sdr. agaTangelosis teqstis arabul
T. gvancelaZe, 2004); afxazur enaSi superstratuli fenebis gamo- TargmanSi lazTa qveyana Abchazorum-ad iTargmneba (georgika,
wvlilviTi Seswavlis Semdeg igi askvnis: 1961, gv. 71).
"dRevandel afxazTa winaprebs Savi zRvis sanapiroze ar mogvianebiT farTovdeba termin abazgiiT moazrebuli teri-
ucxovriaT ax.w. V saukunemde; afxazTa Tavdapirveli samSoblo toria; mag., bizantiis keisari konstantine porfirogeneti (912-
afsni mdebareobda kavkasionis qedis CrdiloeTiT, mdinare yuba- 959), Tavis Svils acnobs ra bizantiis mezobel Tu dapyrobil
nis auzSi. misi ZiriTadi masa aqve binadrobda 1561 wlis axlo xa- tomebs, abazgiis Sesaxeb ambobs:
nebamde... Tanamedrove afxazuri eTnosis saboloo saxis Camoya- "jiqeTis sazRvrebis Semdeg, ese igi, mdinare nikofsiidan moki-
libebaSi mniSvnelovani roli miuZRvis amJamindeli afxazeTis debuli zRvis napiri vidre soteriupolisamde, 300 milis manZilze
teritoriaze afxazTa (TviTsaxelwodebiT – afsuaTa; t.f.) mo- uWiravs abazgiis qveyanas" (georgika, 1952, gv.233). nikofsiis loka-
svlamde mcxovreb kolxur mosaxleobas" (T.gvancelaZe, 1998, gv.60, lizeba ar Wirs, magram sakamaToa soteriupolisis sakiTxi; zogi
2004, gv. 58-63). misive varaudiT, afxazur-abazur da Cerqezul eneb- mas biWvinTad miiCnevs, zogi - soxumad (sakiTxis mimoxilvisTvis ix.
ze afxazur-abazur tomTa erTobis Tavdapirveli saxeli unda yo- s. yauxCiSvilis msjeloba, iqve, gv.231-235).
filiyo ~a-abaz-a > abaza; amosavali formaa *~a-fas-a, romlisga- Cveni azriT, ramdenadac, X saukuneSi abazgiis saxeliT, ara-
nac -Ea sufiqsiTaa nawarmoebi afsua < *~a-fas-Ea (T.gvancelaZe, iSviaTad, mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelo moixseneba, abazgiis sa-
1998, gv.38-39). mxreT sazRvrad naTqvami qalaqi soteriupolisi Tanamedrove
warmodgenil sayuradRebo naSromebSi CvenTvis sakamaToa TurqeTis teritoriaze unda veZioT nikofsiidan daaxloebiT 300
mxolod qarTuli afxaz- fuZis warmoqmnis gza; kerZod, T.gvance- milis manZilze. X saukunis Sua wlebSi qarTuli wyaroebis afxa-
laZis azriT, afxaz- fuZe momdinareobs Cerqezuli abaza xa kom- zeTis samefo (gaerTianebuli dasavleT saqarTvelo, centriT qu-
pozitisgan: abaza xa "qvemouri abaza" (Cerqez. "xa" iTargmneba, ro- TaisSi) faqtobrivad damoukidebeli politikuri subieqtia; igi-
gorc qvemouri, qvemoTa): Cerqez. abaza-xa/abzaxa > megr. abxaza > ve keisari konstantine porfirogeneti, roca Tavis Svils aswav-
qarT. afxazi (T.gvancelaZe, 1998, gv.38); vfiqrobT, ufro naklebw- lis ucxoelTaTvis mimarTvis wesebs, iberiis (tao-klarjeTis!)

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kuropalatsa da abazgiis mTavars erT rangSi ganixilavs (georgi- aqve aRvniSnavT:


ka, 1952, gv.293); aRsaniSnavia isic, rom am periodis qarTuli wya- farnavazisa da qujis ambebis Txrobis dros mematiane xazgas-
roebi afxazeTs saqarTvelos erT-erT qveyanad - "Cuens queyanad" miT aRniSnavs, rom egriswyals marjvnivac qarTvelebi cxovrob-
Tvlis. dnen: egross ergo teritoria lixidan vidre mdinare xazareTis-
s. janaSias redaqtorobiT gamoqveynebul saxelmZRvaneloSi wylis (yubanis) SesarTavamde (qarTlis cxovreba, gv.5,12-15), mag-
iyo aseTi fraza: "afxazTa erisTavma advilad daipyro egrisi da ram berZnebTan omis Semdeg "egris wyals quemoTa darCa berZenTa,
argveTi..."; pavle ingoroyvam Semdegi marTebuli komentari gaake- rameTu mkvidrTa mis adgilisaTa ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa"
Ta: pirvelwyaro "matiane qarTlisa~Si" pirdapir aRniSnulia, (iqve, gv.24, 1-2).
rom afxazTa erisTavi leon ganudga berZenebs da "daipyra afxaze- logikuria, vTqvaT, rom qarTul wyaroebSi, Tavdapirvelad,
Ti da egrisi vidre lixamde, saxel-idva mefe afxazTa"; e. i. afxaz- egrisi moicavda afxazeTsac; momdevno periodSi orive saxeli re-
Ta erisTavma afxazeTidan ki ar daipyro egrisi, aramed, ganudga alurad Tanaarsebobda - mezobel mxareebs aRniSnavda, Semdeg sa-
ra dampyrobels, oriveSi gabatonda da dedaqalaqad quTaisi air- erTo saxelad afxazeTi ganzogadda; istoriuli egrisis aRsaniS-
Cia...(p. ingoroyva, 1954, gv.115-116); swored am droidan dasavleT navad odiSi da samegrelo SedarebiT gvian damkvidrda.
saqarTvelos saxelad damkvidrda afxazeTi. afxazeTis bizantiuri varianti iyo abazgia:
saerTod, istoriuli wyaroebidan cnobilia, rom, iSviaTi Sdr.: saqarTvelos gaerTianebamde arsebobda abazgiis epar-
gamonaklisis garda (aseTi gamonaklisebi yvela qarTul samTav- qia, romelic eqvemdebareboda konstantinepolis sapatriarqos
ros hyavda), afxazeTis mefe-mTavrebi zogadqarTveluri erov- (georgika, 1952, gv.129, 137-138)...
nul-kulturuli da saxelmwifoebrivi saqmis moTaveebi iyvnen; keisar konstantines dros afxazeTis mefeebi iyvnen giorgi II
maTi moRvaweobiTac Cans, rom ruseTis imperiis kavkasiaSi gaaqti- (912-957), leon III (957-967); Semdeg iyo Teodos III (975-978). Teod-
urebamde afxazebi sxva qarTveluri Temebisgan Tvisobrivad ar osis taxtidan gadayenebis Semdeg 978 wels daviT III bagrationi
gansxvavdebodnen. (kuropalati) afxazeTSi amefebs mcirewlovan bagrats. swored
afxazeTi da egrisi - "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT cnobili am periodSi eyreba safuZveli dasavleT, samxreT-dasavleT da
es ori qarTuli kuTxe - gorgaslis mefobis dasawyisSi dasavleT aRmosavleT saqarTveloebis (!) gaerTianebas; didi saqarTvelos
saqarTvelos im nawils moicavda, romelic dapyrobili ar hqonda aRorZinebis gamorCeuli organizatori iyo afxazeTis erisTavi
bizantias; Cans, afxazeTi iyo cixegojamde, egrisi ki - cixegojidan iovane maruSisZe.
Sdr.: 1008 wels aRdgenil-gaerTianebuli didi saqarTvelos
lixamde; Sdr.: "masve Jamsa gamovidnen berZenni afxazeTad... da da-
pirveli monarqi xdeba afxazTa mefe bagrati, SemdgomSi bagrat
ipyres egriswylidan vidre cixegojamde" (q.c., 1955, gv.146,4-5);
mesamed wodebuli (romlis Svili giorgi I Tavisi samSoblos da-
Sdr., iqve, gv.157, 19: dapyrobil afxazeTSi bizantielebis mier
mpyrobeli bizantiis dauZinebeli mteri iyo). Sdr., agreTve, ioa-
mmarTvelad dasmuli iyo leon, romelic "ucalo iyo brZolisa-
ne zonaras (XI-XII) "msoflio qronikaSi" moTxrobili ambavi (ge-
gan sparsTasa, da verSemZlebel iyo spaTa gamogzavnad afxazeTs;
orgika, 1966, gv.233-239; teqsts vimowmebT s.yauxCiSvilis Tar-
da [vaxtang gorgasalma] sam wel wartyuenna yovelni cixeni afxa- gmanisa da komentarebis mixedviT):
zeTisani vidre cixe-gojamde". e.i. gorgasalma Semoimtkica berZen- barda fokasa da barda skliarosis damarcxebis Semdeg bizan-
Tagan axaldapyrobili qarTuli qveyana - afxazeTi. tiis mefe basili gaemarTa iberiaSi, sadac moawesriga is sadavo

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sakiTxebi, romlebic gaCnda iberiis kuropalat daviTis garda- sayuradReboa kidev erTi faqti: dediT qarTveluri
cvalebis gamo da wavida finikiisken... Semdeg mobrunda da gailaS- (abazguri) warmomavlobis iovane ceces (1110-1180) azriT,
qra abazgiis winaaRmdeg, vinaidan misma mpyrobelma giorgi I daar- abazgebi iberTa tomisani arian (georgika, 1976, gv. 20-25); Sdr.,
Rvia bizantiasTan dadebuli xelSekruleba... ficxel omSi damar- aqve, erTgan miTiTebulia iovanes dedis abazgoba (gv.23), meoregan
cxda abazgiis mTavari giorgi, Sida iberiisken gaiqca da zavi ki - iberieloba (gv. 25); amave dokumentis mixedviT, iovanes abazgi
iTxova; man mZevlad misca Tavisi Ze bagrati (SemdgomSi bagrat bebia amalaSi axlda iberiis mefis asuls - marTas.
IV)... Cans, afxazeTis mosaxleoba qarTvelebad iTvleboda mezobe-
Zveli qarTveli mwignobarnic kargad icnoben termin abazgi- li xalxebisaTvisac: yaraCaelebis, balyarelebisa da rusebis-
as, mas dasavleT saqarTvelod Tvlian da afxazeTad Targmnian; Tvis; kerZod:
ix., mag., "mimoslvasa Sina wmidaTa mociqulTasa andria pirvelwo- SemTxveviTi ar Cans is faqti, rom termini abaza/obezi/ebze
debulisa mier qadageba~ Soris avazgia~sa, romel ars afxazeTi" Crdilo kavkasiis zog xalxSi da evropul Tu Zvel rusul wyaro-
(georgika, 1991, gv.214; ix., agreTve, aqve, gv.219). ebSi qarTvelis sinonimia; mag.: pap inokent IV elCi ioane de pla-
aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom X-XII saukuneebis sxva ucxouri no karpini, romelmac monRoleTSi imogzaura 1246 wels, saqar-
wyaroebiT, afxazi ukve qarTvelis sinonimadaa qceuli; mag., ioane Tvelos georgiania-s eZaxis, qarTvelebs ki - georgian-eb-s anu ob-
italosi ioane petriws abazg gramatikoss uwodebs, rac am kon- ez-eb-s (s.janaSia, 1959, gv.53).
teqstSi qarTvel gramatikoss niSnavs. XIV-XVI saukuneebis rusuli wyaros mixedviT, obezi saqar-
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom ioane petriwi ara mxolod di- Tvelos aRniSnavda. faqtis axsna iolad SeiZleba: maSindeli sla-
di filosofosi, aramed Seudarebeli moqarTule da sityvaTSe- vebis enaSic qarTvelTa saxelad ganzogadda mezobeli tomis saxe-
moqmedi iyo; garda amisa, is sityvebs qarTveluri dialeqtebida- li - abaza, ramdenadac slavebisTvis abaza, egriseli, svani, kaxeli
nac amkvidrebda; mag., samxmiani galobis meore xmis aRsaniSnavad Tu mesxi erTi odenoba iyo; Sdr., agreTve: kavkasiaSi gvian mosuli
man SemoiRo termini Jiri, romlis megruli warmomavloba uda- yaraCaelebisa da balyarelebisTvisac qarTvelebis aRmniSvneli
voa; logikuria davuSvaT, rom es didi qarTveli moRvawe egrisis terminia ebze ( < abaza). amave dros, ebze sakuTriv svanebs, zog
mkvidri iyo (Sdr.: n.maris azriT, ioane petriwi tomiT afxazi SemTxvevaSi ki raWvelebsac aRniSnavs (T. gvancelaZe, 1993); Sdr.,
iyo). sayuradReboa agreTve e.xinTibiZis dakvirveba: eqvTime mTaw- abaZa jiqTa TviTsaxelwodebacaa da dRevandel abazaTac (abazebi
mindelma qarTulidan berZnulad Targmna "varlam da ioasafis" ramdenime saukunis win gaemijnen afsuebs).
romani, romelic berZnulidan gadaiTargmna laTinurad. laTinu- vfiqrobT, aSkaraa, rom Zveli droidan moyolebuli, vidre
rad mTargmnelis komentariT, "berZnuli Targmani Seasrula to- XVI-XVII saukuneebamde, jiqebisgan gansxvavebiT, abazebi/abazge-
miT abazgma berma efTvimem" (e.xinTibiZe, 1998, gv.15). e.i. qarTveli bi/afxazebi evropaSic da aziaSic qarTvelur (iberiul/kolxur)
eqvTime mTawmindeli, laTinTa azriT, tomiT abazgia. amave pe- samyarosTan asocirdeba; samarTlianadac: Sua saukuneebSi sxva
riodSi afxazeTi sruliad saqarTvelos niSnavs sparsul wyaro- qarTveluri modgmis TemebTan erTad afxazebic qmnidnen erTian
ebSic (k.tabataZe, 1993, gv.222-226); Sdr.: asureli istorikosi za- qarTvelur saxelmwifosa da samwignobro kulturas. gaerTiane-
qaria ritori afxazTa/qarTvelTa qveyanas baz-g-on-Ta qveyanas bulma saqarTvelomac didxans SeinarCuna "samefo afxazeTis" sa-
uwodebs; msjelobisaTvis ix. iv.javaxiSvili, 1960, gv. 402. xeli (g.alasania, 2004, gv.9). Sdr., agreTve, T.gvancelaZis daskvna:
"sxvadasxva periodisa da sxvadasxva enaze Sedgenili werilobiTi

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Tu kartografiuli masala cxadyofs: uZvelesi droidan gvian xiSvili, 1960, gv. 401; T. gvancelaZe, 1989; o. kaxaZe, 1993; e. osiZe,
Sua saukuneebamde cxumis mosaxleoba qarTveluri iyo" 1993; T. gvancelaZe, 1993; T. gamyreliZe, 1993; d.musxeliSvili,
(T.gvancelaZe, 1997, gv. 25). 2000... ix., agreTve, a.lomTaZe, r.Serozia, 2002, sadac afxaz- fuZis
erTiani saqarTvelos aRorZinebis paralelurad, afxazeTis amosavlad miCneulia svanuri metyvelebis msazRvrel-sazRvruli
xelisufalni iRvwodnen qarTuli eklesiis erTianobis aRsadge- *afxaS zani "mTis zani".
nadac; mag., "afxazi" mefe-mTavrebis (leon II, Teodos II, demetre SeniSvna: bolo periodSi momravlda arakompetentur pirTa (m.Za-
Zamias, z.qafianiZis, i.zeirekis, v.foirStainis, v.rcxilaZis, b.gogi-
II, giorgi I, konstantine III, giorgi II, leon III... agreTve: cxumis
as...) "enaTmecnierul-kulturologiuri aRmoCenebis" publikacie-
erisTavi oTaRo ServaSiZe (XII s.), mxedarTmTavari dardin Serva- bi; samagaliTod moviyvanT b.gogias tipur msjelobas (b.gogia, 2005,
SiZe (XIII s.) da sxv.) erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi politikis Ziri- gv.91): megruli sityvebis safuZvelze afxaz- fuZes ramdenime para-
Tadi mimarTulebebi iyo: leluri etimologia eZebneba: I. afxa-Ji > afxaza; Sdr.: afxa - beWi;
_ dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis gamosvla konstantinepo- Ji - maRali; Sesabamisad: afxa-Ji - beW-maRali. II. afxa(m)-zani > afxa-
lis sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebidan da qarTul avtokefalur za; Sdr.: afxa - mxar-beWi; zani - zani; Sesabamisad: afxa-za - mxarbeWi-
ani zani; III. maTxozai ("Txis gamrekavi") > aTxazai > afxazi; IV. buzi
eklesiasTan SeerTeba;
> abasko~; Sdr.: Wanji > Wani; V. mesxi-sani > medicina... aralingvist
_ qarTulenovani saeklesio centrebis mSenebloba; etimologTa amgvari urapatriotuli "sibrZne" ar aris mxolod
_ brZola qarTuli samyaros politikuri gaerTianebisaTvis; pirovnuli axirebis erTjeradi gamovlena; mavanTagan msgavsi publ-
_ Crdilokavkasiuri moZme xalxebis gaqristianebisaTvis ikaciebis stimulireba sazogadoebaSi samecniero azris nivelire-
brZola da am gziT qarTuli saxelmwifos sazRvrebis uzrunvel- ba-diskreditacias emsaxureba.
yofa (l.axalaZe, 2004, gv.12)... savaraudoa, agreTve, a-baz- da *baz-g- fuZeTa saerTo warmomav-
logikuri Cans, gverdigverd ganvixiloT: abaz-/abaza/abaZ- lobis daSvebac: afxazuri ~a- da qarTveluri a-/sa- prefiqsebi ma-
/abas-... fuZeebi; garda amisa, tao - tao-x-i, kola - kol-x-i... mimar- salobrivad msgavsia; a-baz- formis a- SeiZleba daniSnulebis sa-
Tebebis paralelurad, dasaSvebia abaz- - abaz-x-, abaza - abaza-x-... /a- prefiqsi iyos: *a-bazi/*a-masi - bazebis/masebis qveyana/adgili;
wyvilebis daSvebac: abaz-x-/*amas-x- fuZeSi warmomavlobiToba- Sdr.: speri - sa-speri, qarTveli - saqarTvelo; Sdr.: dgas - a-dg-
krebiTobis -x- sufiqsis gamoyofa logikuri Cans, rogorc amas il-i, bans - a-ban-o; civi - sa-civi, qari - sa-qari, wers - sa-weri... sa-
adrec varaudobdnen (n. maris, s. janaSias, q. lomTaTiZis mosazre- erToqarTvelurSi sa- prefiqsis paralelur variantad a-s daSve-
baTa Sesaxeb ix., o. kaxaZe, 1993). abaz-x- fuZisgan x-s metaTezisiT bas mxars dauWers zanurSi mosalodneli *so-s nacvlad o-s arseb-
unda warmoqmniliyo afxaz- fuZe (Sdr., msgavsi fonetikuri pro- oba; ramdenadac saerToqarTvelur a-s zanurSi kanonzomierad o
cesi qarTulSi: waTx-/wyaT-, balR-/ bRar-, barty-/ bRart-, be- Seesabameba, logikuria, saerToqarTvelurSi daniSnulebis su-
rty-/bRert- da sxv..). ar aris gamoricxuli, rom Cerqezulma aba- fiqsad a- prefiqsic davuSvaT; Sdr.: qaTami - saqaTme da qoTomi -
zaxa formam, formobrivi msgavsebis gamo, gvian SeiZina "qvemo aba- o-qoTum-e; Sdr., agreTve: zan. o-xvam-e, o-yuj-e, o-fS-a... da svan. a-
zas" Sinaarsi (Sdr., T. gvancelaZe, 1998, gv.37). ha-, a-yb-a, a-kuad-... mosalodnelia, rom saerToqarTveluri a-/*ha-
adrindeli qarTveluri *abaz-x- fuZis adaptirebuli varian- sa- da afxazuri ~a (/*ha-? dasaSvebia s/h/~ monacvleobani) saerTo
tebia berZnuli abasx-, abazg- da abask- formebic (gansxvavebuli
warmomavlobis prefiqsebi iyos. Sdr., n. maris mixedviT: *masxi >
msjelobisaTvis ix. T. gvancelaZe, 1998, gv. 36). afxazis sxvadasxvag-
bazgi > a-bazgi... warmodgenil sqemebs damatebiTi argumen-
vari etimologiis Sesaxeb ix., agreTve: n. mari, 1912, gv. 697; iv. java-
tebi esaWiroeba.

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samecniero literaturaSi afSil-/abazg- formebi dakavSire- monacvleobda (masalis mimoxilvisTvis ix., d.leTodiani, 1971).
bulia asurul wyaroebSi dafiqsirebul abeSlasTanac (z. anCaba- evlia Celebis cnobiT, ukve 1641 wels abazas qveynis mosaxleo-
Ze, 1976; S. inalifa, 1976) da xubuSqiasTanac (m. qurdiani, 2001, ba abazur da qarTul (mis megrul dialeqtze) enebze laparakobs
gv.126-130; m. qurdiani, 2002, gv.80); -l-/-il- sufiqsTa kvalifikaci- (evlia Celebi, 1971, gv. 100; Sdr., p.ingoroyva, 1957, gv.133).
is sirTulis miuxedavad, logikuri Cans asuruli wyaroebis ab- T.gvancelaZis lingvisturi da istoriografiuli ZiebebiT
naTladaa naCvenebi, rom XVI-XVII saukuneebSi istoriuli
eSla, saerToqarTveluri abesa/abaza ( abaSa; Sdr. zanuri oba-
afxazeTis teritoriaze Crdilo kavkasiidan - yubanis xeobidan -
Sa > abaSa; m. Cuxua, 2003, gv. 73) da abSili/afsili formebs Soris
TandaTanobiT gadmodis da amJamindeli afxazeTis avtonomiuri
kavSiri. Sdr., z.WumburiZe, 2002: abaSa unda modiodes ebraul sa-
respublikis ramdenime xeobaSi kompaqturad saxldeba erT-erTi
xel abasgan: aba-Sa "abas kuTvnili". abazuri tomi, TviTsaxelwodebiT - afsua.
SeniSvna: ioane ceces (X s.) cnobiT, abazgebs adre masagetebi erqvaT
vfiqrobT, ramdenadac es sazogadoeba moZme qarTveluri
(georgika, 1967, gv 25); Sesabamisad, *mas- Ziris arseboba SeiZleboda
mosaxleobis - afxazebis - sacxovrisSi nel-nela mkvidrdeba,
dagveSva mas-ag-et- eTnonimSic; Tumca, aqac bevri winaaRmdegoba
gvaqvs: ver xerxdeba -ag- da -et- segmentTa damajerebeli kvalifikacia; mezobelTaTvis Camosulebzec gadadis damxvdurTa Temonimi
garda amisa, sadavoa masagetebis kavkasiurobac: herodotes mixedviT, afxazi. droTa manZilze, adgilobriv afxazTa nawili iTqvifeba
masagetebi momTabare da meomari tomia (maTTan brZolaSi daiRupa megrelebSi, nawili - afsuebSi; Sesabamisad, qarTveluri Temonimi
aqemenidTa damaarsebeli - kirosi). straboni maT xvarazmelebad afxazi/afxaza qarTvelur enobriv velSi afsuebis aRmniSvnelad
Tvlida (qse, t. VI, gv.497); farTod gavrcelebuli mosazrebis mixed- gadaazrianda da aqedanve Sevida sxva enebSic (Sdr., amgvari
viT, masagetebi arian Suaazieli skviTebi; Sdr., Teofane bizantieli
transformaciiT somxiTi/somexi iqca mosuli armenebis
(VI s.): Zvel masagetebs axla Turqebi hqviaT; maTve sparselebi kermixi-
aRmniSvnelad). bolo dromde, afsua-afxazebic Tavs Tvlidnen
onebs uwodeben (georgika, III, gv.253). zogi mkvlevari masagetebs qar-
zogadqarTuli kulturis Tanaavtorebad...
Tvelur-kavkasiur samyarosTan akavSirebs; Sdr., stefane bizantielis
qarTveluri enobriv-kulturul-saxelmwifoebrivi sivrci-
mtkicebiT, misgetebi iberTa tomia (georgika, 1936, gv.282).
kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT: dan Crdilo kavkasiaSi mcxovreb sxva iberiul-kavkasiur tomTa
warmodgenili lingvisturi sqemebi met argumentebs, xolo mkveTri ganmxoloeba iwyeba kavkasiaSi TurqeTis gaZlierebis Sem-
sakiTxi damatebiT kvlevas saWiroebs. aq udavo SeiZleba iyos mxo- deg, xolo afsua-afxazi xalxis identoba (erovnuli meoba - t.
lod is, rom ori sxvadasxva qarTvelur-kavkasiuri tomi afsil- f.) "polarulad Secvala caristul-sabWouri ideologiis
afsarebi da abazg-afxazebi saukuneebis manZilze, sakuTriv qar- mZlavrma zegavlenam 1864 wlidan dRemde" (T. gvancelaZe, 2004,
Tvelur tomTa msgavsad, erTian qarTvelur kulturul-istori- gv.19); kavkasiis sruli dapyrobis mizniT, ruseTis xelisuflebam
ul Tu saxelmwifoebriv velSi cxovrobda... faqtia isic, rom is- daiwyo aqauri mosaxleobis gasaxleba an sruli gaucxoeba tradi-
toriul Crdilo-dasavleT saqarTveloSic (kodoridan Sav ciuli qarTvelur-kavkasiuri sivrcidan; mag., saqarTvelos Zir-
zRvasTan yubanis Zvel SesarTavamde) odiTganve cxovrobdnen qar- Zveli kuTxidan - egrosis wili qveynis nawilidan - adler-soWi-
Tvelur-kavkasiuri modgmis tomebi (zanebi, sanigebi, svanebi, afsa- tuafses regionidan ruseTis imperiam 1864 da 1878 wlebSi gaasax-
rebi, abazebi...). SemTxveviTi arc is unda iyos, rom am tomTa sa- la qarTvelTa monaTesave xalxebi: ubixebi, Cerqezebi, afsua-afxa-
cxovrisebi da politikuri gavlenebi erTmaneTis teritoriebze zebi (ufro adre da amave periodSic, rusul-Turquli mzakvru-

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li garigebiT, qarTvelobisgan icleba samxreTi da samxreT-dasav- toms uwodeben (mag., stefane bizantioneli IV-VII s.); Sdr., kol-
leTi saqarTveloc)... xi a~etesi skviTTa mefea, medea - skviTTa mefis asuli (libaniosi,
qarTvelTa da afxazTa (CerqezTa, vainaxTa, lekTa...) gasamijna- ax.w. IVs.); makronebi skviTuri tomia (apolonios rodoselis sqo-
vad/dasapirispireblad sabWoTa imperiam ufro efeqturad gamoi- liasti, ax. w. I-II s.); kolxebi azieli skviTebi arian (ioane cece
yena kulturuli gaucxoebis meTodi, vidre mefis ruseTma; qar- XII s.); skviTebi egviptelTa kolonistebi arian (herodotes cno-
Tuli (afxazuri) mowinave azris aqtiurobis miuxedavad (ix. Ser- ba kolxebis Sesaxeb pindares sqoliastTan) da a.S. e. i. am koncef-
vaSiZeebis da sxvaTa moRvaweoba), ufro swrafad da xelovnurad ciiT, abasgi da afsilic isevea skviTi, rogorc kolxi da makro-
ni... (sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.102).
gagrZelda gadarCenili afxazebis gamijvna erTiani qarTveluri
aSkaraa, rom arianes dros abazgebi da afsilebi sxvadasxva
(afxazur-egrisul-qarTlur-kaxur-mesxuri) istoriidan, kul-
qarTvelur-kavkasiuri tomi iyo; Sdr., d.musxeliSvili, 2000,
turidan Tu eTnosidan; procesma piks miaRwia 1991-93 wlebSi gan-
gv.17-34: "afSils" arc geografiulad (sacxovrisis mixedviT -
xorcielebuli putCis dros, rodesac afxazeTidan - ZirZveli t.f.), arc formalur-lingvisturad araferi aqvs saerTo "afsu-
qarTveluri kuTxidan - ruseTis imperiam gamodevna erTian qar- asTan"... gvaqvs safuZveli, afSilebi erT-erT dasavlur-qarTul
Tvelur cnobierebaze orientirebuli qarTvelebica da afxaze- tomad CavTvaloT, romlis nawili gvian saukuneebSi Seerwya me-
bic, xolo darCenili afxazur-qarTul-somxur-rusuli mosaxle- grelebs, nawili ki - gaafsuvda" (iqve, Sdr.: n.lomouris azriT,
obiTurT faqtobrivad miitaca afxazeTis teritoria. Sdr., ru- afSilebi ueWvelad afsuebi arian).
seTma iolad ganaxorciela qarTvelTa monaTesave sxva eTnosebis - logikuri Cans mosazreba, rom afs- Zirisgan qarTveluri
Cerqezebisa da vainaxebis - daSla patar-patara xalxebad: abaze- sufiqsebiTaa miRebuli qarTveluri: *afS-el-i, afs-il-i, afs-
bad, abazaxebad, SafsuRebad, adiRelebad, yabardoelebad... CeCne- ar-i eTnonimebi (T.gvancelaZe, 1998, gv.34, 39); aSkaraa afs- Ziris
bad, inguSebad; Semdeg ki maTi teritoriebic miiTvisa (Tumca aqac povniereba afs-ua fuZeSic. faqtia isic, rom afsua cxovrobda
dasWirda mosaxleobis didi nawilis deportacia TurqeTsa da Sua yubanis xeobaSi, afsilebi/afsarebi - kodoris xeobaSi svanebis
aziaSi). sacxovrisamde (e.i. kodoris xeobis kavkasionis gadasasvlelebi
svanebs eWiraT, rac gamoricxavs am gziT afsuaTa gadmosvlas).
afsilebi/afSilebi, afsarebi, afsuebi. afsilebi pirvelad aseve, ueWveli Cans qoronim afxazeTi/abazgia-s warmomavloba
dasturdeba arianesTan; misi cnobebis mixedviT, afsilebi cxov- afxaz-/abazg- fuZisgan da ara - afsua/afsilisgan; maSasadame, lo-
robdnen kodoris xeobaSi; z.anCabaZe maT Tavdapirvel sacxovrisad gikuri iqneba davaskvnaT: erTi fuZisgan sxvadasxva sufiqsiT
Tanamedrove galis raions miiCnevs (z.anCabaZe, 1964). mecnierTa er- warmoqmnili ramdenime TemonimiT sxvadasxva monaTesave
Ti nawilis azriT, abazgTa msgavsad, afsilebic qarTveluri tomi qarTvelur-kavkasiuri tomebi aRiniSneboda (abaza, afxazi,
iyo (s.janaSia, s.yauxCiSvili, d.musxeliSvili da sxv..), xolo, zogis afSili, afsari, afsua...); Sesabamisad, oTxi eTnonimiT (abaza,
azriT, maTi memkvidreebi Tanamedrove afxazebi (afsuebi) arian afsari, afsua da afxazi) erTi sazogadoebis aRniSvna gviandeli
(g.meliqiSvili, z.anCabaZe, n.lomouri...). movlenaa.
agaTia sqolastikosis (VI) mixedviT, afsarebi kolxebisa da
misimielebis/svanebis monaTesaveni arian. svanebi, misimielebi - svanebi pirvelad strabonTan moixseni-
gviandeli avtorebi da komentatorebi afsilebs skviTur

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

ebian (soanas/Soanas); maSinac isini kavkasiis mTebSi cxovrobdnen; urTierTobas; vfiqrobT, SeuZlebelia, osTa metyvelebaSi zanu-
varaudoben, rom svanebi adridanve gansaxlebulni iyvnen agreTve ri substratis warmoqmna davuSvaT kodoris xeobaSi alanTa mo-
Crdilo kavkasiaSic - Tergsa da yubans Soris arsebul terito- klevadiani eqspansiis periodSi. rac Seexeba osurSi sakuTriv
riaze; Sdr., mag., memandre protiqtori (VI s.), romelic, aRwers svanuri leqsikis arsebobas: CrdilokavkasiaSi mcxovrebi osebis
ra bizantiisa da sparseTis davas svaneTis gamo, vrclad iZleva metyvelebaSi svanuri da afxazuri leqsika (rogorc adstratu-
svanTa daxasiaTebas (georgika, 1936, gv.213-233); misi cnobiT, svane- li fena) Sevida svanTa, afxazTa da osTa mezoblobis pirobebSi.
bi kavkasiis mTebis garSemo cxovroben (georgika, 1936, gv.231); ix., aqve aRvniSnavT, rom, Cveni azriT, zanur-svanuri kontinuumis ba-
agreTve, T.mibCuani, 1993; z.ratiani, 1995, gv.57-61. zaze sakuTriv svanuri metyvelebis Camoyalibeba swored welTaR-
Cans, svanebs kavkasionis strategiuli gadasasvlelebi eWi- ricxvaTa mijnidan xdeba qarTvelur (zanur) metyvelebaze Crdi-
raT, vinaidan bizantiasa da sparseTs Soris didxans grZeldebo- lokavkasiur tomTa metyvelebis dafenebiT (msjelobisaTvis ix. t.
da winaaRmdegoba svaneTis danarCunebis gamo (ix. georgika, 1936, futkaraZe, 1998); aqve aRvniSnavT, rom ara mxolod svanuri, ara-
gv.213-233). pliniusis mixedviT, svanebi dRevandeli samegrelos med araizolirebuli nebismieri mosaxleobis metyveleba
teritoriazec cxovrobdnen: "mdinare xobi kavkasiis mTebidan (ena/kilo) warmoqmnilia divergenciuli da konvergenciuli
Camomdinareobs da svaneTis miwaze dis”; amasve amtkicebs sageog- procesebis Sedegad.
rafio saxelebis dakvirvebac, mag., leCxumi, lebaCile da sxva. strabonis mixedviT, svanebi gamoirCeodnen simamaciT da didi
”Semdeg svanebis miwebi kolxebs anu megrelebs daupyriaT..." (iv.ja- fizikuri ZaliT. strabonis cnobiTve, svanebs hyavT basilevsi da
vaxiSvili, 1908, gv.46-47). Cveni azriT, pliniusis cnobis sxvagvari 300 mamakacisgan Semdgari sabWo; saWiroebis Jams gamohyavT 200000-
ganmartebac SeiZleba: kaciani laSqari. straboni svanebis sacxovrisSi arsebul mdinare-
am periodis wyaroebSi, araiSviaTad, erTmaneTs faravs termi- ebTan akavSirebs oqros sawmisis miTs; strabonTanvea Zveli
nebi: suani, sani, zani, suanokolxi, egrsvani... Cans, strabonisa da cnoba, rom oqros sabadoebis gamo (romlisganac warmoiSva miTi
pliniusis dros termini svani im ramdenime qarTveluri tomis oqros sawmisis Sesaxeb), dasavleTis iberebis analogiiT, svanebs
(egrisis nawilis, dvaleTis, skvimiis, sakuTriv svaneTis mosaxle- zogi aRmosavleTis iberebsac uwodebs, ramdenadac oqros
obis...) gamaerTianebeli, krebiTi saxelia, romelTac romaelebi sabadoebi aris orive iberiaSi (rusuli TargmanisaTvis ix., stra-
ver akontrolebdnen (Sdr.: lazika - romaelTa gavlenis sfero): boni, 1964, gv. 473, XI, II,14-19); Sdr., T.yauxCiSvilis Targmani:
yuradRebis centrSi svanebis moqceva, Cans, ganapiroba kavkasiis svanebis qveyanaSi "zamTris niaRvrebs oqro Camoaqvs, xolo
uReltexilebis strategiulobam. barbarosebi agroveben oqros daxvretili varclebiT da
Cveni azriT, Zv. w. I aTaswleulis dasasruls jer kidev dauS- banjgvliani tyavebiT: aqedan momdinareobs miTi oqros sawmisian
lelia zanur-svanuri enobrivi erToba; swored es adreuli za- verZze... (dazianebuli teqsti)... Tu ar deben iberebs msgavs saxels
nur-svanuri (da ara megruli an svanuri) dialeqturi fena unda dasavleTelebisas, romelTac aqvT oqros sabadoebi orive mxares:
vivaraudoT osur-alanuri enis substratad (masalisaTvis ix. es adgili SeiZleba gavigoT ornairad: a)espaneTis iberebs
v.abaevi, 1949, 324-329); Sdr.: gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom osurSi orive mxares aqvT oqros sabaduri; b) oqros sabadoebi aqvT,
zanuri/afsiluri substrati gaCnda kodoris xeobaSi osebis eq- rogorc espaneTis iberebs, ise saqarTvelos iberebs"
spansiis dros (n. afxazava, 1998). rogorc cnobilia, substratis (T.yauxCiSvili, 1957, gv. 126; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.139-144).
arseboba miuTiTebs damxvduri da mosuli eTnosebis xangrZliv svanebi sxva wyaroebSic Canan:

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

priske panioneli (V s.): "didi uTanxmoeba hqondaT svanTa buli *sºan- variantisgan, romelic, Cans, saerToqarTvelurSive
tomTan romaelebsa da lazebs; svanebma sastiki brZola gaaCaRes arsebobda; swored am labializebuli bgeris mezoblobas unda Se-
sematis (?lazTa sardlis) winaaRmdeg" (georgika, 1961, gv.261); ewyo xeli *San-/Svan- > Son- procesisTvis.
prokopi kesarieli (VI s.): "marto es lazike ki ar Caigdes
xelT sparselebma, aramed svimniaca da svaniac da, amrigad, moxi- SeniSvna: Cveni azriT, saerToqarTveluri a xmovani interkonsonan-
risidan iberiamde mTeli miwa-wyali gamoecalaT xelidan romae- tur poziciaSi im SemTxvevebSi gvaZlevs zanur o refleqss, rodesac
winamavali Tanxmovani labialuria, an arabagismieri labializebulia
lebsa da lazTa mefes” (georgika, 1965, gv.202).
(labiovelarizebulia): winaenismieri an ukanaenismieri Tanxmovnebis
agaTia sqolastikosi (VI s.) vrclad msjelobs misimielTa Se-
labiovelarizebuli alofonebi warmoadgenen bazas zanuris a > o
saxeb; misi cnobiT, es xalxi kolxTa mefis qveSevrdomia, msgavsad procesisTvis; Sdr.: qarTv. kaci > zan. koCi, magram: qarTv. laviwi >
afsilebisa, oRond gansxvavebul enaze laparakobs. isini afsilTa zan. laberji/laberwi; qarTv. sadave "avSara" > zan. sadio; qarTv. ga-
tomze ufro CrdiloeTiT cxovroben, odnav aRmosavleTiT; aga- cnoba > zan. gaCinefa; qarTv. adarebinebs > zan. odarebafuans; qarTv.
Tias misimielebi miaCnia kolxTa da afsilTa naTesavad; s. yaux- amzadebs > zan. zaduns; qarTv. zadi > zan. zandi "Cirqi"; qarTv. kakala-
CiSvilis logikuri varaudiT, misimielebi/misimianebi svanuri mi > zan. kakliani; qarTv. kakani > zan. kakafi; qarTv. kavi/kakvi > zan. kak-
tomia (georgika, 1936, gv.86, 161-162, 172, 347-348). misim- fuZe SeiZ- vi; qarTv. kalo > zan. kale; qarTv. kani > zan. kani; qarTv. kari > zan. ka-
leba davakavSiroT svanTa TviTsaxelwodebasTan; SesaZloa, re; qarTv. kalTa > zan. karTe da mravali sxva. amgvari sityvebi zanuri
warmodgenili berZnuli forma muSuan- fuZis damaxinjebuli va- leqsikuri maragis udides nawils Seadgens, amdenad, ulogiko iqneba,
rianti iyos: muSuan- > *muSun- > miSin-/misim-; Sdr.: qvemosvanu- isini qarTuli saliteraturo enidan "nasesxobad" CaiTvalos; am
rigis formebi saerToqarTveluridanaa momdinare (am sakiTxis Sesa-
ri - muSEan, balszemouri - muSan, balsqvemouri - muSni, latalu-
xeb vrclad sxvagan gvaqvs msjeloba).
ri - muSEan/mHSan; mHSan formisTvis amosavali SeiZleba iyos mo-
San-: mo-San/mo-san; Sdr.: mo-frang-e, mo-xev-e. suanokolxebi - Temonimi souannokolxoi dasturdeba mxo-
Sdr., p. ingoroyva, 1954, gv.144: "*mH-simi-an-i Tavisi gramati- lod klavdios ptolema~osTan (100-178 ); suanokolxebi cxovro-
kuli gaformebiT wminda qarTul tips warmoadgens: m- Tavkiduri ben henioxebsa da mdinare koraqss (bzifs) Soris; daaxloebiT am
prefiqsia, romelic erTvis eTnikur saxelebs, xolo -an-, aseve, adgilebSi ariane da sxva avtorebi sanigebs asaxeleben (T.yauxCiS-
eTnikuri saxelebis determinanti sufiqsia. aqve SevniSnavT, rom vili, 1976, gv.160-162). ramdenadac ptolema~osi suanokolxebs
p. ingoroyvas sayuradRebo varaudiT, misimianeTis Zveli saxelia kolxeTs gareT aTavsebs, gaWirdeba im azris gaziareba, rom isini
is svanebi arian, romlebic kolxeTSi cxovroben (Sdr., T.yauxCiS-
kolaeTi, ramdenadac antikur wyaroebSi kodoris xeobaSi mosax-
vili, 1976, gv.161).
le toms ewodeba kolike (p. ingoroyva, 1954, gv.142).
ptolema~osis saxelmZRvanelo ZiriTadad mihyveba fsevdo-
samecniero literaturaSi naTladaa garkveuli svan- fuZis-
skilaqss, arianesa da pliniuss (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.164); buneb-
gan warmoqmnili variantebis fonetikuri safuZvlebi:
rivia, is icnobs strabonsac; gamomdinare aqedan, unda davuSvaT,
saerToqarTv. svan-  zan.-svan.  SEan ( TviTsaxelwodeba:
rom igi eTnonim sanigebs gaazrebulad cvlis suanokolxebiT,
mo-Suan-)  zan. Soni; romliTac, Cans, igi aRniSnavs Zveli kolxebis memkvidre erT-erT
saerToqarTv. svan- zan.-svan.  SEan  afxaz. a-SEan-ua... toms; amgvari xazgasma imitom gaxda saWiro, rom, ptolema~osis mi-
vfiqrobT, Temonimi svani momdinareobs *san- fuZis labialize- xedviT, suanokolxebi cxovroben miseuli kolxeTis gareT - sarma-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

tiaSi. sayuradReboa isic, rom hekata~os mileteli (Zv.w. 549-472) qarTuli maSin, roca daiviwya regionSi intensiurad gamoyenebu-
dRevandeli mdinare bzifis raionSi asaxelebs kolxur toms - li dedaena - erT-erTi vainaxuri ena (T.uTurgaiZe, 1996).
koraqsebs (Sdr., misi azriT, kolebi bzifis auzsa da dioskurias vfiqrobT, tuskebi qarTveluri warmomavlobis xalxia, ro-
Soris arian). suano-kolxebs svanebisa da megrelebis SereviT melTa nawilis (wovaTuSebis) metyveleba Zlier Seicvala mezobe-
warmoqmnil tomad miiCnevs iv.javaxiSvili (1960, gv.429). li Tu "sisxlis Ziebas" gamoqceuli vainaxebis gavleniT. am pozi-
p. ingoroyvas azriT, svano-kolxebis aRmniSvneli unda iyos cias amyarebs lingvisturi monacemebic: wova-TuSurSi arsebiTi
termini eger-svanic, romelic gvxvdeba somex istorikos favstos adgili uWiravs adreul qarTul substrats (m. miqelaZe, 2004,
bizantielTan (p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.145). gv. 45); Sdr.: g. cocaniZis azriT, TuSuri mosaxleoba enobrivad
gansxvavebul or jgufad ganiyofa: CaRmaTuSebad da wovaTuSebad
amarantebi - stefane bizantielis (IV-VII s.) cnobiT, amaran- (g. cocaniZe, 1993, gv. 539). a. SavxeliSvilis azriT, wovaTuSuri
naxurad qceuli qarTveluri enaa, xolo b. SavxeliSvilis mtkice-
tebi kolxuri tomia; maTi qveynidan modis fazisi (georgika, 1936,
biT, wovaTuSuri ena gardamavali, damakavSirebeli rgolia qar-
gv. 275); aqve: kolxeTSi arsebobs mTa amarantioni; Sdr.: mkvlevre-
Tvelur (gansakuTrebiT Zvel qarTul) da vainaxur enebs Soris
bi am toponimSi amiranis mTas xedaven.
(b. SavxeliSvili, 2003).
aqa~ebi/aqeebi, aqeelebi - fsevdo-skilaqsis (Zv.w. IV s.) masa-
dvalebi - antikur wyaroebSi dvalebi ax.w. I saukunidan ixse- lebis mixedviT, aqa~ebi da henioxebi Tanamedrove tuafsesa da
nebian Talis, valis da ualis saxelwodebiT (r. TofCiSvili, soWs Soris unda vivaraudoT (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.83; T.yaux-
2002, gv. 62). Zveli qarTuli wyaroebisa Tu Tanamedrove mkvlevar- CiSvili, 1980); Sdr.: V saukunis anonimuri "periplusis" mixed-
Ta didi nawilis mixedviT, dvalebi qarTvelebi arian (zogi maT viT, iq, sadac adre aqa~ebi cxovrobdnen, axla Ziqebi arian.
naxebad Tvlis); dvaleTi saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi iyo 1859 straboni asaxelebs aqeis qveyanas, ariane - "Zvel aqa~as", pto-
wlamde, vidre ruseTis imperiam es qarTveluri mxare saqarTve- lema~osi - sofel aqa~as...
los sabolood ar CamoaWra. miuxedavad imisa, rom berZeni istorikosebi (straboni, apia-
tuskebi - klavdios ptolema~osi aRmosavleT sarmatiaSi asa- ne, dionisios periegeti...) eTnonimsac da tomsac berZnuli
xelebs tuskebs, didurebsa da sanarebs. T.yauxCiSvilis azriT warmomavlobisad Tvlian, Tanamedrove mkvlevarTa didi nawili
(1976, gv.167), eseni unda iyvnen wovaTuSebi, didoelebi da wanare- fiqrobs, rom aqa~ebi qarTvelur-kavkasiuri tomia; "rogorc
bi. gaumarTlebeli Cans adreul periodSi wovaTuSebisa da CaR- Cans, aqa~ebis saxeliT cnobili tomi Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sana-
maTuSebis daSoriSoreba; Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, piros Crdilo monakveTze cxovrobda daaxloebiT argonavtebis
rom CvenTvis cnobili TuSebis didi nawili erT-erT qarTvelur laSqrobis droidan ax.w. I saukunemde; II saukuneSi mcxovrebi
kiloze metyvelebs, xolo ufro mcire nawilis - wova-TuSebis - ariane maT ukve aRar axsenebs, magram icnobs geografiul punqts
metyveleba emsgavseba rogorc vainaxurs, aseve - Zvel qarTuls, "Zveli aqa~a" (T. yauxCiSvili, 1980, gv.37).
logikuri iqneba, davuSvaT tuskebis/TuSebis qarTveloba: specialistebi fiqroben, rom berZnul wyaroebSi Semonaxul
TuSebis vainaxuri warmomavlobis tomad miCnevis SemTxvevaSi saxelwodebaSi romelime qarTveluri sityvaa areklili...
gaWirdeba mtkiceba, rom saqarTvelosgan maRali mTebiT mowyve-
tilma mosaxleobam iswavla da saukuneebis manZilze SeinarCuna sindebi, Ziqebi, zixebi/zinxebi, jiqebi - aristoteles (Zv.w.

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384-322) mixedviT, sindebi skviTuri modgmis tomia; ufro zustad, sarmatia (Tavi VIII), sadac cxovroben: aqa~ebi, kerketebi, henioxe-
meoti tomia. sindebi cxovrobdnen dRevandeli anapis midamoebSi; bi da suanokolxebi. pirvel sam toms ara erTi Zveli avtori asa-
evstaTis komentaris mixedviT, sindebi igive jiqebi arian (T. yaux- xelebs da, rogorc Cans, am SemTxvevaSi klavdios ptolema~os Zve-
CiSvili, 1969, gv. 25). zikxebTanac aigiveben sindebs; mag., dionisi- li wyaro hqonda xelT: misi henioxebi Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sana-
osis (ax.w. II s.) "periegesiss" evstaTis (XII s.) komentaris mixed- piros CrdiloeT nawilSi arian da ara samxreTiT, rogorc es gvi-
viT, sindebi igive zikxebi arian, zikxebi ki gaigivebuli arian andel wyaroebSia. mas Zveli wyaroc rom hqonda xelT, amaze miu-
strabonis jiqebTan. Sdr., dionisiosi iqve, 5 striqonis qvemoT, TiTebs zinxebis (anu jiqebis) xsenebac sarmatiaSi, rac strabonis
asaxelebs eTnonim jiqebsac (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv. 222). droidan aRar gvxvdeba (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.160).
zigebi pirvelad Cndebian strabonTan (Zv. w. 64 - ax. w. 24): is jiqeTi Crdilo kavkasiaSia gviandeli wyaroebiTac: konstan-
erTad asaxelebs aqeebs, zigebsa da henioxebs, romlebic kolxebis tine porfirogeneti (IXs.): "bosforis pirdapir aris e.w. tama-
CrdiloeTiT, zRvis sanapiroze cxovroben (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, tarxis cixe. am srutis sigrZe aris 18 mili. Sua manZilze aris di-
gv.137). di vake kunZuli, e.w. atexi. tamatarxidan 18 Tu 20 milis manZilze
Sdr., devnili miTridate gverds uvlis ziqebis sacxovriss aris mdinare e.w. ukruxi, romelic hyofs jiqeTsa da tamatarxas,
maTi velurobisa da cudgzianobis gamo; napir-napir aRwevs aqee- ukruxidan nikofsiis mdinaremde, sadac imave saxelwodebis cixea,
bamde, romelnic mas kargad iReben (straboni, XI, 2, 12-14). aris jiqeTis qveyana... jiqeTis zemoT aris qveyana, papagiad wodebu-
V saukunis periplusis anonimi avtori wers: "Zvel aqeidan li, da papagiis qveynis zemoT - kasaxiad wodebuli qveyana; kasaxiis
Zvel lazikamde da mdinare aqeuntamde (es aris soWidan 30 km da- zemoT kavkasiis mTebia, xolo am mTebis zemoT - alaniis qveyana. ji-
Sorebuli) uwin cxovrobdnen tomebi: henioxebi, koraqsebi, kole- qeTis sanapiroze aris kunZulebi, erTi didi da sami patara kun-
bi, melanqlainebi, maxelonebi, kolxebi da lazebi; axla ki cxov- Zuli; maT Sua sxva kunZulebicaa, dasaxlebuli da gaSenebuli ji-
roben zixebi" (T. yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.130). qebis mier: es aris turganerxi, Carvagani da erTic sxva; aris kidev
T.yauxCiSvilis varaudiT, es ziqebi/Ziqebi, Semdegi periodis sxva kunZuli mdinaris navsayudelTan, erTic pteleasTan, sadac
jiqebi, adre qeds gadaRma, sarmatiis dablobze cxovrobdnen da jiqebi Tavs Seafarebdnen alanTa Tavdasxmebis dros"... (georgika,
strabonis dros axalgadmosaxlebulni arian zRvispireTSi; 1952, gv. 231-233).
straboni da misi momdevno bevri avtori (ariane, dionisios peri- Sdr., agreTve, nikifore grigorasi ( XIVs.): "Cingisxanis meo-
egeti, stefane bizantieli...) Semdeg ukve aq asaxelebs maT (T. ya- re vaJi telepua imorCilebs masagetebisa da savromatebis qveya-
uxCiSvili, 1976, gv.139). nas... Semdeg man gadalaxa tanaisis saTaveebi da gaswia evropel
Sdr., mag., ariane: "zRvis piras da Semdeg, kodoris xeobaSi tomTa miwa-wylis gziT; es tomebi bevrni iyvnen da sxvadasxvani...
cxovroben afsilebi. maT Semdeg ise, rom qalaqi sebastopolisi tomebi, romelnic meotis tbis mezoblad iyvnen da pontos sanapi-
maT teritoriazea, md. Saxemde arian sanigebi; sanigebs zemoT ros mosdebodnen, iyvnen: jiqebi da abazgebi, guTebi da amaqsovie-
bi, tavroskviTebi da borisTenelebi, garda amisa, iyvnen iseTebi,
mTebSi saxloben abaskebi. md. Saxedan md. negofsuxumde cxovro-
romelnic istros SesarTavTan mdebare miziaSi cxovrobdnen. maT
ben Zilqebi (jiqebi)" (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100).
hunebi da komanebi ewodebodaT..." (georgika, 1967, gv.130-131).
klavdios ptolema~osis mixedviT (II s.), zinxebis sacxovri- qarTuli wyaroebi kargad icnoben jiqebs: qarTlis cxovrebis
sad ivaraudeba teritoria mdinare yubanidan mdinare labas saTa- mixedviT, isini cxovroben Crdilo kavkasiaSi (q.c., 43, 45, 156-
veebamde; ptolema~osis azriT, kolxidis CrdiloeTiT aris aziis

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

157…). jiqebi aSkarad Zveli Crdilokavkasiuri tomia, romelsac skviTini erTi fuZisaa. berZnul-bizantiur wyaroebSi skviTebad
naklebi Sexeba hqonda qarTvelur kulturasTan. xSirad moixsenieba sxva qarTveluri modgmis xalxebic, amdenad,
savaraudoa, rom qsenofonte am SemTxvevaSic qarTvelur toms gu-
savromatebi/sarmatebi/svirmatebi - savromatTa saxeli ber- lisxmobdes. Sdr., skviTis mniSvneloba wyaroebis mixedviT:
Znul mwerlobaSi uZvelesi droidan gvxvdeba; pirvelad dastur- ariane: "dioskuriidan rom modixar, pirveli sadguria piti-
deba fsevdo-skilaqsTan (Zv.w. IV s.); esaa Crdilokavkasiis mosax- untSi, samas ormocdaaTi stadionis manZilze, aqedan nitikemde as
leoba ufro aRmosavleTiT, vidre meotidaa; iv. javaxiSvilis az- ormocdaaTi stadionia. aq Zvelad cxovrobda skviTTa tomi, ro-
riT, es saxeli momdinareobs Saro/Sarur formidan da niSnavs melsac ixseniebs istorikosi herodote. maT is girCis mWamelebs
"SaroelTa toms" (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.221). Sdr., straboni: uwodebs [fTirofagebs]" (berZeni mwerlebi... 1983, gv.159);
"skviTebsa da sarmatebs enaTesavebian mTis iberebi" (T.yauxCiSvi- ipolite romaeli (III s.): "...kapadukielTa gadaRma, marjvena
li, 1976, gv.149). zogi mkvlevari savromatebs miiCnevs alanebisa da mxareebSi cxovroben armenielebi, iberielebi da beranebi, xolo
osebis winaprebad (d.langi, 1997, gv.19).
marcxena mxareebSi: skviTebi, kolxebi da bosporelebi..." (georgi-
ka, 1961, gv.20).
kerketebi - kerketTa saxelic berZnul mwerlobaSi Zveli
iovane cece (1110-1180): iberebi, abazgebi (masagetebi) da ala-
droidan gvxvdeba; pirvelad dasturdeba fsevdo-skilaqsTan
nebi erTi tomisa arian; maTTan erTad sakebi, dakebi, savromarte-
(Zv.w. IV s.); isini cxovroben Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sana-
bi da sakuTriv skviTebi da yvela is tomi, romelnic CrdiloeTiT
piroze sindebsa da toretebs Soris (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.81).
cxovroben, sazogadod iwodebian skviTebad (georgika, 1967,
strabonis mixedviT, kerketebi cxovroben henioxebis samxreTiT;
gv.23-25). kolxebi indoeli skviTebi arian, maT lazebic ewodebaT
berZnuli termini kerketebi gaigivebulia CerqezebTan (mimoxil-
(iqve, gv.32-36).
visaTvis ix. T.yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.90); Sdr., T.yauxCiSvili 1976,
Srd., nikifore grigorasi (XIV s.): pirvandeli skviTebi or
gv. 257-258, sadac kerket- fuZisTvis amosavladaa miCneuli egr-
(egrisi) Ziri. Cer-q-ez- da ker-k-et- formebis saerTo warmomav- nawilad gaiyvnen: erTma nawilma daarbia aziaSi mcxovrebi savro-
lobis mtkiceba SesaZlebelia (Tumca rTulia sufiqsTa ident- martebi, masagetebi, melanqlainebi, amazonebi... da miiRes am damo-
ifikacia), magram gaWirdeba egr- fuZesTan maTi dakavSireba. nebul tomTa saxelebi (georgika, 1967, gv.128-129).
skviTinebi/skviTebi - qsenofontesTan dadasturebuli skvi- samecniero literaturaSi termini skviTebi da qarTuli
Tinebi cxovrobdnen Woroxis marcxena nawilSi; marjvniv iyvnen xa- wyaroebis xazarebi, rogorc wesi, veluri indoevropuli tome-
libebi; zog mkvlevars skviTinebi miaCnia skviTebis STamomavle- bis saxelebadaa miCneuli; miuxedavad berZnul wyaroTa winaaR-
bad, zogs - qarTvelur tomad - heptakometebad - Svidsoflele- mdegobrivi Cvenebisa, vfiqrobT, ara gvaqvs sakmarisi argumentebi,
bad. rom skviTebSi qarTveluri modgmis romelime sazogadoeba movi-
qsenofontes nanax skviTinebs hqondaT qalaqebic da sofle- azroT. gaWirdeba mtkicebac, rom Targamosis modgma igive indo-
bic, e.i. maT gaaCndaT saxelmwifoebrivi wyobac (sakiTxis mimoxil- evropel skviTTa modgmaa (Sdr., m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.50, 166); aseve, sa-
visaTvis ix. T.miqelaZe, 1967, gv.132)... eWvoa Targamos/Togormasa da gomeri/kimeri/kimerielis igiveoba,
faqtia, rom Woroxis xeobaSi uZvelesi droidanve mosaxleob- ramdenadac, bibliis mixedviT, gomeri iafetis Zea, xolo Togarma
dnen qarTveluri tomebi; aSkaraa isic, rom terminebi skviTi da iafetis SviliSvili; Sdr., m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.43,167, sadac, imowmebs

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

ra n.xazaraZis msjelobas, askvnis: tavrebi, aqeelebi, henioxebi, levkosirebi da isini, romelTac


"Targamosi ki aris igive Togorma, gomeri da kimiri, anu aq sa- mdinare TermodontTan egreTwodebuli amoZonTa qveyana uWi-
ubaria kimiriul-skviTur tomebze". ravT" (apiane, 1959, gv.23, 59, 143).
bibliuri eTnarqebi saxeldebulni arian Zv.w. I aTaswleulis tavrebTan da skviTebTan mimarTebiT sainteresoa termin ru-
dasawyisSi centralur evraziaSi arsebuli tomebis mixedviT da sis sakiTxi, romelic pirvelad Cndeba VI saukuneSi; sakiTxis
ara piriqiT; garda amisa, am problemis Sesaxeb msjelobisas gasaT- mokle istoria aseTia:
valiswinebelia:
ioane cece (XII s.) ambobs, rom tavrebs (e.i. tavridis
"qarTlis cxovrebiT", Targamosi iavanis/avanis SviliSvilia
mkvidrT) ewodebaT rusebi. daaxloebiT amasve ambobs leoni: tav-
da ara – gomeris: iafeti – iavani – TarSisi – Targamosi: roskviTebs Cveulebriv rusebi ewodebaTo. evstaTi ki cal-calke
"ese Targamos iyo Ze TarSisi, Ziswuli iafetisi, Zisa noesi" asaxelebs tavrebsa da rusebs.
(q.c., I, gv.3); Sdr.: r.gordeziani, 1993, gv.8 da a. jafariZe, 1994, gv.71.
T. yauxCiSvili: tavrebi Zvel berZnul wyaroebSi skviTur to-
Cans, bibliis Semoqmedi gomer-/kimiris Camomavlad ar Tvlida
mad aris miCneuli, magram "skiTis" sabadlo termini "tavri" ara-
qarTvelTa eTnarqs.
sodes yofila. aristoteles naSromis - "cis Sesaxeb" - sqolioSi
vfiqrobT, eTnonimi skviTebi kavkasia-mcireaziaSi mosul in-
arsebuli ganmarteba (romelic ekuTvnis VI s. moRvawe simplici-
doevropel tomTa zogadi saxelia; isini kunZulebad SemorCnen am
uss) "skviTebi - rusebi" safuZvels iRebs swored skviTebisa da
regionSi (osebi, armenebi), ZiriTadad ki aiTqvifnen damxvdur mo-
tavrebis gaigivebiT: skviTebi = tavrebs, tavrebi = rusebs. Tuki
saxleobaSi; maTi metyveleba superstratuli fenis saxiT dRem-
termini "rusi" iqca tavris Semcvlelad, es sulac ar niSnavs
dea SemorCenili qarTvelur enobriv velSi. skviTinebis sakiTxi
bundovani rCeba. imas, rom skviTebi rusebis winaprebi arian (T. yauxCiSvili, 1969,
tavrebi - skviTuri tomi; nikoloz damaskelis ganmartebiT gv. 28-29). tavrebisa da rusebis erTianobis mtkiceba gaWirdeba
(Zv. w. 64 ax. w. 14), tavrebi skviTuri tomia; es is xalxia, romelic (samecniero literaturaSi pirvandeli rusebi skandinaviel va-
dRes yirimad wodebul teritoriaze saxlobda da romelsac an- riagebTan arian dakavSirebuli; Tanamedrove rusebis Camoyalibe-
tikur epoqaSi tavrika ewodeboda (T. yauxCiSvili, 1969, gv.88). bis procesSi arsebiTi wili aqvs monRolur tomebsac).
Sdr., apiane (90-170 w.) skviTebsa da tavrebs sxvadasxva tome-
bad Tvlis: "Zv. w. 74 wels miTridate emzadeboda romaelebTan me- qarTvelur-kavkasiuri (avtoqToni) tomebis garda, Zv.w.
samed sabrZolvelad; mokavSireebad hyavda, Zvelebs garda, xalibe- VI saukunidan amierkavkasiaSi Cndebian indoevropeli warmoSobis
bi, armenielebi, skviTebi, tavrebi, aqeelebi, henioxebi, levkosire- armenebi da alanebi.
bi da sxvebi"; "yvelafris mimarT, rasac ki is brZanebs, mzad arian
armenebi - armenebi pirvelad Cndebian Zv.w. VI saukuneSi (heka-
[misi] megobrebi: skviTebi, tavrebi, bastarnebi, Trakielebi, sa-
ta~os mileteli, herodote): "frigielebis mezoblad arian kapa-
rmatebi da yvelani, vinc tanaisis, istrosis da Tundac meotisis
dokielebi, romelTac Cven sirielebs vuwodebT, xolo amaTi me-
tbis irgvliv [cxovroben]"; "[miTridates], uwindeli Zalebis
zoblebi arian kilikielebi... kilikielebis mezoblad arian arme-
garda, mokavSireebad Seematnen: xalibebi, armenielebi, skviTebi, nielebi... xolo armenielebis mezoblad arian matienebi, romel-

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

Tac es qveyana uWiravT" (herodote, 1975, gv. 330, V, 49); Sdr., iqve, xurituli modgmis xalxis eTnarqia, xolo armeniaki - mosuli in-
gv. 434: "... frigielebs, rogorc makedonelebi amboben, ewodebaT doevropelebisa - skviTebisa; moxda avtoqToni da mosuli xalxis
brigebi, mTeli im xnis ganmavlobaSi, sanam evropelebi iyvnen da Serwyma (m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.42-43); Sdr.: kulturaTa/enaTa/xalxTa
makedonelebis mezoblad cxovrobdnen, xolo, aziaSi rom gada- Serwyma-"ganayofiereba" Cveulebrivi ambavia Zvel samyaroSi; ix.,
vidnen, miwa-wyalTan erTad saxelic gamoicvales, frigielebi da- mag., promeTe/amiranisa da zevsis mimarTeba.
irqves. armenielebi, romlebic frigielebisagan momdinareoben,
frigielebis msgavsad iyvnen mowyobilebi." Sdr., diodore sici- alanebi - berZnul wyaroebSi alanebi naxsenebi ar arian axa-
lielis mier CamoTvlili tomebis Tanamimdevroba (Zv. w. I s.): kar- li welTaRricxvis I saukunemde. pirvelad axsenebs ioseb flaviu-
duxebi, armenielebi, xaebi (e.i. taoxebi), fasianebi, xaldebi, ski- si; maT ukve icnobs dionios periegeti, ptolemaiosi, lukiane...
tinebi, makronebi, kolxebi, mosAinoikebi, tibarenebi" (T. yauxCiS- (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.221-222). alanebs xazarTa nawilad Tvlis
vili, 1976, gv.124); ipolite romaeli (III): "kapatukielTa gadaRma, qarTveli mematiane. alanebic (armenTa msgavsad) kavkasiaSi Seda-
marjvena mxareebSi cxovroben armenielebi, iberielebi da berane- rebiT gvian damkvidrebuli tomia. "alanTa qveynisTvis saxelis
bi, xolo marcxena mxareebSi - skviTebi, kolxebi da bosporelebi" mimcemi eTnosi unda yofiliyo ara osi mosaxleoba, aramed
(georgika, 1961, gv.19)... Zv.w. II saukuneSi armenebi did warmatebebs yaraCaelebi, romlebsac alanTa saxeliT icnobdnen rogorc Sua
aRweven. saukuneebSi, ise XX saukunis dasawyisis samegreloSic"
iv. javaxiSvilis azriT (1960, gv.437), ramdenadac qsenofonte (T.gvancelaZe, 2004, gv. 58). am xalxis, indoevropeli osebisa da
araqsis midamoebSi alarodebis nacvlad ukve armenebs asaxelebs, damxvduri kavkasielebis SereviT warmoiSvnen amJamindeli osebi
SesaZlebelia, vimsjeloT am tomis kavkasiaSi mosvlis SedarebiT (v.abaevi osur enas ganixilavs samxreT ruseTis Zveli mosaxleo-
zust TariRzec. bis - skviTebis, masagetebis, sarmatebis, alanebis... enaTa jgufSi;
CvenTvis savsebiT sarwmunoa samecniero literaturaSi gaba- v.iarceva, 1990, gv.353).
tonebuli azri, rom eTnonimi somexi Tavdapirvelad erTi ganapi-
ra qarTveluri tomis an, sulac, monaTesave urartuelebis saxe- Semdgomi msjelobis gagrZelebamde, kidev erTxel, Ziri-
li iyo; Cans, saukuneebis manZilze TandaTan damkvidrebulma ar- Tadad, TviTmxilvel mogzaurTa Tu mecnierTa mixedviT, davasaxe-
menebma nel-nela moaxdines urartul-qarTvelur tomTa asimila- lebT im qarTvelur tomebs, romlebic cxovrobdnen Zveli wel-
cia; asimilirebuli qarTveluri tomis metyvelebis danaSrevi aS- TaRricxvis dasasruls:
karaa rogorc armenielTa enaSi (kavkasiuri abruptivebis rigis hekata~os mileteli (Zv.w. 549-472): melanqla~nebi, koraqsebi,
arsebobis faqti!), aseve, maT anTropologiur maxasiaTeblebSi. kolebi, mosxebi, xo~ebi, beqe~rebi, diZerebi, makronebi, marebi,
SemTxveviTi ar Cans is, rom araratis Zveli saxeli - masis mTa da mosinoikebi, tobarenebi, xalibebi. sainteresoa is garemoeba, rom
eTnonimi somex-i (< * so-mes-x- < * sa-mas-x-) erTmaneTTan daakavSira koraqsebisa da mosxebis Sesaxeb hekata~osi ambobs, kolxuri tome-
n.marma; ar gamoiricxeba sxva gzac: *mas-x-  *sam-x-  som-x-; saki- biao (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.43);
Txi Semdgom kvlevas saWiroebs. herodote (484 - 425): kolxebi, saspe~rebi, xalibebi, makrone-
samecniero literaturaSi msjeloben armenebisa da skviTebis bi, mosxebi, tibarenebi, mosino~kebi, marebi; maTi monaTesaveni
saerTo warmomavlobis Sesaxeb (n.xazaraZe, 1984, gv.194); sarwmunoa arian: alarodielebi (urartuelebi), matienebi (herodote,
mosazrebac, rom: haiki kavkasiaSi mosaxle (avtoqToni) urartul- 1975);

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winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi

qsenofonte (435-355): karduxebi, taoxebi, xaldebi, xalibebi, mosaxleoba) rom ar yofiliyvnen, srul araqarTvelurenovan ga-
fasianebi, skviTinebi, makronebi, kolxebi, drilebi, hesperitebi, remocvaSi verasodes iswavlidnen qarTuls.
mosinikebi, ko~tebi (morCili xalibebi? - t.f.), tibarenebi kaxTa, kuxTa da herTa gverdiT unda davasaxeloT: fxovelebi
(T.miqelaZe, 1967); (xevsurebi, fSavlebi, moxeveebi, mTiul-gudamayrelni) da
fsevdo-skilaqsi (IV s.): savromatebi, ma~otebi, sindebi, ker- dasavleT saqarTvelos mkvidri skvimnebi/skviminebi/cxume-
ketebi, toretebi, aqa~ebi, henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolebi, melan- bi/*Cxumebi/Cxumni (sakiTxis istoriis, berZnuli wyaroebis skvi-
qla~nebi, gelonebi, kolxebi, biZerebi, ekeqe~rebi, beqe~rebi, mak- miis, svimiis, cxum/leCxumisa da Takver-raWis Sesaxeb ix.
rokefalebi, mosino~kebi, tibarenebi, xalibebi. l.fruiZe, 1993, gv.471-478; d.leTodiani, 2003, gv.18-30). Sdr.:
ariane (II s.): trapizonidan Zvel aqaiamde Semdegi tomebi gavi- skvim/*cqvim-, Cxum-/le-Cxumi; savaraudo ckvim-/cxvim-/Cxvim-
areT: kolxebi, sanebi (qsenofontes drilebi), makronebi, henioxe- /Cxum-/cxum- mosalodneli formebis Tavkiduri TanxmovanTkom-
bi, Zidritebi, lazebi (arianesTan lazebi da kolxebi Tanaarsebo- pleqsis gadmosacemad berZnulSi gamoyenebulia skv/sv mimdevro-
ba, rac gvavaraudebinebs, rom ax.w. VI saukuneSi leCxumis oficia-
ben da xazgasmiT sxvadasxva tomebia - t.f.), afsilebi, abaskebi, sa-
luri saxeli iyo saerToqarTveluri agebulebis sityva: ckvi-
nigebi, Zilqebi;
mi/cxvimi. leCxumi dialeqturi variantia; le-/la- saerToqar-
nikoloz damaskeli (Zv.w. 64 - ax.w.14): kolxebi, sindebi, tavre-
Tveluri sufiqsi Cans, romelic produqtiulia zanursa da sva-
bi, mosinebi, kerketebi, savromatebi... nurSi; sakuTriv qarTulSi dadasturebuli masalisaTvis ix.:
am tomTa garda, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi amave periodSi b.jorbenaZe, m.kobaiZe, m.beriZe, 1988, gv.268: la-rty-i, la-rTx-i...
cxovrobdnen agreTve: da m.Cuxua, 2003, gv.77: le-Jver-i = sa-Jver-e. daniSnulebis la-
kaxebi, kuxebi (iv.javaxiSvili, 1969, gv.437) da herebi (herTa /le- aq warmomavloba-krebiTobis -eT-/-aT-, -ar-/-er- sufiqsebis
vinaobis Sesaxeb ix. k.ficxelauri, 1973, gv.197). kaxebis qarTvelu- fardia; Sdr., paraleluri warmoebebi: le-Cxum-i, sa-qarTvel-o
roba dResac yvelasTvis TvalsaCinoa; kuxebis mxare - kuxeTi, da cxum-i, cxum-ar-i, sxim-ar-i/sqim-ar-i, svan-eT-i...
rogorc erTi qarTveluri tomis sacxovrisi, VIII saukunemde ar- amrigad, aSkaraa, rom II aTaswleulis dasasrulidan wel-
sebobs; Semdeg ki kaxeTSi samTavros SemadgenlobaSi Sedis; Sdr., TaRricxvaTa mijnamde saqarTvelos istoriul teritoriaze
agreTve: d.musxeliSvilis azriT, leonti mrovelis mier mocemu- cxovrobdnen qarTvelurad misaCnevi da, savaraudod, qarTve-
li sazRvrebi kaxeTis, kuxeTisa da hereTisa Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebis lur ena-kavebze anu dialeqtebze molaparake Semdegi monaTe-
save tomebi (SemTxveviTi arc is Cans, rom, araiSviaTad, maTi sa-
viTarebas asaxavs (d.musxeliSvili, 1966, gv.5-38). zog mkvlevars
cxovrisebi faravda erTmaneTs):
herebi albanur tomad miaCnda, magram hereTis teritoriaze ga-
muSqebi/mosxebi/mesxebi, daianelebi/diauxebi/taoxebi, ko-
vrcelebuli wamyvani iaraRebi Tu sxva nakeTobani kaxeT-kuxeTSi - laelebi, tibarenebi, iberebi/saspeirebi/sapirebi, quTebi/ko-
da qarTlSi mopovebul masalasTan erTad erT safuZvelzea itebi/kvitebi, koraqsebi, marebi, beqe~rebi, haliZonebi/xali-
warmoSobili da, bunebrivia, maTTan Seudareblad met msgavsebas bebi, xaldebi/qaldebi, mosino~kebi/heptakometebi, diZerebi,
iCens, vidre hereTis samxreTiT da aRmosavleTiT gavrcelebul biZerebi, Zidritebi, makronebi/makrokefalebi, fasianebi, me-
masalasTan, romelic sul sxva sawyisebzea Seqmnili (k.ficxelau- lanqlainebi, ekriktikes mcxovrebni/ekeqe~rebi, henioxebi, sa-
nebi/Wanebi, sanigebi/sanikebi, lazebi, afxazebi, abaskebi,
ri, 1973, gv.197). garda amisa, herebis amJamindeli STamomavlebi –
afsarebi, svanebi/misimielebi, svano-kolxebi, amarantebi
ingiloebi Tavidanve qarTvelebi (monolingvuri qarTulenovani (kolxuri tomi), tuskebi, kaxebi, kuxebi, cxumebi, fxovelebi,

- 158 - - 159 -
winareqarTvelur da qarTvelur tomTa saxelebi qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

herebi... 1.2.2. qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli


am tomTa didi nawilis qarTvelurobis Sesaxeb sarwmuno
cnobebi jer kidev antikuri periodidan moipoveba (mag., agaTias Zvel qarTul istoriul wyaroebSi "yovelTa qarTvelTa" sa-
azriT, misimielebi, kolxebi da afsilebi naTesavebi arian). zogi
xelmwifos saxelia qarTli; mag., "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT,
uZvelesi qarTveluri tomi saerTod daikarga (mag., gugarTa to-
mis Sesaxeb ix. iv.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.24-33); bevris saxelic dRe- farnavazis (Zv.w. IV s.) mier ganaxlebul-aRdgenili qarTli moi-
mde SemorCa qarTveluri Temebis (mesxebi, taoelebi, lazebi, sva- cavs rva did saerisTavod dayofil Semdeg kuTxeebs (qveynebs): eg-
nebi, fxovelebi, megrelebi, herebi, kaxelebi da sxva), an konkre- riss, suaneTs, margueTs, kaxeTs, hereTs, kuxeTs, gardabans, ta-
tuli adgilis, regionis (kolxeTis dablobi, oZrxe, viwe, quTai- Sirs, abocs, javaxeTs, kolas, artaans, samcxes, aWaras, klarjeTs
si...) Tu romelime xalxis (mag., somxebis...) saxelebis saxiT. (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.24-25).
unda vivaraudoT, rom II-I aTaswleulebSi ZiriTadad swo- mematiane xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom quj-farnavazis saxelmwi-
red am tomTagan iZerweba qarTveluri eTnosi (amis Sesaxeb ix. II
foSi - sruliad qarTlis SemadgenlobaSi ar Semovida Crdilo-
Tavi); xolo maTi kiloebis bazaze arsebuli koines mixedviT
iqmneba samwignobro enac. warmodgenili masalis analizi cxad- dasavleT saqarTveloSi (Tanamedrove kodoridan - yubanis Sesar-
yofs, rom Cvens istoriul sacxovrisSic xdeboda qarTvelur-kav- Tavamde teritoria) mcxovrebi qarTveluri (egrosis) modgma; eg-
kasiur-winaaziur tomTa Sidamigraciebic da erTmaneTis xarjze riselTagan gansxvavebiT, maT isev berZenTa proteqtoratis qveS
politikuri hegemonobis velis gafarToebac; ucxo ar iyo indo- darCena irCies:
evropel Tu semit tomTa Semorevebic. bunebrivia, samwignobro "egris wyals quemoT darCa berZenTa, rameTu mkAdrTa mis
enis Seqmnamde, politikuri liderobis Sesabamisad, qarTvelTa adgilisaTa ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa...", Tumca, mematianisve
sxvadasxva kilouri normac batondeboda, riTac biZgi eZleoda
cnobiT, mogvianebiT es teritoria mainc dauTmes berZnebma qar-
gardamavali kiloebis warmoqmnasac. droTa ganmavlobaSi sakuT-
riv qarTveluri enis/koines, Zveli qarTveluri kiloebisa da am Tvelebs. egrosis wili qveynis am nawilSi, romauli wyaroebis mi-
gardamavali metyvelebebis safuZvelze yalibdeba Tanamedrove xedviT, welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze lazebi cxovroben, ufro adre
qarTveluri kiloebi. saqarTvelos ganapira regionebSi dialeqt- ki, ZiriTadad, kolxuri tomebi (ix. zemoT).
ebis saxes gansazRvravs mezobel eTnosTa enebis adstratuli Tu ax.w. I-II aTaswleulebis mijnaze termin qarTls cvlis saqar-
superstratuli gavlenebic. Tvelo (an: erTobili saqarTvelo).
qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, qarTvelTa ZiriTadi TviTsa-
xelwodebaa qarTu-el-i; wyaroebSi qarTveli pirvelad Cndeba
VII saukuneSi, Tumca es termini ufro adrec unda yofiliyo aq-
tiur gamoyenebaSi; mag., wyaroebis mixedviT, "naTesaviT qarTvele-
bi" arian: egriseli stefane sanano~sZe, afxazi (argveTeli) wame-
bulebi daviT da konstantine, SavSeli mama proxore, taoeli mama
iovane, svani beri iovane qscxianisZe... Sdr., X-XII saukuneebSi
saqarTvelos kulturuli veli moicavs Crdilokavkasiis did nawi-
lsac (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. d.musxeliSvili, 1993).
qarTuel-/qarTvel- fuZis istoriisa da etimologiis Sesa-

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xeb samecniero literaturaSi mravalgvari mosazreba gamoiTqva: qarTvel- da qarTl- fuZeebis etimologiis Sesaxeb kidev aR-
n.mari (1908, gv. 5; 1933, gv. 31): qarT-/qarTl-/qarTvel- fuZeebi saniSnavia:
ukavSirdeba qasd- eTnonims, romlisganac miRebulia qald-/xal- s. kakabaZe: qarTli (armazis Zveli saxeli) dakavSirebulia
di-c; kerZod: qasdiv- > qarTiv- > qarTiv-el-i > qarTveli (Sdr., "qarTa" (baga), qori, qoredi, qardagi da svan. "qvilTxi" (maRali)
i.WavWavaZe, 1955, gv.113: qaldi/qaldisi > qarTlosi)... sityvebTan (s. kakabaZe, 1924, gv. 6-8); msjelobas lingvisturi argu-
iv. javaxiSvili erTmaneTTan akavSirebda qarTu/kardusa da mentacia ar axlavs; metic, mag., misi azriT, qarT-l- formaSi -l-
qarTvels; kerZod, misi azriT, "sityva qarTvelis pirveli nawi- mravlobiTobis sufiqsia. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom warmodgenili
li "qarTu" Cveni qveynis saxeli unda iyos... sityva "karduxic" qarT-/qarTa mraval sxva enaSic dasturdeba; indoevropul enebSi
("megrul-Wanuri Stois tomis saxeli") Cveulebriv erovnebis aR- am fuZes ukavSirdeba: garado, gard-, grad-, gorod-, kert- da sxva
mniSvnel sakvec -xi-T bolovdeba; am sityvis pirveli nawilic un- formebi. qarTvelur kiloebSi arsebuli qarTa (baga, SemoRobi-
da qveyanasa niSnavdes... raki am qveynis saxeli orive Stois (qarT- li adgili) fuZe marTlac nasesxebia; misi kavSiri qarTl-, qar-
megruli) tomebis saxelwodebaSi moipoveba, ueWvelia, igi qar- Tvel- fuZeebTan sxva mimarTulebiTaa sakvlevi (ix., qvemoT).
Tvelebis Tavdapirveli saerTo samSoblo unda yofiliyo"; "si- g. meliqiSvili: eTnonimi qarTveli momdinareobs indoevro-
tyvebi nairi, ba~ana, urartu mxolod qveynebis sakuTari saxele- puli qarTa ("zRude", "cixesimagre", "koSki"…Sdr., somx. kert,
bia, TviTon xalxi ki TavisTavs qaldis anu xaldis uZaxda (xazi rus. gorod da sxv.) fuZidan: qarTa-eli > qarTa-v-el-i > qarTve-
Cvenia - t.f. Sdr., g.meliqiSvili, 1954, gv. 28-29). Cven viciT, rom es li; Sdr., raWa > raWveli (g. meliqiSvili, 1965, gv. 238). amgvar va-
saxeli qarTveli tomebis sazogado saxelwodeba iyo (qarTu-el- rauds seriozuli winaaRmdegoba axlavs: ramdenadac qarTuli
i, kardu-xi); amitom safiqrebelia, rom es qaldebi qarTvelebis ena gverdigverd ver guobs or xmovans, erT-erTi umarcvlovnde-
RviZli Zmebi yofiliyvnen (iv. javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.27, 56; iv. java- ba, an maT Soris Cndeba xmovanTgamyari, mag., xe - axevebs, qva - aqva-
xiSvili, 1960, gv.411; ix. agreTve s. janaSia, 1959, gv.194-195). vebs… Tu qarTa-el- forma arsebobda da gaCnda v xmovanTgamyari,
qaldeasagan qarTvelis momdinareoba popularuli gaxda XX a-s reduqciis pirobebi aRar iarsebebda; raWvel- sityvaSi v aris
saukunis pirveli naxevarSi moRvawe mwerlebisaTvis, gansakuTre- C - V poziciaSi W-s labializaciis Sedegi da qarTvelis analogi-
biT aRsaniSnavia grigol robaqiZis reminiscenciebi (romelsac, ad ar gamodgeba.
faqtobrad, lingvisturi argumentebis TvalsazrisiT, ver ga- ak.SaniZe: Tavdapirvelad qarTli aRniSnavda ers, romelmac
scilda bevri mkvlevari); XX saukunis dasasruls ki amgvari mi- Cvens welTaRricxvamde II saukuneSi daipyro mcxeTa da mimdgomi
dgoma kvlav gaaaqtualura zviad gamsaxurdiam (1991, gv.27, 220),
qveynebi… dapyrobili xalxi albaT iyo mesxebi, romelTac asimi-
romelic, imowmebda ra niko maris mosazrebas, qarTvelTa saxels
lacia mouxdines dampyrobel qarTls (ers) da miiRes maTi saxeli
da sacxovriss mTa kardus saxelTan (amJamindel araratTan) da (a.SaniZe, 1980, gv.7).
RvTaeba kardusTan akavSirebda; zogi ucxoeli specialisti ib-
SeniSvna: Sdr., ufro adre gamoTqmuli n.maris mosazreba: iberTa sa-
er-qarTebis winaprebad Tvlida zemo mesopotamiaSi – istoriul
mefo arsebobas wyvets 570 wels; iberebs cvlian lazebi (igive Wanebi),
gordueneSi – mcxovreb karduxebs (g.meliqiSvili, 1965, gv.19-20); afxazebi da qarTvelebi; uZvelesi qarTuli ena, romelic Seqmnes sva-
Sdr.; karduxebs miiCneven xuritul tomad, romelsac daefenen nomesxebma, anu adrindelma somexma xalxma (n.mari varaudobda, rom
qurTebi. adrindeli somxebi qarTveluri modgmis xalxi iyo; bolos isini da-

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mkvidrdnen cxeniswylisa da enguris saTaveebSi - svaneTSi - t.f.), da- Wiro yuradReba eTmoba sityvaformis Tanmimdevrul lingvistur
imsgavsa qarTvelebis enam - monaTesave enam, magram sxva xalxis enam analizs; kerZod, is vrclad msjelobs qarTvel- fuZeSi arsebuli
(n.mari, 1922, gv.15, 18). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom swored n.maris naSrome-
-v-s Sesaxeb da askvnis: v SeiZleba momdinareobdes -av- sufiqsisgan;
bidan iRebs saTaves e.w. qarTizacia-qarTvelizaciis mcdari Teoria
(ix., agreTve, iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.46).
Sdr.: Zveli eTnonimi qarT-, romlisganac warmoebulia *qarT-av-
i/*qarTevi; aqedan ki - *qarT-ev-el-i > qarTveli; misi azriT, eT-
ak. SaniZis varaudiT, dampyrobeli xalxi - qarTli igive
nonimis fuZis (qarT-) warmomavloba sakvlevia. Cveni azriT,
parTni anu parTielebi arian; Sesabamisad: parTni > qarTli (mo-
warmodgenil msjelobaSi sakamaToa v-s kvalifikacia.
xda p > q procesi da n/l substitucia); Sdr., ak. SaniZisve azriT,
e.xinTibiZis mtkicebiT, "qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba Semcve-
sxva gziTaa miRebuli qarTveli: parTaveli > parTveli > qar-
lia imave qar- Zirisa, romlisganacaa nawarmoebi qarTvelTa uZve-
Tveli (ak.SaniZe, 1980, gv.16-18).
lesi ucxouri saxelwodebebi: Zveli sparsuli vrkaan, somxuri
ak. SaniZis warmodgenil mosazrebas bevri winaaRmdegoba xvde-
ba, da, Sesabamisad, is naklebadaa gaziarebuli samecniero wreeb- virq, veria, saSualo sparsuli varuCaan, axali sparsuli gurg,
Si (kritikisaTvis ix. mag., g. burWulaZe, 1994). gurgaan (da maTgan nawarmoebi siriuli, arabuli, evropuli da
d. musxeliSvili imeorebs mosazrebas, rom qarTveli momdi- rusuli saxelwodebebi) da romelic saTaves unda iRebdes mglis
nareobs sityva qarTu-sgan, romelic, "advili SesaZlebelia, pun- aRmniSvneli totemuri saxelisagan" (e.xinTibiZe, 1998, gv.39-40);
qtsac da qveyanasac ewodeboda" (d. musxeliSvili, 1993, gv. 338- aqvea mtkiceba, rom "qarT- eTnonimi miRebuli Cans mglis mniSvne-
339); iqve moyvanili msjelobidan Cans, rom avtori, n. berZeniSvi- lobis Semcvel warmodgenil uZveles indoevropul Zirze -eT/-Ta
lis kvalad, realurad Tvlis qarTi/qarTu tomis arsebobas, ro- sufiqsis darTviT: *qar-Ta-el-i > *qarTeli > qarTli". winaaR-
melmac Semdgom moaxdina sxva qarTvelur tomTa konsolidacia- mdegobebi am mosazrebasac xvdeba; kerZod: qarTvelTa aRmniSvne-
asimilacia (gv. 348, 354-355; Sdr., n. berZeniSvili, 1990, gv.237, 250). li sparsul-arabuli saxelebis qarT- fuZesTan dakavSirebas ar
kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom arc erT wyaroSi ar dasturdeba axlavs damajerebeli lingvisturi argumentacia (mag., Tavkiduri
qarTi/qarTus saxeliT cnobili tomi da sxva tomebis asimila- Tanxmovnis cvlilebas), dausabuTebelia qarTaeli > qarTli
cia rogor unda moexdina? garda amisa, eTnonimisgan eTnonimis procesi da sxv.
warmoeba, rogorc wesi, ar xdeba; aqve davZenT, logikurad Tu g. bedoSvilic (2001, gv.425) fiqrobs, rom eTnonim qarTisgan
vimsjelebT, warmomavlobis -el- sufiqsis Semcveli eTnonimis - warmoqmnilia qarTli (< qarT-al-i), am ukanasknelisgan ki:
qarTu-el-i - sayrdeni fuZe qarTu- unda iyos: qoronimi/adgilis qarTl-el-i > qarT-el-i > qarT-v-eli. misive varaudiT, qarT-
saxeli an RvTaebis saxeli. (/qarT-u-/qarT-v-) Ziris mniSvneloba ucnobia; warmodgenil msj-
a.jafariZe iziarebs iv.javaxiSvilisa da s.janaSias mosazrebebs elobaSi auxsnelia: l > 0 > v procesebi. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom 2004
termin qarTvelis qaldeasgan momdinareobis Sesaxeb; misi azriT, wlis 14 Tebervals g.bedoSvilma saqarTvelos sapatriarqos ra-
bibliuri da istoriuli qaldea ebraelTa da qarTvelTa pir- dios samecniero gadacemaSi: "qarTveluri ena da kultura" axali
velsamSobloa… "abraamis mamis - Tarras - qaldevelTa uridan varaudi ganaviTara; kerZod, amJamad is Tvlis, rom eTnonimi qar-
gamosvlis droisaTvis qaldea marTlac qarTvelTa winapari to- Tveli miRebulia eTnarq qarTlosisgan... rogorc wesi, eTnarqTa
mebiT yofila dasaxlebuli" (a.jafariZe, 1994, gv.31-33). saxelebi Zveli eTnonimebis mixedviT iqmneba; Sesabamisad, vfi-
g. burWulaZis gamokvlevaSi (g.burWulaZe, 1999, gv.127-128) sa- qrobT, rom rogorc bibliur, aseve qarTlis cxovrebiseul eT-

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narqTa sqemebSi asaxulia am wignTa qmnadobis procesSi arsebuli varZia (< *vard-ia) da kardenaxi/kardanaxi sityvebSic (Sdr., g.be-
xalxebis/tomebis/Temebis saxelebi. doSvili, 1981, gv. 192: karT venaxi > kardenaxi).
gr. giorgaZe (2002, gv.161), agrZelebs ra g.meliqiSvilisa da Cveni azriT, nulTan monacvle labiovelarizebuli
d.musxeliSvilis msjelobebs, varaudobs: "unda arsebuliyo eT- Tavkiduri Tanxmovnis Semcveli *q˚ard-/xald-/qarT-/ald-/arT-
nonimi, iseve rogorc toponimi, an qoronimi "qarTu" - megrelTa (/*qvard-/vard-/varZ-) fuZis - RvTaebis/salocavis saxelis - mi-
mier aRmosavlel qarTvelTa saxelwodeba. mogviano xanebSi swo- xedviT SeiZleboda aRniSnuliyo mTa/cixe/punqti (Sdr., RvTaeba
red aqedan unda warmomdgariyo qarTu-el-i, rasac safuZvlad un- armazi - toponimi armazi); Sesabamisad, toponimebi: arTvini,
da dasdeboda sityva qarT-". artanuji, artaani, vardcixe (ardis cixe), varZia, kardenxi
dRes megrelTa mier aRmosavleli qarTveli qorTu-d iwode- (karden-a-x-i), ardubani da sxva, marTlac SeiZleba iyos
ba (m.Cuxua); Tuki megruli qorTu-sTvis amosaval formad qarTu dakavSirebuli warmarTuli saqarTvelos mTavari RvTaebis
fuZes davsaxavT, ra gviSlis xels, rom igive qarTu- saerToqar- saxelTan. aseve, ar gamovricxavT, rom ard- fuZisganaa nawarmoebi
Tvelurad gamovacxadoT? garda amisa, aq upasuxod rCeba mTavari
toponimi olTisi: *ard-is-i > *alT-is-i > olTisi; Sdr.:
kiTxva: ra warmomavlobisaa qoronimi qarTu?
xurituli ard-in-i ardis/xaldis cixe-qalaqi; qarTveluri
S.gabeskiria (2003, gv.33-37) fiqrobs, rom qarTvelur, indoev-
olT-is-i RvTaeba olTis/xaldis cixe-qalaqi.
ropul da ugro-finur enebSi dadasturebuli qarT- ("moRobili
sainteresoa, agreTve, urartuelTa umaRlesi RvTaeba
adgili", "qalaqi") Ziridanaa warmoqmnili qarTvel-, qarTl- da
xaldis musasiruli varianti aldi (g.meliqiSvili,1960, gv.416),
xaTT- (xaTebis sakuTari saxeli) fuZeebi; kerZod, ivaraudeba Sem-
degi procesebi: qarT- > qarTu-x- > qarTu > qarTu-el-i; qarT- > Zv.sparsuli arta "RvTaeba" da alanur-osuri ard "RmerTi"
qarT-n-i > qarTli; qarT- > xaTT-. warmodgenil mosazrebaSi sayu- (aqedan: qarT. ma-arT-al-i; m.andronikaSvili, 1966, gv, 26-27).
radReboa qarT- da xaTT- formaTa dakavSireba; aqve, vfiqrobT, marTal- fuZeSi unda gamovyoT urartul-kavkasiuri xald-/ald-
ufro logikuri iqneboda dagveSva, rom qarTi (RvTaebis saxeli /arT- da warmomavlobis m- -al-; Sdr., m-arT-al-i: "RvTis
da ara "moRobili adgili") amosavalia rogorc qarTueli, aseve, Camomavali", "RvTisnieri" (Sdr.: m-tbev-ar-i, m-egr-el-i...). Se-
karduxi, sityvaformebisTvis; garda amisa, qarTni > qarTli uni- mdgomi kvleva albaT daadasturebs, rom xuritul-kavkasiuri
kaluri procesis daSvebas ajobebs, vivaraudoT qarT- Zirze -l- xald-/qarT-/*harT-/ard-"RvTaeba", winaaziel indoevropelTa
sufiqsis darTva (ix. qvemoT). metyvelebaSi dadasturebuli ard "RmerTi" da qarTvelur, indo-
g.qavTaraZis azriT (2003, SeniSvna 176), mTa qarTlis saxelSi evropul, ugro-finur enebSi dadasturebuli qarT-/arT-/kert-
(Sesabamisad, qarTvel- fuZeSic) SeiZleba gamoiyos ard-/qarT- /gorod- "cixe-qalaqi" (< mTavari RvTaebis adgili, mTavari salo-
"qalaqi" xurituli fuZe; mkvlevari varaudobs, rom qarT-li cavi adgili) fuZeebi erTi warmomavlobisaa, kerZod: ard-
formaSi -li adgilis mawarmoebeli urartuli sufiqsia, xolo /*harTi /xald- warmoSobiT xuritul-kavkasiuri fuZea, romelic
Tavkidura Tanxmovnis da nulis monacvleobis magaliTebad moyva- Tavdapirvelad RvTaebas aRniSnavda da Semdeg indoevropul
nilia: aRzevani/qaRzevani, arimati/xarimati, obareni/xabareni, enebSi gadaazrianda cixesimagris saxelad (vinaidan, Zvel droSi
alibe/xalibe... g.qavTaraZis varaudiT, arT- fuZe saZiebelia ar- salocavi yvelaze metad iyo daculi). indoevropuli
Tvini (/arT-vani < arT-ovan-i - t.f.), artanuji, artaani, vardcixe, varianti mogvianebiTaa nasesxebi qarTvelur kiloebSic; Sdr.,

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erTi mxriv, saerToqarTveluri xald-/qarT(u) da megrul, RvTaebis aRmniSvneli qarT-, qarTu- da sakuTriv qarTl-,
gurul, imerul da sxva kiloebSi arsebuli qarTa qarTvel-, qarTul- fuZeTa mimarTebis istoria Cven ase gvesaxeba:
("saqonlisTvis SemoRobili adgili"). qarTvelur enobriv velSi realurad dadasturebul sityva-
SeniSvna: SesaZlebelia, davuSvaT, rom ardi /*harTi /qarTi Ta Sepirispireba safuZvels gvaZlevs, pirvel rigSi gamovyoT ori
"RvTaeba" dakavSirebulia qarTvelur erT-/arT- ricxviT fuZe: qarT- da qarTu-: qarT-l-i, qarTu-el-i, qarT-u-l-i; qarT-
niSanTanac. dasaSvebia meore sqemac: kavkasiur-winaziuri ħald- > l- fuZis paralelurad SeiZleba davuSvaT qarTE-l-i/qarTv-l-i
q˚arT- /*R˚arT- (/*RarT˚- /˚ard- /ard-) > saerToqarTveluri variantis arsebobac.
*RvarT- /*RmarT- /RmerT- > samwignobro qarTuli RmerTi (a/e
qarT-l- fuZeSi arsebuli -l- segmenti igive monacemi Cans,
monacvleoba da labializebuli R˚-sgan Rm kompleqsis ganviTareba
rac arn.Ciqobavas mier sxva fuZeebSi gamoyofili uZvelesi fenis
savsebiT SesaZlebelia; Sdr., h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, 2000; aqvea
mimoxiluli sakiTxis Seswavlis istoria). Cvens mosazrebas mxars
sufiqsi; Sdr.:
uWers zanur-svanuri formebis analizic; Sdr.: samwignobro qarTuli: Tov-s, Tov-l-i da zan.: Tviri/Tiri;
_ saerToqarTveluri *RarT-/*RerT- > svanuri RerT(-@l/@S); samwignobro qarTuli: saxe, sax-l-i, sax-el-i da zan.: oxori;
_ saerToqarTveluri *RmarT-/RmerT- > svanuri *RmereT > samwignobro qarTuli: Tes-av-s, Tes-l-i da zan.: Tasi;
RermeT/RerbeT; samwignobro qarTuli: matyli, zan. montyori da svan.: m@ty
_ saerToqarTveluri *RarT- > zanuri *RorTi > megruli (svanurs usufiqso varianti daucavs? Sdr.: T.gamyreliZe, g.maWa-
*RoroTi > RoronTi (Sdr., *tradi/tredi - toronji; variani, 1965, gv. 76);
megrulisTvis bunebrivia TanxmovanTkompleqsis superacia da samwignobro qarTuli: ZaRli da zan. joRori, svan.: JaRE/JeRE;
winaenismier TanxmovanTan amave lokaluri rigis nazaluri
sonoris ganviTareba); samwignobro qarTuli: Tafli da zan.: Tofuri, svan.: Tu (<
_ saerToqarTveluri *RmarTi > zanuri *RmorTi > lazuri Tafu; g. maWavariani)...
*RmoroTi > RormoTi (m-s metaTezisiT Tavkidur poziciaSi samwignobro qarTuli: kum-ev-a/kmeva, kum-od-a ("mTai igi sinai
moiSala da marcvalTgamyarze Seiqmna TanxmovanTkompleqsi)... kumoda") da kom-l-i/kEam-l-i; zan. kuma (kvamli, komli), kum-af-a
samecniero literaturaSi RmerT- "ufali" fuZeSi erTi (kmeva, Sebolva); svan.: kEam/kE@m (kvamli, komli);
(ricxviTi niSani) pirvelad gamoyo T.Jordaniam; man Rm- RmerTis samwignobro qarTuli: koWi, koW-l-i da aWar.: koW-al-i;
semantikis Semcvel fuZed miiCnia. a.WinWaraulis azriT, RmerT- samwignobro qarTuli: koJ-r-i ("gamagrebuli da amoburculi
fuZe momdinareobs uerT-/xuerT- formidan - erTis aRmatebiTi adgili kanze") da aWar. koJi/koJo "koJri"; Sdr.: svan. koj (klde),
xarisxidan (statia ibeWdeba "gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis
qarTul-qarTveluri toponimebi: koJr-eb-i, koj-or-i;
JurnalSi"): xuerTi > RuerTi > RverTi > RmerTi.
damatebiT argumentacias saWiroebs R(m)erT- sityvaformis
samwignobro qarTuli: sisxli, zan.: zisxiri, svan.: zisx;
Tavkiduri Tanxmovnis warmomavloba: igi momdinareobs x- agreTve: qerci, qerc-l-i (m.andronikaSvili, 1966, gv. 118) da qeci;
prefiqsisgan (*x-u-erTi...), Tu *Rald/xald fuZis pirveli wux-s da (m)wux-r-i, mama da mam-r-i, deda da mded-r-i, si-ded-r-i
bgerisgan? Sesabamisad gadawydeba erT-, xuerT- da xald- fuZeTa (igive si- gamoiyofa: siZe, simamri, sityva, siTbo, sigrZe... forme-
mimarTebis sakiTxic (kvlevis am etapze ufro logikuri Cans bSi; msjelobisaTvis ix., arn. Ciqobava, 1944, gv. 459; Cveni azriT, aq
kavkasiur-xurituli fuZis variantuloba ena-kiloebis mixedviT: si- Tvisebis aRmniSvneli prefiqsia)...
xald- /qald- /RarT- /R˚arT- /arT- /ard- /olT-... Sdr.: qarTv. -l-/r-s ZiriTad funqciad SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT
Rvino, ven-a-x-i, somx. Rin "Rvino" da indoev. vin "Rvino". warmomavloba-kuTvnilobis gamoxatva; Sesabamisad, Cvens SemTxve-

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qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

vaSi, logikuria vivaraudoT, rom qarT-/qarTu- fuZe RvTaebis samsjeloa qarT > qarTu: ra funqcia aqvs u/E segments? arqa-
aRmniSvneli fuZea; masze -el- sufiqsis darTviT warmoiqmna qar- ul qarTulSi (Sesabamisad, saerToqarTvelurSi) gvaqvs sityve-
TvelTa avtoeTnonimi: qarTu-el-i; qarT-/qarTu-sgan nawarmoebi bis erTi jgufi, romelic u/E bgeriT bolovdeba: birTu, borcu
sityvebi: qarT-l-i da qarTu-el-i qarT-/qarTu-s Tvisobriobis (Sdr., falauri burz; m.andronikaSvili, 1966, gv. 293), daTu, eSu,
qonas, an warmomavlobas gamoxatavs. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom Tvisob- verxu, Tagu, idayu, iWu, ixu, kicu, leku, leRu, mdogu, naZu, nezu,
rioba da warmomavloba sxva SemTxvevaSic gamoixateba erTi mo- nerwyu, nezu, peSu, ricxu, fesu (Sdr., saS. spars. fas; m.androni-
rfemiT; mag., -an: deda - ded-an-i (-an gamoxatavs Tvisobis qonas); kaSvili, 1966, gv. 382-383), fetu, fiWu, Rawu, SaSu, cercu, ciRu
oTara - oTara-an-i (-an gamoxatavs warmomavlobas); si-grZ-e/grZ- (Sdr., osuri cirR; m.andronikaSvili, 1966, gv. 122), ZarRu, ZeZu,
el-i da kax-el-i da sxv. jaWu... aRsaniSnavia, rom megrul-lazur variantebSi, rogorc we-
erTi mxriv, urartul-kavkasiuri RvTaeba xaldis saxelSi, me- si, labialuri komponenti gadaadgildeba sityvis fuZeSi: daTvi -
ore mxriv ki, xald-eb-i, kard-u-x-i eTnonimebSi (Sdr., movses xo- TunTi, idayvi - duyi, Tagvi - mTugi, leRvi - luRi, mayu (mayuali)
renacis teqstSi dadasturebuli korduelTa qveyana, romelic - muyi, maCvi - munCqi, Cxiku - Cxviki... Sdr., agreTve: birTu/birTvi -
mdebareobda vanis tbis samxreTiT; Sdr.: somx. kordu da qarTv. burTi, kicu/kicvi - kvici... savaraudoa, rom qarTu sityvaSi bo-
kardu; somx. Torgomi da qarTv. Targamosi...) xald- da kardu- lokiduri u ar aris raime funqciis mqone sufiqsi; Cveni azriT, u
fuZeebis povniereba safuZvels gvaZlevs, davuSvaT, rom sityvebi: segmenti qarTvelur-kavkasiuri enebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli labi-
qarTli da qarTueli momdinareoben urartul-kavkasiuri RvTa- alizaciis (/labiovelarizaciis) procesis gamovlinebaa (dawvri-
ebis - qaldi/xaldi/qarTu/kardu-s saxelisgan; amosaval formad lebiT ix. qvemoT): q°arT > qarT° > qarTu.
savaraudoa *qard-/qald-: *qard- > xald-; *qard-/*qarT- > aqvea gansaxilveli sityvaforma qarTulic: SesaZloa, -ul-
qarT+l-; *qard-/*qarT- > qarTu > qarTu-el-i... lingvisturi aspe-
sufiqsi uSualodaa darTuli qarTu- fuZeze: qarTu > qarTu-
qtiT, problemuri ar aris d/T (bunebrivia sityvis bolos) da q/x
ul-i > qarTuli; ar gamoiricxeba, agreTve, qarTu > qarTu-l-i
monacvleobis daSveba: Sdr., q/x nasesxeb sityvebSi: qriste/xris-
procesic.
tos, qronologia/xronologia, qaosi/xaosi, qoro/xoro, qar-
RvTaebis saxelisgan eTnonimisa da qoronimis warmoqmna uC-
tia/xartia, qiloni/xiloni, qimera/ximaira, qitoni/xitoni, qi-
mia/xemeia, qalosi/xalosi, qrise/xruse... ukanaenismier da xorxis- veulo movlena ar aris Zvel samyaroSi (Sdr., mag., RvTaeba asuri,
mier bgeraTa (q, B, x, R, y...) monacvleoba arc sakuTriv qarTvelu- xalxi - asurebi da qveyana asureTi)...
ri dialeqtebisTvisaa ucxo (magaliTebi mravladaa il.abulaZis, qarTvelTa istoriul mexsierebaSi qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwo-
arn.Ciqobavas, z. sarjvelaZis, h. fenrixis, m.Cuxuasa da qarTvelu- deba da qarTvelTa qveynis saxeli urartul mTavar RvTaebas
ri kiloebis sxva leqsikonebSi): Bce/qCe/xCe, qCini/xCini, Borba- (brZolis RvTaebas!) rom ukavSirdeba, moulodneli ar unda iyos:
li/xorbali/qobali, Benderi/qenderi, Babu/yabu, Bef-/yef-, simon janaSias azriT, urartus mosaxleoba - xaldebi (waviki-
Buri/yuri, Buila/yore, qveyana/xveyana/xoyana, qorwili/Borwili, TxoT: RvTaeba xaldis xalxi - t.f.) - cnobilni iyvnen rkinis damu-
Beri/Reri, Buezi/Ruezeli, BSiri/xSiri/ySiri, Rrtili/xrtili, SavebiT. "rkinis iaraRiT xaldebi kldeSi SesaniSnav cixe-darba-
Bbo/xabna/Rabna/qabula... savaraudoa, rom urartul qaldi/xal- zebs kveTdnen. am rigis xuroTmoZRvrebis nimuSia saqarTveloSi
di formaSi pirveli Tanxmovani q-sa da x-s Sua mdgomi kldeSi nakveTi qalaqi ufliscixe" (s.janaSia, 1987, gv.31). Sdr.:
labializebuli bgeraa. kldeSi nakveTi qalaqebi gvaqvs meSeq-mosxebis (mesxebis) istori-

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qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

ul qveyanaSi - kabadokiaSi, xolo Zveli berZnuli cnobebiT, rki- mebrZoli, mamrobiTi RvTaebaa; urartuelebi mas swiravdnen xars.
nis mwarmoebeli xalibebi cxovrobdnen trapizonis regionSic. mebrZoli RvTaebac da xaris kulti saqarTveloSic STambeWdavia
Sesabamisad, logikuria urartuelebis, karduxebis, mosxebisa da (RvTaeba xaldi unda iyos asaxuli wminda giorgis saxeSi)...
SavizRvispireTis xalibebis naTesaobis sakiTxis dasma; miT ume- didi istoriuli kataklizmebis Jams marTlac mosalodneli
tes, gviandeli amierkavkasia am tomTa naSTebis ZiriTadi sacxov- iyo qarTvelur-kavkasiur tomTa religiuri centris gadmonac-
risi xdeba. Sdr., p.ingoroyvas azriT, qarTveli xalxis uZvelesi vleba dRevandeli saqarTvelos teritoriaze (logikuria, aseve,
winaprebis – xeTas jgufis xalxebis: musxebis (mesxebis), Tobe- RvTaeba xaldis/qarTis/ardis ramdenime cixe-qalaqis arsebobac);
lebis (hiberebis), kasxebis (kolxebis) kulturuli centri am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa k.z. gamsaxurdias daskvnac: "uf-
Zv.w. VII saukuneSi xeTas saxelmwifos katastrofis Semdeg gadmo- liscixis arqetipuli RvTaeba xaldi unda iyos" (k.z. gamsaxur-
dis saqarTvelos dRevandel teritoriaze (p.ingoroyva, 1978, dia, 1995, gv.21). aqve, Sdr., iovane petriwiseuli termini "xalde-
gv.244). aq mciredi dazustebaa saWiro: kabadokiasa da halisis velTa winasibrZne" (petriwi qaldevelebs xaldevelebs eZaxis;
auzSi mcxovreb qarTvelur-kavkasiur tomTa (mosxebi, qaSqebi, iovane petriwi, 1947, gv 41); k.z.gamsaxurdias mtkicebiT, "eTnolo-
kolxebi...) SesaZlo winaprebi arian xaTebi da ara xeTebi; es uka- giuri TvalsazrisiT, "qaldeveli", amave dros, unda aRniSnavdes
ara marto babilonel semits, aramed im uZveles presemitur xal-
nasknelni balkaneTis (?) gavliT mcire aziaSi mosuli indoevro-
pelebi arian. SemTxveviTi arc is Cans, rom movses xorenacis Txro- xsac, romelic samecniero literaturaSi cnobilia SumerTa sa-
xeliT" (iqve, gv 79). aqve unda gavixsenoT iv.javaxiSvilis cnobili
baSi kabadokielTa da qarTvelTa jari xSirad gverdigverd ib-
dakvirveba: Zveli qarTveli avtorebi qarTvelTa winaprebis iden-
rZvis saerTo mtris winaaRmdeg (m.xorenaci, 1984, gv.95, 136); garda
tifikacias axdendnen SuamdinareTisa da bibliur samyarosTan;
amisa, m.xorenacisTvis pontos samefoc da istoriuli kolxeTic
misi azriT, qaldeveli aris sparselic, babilonelic da qar-
qarTvelTa qveyanaa, xolo pontos mefe miTridate - qarTveli (iq-
Tvelic (ix., agreTve, "evstaTi mcxeTelis wameba"; qarTuli mwer-
ve, gv.111-116).
loba, I, gv.259-260).
s.janaSias azriT, wina aziis avtoqToni mosaxleobis politi-
SeniSvna: Zvel qarTul teqstebSi "qaldevelni" sparsTa mniSvnelo-
kur-kulturuli centris CrdiloeTiT gadmonacvleba aSkarad
biT gamoiyeneba, magram, "qarTlis cxovrebis" bunTurqebis epizodis
dasturdeba (s.janaSia, 1987, gv.20-24, 32, 44, 51); mag., "urartuli da avtori qaldevelebs babilonelebad, asurelebad Tvlis (msjelobi-
asuruli wyaroebis mixedviT, ardini (musasiri) urartelTa saTvis ix. m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.27-29); Cveni azriT, aRrevis saTave adreul
wminda qalaqia - urartelTa uzenaesi RvTaeba xaldis kultis epoqaSia saZiebeli: Cans, Zvel wyaroebSi qaldea/qaldia wina aziis
centria - xaldis qalaqia; mogvianebiT religiurad, kulturu- eTnopolitikuri centris aRmniSvneli iyo amave regionis avtoqTo-
lad da eTnikuradac musasiris mosaxleoba Camocilebuli Cans ni xalxebis enaSi; Semdeg es saxeli SemorCa rogorc qarTvelur-kavka-
danarCen urartus samyaros" (g.meliqiSvili, 1999, gv.25). aqve sa- siur mkvidr xalxebs, aseve indoevropelTa Tu semitTa erT nawils.
yuradReboa ufliscixis saxelic da istoriac: Sdr., qaldeelebi (kaldu) - istoriulad arsebuli momTabare, arameu-
lad molaparake semiti tomebi Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi, romlebic babi-
ufliscixe aSenebulia Zv.w. VI-V saukuneebSi; es is periodia,
lonis samxreTiT damkvidrdnen Zv.w. IX saukunidan; Sdr., agreTve, bei-
rodesac ukve ganadgurebulia urartu; logikuria davuSvaT: ruTis axlos mdebare sofeli xalde.
moZme kavkasiur-winaaziuri tomebis saerTo didi RmerTis - xal-
urartul-kavkasiur RvTaeba xald-Tan da qald-/xald- fu-
dis - samefo centri gadmovida ufro CrdiloeTiT. Sdr.: xaldi ZesTan dakavSirebiT sainteresoa kidev ramdenime garemoeba:

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qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

1. strabonis mixedviT (geografia, XII, 3, 19-24), trapizonsa SemTxveviTi arc is Cans, rom or sxvadasxva adgilas - didi kav-
da farnakias zemoT cxovroben qaldebi - Zveli xalibebi, ro- kasionis kalTebze da mtkvar-Worox-halis-araqs-tigros-evfra-
melsac homerosi haliZonebs da alibebs uwodebs (ix., agreTve: tis saTaveebis mimdebare teritoriaze - mosxur mTebSi (mosxuri
d.baqraZe, 1889, gv.34 da p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.285); mTebis lokalizaciis Sesaxeb ix. n.xazaraZe, 2001, gv.315) - gverdig-
2. "abos wamebisa" da movses xorenacis "somxuri geografiis" verd dasturdeba adgilis aRmniSvneli ori sakuTari saxeli (to-
mixedviT, qaldia/xaldea/xaitiqi aris igive WaneTi/Wanivqi (ix.: ponimi): kola da xalde.
qarTuli mwerloba, I, gv.454 da m.xorenaci, 1984, gv.162, 277); Sdr., aqve daismeba kiTxva: rodis moxda qarTl- da qarTuel- fuZe-
SavizRvispireTSi arsebuli xaldis provincia Sedioda bizanti- ebis warmoqmna?
is imperiaSi; igi Semoifargleboda trapizonis regioniT (masSi vvaraudobT: TorTumis, Woroxisa da mtkvris saTaveebSi
ar Sedioda rizes mxare; p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.210). Sdr.: trapi- arsebuli qarTveluri saxelmwifoebis dakninebis Semdeg, ufro
zonTan axlos xaldiis qarTul qveynas - daviT kuropalatis CrdiloeTiT maleve iqmneba qarTvelur tomTa morigi gaerTiane-
kuTvnil mxares - asaxeleben qarTveli mematianeni (sumbaT davi- ba; vfiqrobT, azon-quj-farnavazis wina periodSi mimdinare qar-
Tis Ze, 1449, gv.70; "matiane qarTlisa", gv.285). sayuradReboa isic, Tveluri tomebis gaerTianebis procesSi saerTo qveynis saxelad
rom VIII saukunidan berZnul wyaroebSi trapezuntis mxares la- mkvidrdeba qarTli, saerTo TviTsaxelwodebad ki - qarTueli:
zika hqvia; qarTul wyaroebSi (ix. mag., giorgi mTawmindelis "aka- orive fuZe momdinareobs didi RvTaebis saxelisgan - qarTu/qar-
Tistos sakiTxavis" qarTuli versia) am teritorias megrelTa Ti: qarTu > qarTu-eli (Teonimidan warmoiqmna eTnonimi); qarT-
mxares uwodeben (iqve, gv.214); > qarT-l-i (qarTli - RvTaeba qarTis/xaldis qveyana). RvTaebis-
3. adiRuri enis SafsuRuri dialeqtis xayuCur kilokavSi gan momdinare qoronimisa da eTnonimis damkvidreba motivirebu-
qarTvelis aRsaniSnavi Zveli saxelia xalHde (cnoba mogvawodes li SeiZleba iyos politikuri faqtoriTac: Cans, gaerTianebis
ruslan naTxuam da mixeil labaZem; aqve SevniSnavT, rom adiRurSi procesSi qarTvelur tomTa mmarTvelebma uari Tqves romelime
arabunebrivia ld TanxmovanTmimdevroba da H neitraluri xmov- qarTveluri tomis saxelis ganzogadebaze, Sesabamisad, romelime
niT xdeba am arakanonikuri kompleqsis superacia); tomis hegemonobaze...
4. Woroxis saTaveebis mimdebare teritoriaze iyo erTi ram aSkaraa:
qarTveluri qalaqi qaldia - vercxlis sabadoebis qalaqi (timoTe qarTu-el-i qarTvelTa uZvelesi avtoeTnonimi (endogenuri
mTavarepiskoposis "mimoxilva... aRmosavleTis adgilTa"; ix. p.ingo- eTnonimi), qarTli ki - qarTvelTa saxelmwifos uZvelesi qarTu-
royva, 1954, gv.285); lenovani qoronimi Cans.
5. Sua lazeTSi, amJamad TurqeTis sazRvrebSi moqceul daba SeniSvna: gorgasalis Semdeg, qarTvelTa daSla-dasustebis morig
ofis zonaSi, rizesa da surmenes Soris mdebareobs punqti xaldi etapze, terminebi: qarTli/qarTveli daviwrovda qarTvelTa erTi
provinciisa da misi mosaxleobis saxelad; Sesabamisad, qarTul qveya-
da xaldis mTa; mdinare ofis wylis saTaveebSia punqti xaldize-
naTa konsolidaciis morig etapze ganmazogadebel axal qoronimad
ni (zena xaldi) - zemo xaldi. ofis wylis zemo Senakads ewodeba SemoRebul iqna saqarTuelo (ufro gvian ki iyo mcdeloba, daemkvidre-
xaldizenis xevi, mTebs ki - xaldizenis mTebi; binaT qoronimi iberia; ix.: 1790 w. "iberielTa erTobis traqtati").
7. saqarTvelos amJamindel sazRvrebSic ramdenime xalde rac Seexeba qarTu-/qarTl-/qarTvel- fuZeTa Tanamedrove
dasturdeba: kavkasionis kalTebzea myinvari xalde da mdinare dialeqtur variantebsa (qorTu, q@rT...) da maTi mniSvnelobe-
xaldeWala; aqvea sofeli xalde. bis istorias:

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qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom qarTl- fuZis kuTxis saxed, mag., aravin ambobs, rom akaki imereli poetia, vaJa -
msgavsad, qarTvel- formac, sxvadasxva droSi Tu enobriv velSi, fSaveli, konstantine gamsaxurdia - megreli mwerali da a.S.
ramdenime semantikiT gamoiyeneba; kerZod: qarTlelisa/qarTvelisa da Tavadis mimarTebis analogiu-
_ qarTveli eris warmomadgenels (mag., mematianisaTvis qar- ria opozicia: margali da Jinosqua; sxva qarTvelTa metyveleba-
Tvelni arian wamebulni egriselni daviT da konstantine: Si megreli (egriseli) saqarTvelos erTi kuTxis mosaxleobas
"Tqmulni netarisa mowamisa qarTvelisa~"; p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv miemarTeboda, magram sakuTriv megrul kiloSi gamoyenebuli mi-
669-671; d.musxeliSvili, 1993, gv.360); sxva qveynebis msgavsad, axlo si Sesatyvisi forma - margali sulac ar iyo megrelis zusti
momavalSi qarTveli SeiZleba damkvidrdes saqarTvelos moqala- "Targmani": megrul kiloSi margali megrelTa mxolod dabal
qis fard saxelad (eTnikuri warmomavlobis miuxedavad). fenas aRniSnavda; maRal fenas Seesabameboda Jinosqua ("aznau-
_ qarTvelur kiloebsa Tu samwignobro enaze metyvel ri", "zecis Svili", "zena Svili"; Jinosquas fena, Sesabamisad,
qristians (ix.: miqel modrekilis sagalobeli "Bseneba~ uZleve- warmodgenili opozicia moiSala bolSevikebismieri represiebis
lisa mowamisa habo ismaitel-yofilisa qarTvelisa~"; Sdr., amgva- Semdeg). aqve xazgasmiT aRsaniSnavia, rom margalisa da qarTle-
ri kulturul-politikuri midgomiT, eTnikurad qarTveli da lis socialur statuss - qarTvelTa kerZo saxeebs - regionalur
qarTulad metyveli muslimani TaTaria). variantebs - Seesabameba ori dialeqturi metyveleba, xolo Ji-
_ socialurad dabali fenis warmomadgenels - glexs (saki- nosquasa da Tavads - rogorc zogadqarTul fenomens - erTi
Txis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. m.qurdiani, 2001). am semantikiT qarTve- saerTo samwignobro qarTuli: e.i. socialuri fenis markireba
li dadasturebulia mxolod qarTlSi (Sdr., margali "glexis" xdeba sametyvelo kodis mixedviT...
mniSvnelobiT Cans mxolod egrisSi), rac safuZvels gvaZlevs, eT- SeniSvna: 2000 wels gamoqveynebul wignSi "qeba~ da dideba~ qarTuli-
nonimisTvis amgvari semantikis ganviTareba aixsnas ara "dampyro- sa enisa~" margal- formis mier semantikis gafarToeba da misi gaTanab-
beli, an mezobeli xalxis" xedviT, aramed eTnokulturuli da reba megrel- sityvasTan axsnili gvqonda istoriuli procesebis Sesa-
sociolingvisturi mizezebiT (gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom, bamisad: komunistebis mier Jinosquas fenis gaJletisa da, saerTod,
SesaZlebelia, mezobelma xalxma sxvas daarqvas damamcirebeli sa- amgvari leqsikis (batoni, Tavadi, Jinosqua, aznauri...) akrZalvis fon-
ze, margali forma semantikuradac gauTanabrda megrels; amgvari ax-
xeli, magram sakuTar Tavs romeli xalxi Tu sazogadoeba daimci-
sna "istoriuli perspeqtivis darRvevad" miiCnia m. qurdianma; is wers:
rebs monis an glexis fardi saxelis darqmeviT? Sdr.: g.meliqiSvi- "am hipoTezis argumenti, saliteraturo enis faqtori, sagangebod mi-
li, 1965, gv.90-91; m.qurdiani, 2001, gv.104); kerZod: Sua saukuneebSi sadagebuli "margalis" socialur funqcias, aRar muSaobs "qarTve-
qarTveli mxolod qarTlels aRniSnavda, Sesabamisad, qarTlur lis" analogiur situaciaSi" (ix. m.qurdiani, 2001, gv.105).
kiloSi qarTvelad iTvleboda is fena, romelic mxolod qar- _ mxolod qarTlels - saqarTvelos erTi kuTxis mosaxleo-
Tlur kiloze metyvelebda; Sdr., glexisTvis aznauri, Tavadi da bas; ara mxolod Sua saukuneebis qarTul wyaroebSi, aramed zog
mefe ar iyo Cveulebrivi, misnairi, kuTxuri ena-cnobierebis Tanamedrove qarTvelur kiloebSic ki qarTveli qarTlels aR-
mqone adamiani; Sdr., opozicia: Tavadi - qarTveli/qarTleli... am- niSnavs; mag., al.WinWaraulis cnobiT, xevsurebisTvis saqarTve-
gvari mimarTebis Camoyalibebas xeli Seuwyo feodalurma azrov- los sxva kuTxeebis mcxovrebni arian: qarTvelni (qarTlelebi),
nebam, Tumca, maRali wris (ganaTlebuli) sazogadoeba Tu inte- mesxni, javaxni (Sdr.: ejavaxeba - ejiuteba), kaxni, fSavelni, moxeve-
ligencia arc Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi iTvleba romelime erTi ni, gudamayrelni, TuSni, imerni, afxazni (afxazi - vaJkaci), meg-

- 175 - - 176 -
qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

relni... Sdr., megr. qorTu (< qorTueli) - aRmosavleT saqarTve- gens qarTl- formis gamartivebul saxes (qarTl- > qarT- > q@rT):
los mkvidri; Sdr., agreTve, TuSuri: qarTulaGoba~ - "saubrisas didi qarTlis daSlis Semdeg - arabobis periodidan (qoronim sa-
literaturul kiloze qceva, cud tonad, metiCrobad iTvleba" qarTvelos damkvidrebis paralelurad), misi semantika TandaTan
(g.cocaniZe, 2002; ix., aqve: kaxi - "bareli qarTveli", kaxuraGi - dedaqalaqad daviwrovda.
"raime kaxuri" an: "kaxeTSi mozamTre TuSi"; Cans, TuSisTvis axsnadia is faqtic, rom qarTu/qarT formis a xmovani zanur-
baruli qarTuli "kaxis" metyvelebaa). Si ar iZleva o-s: zanur arealSi a-s labializebis Seferxeba SeiZ-
Tanamedrove megrul metyvelebaSi termini qarTveli gamoi- leba ganepirobebina bolokidur u-s, Tuki amosaval formad
yeneba zogadqarTvelis mniSvnelobiT; megreli am terminSi saku- davuSvebT qarTus, an bolokiduri l-s dakargvas, Tuki amosaval
Tar Tavsac moiazrebs. megrulSi dadasturebul qorTu formas formad davsaxavT qarTls: qarTl- > qarT; Sdr.: Zma/Zmal- - jima,
SecdomiT qarTvelad Targmnian; merab Cuxuas cnobiT, "zan. qor- da/dal- - da, mama/mamal- - muma... magram: cxra - Cxoro, da - do (kav-
Tu da svan. mHq@rT leqsemebi miemarTeba mxolod aRmosavleT sa- Siri), mamali - mumuli... pirvel magaliTebSi a-s labializebas
qarTvelos mkvidr qarTvels; Sdr., megrulSi dasturdeba imere- aferxebs bolokiduri l-s dakargva (am procesis Sesaxeb ix.
li, aWareli, Soni, guruli da qorTu" (Sdr., m.qurdiani, 2000, t.futkaraZe, 1990); saerTod, SeiniSneba, rom saerToqarTvelur
gv.186: mHqarT - qarTi/qarTveli; erovnuli saxelis mniSvnelobiT fuZeSi momxdari sxva fonetikuri procesi abrkolebs qarTvelur
svanebi iyeneben termins mHqarTuel, megrelebi ki - qarTueli)... bgeraTSesatyvisobebad saxeldebul istoriul fonetikur pro-
vvaraudobT, rom VII-VIII saukuneebis daSlil-daqucmacebul cesebs (ix. qvemoT).
saqarTveloSi, rodesac termini qarTveli mxolod qarTlels vfiqrobT, Cven mier zemoT warmodgenili msjeloba cxadyofs,
aRniSnavda, aRmosavleTeli qarTvelis aRmniSvnelad daviwrovda rom qarTveli (qarTleli) da margali formebis socialuri se-
qorTu (< qorTuali < qarTueli); Sdr.: T.gamyreliZis da g.maWa- mantika savsebiT erTgvari viTarebiTaa Sepirobebuli; garda ami-
varianis mier daSvebulia: qarTvel- > qorTual- qorTuau > qor- sa, samwignobro enis faqtori sagangebod ki ar miesadageba arse-
Tuou > qorTuu > qorTu logikuri procesi (1965, gv.89-92); Sdr.: bul mdgomareobas, aramed asaxavs eTnokulturul da istoriul
beReli - baRu, uReli - uRu... magram: yveli - yvali, wiTeli - WiTa- suraTs; Sdr., m.qurdiani, 2001, gv.105: "riTi unda aixsnas qarTul
li/WiTa... (am rigis masalaSi ratom ar gvaZlevs -el- sufiqsi -u- enaSi termin qarTvelis Sesabamisad megrulSi termin megreli-
s?). amave periodis warmonaqmni Cans svan. mHq@rT (qarTleli). saTvis dabali socialuri fenis warmomadgenlis semantikiT aR-
rac Seexeba zanur-svanur-afxazur arealSi dadasturebul Wurva?.." xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom megrel- formas arsad udas-
qarT/q@rT ("dedaqalaqi") formas: turdeba dabali socialuri fenis gamoxatva; amgvari SinaarsiT
Cveni varaudiT, ar aris gamoricxuli, rom sruliad qarTlis gvaqvs mxolod margali; aseve, qarTveli mxolod qarTlur dia-
Zvel dedaqalaqsac - ufliscixesac, Tavdapirvelad, mTavari leqtur velSi Cndeba "glexis" mniSvnelobT da ara, zogadad, qar-
RvTaebis saxeli qarTu/qarTi erqva, romelic qarT/q@rT formiT Tul enaSi; amgvari niuansebis gauTvaliswinebloba msjelobas Cix-
Tbilisis saxelad Semoinaxa zanur-svanurma (Sdr., nasesxebia Si Seiyvans; margalis Sesaxeb ix., agreTve, g.meliqiSvili, 1974, gv.
qarTa varianti): Zveli dedaqalaqis saxeli gadavida axal dedaqa- 103; t.futkaraZe, 1999.

laqzec. arc is gamoiricxeba, rom zanur-svanuri qarT- warmoad- SeniSvna: m.qurdiani termin qarTvelis kidev erT mniSvnelobas vara-
udobs: "qarTveli niSnavs garkveuli dedaenobrivi erTobis (xazi

- 177 - - 178 -
qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli

Cvenia - t.f.) warmomadgenels, imasve, rasac niSnavda amJamad gamqrali opoziciebi: qarTi - zani; qarTi - svani... xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT:
termini "qarTi" da, rogorc aseTis aRmniSvneli termini, is Sedis saerToqarTveluri ena/koine da kultura yvela qarTveluri
opoziciaSi amave marTebuli aris analogiur terminebTan, mag., rogo-
tomisa Tu Temis saerTo Semoqmedebaa; garda amisa, istoriul
ricaa: svani, megreli da sxv." (m.qurdiani, 1999, gv.53); es mosazreba
faqtobriv masalas ar emyareba. aseve, konkretul masalasTan Seusaba-
wyaroebSi arsad gvidasturdeba termini qarTi, xolo qarTveli,
moa m.qurdianis Semdegi azric: "# 5 marTebul areSi termini Turqi
metwilad, zogadqarTvels - qarTveluri cnobierebis mqone ada-
(muslimani suniti) SeiZleba Canacvlebuli iyos Sinaarsobrivad da mians (adamianTa jgufs) - miemarTeba da yvela qarTvelur (30-mde!)
mniSvnelobiT axlos mdgomi, magram arasinonimuri terminebiT _ me- Tems/toms moiazrebs; Sesabamisad, qarTvels qarTizacia-qarTve-
sxi, aWareli...". pirvel rigSi, aq dasazustebelia is, rom mesxTa da lizacia ar sWirdeba. amgvari termini (qarTizacia/qarTveliza-
aWarelTa didi nawili qristiania, meorec, muslimani qarTvelebi cia) SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iyos gaqarTvelebuli araqarTvelis
aWaraSic, taoSic da imerxevSic Seuracxyofad miiCneven TurqTan Se-
mimarT; mag., droTa ganmavlobaSi moxda Camosaxlebul yivCayTa
darebasac ki; aseve, Tavs Turqad ar Tvlis qarTuli warmoSobis da
qarTulis armcodne ucxoeTSi mcxovreb musliman mesxTa erTi nawi- erTi nawilis qarTvelizacia-qarTizacia...
lic (gansxvavebiT mesxeTidan gasaxlebuli eTnikuri Turqebisgan, an garkveuli pirobiTobiT, termini qarTizacia SeiZleboda ga-
ukve gaTurqebuli qarTvelebisgan). gvemarTlebina, Tuki marTlac arsebobda e.w. qarTis tomi da misi
yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, obieqtur kritikas da- ena/kultura ganzogadda sxva qarTveluri tomebisaTvis. rogorc
eqvemdebareba kaxelTa, herTa, imerTa, zanTa, mesxTa, fxovelTa da zemoT vnaxeT da qvemoTac davrwmundebiT, amgvari mosazrebis
a.S. sxva qarTvelTa e.w. qarTizacia/qarTvelizaciis Teoria, ro- mtkiceba metad gaWirdeba: termin qarTiT aRniSnuli tomi wya-
melic saTaves iRebs n.maris Sromebidan da dRemde popularulia roebSi ar Cans! garda amisa, megrel-Wanebi, lazebi, svanebi, here-
qarTvel Tu ucxoel mkvlevarTa Soris (mesxTa qarTizaciis Sesa- bi, mesxebi, kaxebi, cxvimebi/skvimnebi/sviminebi, Takverlebi, mesxebi
xeb ix., mag., m.qurdiani, 2000, gv.191); Sesabamisad, istoriuli suraTis re- Tu sxva qarTveluri Temebi qarTizacia-qarTvelizaciis process
ver daeqvemdebarebodnen im martivi mizezis gamo, rom isini sa-
alur asaxvas ar warmoadgenen samecniero literaturaSi damkvidrebuli
kuTriv qarTlelebTan erTad arian qarTuli samwignobro enis,
terminebi: "dasavleT-qarTuli eTnosi (erovneba)", "qarTis erov-
saerTod, qarTveluri cnobierebisa da kulturis Semoqmedni -
neba" da sxva.
Tavdapirveli qarTvelebi... Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva eTnosad Tu
saerTod, istoriul eTnonimTa Tu qoronimTa mixedviT Tana-
erovnebad arasodes yofila dasavleT, samxreT Tu aRmosavleT
medrove terminTa Seqmnas sifrTxiliT unda movekidoT, vinaidan
"saqarTveloebis" mosaxleoba...
Zvel terminTa erTma nawilma dRes mniSvneloba gaifarTova, an
yovel SemTxvevaSi, aseTi daskvnis gamotana ufro SeiZleba
daiviwrova, zogi sulac daikarga; mag., leonti mrovelTan egrisi
bolo 3000 wlis enobrivi, arqeologiuri da saistorio masalebi-
da svaneTi sinonimebi Cans; Semdeg gamoiyeneboda odiSi; bolos, sa Tu wyaroebis mixedviT.
termini egrisi gviandel odiSTan erTad sul gamovida gamoyene- SeniSvna: sakiTxis istoriisaTvis: qarTizaciis sakiTxis kritika pir-
bidan da damkvidrda samegrelo (Sdr., saingilo damkvidrda here- velad warmoadgina mitropolitma anania jafariZem Tavis gamokvleva-
Tis nacvlad). Si: "deda eklesia", sadac is wers: "n.marisgan momdinareobs idea aRmo-
sruliad umarTebulod, samecniero literaturaSi termini savleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis, hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqar-
Tvelos mosaxleobis "qarTizaciisa" anu gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. xe-
qarTi damkvidrda e.w. sisina a tipis qarTvelur kiloebze me- lovnuria termini da ideac aseTivea; sinamdvileSi ki, Zveli wyaroe-
tyvel qarTvelTa aRsaniSnavad; xelovnurad gaCnda eTnonimuri

- 179 - - 180 -
qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba - qarTveli eTnonimTa da TemonimTa lingvisturi mimarTebis sqema

bis Tanaxmad, mTianeTis, kaxeT-hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTve- 1.2.3. qarTvelebis aRmniSvnel eTnonimTa da TemonimTa
los mosaxleobas "qarTizacia" ar esaWiroeboda, radgan ZvelTaganve lingvisturi mimarTebis amsaxveli sqema
(da farnavazis drosac) aRniSnul kuTxeTa mcxovrebni, rogorc mTie-
lebi, ise egriselebi (mesxebsa da her-kaxelebze rom aRaraferi
wina paragrafebSi warmodgenil eTnonimTa da TemonimTa di-
vTqvaT) qarTveli xalxis ZiriTad nawilad ganixilebodnen. es ase es-
mis "qarTlis cxovrebas", Zvel qronikebs da Zvel avtorebs... didma
di nawili saerTo warmomavlobisa Cans. kidev erTxel arsebiTia
ivane javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia, rom qristianobamde yvela qarTul imis aRniSvnac, rom mezobeli xalxebi qarTvelTa aRsaniSnavad,
tomTaTvis (samegrelosa da svaneTSic) kultmsaxurebis ena iyo qar- araiSviaTad, ganazogadebdnen maTi momijnave qarTveluri (resp.
Tuli ena... Sesabamisad, am tomebs qarTizacia ar sWirdebodaT..." (a.ja- qarTuli) tomis Tu Temis saxels; qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodeba ki
fariZe, 1996, gv.195-197, 213, 215-216; ix., agreTve, a.jafariZe, 1998, miemarTeba RvTaeba xalde/qarTus.
gv.261-263; a.jafariZe, 2003).
"yovelTa qarTvelTa" aRsaniSnavad yvelaze xSirad gamoiyene-
amrigad, eTnonimi qarTveli Tavidanve zogaderovnuli ba: qarT-/qald-/xald- (> *xalid-on-/haliZon-?), mosox-/muSq-
mniSvnelobis sakuTari saxelia da ara satomo saxeli (Sdr. b.gi-
/mesx-, san-/zan-/svan-, kolx-/kilx-/kulx-, iber-/iver-/sper- da
gineiSvili, 1975, gv.115). eTnonim qarTvelebis ucxo enebze Tar- abaz-/abazx- fuZeebi.
gmnisas, sasurvelia, TargmanSic aisaxos dedniseuli varianti; Sejamebis saxiT, qarTvelur tomTa da TemTa saxelebis SesaZ-
mag., inglisurad ukeTesia - kartvels, xolo Turqulad - kartveller. lo etimologiuri jaWvi Semdegi ZiriTadi jgufebis saxiT SeiZle-
aqve aRvniSnavT: samecniero literaturaSi jer kidev gaba- ba warmovadginoT:
tonebulia azri, rom iberi da kolxi sxvadasxva eTnosebis aR- SeniSvna: TiToeuli formis istoriasTan dakavSirebiT, aq aRar
mniSvneli cnebebia; rogorc vnaxeT, sxvadasxva dros kolxic da ib- davasaxelebT wina Taobis mkvlevarTa mosazrebebs ("qarTvelebis"
eri/iveri/speric qarTvels aRniSnavda; Sesabamisad, kolxuri es nawili exmianeba s. janaSias naSroms: "Tubal-Tabal, tibareni,
iberi", Tumca, s.janaSiaseuli zogi dakavSirebis gaziareba Wirs).
ena/kultura da iberiuli ena/kultura CvenTvis sinonimuri
qvemoT warmodgenil logikur lingvistur sqemebs ara aqvs
mniSvnelobis terminebia, Tumca gaurkvevlobis Tavidan asaci- ucilobeli WeSmaritebis pretenzia.
leblad mainc varCevT, am mniSvnelobiT gamoviyenoT termini qar-
Tveluri ena/kultura; Sesabamisad, termin iberiul-kavkasiu- a. qarTu(eli):
ris nacvlad, viyenebT termins - qarTvelur-kavkasiuri (Sdr., saerToqarTveluri eTnosis TviTsaxelwodebaSi: qarTueli
arn. Ciqobava iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi gulisxmobda qarTvelur- gamoiyofa qarTu- fuZe, romelsac SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes ara
kavkasiur enebs). mxolod qald- (qaldea), xald- fuZeebi, aramed, kardu-x- formac
SeniSvna: qarTvelTa istoriis sxvadasxva etapze, saerTo enasTan (-x- krebiTobis sufiqsia; Sdr.; kola - kol-x-i, tao - tao-x-i, Wor-
erTad, monaTesave TemTa makonsolidirebeli iyo saerTo RvTaeba: of-a - Wor-o-x-i, Rvino/vino - vena-x-i; Sdr. m.Cuxua, 2003, gv. 9).
Cans, jer qarTu/xaldi, Semdeg, mcire xans, armazis kulti, bolos - aris cduneba, qarT-/xald- fuZesTan davakavSiroT xal-ib-
qristianoba. fuZec, Tumca manam, sanam -ib- segmentis damajerebeli kvalifikacia
ar moxdeba, raimes mtkiceba SeuZlebelia (Cven vvaraudobT -eb- > -
ib- process). Tavis mxriv, xal-ib- (xalibi) fuZesTan dakavSirebu-
li Cans homerosTan dadasturebuli [h]al-ib-e: h, x, q ukana warmoe-
bis fSvinvieri Tanxmovnebis monacvleoba mosalodnelia ara mxo-

- 181 - - 182 -
eTnonimTa da TemonimTa lingvisturi mimarTebis sqema eTnonimTa da TemonimTa lingvisturi mimarTebis sqema

lod sityvaTa sesxebisas, aramed erTi enobrivi sistemis fargle- mosx-/mosoxen- da qarTul musx- fuZeebSi (musxi - sofeli axal-
bSic (magaliTebi ix. zemoT); bunebrivia varaudi, rom hal- Ziri cixeSi). aqve kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom erTmaneTisgan mkveT-
gamovyoT hal-is- (halisi - mdinare, kizil-irmaki) da hal-iZ-on- rad unda ganvasxvavoT, erTi mxriv, Zvel winaaziur da indoevro-
fuZeebSic: -is- kuTvnilobis mawarmoeblad, -on- qarTveluri kre- pul enaTa velSi dadasturebuli labialurxmovniani Zirebi
biTobis sufiqsad, xolo -iZ- < -eT-/ed-/-id- (Sdr., devs/Zevs) mrav- (Sdr.: asuruli Tabali da bibliuri Tubali/Tobeli; asuruli
lobiTobis sufiqsad (sxvaenovan garemoSi transformirebul va- muSqebi, bibliuri mosoqi/meSexi, berZnuli mosxi/mosxike/mo-
riantad) SeiZleba davsaxoT; Sdr. sxva gzac: xald-/hald- >
sxebi da kabadokiis dedaqalaqi mazaxa; somx. Torgoma da qarTv.
*hal(i)d- > haliZ- > haliZ-on-... damajerebeli kvalifikaciac da
Targamosi; bibliuri ararati da urartu, ardi da olT-...) da,
warmodgenil varaudTa myari argumentirebac momavlis saqmed
meore mxriv, qarTvelur enobriv (zanur dialeqtur) arealSi da-
rCeba. dasasabuTebelia, agreTve, xald-/B˚ald- > RvarT- > RmarT-
dasturebuli o-xmovniani variantebi (kaci - koCi, da - do...); isini
> RmerT da xald-Ta > xanZTa procesebi.
sxvadasxva droisa da enobrivi procesebis warmonaqmnebia. a/e/o/u
variantuloba xSiria asurul, xeTur, ieroglifur-luviur,
b. mesxi:
Zvel ebraul da Zvel berZnul enebSi; Sdr., agreTve: asuruli ga-
masisi (mTa) da fasisi (mdinare) geografiuli saxelebisa da
mir-, muSqu da ZvelberZnuli gomer-, meSeh-; xeTuri kummani da
eTnonim fasianebis safuZvelze SeiZleba gamovyoT mas-/fas- Ziri;
asuruli kammanu; qarTveluri Targamosi, xeTuri Tegerma da
Sdr.: berZnul miTologiaSi eTnarqi kolxi fasisis Svilad aris
ZvelberZnuli Togorma.
miCneuli, fasisi ki wylis RvTaebaa (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix.
T.miqelaZe, 1955, gv.33-34). aq sainteresoa isic, rom berZenTa cno- Sdr., *a-bas- (< *a-mas-/*mas- ?) hipoTetur formasTan SeiZleba
iyos dakavSirebuli Semdegi qarTvelur-kavkasiuri fuZeebi:
bierebaSi wylis RvTaeba (Sesabamisad, mdinareebis aRmniSvneli si-
tyva fasisi) da kolxida (mxare mdinareebuxvi?) erTmaneTTanaa *abas-, abaS-, abeS-l-/abeS-al-;
dakavSirebuli. saintereso Cans agreTve p.ingoroyvas varaudi, *abas-, abaza; *ebeze/ebze, obez-;
rom fas- Semonaxulia bas-ian-i formaSi. *abas-, *abas-ar-/*absar-/afsar-;
*mas- Ziri amosavali SeiZleba iyos mes-x-, mos-x- da mus-x- fuZe- *abas-, *abas-il-/*absil-/afsil;
ebze nayari sityvebisaTvis (-x- - krebiTobis gamomxatveli sufiq- *abas-, *abas-ua/absua/afsua;
si); Sdr.: n.xazaraZis azriT, mesx-/mosx-/musx- formebisTvis amosa- abaz-, *abaz-x-/abxaz-/afxaz-;
valia mosx- fuZe. abaz-, *abaz-x-, abaz-g- ...
*masx- arqetipi, vfiqrobT, Semonaxulia muSqebis/kabadokiis g. sani
qalaq mazaxa/mazaka formaSi: mas-x-/mas-a-x- > mazax-; Sdr., jer kidev qarTvelur tomTa aRmniSvneli erT-erTi uZvelesi fuZe
ioseb flaviusis azriT (1987, gv.103), eTnonimi mosoxi da qalaqis Cans zani/sani.
saxeli mazaka saerTo warmomavlobis fuZeebia. mes-x- dadasture- Sdr.: erTi mxriv, winaenismier yru TanxmovanTa monacvleo-
bulia mesx- fuZeSi; misi povniereba sarwmuno Cans mesqin-, meSex- biT warmoqmnili variantebi:
da mcxeTa formebSic (Sdr., g.bedoSvili, 1981, gv. 269-276). san-, zan-, Wan-, *wan- (wan-ar-?);
mosx- forma daculia bibliur mosox-, mosoq, muSq-, berZnul meore mxriv, ki:

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eTnonimTa da TemonimTa lingvisturi mimarTebis sqema sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

s-s labializaciiT (Tu labializebuli s-sgan?) miRebuli


san- > svan-/Son-/(mu)Suan- fuZeebi. 1.3. sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva
istoriuli epoqa
d. kol-x-i
qarTuli provinciis saxeli kola inaxavs amosaval fuZes: (meTodologiuri SeniSvnebi iberia-qarTlisa da
kol-/kor- Zirisganaa warmoqmnili kol-x-/kil-x-/kul-x- (-x- - kolxeTi-lazika-egrisis mimarTebebis mixedviT)
krebiTobis gamomxatveli sufiqsi); aqve SeiZleba ganvixiloT: kor-
a-qs-i, ma-kr-on-i, kl-ar-j-i formebic. istoriuli procesebis analizs didad uSlis xels eris
e. speri/iberi: TviTsaxelwodebisa da am sazogadoebis aRmniSvneli sxva eTnoni-
amosavali fuZe Cans *hper-/sper- (Sdr.: speri, speris zRva); mebis aRreva, agreTve, qveynis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb arsebuli
aqedan: gansxvavebuli warmodgenebi:
*hperi > ~peri > iper- > iber-/iver- (iberia/iveria); Sdr., araiSviaTad, mocemuli eris/saxelmwifos mier warmodgenili
speri > ~speri > ispiri (ix. s.janaSia, 1952, gv.60). h/s > ~/~h/~s > ~/i Tavisi teritoriis sazRvrebi ar emTxveva mezobelTa xedvas;
fonetikuri procesi qarTveluri kiloebisaTvis damaxasiaTebe- garda amisa, xSiria, roca erTi da igive eTnonimi (Tu qoronimi)
li movlenaa: gasTibs > ga~sTibs/ga~Tibs; stumari > ~htumari sxvadasxva dros miemarTeba or an met sazogadoebas (qveyanas);
(b.jorbenaZe, 1998, gv.196, 357, 545, 550); 2005 wels iusufelis
raionis qarTul soflebSi (Beva~, qoba~, balxi) Cven mier Sdr.: abaza/ebze/obezi - qarTveli (yaraCaul-balyarul enaSi da
Cawerilma masalam aCvena, rom Tavkidur poziciaSi s/h > ~ procesi Zvel rusulSi), abaza - afxazi (Turqul enaSi) da abaza - amJaminde-
gansakuTrebiT aqtiuria taourSi. li yaraCai-CerqezeTis avtonomiuri respublikis mosaxleobis er-
ar gamoiricxeba arc: tiber- > hiber > hber- > sper- da tiber- Ti nawilis - abazebis - TviTsaxeli...
> hiber- > iber- procesebi; sakiTxi Semdgom kvlevas iTxovs.
speri: sa-sper- (sasperitebi), sa-peir-/sa-veir- (stefane bi- Cveni azriT, ufro met problemas qmnis mocemuli eris teri-
zantieli); toriis sazRvrebisa da istoriuli gzis gansxvavebuli xedva, ro-
*hper- > *hber- > ber- > ver- > vir- > vir-q (>vr-a-c-)- > vir- melic konkretuli eTnonimebisa Tu qoronimebis gaazrebaSic ai-
San-; *ber-/ver- > var-, var-u-C-an, gurCan-, gurgan- (< georgi- saxeba; mag.:
an-), gurj-, kurg- (dadasturebulia XIII s.; s.janaSia, 1959, gv.53), Tanamedrove saqarTvelos sazRvrebsa da qarTveli eris uax-
gurZH- (osuri formaa), gruzin- (< guruzin-)... Sdr., Cerqezuli les istorias gansxvavebulad xedaven qarTveli, rusi da afxazu-
qurjH "Tbilisi", adiRuri (SafsuRuri) qHrce (< gurj) da osuri
ri warmoSobis prorusuli politikosebi (v.arZinba, r.xajinba...);
gurjHn "tanadi" (sparsul enobriv velSi va > gu procesisaTvis
araiSviaTad, amgvari subieqturoba istorikosTa kvlevebSic
Sdr., g. wereTlis mier motanili magaliTebi: vard > gul, varaz > gu-
raz, visnasp > gusnasp... (g.wereTeli, 1993, gv.104). gamosWvivis (metic, zogi arakeTilsindisieri mkvlevari istoriu-
wyaroebSi dadasturebuli qarTvelTa aRmniSvneli sxva saxe- li faqtebis gayalbebiT cdilobs, xeli Seuwyos politikuri
lebi naklebvariantulni arian; mag.: lazi, kaxi/kuxi, TuSi, java- procesebis provocirebas).
xi/zabaxa... variantTa simcire aixsneba zogi saxelis araqarTvelu- bunebrivia, saqarTvelos (Tu sxva qveynis) mimarT amgvari su-
ri warmomavlobiT, zogisa ki - lokaluri gamoyenebiT (mag., kaxi bieqturobisgan dazRveulni ar iqnebodnen Zveli berZnebi, romae-
gamoiyeneba mxolod viwro enobriv velSi); Tumca, sakvlevia kuxis lebi, sparselebi, somxebi Tu sxva mezobeli xalxebi. es kargad
mimarteba kolxTan, rogorc amas varaudobda v.aleni (ix., Cans ara mxolod istoriul wyaroebSi, aramed - eTnonimebSic:
T.papuaSvili, 1993, gv. 428).

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sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

rogorc wesi, mezobeli xalxebisTvis eTnonimebi iqmneba sa- xmobs istoriul afxazeTsac, xolo ruseTis imperiul velSi aR-
zRvrispira tomis (an Temis) saxelis mixedviT (almanebi Allemand - zrdili mkvlevrisTvis rusuli termini gruzia saqarTvelos am
germanelebi frangebisTvis), an romelime damakninebeli semanti- uZveles kuTxes ar moicavs. aTeuli wlebis Semdeg obieqturi
kis mqone fuZisgan (nemeci - rusTaTvis...); aseve, araiSviaTad, sxva mkvlevari valdebuli iqneba, erTmaneTisgan mkafiod gamijnos qar-
eris aRmniSvneli eTnonimi iqceva xolme uaryofiTi mniSvnelobis Tuli termini saqarTvelo da proimperiuli mecnieris mier
sityvad (mag., eTnonimi lulu zogadad mtris saxelad gadaazri- gamoyenebuli gruzia: mkiTxveli gaafrTxilos, rom mag., 1992-2005
anda urartulSi). wlebis saqarTvelos sazRvrebs zustad ar asaxavs, mag., istori-
movlena martivad ixsneba: kos v.arZinbas mier gamoyenebuli qoronimi gruzia.
istoriuli ambebis Sefaseba xdeba sasurveli TvalTaxedvi- msjelobas gavagrZelebT lazika-egrisisa da iberia-qarTlis
dan: adamiani-mematiane Tavisi droisa da qveynis aTvlis sistemi- magaliTebis mixedviT:
dan danaxul samyaros asaxavs terminebiTa Tu eTnonimebiT: Tavi- qarTvel Tu araqarTvel istorikosTa mier sinonimebadaa mi-
si enobriv-kulturul-politikuri xedviT alagebs sakuTar Cneuli terminebi: kolxeTi, lazika, egrisi (ix., mag., i.anTelava,
Tu sxvis istorias, awmyos, momavals. 1999, gv. 22; r.TofCiSvili, 2002, gv.7; d.leTodiani, 2003, gv.48, 55;,
araiSviaTia Zveli ambebis aRwera Tanamedrove viTarebis mi- T.beraZe, m.sanaZe, 2003, gv. 45, 63) da iberia - qarTli (iv.javaxiSvi-
xedviTac, Sesabamisad - axali eTnonimebis gadatana Zvel droSi; li, g.meliqiSvili, n.berZeniSvili...); vfiqrobT, maTi gaTanabre-
mag.: XII saukunis ambebis aRwerisas homerosi laparakobs finikie- ba SeuZlebelia, vinaidan Zveli kolxeTi aRmosavleT saqarTve-
lebis Sesaxeb, am dros ki finikielebi bunebaSi ar arseboben los did nawilsac moicavda, lazika erqva romaelTagan dapyro-
(iliada, Sesavali, gv.38). bibliis Semqmnelni eTnarqebs aRadgenen bil saqarTvelos teritorias, egrisi ki qarTveli mematianeebi-
TavianTi Tanamedrove xalxebis saxelebis mixedviT; Sdr., agreTve: seuli qarTlis nawilia.
angariSs uwevs ra Tavisi drois viTarebas, "qarTlis cxovrebis" termini lazika da, Sesabamisad, lazikis saxelmwifos isto-
Sesavlis avtori (romelic, Cans, IX saukuneSi cxovrobda) mis- ria, ZiriTadad, romauli wyaroebis xedviTaa Seqmnili, xolo
Tvis cnobili saqarTvelos kuTxeebis mixedviT asaxelebs: egross, termini egrisi da misiT aRniSnuli saqarTvelos erTi kuTxis is-
qarTloss, kaxoss, kuxoss, gardabioss, gaCioss... toria qarTveluri aRqma-Sefasebis asaxvaa: qarTuli wyaroebi
kidev erTi magaliTi: ax.w. VII saukunemde da IX saukunidan egriss erTiani saqarTvelos
Zv.w. III saukuneSi moRvawe apolonios rodosels Zv.w. XIII sau- SemadgenlobaSi xedavs, berZnul-romaul-bizantiuri wyaroebiT
kunis aietis qalaqad - kolxas Zvel dedaqalaqad - quTaisi aqvs mi- ki, lazika iberiaSi ar Sedis...
Cneuli, qalaqi, romelic did asparezze gamodis mxolod Zv.w. VII- mivyveT Zvel wyaroebs da Tvali gavadevnoT sazRvrebis
VI saukuneebis Semdeg. sxvadasxvaobas Tu mkvlevarTa uzustobebs:
aSkaraa, rom istoriis (nebismieri sxva dargis) kvlevis dros rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, berZnul-romaul wyaroebSi lazebs
arsebiTi mniSvneloba unda mieniWos terminTa identifikacias; pirvelad axsenebs miTridates istorikosi memnoni (I s.) Tavis "he-
kerZod, sxvadasxvaenovan Tu Tanamoene mkiTxvels misi enisTvis ga- rakles istoriaSi"; memnoni lazTa sacxovrisad mkafiod gansa-
mWvirvale, adekvaturi, sxva qoronimebTan Sejerebuli termini zRvravs dioskuriis midamoebs (soxumi-anakofiis regions); aria-
unda miewodos; mag., qoronimi saqarTvelo dRes CvenTvis gulis- nem (95-175) Tavisi TvaliT naxa qalaqi Zveli lazike. mogvianebiT

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sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

am qalaqs nikofsiad moixsenieben (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.99); aSka- Sdr., cota mogvianebiT, iovane sabanisZe (1987, gv.454) afxaze-
raa, rom welTaRricxvaTa mijnamde lazebi dioskuriis Crdiloe- Tis CrdiloeT sazRvrad miiCnevs nafsas/nikofsias (afsarTa sa-
TiT cxovrobdnen; Sdr.: arianesTan (II s.) lazebi da kolxebi Tana- cxovriss; Sdr., p.ingoroyva, 1957, gv.121, 211), anu qalaq Zvel lazi-
arseboben: isini sxvadasxva toms warmoadgenen (Zveli berZnebi... kas, xolo samxreT sazRvrad - trapizons, xaldiis CaTvliT.
1983, gv.159); ariane Tavis "periplusSi" wers: nikifore konstantinopolelic (IX s.) lazikis samxreT sa-
"amJamad lazebs uWiravT teritoria Zidritebidan abaskeba- zRvrad miiCnevs trapezunts; kerZod, irakli keisris laSqrobis
mde"; e.i. daaxloebiT Woroxidan kodoramde (T.yauxCiSvili, 1987, aRwerisas is wers: "iraklim scada lazikis gziT SeWriliyo spar-
gv.23; T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100). Sdr., V saukunis "periplusis" seTSi; rodesac moaRwia trapezuntamde - lazikis sazRvramde, mi-
anonimi avtori: "Zveli aqeidan Zvel lazikamde da md. aqeuntamde sma colma Sva Ze"; sainteresoa imis aRniSvna, rom 1042 wels qarTu-
(es ki aris soWidan daaxloebiT 30 km.-iT daSorebuli - T. y.) uwin lad gadmoRebul am teqstSi lazika Targmnilia samegrelod: "da
cxovrobdnen tomebi: henioxebi, koraqsebi, kolikebi, melanxlene- mo~wia, ra trapezunted sanaxebTa samegrelo~saTa..." (georgika,
bi, maxelonebi, kolxebi da lazebi, axla ki cxovroben zixebi". 1952, gv.207-208; ix., agreTve, p.ingoroyva, 1957, gv.214-215).
astronomiisa da geografiis fuZemdebeli klavdios ptole- Sdr.: niketa xoniate (XII s.): bizantiis keisars titulebSi
ma~osi (100-178) kolxidas uwodebs teritorias md. koraqsidan Seaqvs ...lazTa, iberTa, bulgarTa, serbTa... RvTivmmarTveli (ge-
(bzifidan) md. fasisamde (rionamde), sadac cxovroben tomebi:
orgika, 1966, gv.131)..
lazebi, manralebi da ekriktikis (egrisis) qveynis mcxovrebni; am uaRresad sayuradReboa agreTve is garemoeba, rom VII-IX sau-
kolxidis CrdiloeTiT - sarmatiaSi - cxovroben: aqa~ebi, kerkete-
kuneTa geografia erTimeorisagan ganarCevs lazivis provincias
bi, henioxebi da suanokolxebi (T. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.100, 160).
(rizes mxares) da Wanivis anu xaldiis (xalteTis, trapizonis)
Semdgom periodSi lazebi ufro aqtiurad ixseniebian; termi-
provincias. maT Soris sazRvari gadioda ofi-surmenes seqtorSi"
ni lazika ukve politikuri erTeulis saxelad zogaddeba, ro-
(p.ingoroyva, 1957, gv.210). Sdr., agreTve: somxuri usaxelo geog-
melsac zogjer afxazeTic enacvleba; mag., amiane marceline (IV s.)
wers: imperatori valenti "daTanxmda iberiis gayofas ise, rom sa- rafiis mixedviT, VII-IX saukuneebSi dasavleT saqarTveloSi oTxi
zRvrad SuaSi md. kirosi (mtkvari) dadebuliyo da savromaks ar- mcire qveyana iyo: margvelivi (=margveTi), egreviki (=egrisi),
meniisa da lazebis mosazRvre (mxare) rgeboda"; Saburis "mosvliT lazivi (=lazeTi) da Wanivi (=WaneTi anu xaldeTi - trapizonis
SeSinebulma papam da aseve kilakem ...scades SeefarebinaT Tavi ma- mxare); somexi istorikosisTvis am teritoriis saxelia kolxeTi,
Ral mTebSi, romlebic Cvenebs [e.i. Cvens miwebs] lazikisagan hyo- anu egri; misi azriT, "es aris qveyana aziasa da mdebareobs pontos
fen" (georgika, 1961, gv.90, 128). zRvidan sarmartiamde, da mdinare drakonidan vidre kavkasiis
agaTangelosi (IV s.): "wminda grigoli... zog [mRvdels] gzav- mTamde da mis Stomde - lixamde, romelic mas hyofs iveriidan"
nida iberTa qveyanaSi (arabuli Targmanis mixedviT georgiaSi), (p.ingoroyva, 1954, gv.212).
zogs lazTa qveyanaSi (arabulis mixedviT - afxazeTSi; georgika, "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, qoronimi egrisi (megrTa sacxov-
1961, gv.71)... risi) odiTganve yoveli qarTlis (anu, sruliad saqarTvelos) erT-
ix., agreTve: priske panioneli (V s.): "mas Semdeg, rodesac romae- erTi ZiriTadi da ganuyofeli mxarea; Sdr., miTridates omebis
lebi mividnen kolxidaSi da omi awarmoes lazebis winaaRmdeg, roma- Semdeg termini lazika berZen-romaelTagan kontrolirebad qar-
elTa jari Tavis qveyanaSi gamobrunda..." (georgika, 1961, gv.254). Tul regions aRniSnavs.

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sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

istoriul wyaroSi samgvari egrisi dasturdeba: vfiqrobT, leontis azriT, margveTi moicavda teritorias
_ egrosis wili egrisi: lixidan yubanis SesarTavamde da tra- lixis mTidan Sav zRvamde da rionidan mesxeTis mTebamde (samcxe-
pizonamde (CaTvliT); aWaramde); Sdr., iv.javaxiSvilis Casworebis gaziarebis SemTxveva-
_ mefe arCilis samkvidro egrisi sazRvrebiT: egriswyali Si, "qarTlis cxovrebis" am periodSi ausaxavi rCeba: guria, baRda-
(RaliZga), Sorapani, guriis sazRvari, Savi zRva da kavkasionis Ti, vani… (msjelobisa da sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix., agreTve:
mTagrexili; n.berZeniSvili, 1990, gv.544, SeniSvna; t.futkaraZe, 2002, gv.123;,
_ qujis anu Sida egrisi: teritoria egriswylidan (RaliZga- d.leTodiani, 2003, gv.36-40).
dan) - rionamde (qujis saerisTavo svaneTis gamoklebiT). sayuradReboa, rom leonti mrovelis "qarTlis cxovrebis"
"qarTlis cxovrebis" saTanado adgilis uzusto wakiTxvis gamo, mixedviT, egrosis wil mxareSi - egrSi/egurSi (imereTSi; q.c. I,
samecniero literaturaSi swored qujis egrisTan mimarTebiT gv.331), romelic, amave dros, qarTlis nawilad ganixileba (ix.,
arasworadaa warmodgenili margveTis sazRvrebi; kerZod, yvela mag., gv.141), ramdenime saerisTavo Sedis (egrisis ramdenime eris-
xelnaweris mixedviT, teqsti gveubneba: Tavis Sesaxeb ix., mag., gv.57); kerZod, did egrisSi moiazreba: Sida
"erTni gagzavna margvis erisTavad da misca mciriT mTiTgan,
egrisi (/saegro/odiSi), argueTi (guriac aq igulisxmeba; Sdr.,
romel ars lixi, vidre zRuadmde, rions zemoT".
1080 wels "dResa ivanobisasa asisforni da klarjeTi zRvis pira-
iv.javaxiSvilisa da s.yauxCiSvilis mier fraza "rions zemoT"
mdis, SavSeTi, aWara, samcxe, qarTli, argueTi, samoqalaqo da
gaazrebul iqna rogorc "rionis zeda weli", Sesabamisad, mxolod
Wyondidi aRivso TurqiTa" - gv.319), suaneTi (es termini zogjer
zemo imereTi CaiTvala margveTad; saTanadod Casworda "qar-
Tlis cxovrebac": faravs egriss; ix. gv.27: "egrisi svaneTia"; Sdr., quji - egris-svane-
dedniseuli fraza: vidre zRuadmde dausabuTeblad Seicva- Tis erisTavi), samoqalaqo, afxazeTi ("qveyana egriswyalsa da
la fraziT: vidre zRuradmde egrisisa ("qarTlis cxovreba", klisuras Sua"), afSileTi, Takueri (leCxumi), Wyondidi, niga-
1955, gv.24; SeniSvna). li (aq megrni cxovroben - gv.377), klarjeTi da sxv. Sdr., "somxuri
Cveni azriT, fraza "rions zemoT" niSnavs rionis samxreTiT; geografiis" (gv.92-93) mixedviT, kolxeTi (dasavleT saqarTvelos
Sdr., "qarTlis cxovrebis" am monakveTSi sxva SemTxvevaSic zemoT gagebiT), Seicavs oTx qveyanas: manrili, egrevika, lazivi da WaneTi
- qvemoT opozicia gulisxmobs dapiririspirebas: samxreTi - (xaldebis qveyana).
CrdiloeTi; mag., iqve weria: "egris wylis qvemoTma ar isurva gan- sayuradReboa is, rom did egrisSi leonti adgils ar tovebs
dgoma berZenTagan" - igulisxmeba egrosis wili qveynis Crdiloe- sxva eTnikuri (araqarTveluri) jgufebis ZiebisaTvis: leonti
Ti nawili - RaliZgas CrdiloeTi mxare vidre yubanis SesarTava- mrovels afxazebic egrosianebad miaCnda (p.ingoroyva, 1954,
mde; Sdr., Zveli berZeni geografebis Tu istorikos-mogzaurTa gv.140; Sdr., n.berZeniSvili, 1990, gv.543, 551, 553). Sdr., qarTlis
teqstebSic zmnisarTebi zemoT, qvemoT analogiuri mniSvnelo- erisTavis saxeli abaza: ivane abazas Ze; gv.296. arc sxva qarTveli
biT gamoiyeneba (Sdr., m.sanaZis dakvirveba mtkvris marcxena da mematianeni miuTiTeben am vrcel regionSi, qarTulis garda, ro-
marjvena mxareebis aRsaniSnavad, erTi mxriv, zemo - qvemo, meore melime sxva enis arsebobis Sesaxeb.
mxriv ki - amier - imier opoziciebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb; m.sanaZe, SeniSvna: yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, eWvis qveS dgeba Sua
2001, gv.66, 95-96). da zemo imereTis teritoriaze navaraudevi marguli metyvelebis

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sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

("Zvelad ufro ena unda yofiliyo"; ak. SaniZe, 1981, gv.443) ara mxo- savleTi saqarTvelo uZvelesi droidan X saukunemde mowyve-
lod sazRvrebis, aramed, saerTod, arsebobis sakiTxi; miT umetes, -ev- tili iyo aRmosavleT saqarTvelos...
sufiqsiani toponimebi aseve gavrcelebulia aragvisa da qsnis xeobeb- faqtia:
Sic (iqve, gv.440); mag., ak. SaniZe qarTlSi (ivris xeobamde), imereTsa da berZnul-bizantiuri termini lazika sxvadasxva dros sxva-
raWaSic adasturebs saTanado masalas: Zeglevi, alevi, arcevi, ortevi,
dasxva teritorias miemarTeba; es qoronimi iSviaTad Tu emTxveva
Rvlevi, bobnevi, ikvnevi, atrevi, avnevi, frinevi, klonevi, avlevi, fle-
qarTuli wyaroebis egriss (Sdr., mag., IV da VII saukuneebis
vi, uwlevi, jablevi… raWaSi: RruSevi, Zeglevi, onWevi, Wibrevi, xeTle-
viTareba); Sesabamisad, metad saeWvod gamoiyureba terminebis: eg-
vi, velevi, xotevi… axalcixeSi: woxtevi (ak.SaniZe, 1981, gv.440-441).
risisa da lazikis gaigivebis mixedviT istorikosTa mier miRebu-
-ev sufiqsiani toponimebi dasturdeba SavSeT-imerxevSic: devaZevi, li daskvnebi. amdenad, gadasasinjia am mcdari sinonimurobis mi-
valilevi, xoxlevi, (n.cecxlaZe, 2000, gv.65); Sdr., ak.SaniZe, 1981, xedviT agebuli saistorio msjelobanic; mag., amgvari faqtebis
gv.443: "-ev sufiqsis gavrcelebis ZiriTad ared SegviZlia CavTvaloT fonze, bunebrivia, metad pirobiTia lazikisa da egrisis mefe-
teritoria aragvidan rionis Sua welamde".
mTavrebis erT rigSi warmodgena; Sdr.: bizantiis mier dapyrobil
-ev- sufiqsi saerToqarTveluri enis, arqauli qarTulisa da samwig- egrisis nawils (romelsac isini lazikas eZaxdnen) ganagebda impe-
nobro qarTulis afiqsTa (krebiToba-warmomavlobisa da daniSnule- riis mier daniSnuli mmarTveli, romelic drodadro, SesaZloa,
bis afiqsebis) cxrilSi logikurad zis; Sdr.:
ar emorCileboda "centrs", xolo, paralelurad, qarTlis nawil
-av-, -ev-, -iv- -aT-, -eT-, -iT- -ar-, -er- -ir- egrisis saerisTavos marTavda erisTavi, romelic Tavisi samSob-
los - qarTlis - mefis nebayoflobiTi morCili iyo...
-al-, -el-, -il- -an-, -en-, -in- -as-, -es-, -is-
sanimuSod ganvixilavT kidev erT magaliTs:
la-, le-, li- na-, ne-, ni- sa-, se-, si-
cota xnis win gamoqveynda g. grigolias faseuli naSromi: "eg-
vfiqrobT, ara gvaqvs safuZveli, -ev- morfemis mixedviT vivaraudoT ris-lazikis samefos saistorio geografiis problemebi", romel-
marguli enis arseboba; Sesabamisad, gaWirdeba imis Tqma, rom -ev su- Sic vkiTxulobT:
fiqsi marguli warmomavlobisaa da Tavdapirveli mniSvneloba dakar-
"IV saukunis damlevisaTvis TiTqmis mTeli dasavleT saqar-
guli aqvs (Sdr., ak.SaniZe, 1981, gv 444).
Tvelos gamaerTianeblis rolSi gvevlinebian lazebi, romelTa
xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, arc mier Seqmnil saxelmwifos qarTuli wyaroebi egriss uwodeben,
erTi (didi Tu mcire) egrisi damoukidebeli saxelmwifo ar xolo berZeni da bizantieli avtorebi lazikis saxeliT ixsenie-
yofila: ZiriTadi nawili yovelTvis Sedioda qarTlis Semadgen- ben" (g.grigolia, 1994, gv.8).
lobaSi, xolo mcire nawili, mag., gare egrisi (teritoria Ra- aq ramdenime ganmarteba-dazustebaa saWiro: dasavleT saqar-
liZgidan yubanis SesarTavamde) qujidan gorgaslamde periodSi Tvelos egriselni/megrelni aerTianeben; megrelebs ki bizantie-
hqondaT berZnebs (bizantielebs). e.i. qarTuli wyaroebi saqar- lebi lazebs uwodeben. Sdr.: lazebis saxelmwifos qarTuli
Tvelos erTian qveynad warmogvidgens, rasac mxars uWers arqeo- wyaroebi egrisad ar ixsenieben (mxolod gviandel qarTul wya-
logiuri da lingvisturi Ziebebic (ix. qvemoT). arada, bizantiu- roebSi Cndeba nasesxebi termini lazia); "qarTlis cxovrebis"
ri wyaroebis mixedviT (rasac zogi qarTveli istorikosic mi- mixedviT, am periodis egrisi qarTlSi Sedis da, rac mTavaria,
hyveba), gamodis, rom, TiTqos, mTeli dasavleTi da samxreT-da- termini egrisi drois am monakveTSic ver faravs berZnul-bizan-

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sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

tiuri lazikas Sinaarss: lazika qarTlSi ar Semodis, xolo "qar- qarTlis cxovreba, I, gv.24) da VII saukuneSi - mTeli dasavleTi da
Tlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, egrisi qarTlis erT-erTi regionia. samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTvelo.
ra safuZveli gvaqvs, ar vendoT qarTul wyaroebs da metad sa-
SeniSvna: am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa m.sanaZis msjeloba gugarqTan
eWvo (da tendenciur) bizantiur cnobebs daveyrdnoT? dakavSirebiT: gugarqi qarTlis sinonimia somxurSi; araiSviaTad,
kidev erTi sadavo azri: gugarqi moicavda mxolod im teritorias, romelic ama Tu im epoqaSi
istorikosTa erTi nawilis azriT, IV saukunis Sua periodSi somxeTis mier qarTlis samefosgan iyo CamoWrili (m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.68,
egrisis mefea gubaz I; TiTqmis amave periodSi vaxtang gorgasali 92).
"ipyrobs" dasavleT saqarTvelos (narkvevebi, II, gv 166-169; n.asaTi- sagangebo msjelobas iTxovs kolxeTisa da iberiis parale-
ani, 2001, gv.82-85). lurad arsebobis saTuo sakiTxic:
sinamdvileSi, bizantiuri wyaroebis mixedviT, gubazi lazi- dRes farTod gavrcelebuli azris mixedviT, Zv.w. VI saukuni-
kis (bizantias daqvemdebarebuli qarTlis nawilis) mefea da ara dan vidre daviT kurapalatamde (ax. w. X s.) gverdigverd arsebob-
egrisis im nawilisa, romelic qarTlSi Sedis: qarTvel mematia- da ori qarTuli saxelmwifo: kolxeTi da iberia, anu SedarebiT
neTa cnobebiT, am dros saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSia egrisic gviandeli egris-lazika da qarTli-iberia; ix., mag., saqarTvelos
da margveTic (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.146, 185, 243); Sdr., ama- istoriis narkvevebi, I, gv.422; Sdr., am mxriv, iSviaT gamonakliss
ve wyaros mixedviT, afxazeTidan gadmosuli berZnebi ipyroben warmoadgens mitropoliti anania jafariZe (ix. a.jafariZe, 1996,
egrisis nawils; mogvianebiT, Sida egrisi arCil mefis uSualo gv.86-114). Sesabamisad, XX saukunis istorikosTa yvela Taobis
samkvidroa da a.S. mier arasworadaa gaTanabrebuli, erTi mxriv: kolxeTi, lazi-
romel wyaros unda vendoT: ka, egrisi da, meore mxriv: qarTli, iberia; yovel am termins Ta-
imperiis istorikosisas Tu qarTvelisas? visi gamoyenebis are aqvs da maTi sinonimebad gamocxadeba kvlevis
Cveni mematianis cnobebi detaluria da Tanamimdevruli, xo- Sedegebs araadekvaturad warmoadgens. am SemTxvevaSic mivyveT
lo bizantiuri informaciebi wyvetilia da zogadi; Sdr., agreT- konkretul magaliTs:
ve: "egrisis istoriis Sesaxeb gubaz pirvelis droidan vidre VI 1970 wels gamoqveynebuli "saqarTvelos istoriis narkveve-
saukunis 20-ian wlebamde araviTari cnobebi ar moipoveba" (narkve- bis" I tomis VIII Tavis saTauria: "kolxeTi Zv.w. VI-IV saukuneeb-
vebi, II, gv.169). SevniSnavT, rom qarTul wyaroebSi am periodis Se- Si", xolo IX Tavia "qarTli (iberia) Zv.w. VI-IV saukuneebSi";
saxeb detaluri informaciebi gvaqvs, bizantiurSi ki - ara. Sdr., agreTve, d.musxeliSvili, 2002, gv.15: "Zv.w. IV saukuneSi Camo-
ufro logikuri xom ar iqneba, lazika yvela etapze ganvmar- yalibda aRmosavleTqarTuli samefo qarTli (iberia)" da sxv.
toT, rogorc berZen-romaelTagan kontrolirebadi qarTuli te- romeli utyuari wyaroebiT mtkicdeba, rom Zv.w. I aTaswleu-
ritoria (miuxedavad amisa, lazikis mefeebis salaparako ena qar- lis meore naxevarSi qarTvelTa ori damoukidebeli saxelmwifo
Tulia; ix. qvemoT), romlis sazRvrebi drodadro izrdeboda Tu arsebobda?
mcirdeboda; Sdr.: Tavdapirvelad, lazika iyo erTi qalaqi - Zve- am periodis arc erTi ucxouri wyaro qarTvelTa qveyanas or
li lazika, Semdeg - egrisis is nawili, romelic ar SemouerTda saxelmwifod ar warmoadgens; rogorc wina paragrafSi vnaxeT, sa-
qarTvelos istoriul teritoriaze Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi qar-
farnavazis qarTls ("xolo egris wyals quemoT darCa berZenTa,
TvelTa mravali tomi Cans; berZnul-asiriul-urartuli da qar-
rameTu mkvidrTa mis adgilsaTa, ara inebes gandgoma berZenTa";

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sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

Tuli wyaroebis mixedviT, erTi didi saxelmwifos arsebobac Se- Tan (iv.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.18). svanebisa da aRmosavleTis
iZleba davuSvaT, rasac daadasturebs erTiani arqeologiuri iberebis igiveobis Sesaxeb msjeloba ix., zemoT, gv.144.
kulturac (ix. qvemoT); Sdr., agreTve, a. uruSaZe, 1964, gv.6: "Tav- vatikanSi daculi "saeklesio analebis" mixedviT, "iberiis im
dapirvelad berZnebi kolxeTSi mTel qarTvelur samyaros gu- nawilma, romelic pontos zRvasTan mdebareobs da kolxidad
lisxmobdnen"; Sdr.: Zveli wyaroebis kargi mcodne g.meliqiSvili iwodeba, saxareba jer kidev imperator traianes (98-117) dros mqa-
(narkvevebis I tomis redaqtori da mTavari avtori) gviandeli dagebeli papi wm. klementis (papobis wlebi - 88-97) SemweobiT mii-
berZnul-bizantiuri tradiciis mixedviT, kolxida-lazikas Ro... rac Seexeba qvemo iberebs, romlebic kavkasiis mTebTan, kas-
qarTl-iberiisgan mowyvetiT ganixilavs; arada: qarTveli mematia- piis zRvis axlos cxovroben, Tvlian, rom maT qristianoba impe-
neni kargad icnoben ucxour literaturas, terminologias, maTe- rator konstantines dros miiRes (i.tabaRua, 1984, gv.171).
ul xedvebs, magram qarTveli eris istorias qarTul cnobiereba- romauli wyaroebis iberia mxolod aRmosavleT da samxreT
Si CamoZerwili terminologiiTa da xedva-aRqmiT ageben. danam- saqarTvelos (lazika - dasavleT saqarTvelo) teritoriiT
dvilebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom qarTvel JamTaaRmwerTa xedva ifargleba e.w. miTridates omebis periodSi; es bunebrivicaa,
ufro obieqturia (adreul qarTlSi ganixileba egrisic) vidre vinaidan, qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviTac, II-I saukuneebSi qar-
berZnebisa, romael-bizantielebisa Tu armenebisa; kerZod: TvelTa saxelmwifo dasustebulia: misi teritoriebis nawili
ris safuZvelze keTdeba daskvna, rom Zv.w. VI-III saukuneebSi
romma daipyro, nawili - armeniam; miTridate evpatoris pontos
kolxeTisgan damoukideblad arsebobda iberia?
samefoc qarTveluri tomebiTa da teritoriebiT iyo Zlevamo-
SeniSvna: istorikosTa mier sinonimebadaa miCneuli qoronimebi qar- sili.
Tli da iberia; arc am terminTa gaigivebaa SesaZlebeli: Zvel qarTul Sdr., leonti mrovelis mixedviT, farnavazisa Tu gorgaslis
wyaroebSi qarTli sruliad saqarTvelos (SavizRvispireTs md. yuba- qarTli moicavda: Woroxis, mtkvris zemowelis, liaxvis, rionis,
nis SesarTavidan trapizonamde da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos xunana-
enguris, kodoris, bzifis xeobebs; TiTqmis amave teritorias moi-
mde) moicavda, ucxouri iberia ki aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aRsaniS-
cavs kolxuri arqeologiuri kulturac, e.i. aietis aia-kolxac;
navad damkvidrda mxolod Zv.w. II saukunidan.
Sdr., s.janaSia, 1942, gv.728: strabonisa da pliniusis cnobebiT,
iberias ar axseneben hekata~os mileteli, qsenofonte, hero- tigran II dros teritoriebdakarguli iberiis samefo moicavs
dote, fsevdo-skilaqsi, platoni, aristotele, apolonios ro- teritorias mtkvris saTaveebidan (kola-artaani) taos CaTvliT
doseli... da Woroxis xeobis nawils.
terminebi: kavkasiis iberia da aRmosavleTis iberebi (Sdr., vfiqrobT, Zveli kolxeTi (kolxur-yobanuri arqeologiu-
pirineis iberebi) pirvelad Cndeba Zv.w. IV-II saukuneebis avto- ri kulturis veli) ufro sruliad qarTlis sinonimad Se-
rebTan: megasTenesTan, TeofrastosTan, dionise periegetTan... gviZlia miviCnioT, vidre lazikisa an egrisisa. rac Seexeba la-
(v.vaSakiZe, 1993, gv.61). ufro gviandel cnobebSi kolxida iberi- zika-iberiis mimarTebas:
aSicaa moazrebuli; mag., plutarqes cnobiT, kavkasiis mTavari lazika da iberia romaul-bizantiur wyaroebSi qarTuli sa-
erebi albanelebi da iberebi arian: iberebi binadroben dasavle- xelmwifoebis aRmniSvnel terminebad mkvidrdeba welTaRricxva-
TiT mesxeTis (evfrat-Worox-mtkvar-araqsis wyalgamyof) mTebTan Ta mijnidan, maSin, roca dasavleT da samxreT-dasavleT saqarTve-
da pontos zRvasTan, albanelebi ki - aRmosavleTiT, kaspiis zRvas- loSi romaelebi batondebian da, Tavdapirvelad maTive xelSe-

- 197 - - 198 -
sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa sxvadasxvaenovani qoronimebi da sxvadasxva istoriuli epoqa

wyobiT, sruliad qarTlis dasustebis mizniT, iqmneba pontosa vleba... arada, Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua periodSi iberiisa da
da lazikis samefoebi (Semdgom pontoc romis mtrad iqca). spar- kolxeTis cal-calke warmodgenam bevr seriozul Secdomas dau-
selebis politikur velSi darCenili qarTuli saxelmwifos nawi- do dasabami, Tundac imas, rom, mavanTa azriT, arasodes arsebula
li iberiis saxeliT damkvidrda. qarTvelTa erTiani saxelmwifo...
lazikasa da iberias Soris sazRvrad sarapaniss (Sorapans) Cven ara gvaqvs istoriografiis dargSi kvlevis pretenzia;
pirvelad uTiTebs straboni (Sdr., iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.43-44); Tumca, vfiqrobT, SedarebiT obieqturi istoria qarTveli eri-
kolxidasa da iberias Soris sazRvrad lixis qeds debs ax.w. II sau- sa jer kidev dasaweria. wignis am nawilSi (1.2; 1.3.) Cveni mizani iyo
kunis moRvawe klavdios ptolemaiosi (n.lomouri, 1955, gv.44-46). gveCvenebina:
es cnobebi sulac ar iZleva raime safuZvels, rom Zv.w. II-I da ax. winaistoriul da adreistoriul periodebSi kavkasiasa da
w. I-II saukuneebis viTareba ganvazogadoT ufro adreul Tu anatoliaSi aTeulobiT qarTveluri tomi arsebobda (da ara
gviandel periodebze; Sesabamisad, kolxeTi da iberia, an qar- mxolod sami!); am qarTvelur tomTa konsolidaciiT drodadro
Tli da egrisi damoukidebel saxelmwifoebad warmovidginoT ikvreboda didi qarTveluri saxelmwifoebi, sadac iqmneboda
Zv.w. VI-III saukuneebSi Tu gorgaslis dros. miT umetes, rom ara- didi saerToqarTveluri kulturuli faseulobani...
feri vTqvaT adreuli periodis berZnul wyaroebze, strabonis
cnobebic ki metad winaaRmdegobrivia (kritikisaTvis ix., mag.,
iv.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.22). am fonze miT ufro gasakviria, rom
iv.javaxiSvilidan moyolebuli dRemde, qarTveli istorikosebi
met ndobas iCenen ucxouri cnobebis mimarT da ufro mwyobri
qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT ar ageben qarTveli eris istoriul
qargas. rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, ufro meti argumenti aqvs
mosazrebas, rom azon-quj-farnavazis droSi (da ufro adrec)
erTiani kulturul-saxelmwifoebrivi velia amJamindel
dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic da, gacilebiT
masStabur, samxreT saqarTvelSic (sadac, savaraudoa,
qarTvelebs mcxeTaze adrindeli dedaqalaqic hqondaT).
sinanuliT aRvniSnavT, rom iv.javaxiSvilis sabWoTa
periodamdeli gamokvlevebi eZRvneboda samxreT amierkavkasiasa
da anatoliaSi mcxovreb qarTvelur tomTa istorias (albaT,
didma istorikosma amitomac daarqva Tavis fundamentalur Sro-
mas "qarTveli eris istoria" da ara - "saqarTvelos istoria"),
Tumca mogvianebiT Seqmnil istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebSi nakle-
bad aisaxeboda xolme qarTvelTa es Zveli istoria; metic, zog av-
torTan oqros xanamde saqarTvelo erTian saxelmwifod arc iT-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

Tavi II saxa-/mesx- (ix. zemoT). sayuradReboa: Zveli aRTqma iqmneba Zv.w. II-I
aTaswleulebis mijnidan (swored am dros Seiqmna
qarTvelebi uZvelesi droidan qristia- winaswarmetyvel qal deboras simRera), roca axlo aRmosavleTSi
aqtiurni arian mosxebi; Sdr., homerosis droidan aqtiurdebian
nobamde; aia-kolxebi (Zv.w. VIII saukune); Sesabamisad, isini aisaxnen ber-
saerToqarTveluri enis Teoriuli Znul miTebSi.
iovane petriwis mier bibliuri da berZnuli eTnonimebi asea
modelisa da daTariRebis sakiTxebi Targmnili:
Tobelebi - Tovilni, iberebi - ivirni, mosoxenebi - mesqinni
kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis
2.1. (i. flaviusi, 1987, gv.103; Sdr.: T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.210). aqve,
Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis sakiTxi kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, rom strabonis dros mosxebis qveyana
sam nawilad ganixileba: misi erTi nawili hqonda kolxebs, meore
2.1.1. bibliuri da miTologiuri TvalTaxedva - iberebs, mesame - armenielebs.
evstaTi antioqelTan (280-360) kabadokielTa winaprebad da-
2.1.1.1. "Zveli aRTqmis" mixedviT, dedamiwis erTenovanma mo-
saxelebulia mesxenebi, maT eTnarqad ki - osoxi (georgika, 1961,
saxleobam pirveli TviTwarwymediT warRvna moivlina; gadarCa
gv.34); Sdr.: ori saukunis Semdeg prokopi
mxolod noes saxleuli; Sdr.: erTenovani kacobriobis meore
kesarieli mesxTa (mesxo~) sacxovrisad miiCnevs iberiis gas-
danaSaulis dros (babilonis godolis mkrexeloba) ufalma
wvriv arsebul mTebs (georgika, 1965, gv.127).
Seicoda isini da "enebi auria", danaSauli bolomde rom ar
giorgi kedernes (XI s.) mixedviT: "noem Tavis mesame vaJs ia-
mieyvanaT (da TviTganadgureba ar moemkoT): enebis gaCeniT Seq-
feTs, romelic 425 wlisa iyo, misca CrdiloeTisa da dasavleTis
mnili mravalenovani kacobrioba sicocxlisunariani aRmo-
qveynebi midiidan vidre RadirTamde da britaniis kunZulebamde,
Cnda (vrclad ix., t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv.95). noes sam SvilTagan
armenia, iberia, ponto, kolxeTi da maT iqiT mdebare qveynebi da
erT-erTis - iafetis - STamomavlebad (iafeti: Tubali, mosoxi;
kunZulebi vidre italiamde da galiebamde, ispaniamde, keltibe-
Sesaqme, IV,22; X,2; XI, 28) miiCnevs qarTvelebs romaul-bizantiuri
riamde da lisitaniamde" (georgika, V, 1963, gv.10).
tradicia:
XI saukunis moRvawe leon gramatikosi ucvlelad imeorebs
mag., ioseb flaviusis mixedviT (1987, gv.103): iafetis Zem "To-
wina Taobebis mosazrebebs da iafetis Svilad miCneul mesxosgan
belma daafuZna Tobelebi, romlebsac axla iberebi ewodebaT,
momdinared miiCnevs mesxebs, romelTac axla kabadokielebi ewo-
mosoxenebi dafuZnebuli arian mosoxis mier, axlaxan maT kabado- debaTo (georgika, 1963, gv.3-4)... evsevi kesarielis, gelasi kesarie-
kielebi ewodaT, magram maTi Zveli saxelwodebis niSanic Cans, ra- lisa da rufinusis Sesaxeb ix., agreTve, a.jafariZe, 1994, gv.19.
meTu maT dResac aqvT qalaqi mazaka, rac naTelyofs maTTvis, vi- ax.w. XII saukuneSi Sedgenili qarTveli eris istoriis sasko-
sac gageba SeuZlia, rom ase ewodeboda odesRac mTel toms"... lo saxelmZRvanelo (da Sin sakiTxavi wigni) "cxovreba qarTvel-
Sdr., Tabali mdebareobda Zveli mazakas, dRevandeli kaiseris ra- Ta mefeTa" bibliuri noeTi iwyebs qarTvelobis istorias:
ionSi - samxreT-dasavleT kabadokiaSi; Sdr., agreTve: mazaxa - *ma-
"qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, qarTvelTa eTnarqia Targamo-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

si. am saxels sxvaenovani variantebic udasturdeba: Targamosi < sa". Targamosis SvilTa saxelebi (haosi, qarTlosi, bardosi, mova-
*Targama; Sdr., xeTuri Tegarama, bibliuri Togarma, Tabalis kani, leki, herosi, kavkasi, egrosi) cxadyofs, rom qarTvelTa wi-
qveynis qalaqi Togorma, Til-garimu (asuruli), somxuri Tor- naprebi mTel axlo aRmosavleTs (kavkasiis CaTvliT) TavianTi sa-
goma (variantebisaTvis ix. Zveli aRmosavleTis..., 1971, gv.309; g.qav- naTesavos samkvidrod Tvlidnen (msjelobisaTvis ix. m.sanaZe, 2001,
TaraZe, 1985, gv.41; gr.giorgaZe, gv.146). gv.166-167). aseve, sarwmuno Cans varaudi, rom "qarTlis cxovre-
qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT, Targamosi iavanis/avanis Svi- bis" am nawilis avtorisaTvis da, saerTod, am saxelmZRvanelos Se-
liSvilia da ara - gomeris: iafeti: iavani: TarSisi: Targamosi: mdgenelTaTvis haosis STamomavlebi qarTvelTa moZme, aseve, ibe-
"ese Targamos iyo Ze TarSisi, Ziswuli iafetisi, Zisa noesi" riul-kavkasiuri modgmisani arian (indoevropulenovani somxebi
(q.c., I, gv.3); teqstSi mosalodneli iyo Ze TarSisisi, vinaidan kavkasiaSi gvian, urartus dacemis Semdeg modian), xolo mroveli-
bibliis qarTul variantebSi iavanis erT-erTi Svilia TarSisi seuli somxuri ena urartuli enis memkvidreobas gulisxmobs
(msjelobisaTvis ix.: r. gordeziani, 1993, gv.47; a. jafariZe, 1994,
(sxvagan – TarSiSi); qarTulSi gverdigverd mosalodneli ori -
gv.72; j. kaSia, 1999; r. abaSia 1999). savsebiT logikuria, rom somxu-
is- segmentisgan teqstSi erT-erTi daikarga.
ri enis indoevropuli warmomavlobis armcodne Zvel qarTvel is-
Sdr.: r.gordeziani, 1993, gv.8: "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT,
torikosebs somxebic/armenebic iberiul-kavkasiur-urartuli
TiraSs (bibl. Tirass) – iafetis Zes – hyavda Zed Targamosi; am modgmis xalxi hgonebodaT, miT umetes, damxvduri kavkasiuri da
bibliur Tirass ukavSirdeba etruskebis warmomavlobac; etrus- mosuli indoevropuli tomebis SereviT warmoqmnili armenebi
kebisa da kavkasielebis winapari erTia – Tiras iafetis Ze. anTropologiurad kavkasiur-mcireaziur rasas ganekuTvnebian.
Sdr., agreTve, a. jafariZe, 1994, gv.71: iafeti – iafetis Ze – Ta- m.sanaZis daskvniT, "qarTlis cxovrebis" Sesaval geografiul na-
raSi – Targamosi. wilSi mocemuli politikur-geografiuli suraTi gamoxatavs
SeniSvna: r.gordezianma dausabuTeblad gaaTanabra erTmaneTTan bib- VII-VIII saukuneTa mijnis kavkasiis viTarebas (m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.170-
liuri Tirasi da "qarTlis cxovrebis" TarSisi saxelebi: hipoTetu- 175). am azrs adasturebs isic, rom herosi da egrosi qarTlosis
ri TarSi CaTvala bibliuri Tiras/TiraS saxelis qarTul adekvatad. Zmebadaa warmodgenili: VII-VIII saukuneebSi hereTi (kambeCovani)
sinamdvileSi, bibliaSive, Tarsisi/TarSiSi aris iavanis Svili, Tira- damoukidebeli samTavroa (m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.169), bizantielTagan
si/TiraSi ki - iafetis Svili. vfiqrobT, Secdomis saTavea "qarTlis dapyrobilia egrisi (trapizonidan lixamde da yubanis mcire Se-
cxovrebis" Tarsisi/TarSisi formis miCneva TarS- savaraudo sakuTa-
sarTavamde arsebuli qarTuli teritoria - egrosis wili siv-
ri saxelis naTesaobiTi brunvis formad; TarSisi formis -is- segmen-
rce), centraluri qarTli ki arabebis xelSia... saqarTvelo gasa-
tis amgvarive mcdari gaazrebis safuZvelze, a.jafariZe fuZed aRad-
gens TaraSi formas. erTianebelia: swored am periodSi axleburad xdeba qarTvelTa
vfiqrobT, naTelia: Zveli qarTveluri tradiciis mixedviT, istoriisa da momavlis konceptualuri gaazreba "qarTlis cxov-
iafetis SviliSvilis Svili - Targamos TarSisis Ze - iberiul- rebis" Sesaval nawilsa da erovnul himnSi - "qeba~ qarTvelTa da
kavkasiur-mcireaziuri modgmis mamamTavari iyo (Sdr., somxuri qarTvelTa enisa~".
tradicia). Targamosis rva Svili da maTi naTesavni anatoliasa "qarTlis cxovrebaSi", qarTlosis darad, Targamosis Svi-
da kavkasiaSi movidnen babilonis godolis dangrevis Semdeg, ma- lebad miiCneva herosi da egrosi; Sdr., ufro Zvel qarTvel mwe-
Sin, roca "ganeyvnes mun enani da ganibnes muniT yovelsa queyana- ralTa da mematianeTa cnobebi cxadyofs, rom Tavidan erTian

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

qarTlSi egrissa da hereTs kaxeTis rangis pozicia eWiraT; mag., wleulSi (dawvrilebiT ix.: t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv.89-92).
iakob curtavelis qmnilebaSi hereTi qarTlis ukiduresi aRmo- bibliuri qronologia TavisTavad sainteresoa, magram amJa-
savleTi Temia, xolo iovane sabanisZisa da giorgi merCulis mi- mad CvenTvis sainteresoa faqti: bibliis mixedviT, enebis aRreva
xedviT, egrisi/afxazeTic qarTlia, qarTulenovania (qarTuli ivaraudeba Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi - evraziis istoriis im peri-
mwerloba, I, gv.225, 454, 591; iv.javaxiSvili, I, gv.248; a.jafariZe, odSi, rodesac mecnierebis mierac navaraudevia didi eTnikur-
1994, gv.81; ix. agreTve, qvemoT, 2.3.3.). enobriv-kulturuli Serevebi; kerZod: axlo aRmosavleTis
Sdr., agreTve: Targamosis SvilTagan mxolod qarTlosisa da avtoqTon mosaxleobas intensiurad Seeria indoevropeli da
haosis CamomavalTa enebi - qarTuli da somxuria naxsenebi; memati- semiti modgmis xalxebi. faqtia isic, rom mravalsaukunovani
anis mixedviT, somxuri adrec iyo, xolo qarTuli ena Cndeba nabu- bibliuri tradiciisa da Zveli qarTuli werilobiTi wyaroebis
qodonosoris dros (Zv.w. VI saukune). mematianeni arsad axseneben mixedviT, qarTveloba bibliuri "enebis aRrevisas" warmoqmnil
egrosis, herosis, kavkasosis… memkvidreTa enebs; teqstiT igu- msoflios uZveles erTa Sorisaa da mis sacxovrisad kavkasia-
lisxmeba, rom farnavazis Semdeg TargamosianTa mTavari ena - deda- anatolia miiCneva.
ena xdeba qarTuli. 2.1.1.2. berZnuli miTologiis zevsamdeli RmerTi - titan
winareqarTvelur enobriv situaciasTan mimarTebiT, sainte- iafetis Svili - promeTe zevsma daamarcxa da kavkasions miajaWva;
resoa "enaTa aRrevis" (kacobriobis axali modelis – mravaleno- winareberZnuli (protoiberiuli) mosaxleobis RmerTis (J. diu-
vani/mravalerovani modelis - Seqmnis) bibliuri qronologiac: mezli, s. yauxCiSvili, z. gamsaxurdia…) kavkasiasTan identifika-
bibliuri welTaRricxvis mixedviT, dasabamidan qristemde cia safuZvels iZleva, vivaraudoT, rom iafetis Ze promeTe iberi-
ivaraudeba 5604 weli (iovane zosimes qronologiaSi – 5500). bib- ul-kavkasiuri modgmis simbolod warmoedginaT Zvel berZnebs
liis Tanamedrove gamocemebis monacemTa SejerebiT, adamidan no- (niSandoblivia, rom bibliur komentarebSic eTnarqi iafeti
es Svilebamde periodi moicavs 2142 wels; warRvna moxda adams qarTvelebTanaa dakavSirebuli).
aqeT 2242 wels, anu qristemde 3362 wels (t. futkaraZe, 2000, gv.89; samecniero literaturaSi gaziarebuli TvalsazrisiT, ber-
Sdr., a.jafariZe, 1994, gv.15); adamidan noemde periods 2242 wliT Znuli miTologiis titanebi da gmirebi warmoadgenen araber-
Znul, winaberZnul samyaros - pelazgur kulturas; pelazgebi ki
gansazRvravs iovane zosimec Tavis naSromSi: "cnoba~ dasabamiT-
qarTvelur samyarosTan asocirdebian (o.neraxeris msjelobis Se-
ganni welni da qriste~T mosvliTgani". noe dabadebuli Cans
saxeb ix.: z.gamsaxurdia, 1991, gv.31; pelazgebisa da kolx-iberebis
qristemde 3962 wels – warRvnamde 600 wliT adre. noes Semdeg me-5 saerTo warmomavlobaze ix. r.gordeziani, 1993, gv.8).
Taoba iyo falek; "dReTa misTa ganinawila queyana" (Sesaqme, X, SemTxveviTi ar Cans, rom promeTes saxesxvaoba RvTaeba amira-
25). noedan falekamde gasulia 750 weli; faleki daibada 3212 ni kavkasieli xalxebis miTologiis uZvelesi dafenebaa (saxelis
wels; e.i. enebi aRreula qristemde 3212 wlis Semdeg… Sdr.: sxva variantebia: saerToqarTveluri amiran- svanuri: amrim/mi-
Zvel wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, vaxuSti fiqrobs, rom noes SvilTa rim/amirm/miran; megruli: aram (< aran < amiran); afxazuri: amr-
ganyofa unda momxdariyo dasabamidan 1758 wels, anu qristemde sk-Hl-/abrskil-; osuri: amran-; somxuri: mheri.
3846 wels). aSkaraa, rom bibliis mixedviT, babilonis godolis qarTuli miTologiis tragikuli RvTaebis - amiranisa da
misteria, anu erebisa da enebis gaCena ivaraudeba Zv.w. III aTas- titan promeTes - igiveobis mtkicebas bevri argumenti eZebneba.

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

berZen mweralTa cnobiT, qristianobamdel saqarTveloSi arse- deg (santorinis katastrofa), berZenTagan aqtiurad xdeba wina-
bobda promeTes miTis msgavsi legenda; "elinTa mwerlebi, ukve V- reberZnuli kulturis sruli dapyroba-aTviseba: mcireaziu-
IV saukuneebidan moyolebuli, am Tqmulebas - kavkasiurad da ri/winareberZnuli kulturis mTavari ganZi - kulturis simbo-
TviT promeTeosis mijaWvis adgilad kavkasias miiCnevdnen. prome- lo - "oqros sawmisi" am dros jer kidev kolxeTSia Sefarebuli,
Teosis ambavs kavkasiurad sTvlida mag., gamoCenili geografi gaxiznuli Tu waRebuli (berZenTa xedviT, gatacebuli!); saWiro
strabonic" (iv.javaxiSvili, 1979, gv.201, 190; Sdr., s.yauxCiSvili, iyo ara mxolod damarcxebulis "moTviniereba" (mijaWva-axsna),
1964, 33-34; sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix., n.CixlaZe, 1992). garda aramed winareberZnuli kulturis simbolos dapyroba-dasakuT-
amisa: RvTiuri warmomavloba, ukvdaveba, RvTiuri ganZis (ce- rebac (Sdr., oqros sawmisi iyo xaTebis miwaze damkvidrebuli
cxlis, yamaris) qveynad Camotana, RrubelTbatonis damarcxeba xeTebis samefo Zalauflebis simboloc); Sesabamisad:
(Sdr, zevsis motyueba), "axali" RmerTisgan kavkasionze mijaWva, pelazgi iazonis mier aietis qveynis "dalaSqvra" berZenTa
mijaWvuli gmirisTvis arwivis mier RviZlis kortna da sxva sim- did gmirobad iTvleba: am faqts winareberZnuli kulturis cen-
boluri informacia-pasaJebi uTuod aaqtualurebs promeTesa da tris dapyrobis TvalsazrisiT Tu SevafasebT, naTeli gaxdeba,
amiranis igiveobis sakiTxs. aSkaraa isic, rom winareberZnul-pro- rom berZnebad gamocxadebuli pelazgi argonavtebis gmirobani
toiberiuli RvTaebis Sesaxeb miTis qarTulma variantma qristia- Tu eSmakobani berZenTa TviTdamkvidrebis periods ufro asaxavs.
nobis Semdeg seriozuli transformacia ganicada: zRapradqce- sainteresoa isic, rom herakles mier promeTeosis aSveba swored
ul miTSi zevsis adgili qristeRmerTma daiWira, xolo Zveli amis Semdeg xdeba: argonavtTa mier kolxTaTvis "oqros sawmisis"
moparvis Semdeg berZnebisTvis ukve aRar aris saSiSi protoqar-
RvTaeba zRaprul gmirad gadaazrianda (t.futkaraZe, 1995).
winareberZnuli da antikuri kulturebis mkvlevarTa azriT, Tvelur-winareberZnuli kultura: heraklem zevsis pirvelobas
Zv.w. mesame aTaswleulis Sua periodamde xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi Seguebuli, damarcxebuli promeTe auSva...
da mcire aziaSi yvaoda araindoevropeli xalxebis mier Seqmnili arsebiTia kidev erTi sakiTxi:
didi kultura; varaudoben, rom dRevandel qarTvelTa winaprebi promeTe-amiranis miTis qarTvelur variantSi RvTaeba (uk-
da Soreuli naTesavebi (pelazgebi, etruskebi, baskebi da sxva) am vdavi gmiri) kavkasionze mijaWvuli rCeba! Cans, qarTvelurma si-
winareberZnuli kulturis SemoqmedTa uSualo STamomavlebi arian namdvilem ar gaiTavisa miTis berZnuli varianti: ar igua zev-
(msjelobisa da literaturisaTvis ix. r.gordeziani, 1970; r.gorde- sis Zis - herakles mier amiranis gaTavisuflebis idea da Tavis-
ziani, 1985; r.gordeziani, 1988; z.gamsaxurdia, 1991). mesame aTaswle- save axal gmirs daeloda; SemTxveviTi ar aris is, rom qarTve-
ulidan xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi Zlierdebian indoevropeli to- lur tradicias arc oqros sawmisis dakargva axsovs - esec berZen-
mebi, "rac berZnul miTologiaSi simbolizebulia iapetis Zis - Ta gamonagonad CaiTvala... amave dros, qarTvelTa istorias Tu
titan promeTes - mijaWviT kavkasionze; promeTe iafeturi kacob- mexsierebas qalaq afsarosad da mdinare afsarad SemorCa mter-
riobaa, zevsi - indoevropuli kacobrioba"; zevsis mier promeTes Tan (momxdurTan) brZolaSi daRupuli pirveli qarTveli uf-
kavkasiaSi mijaWva miTologiuri Sifrogramaa im faqtisa, rom in- liswulis - miTur-legenduri afsirtes - saxeli... pirveli me-
doevropelTagan damarcxebuli winaberZnuli modgmisa da kul- fis - tragikuli aietis saxelic meordeba istoriuli saqarTve-
turis centrad SemorCa kavkasia - qveyana, sadac Senaxuli aqvT los/lazikas mefeTa saxelad (Sdr., zogi mkvlevari afsarosSi xe-
oqros sawmisi - sakraluri ganZi (z. gamsaxurdia, 1991, gv. 26-28). Turi xanis xaiasur qalaq arifsas xedavs).
Zv.w. XV saukuneSi, kretis minosuri kulturis dacemis Sem- SemTxveviTi arc is unda iyos, rom, berZnuli tradiciiTve,

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

kolxeTis mefis - aietis - adrindel samflobelod gviandeli sa- bibliisa da berZnuli miTebis ganmmartebelTa Tvalsazri-
berZneTis korinTo iTvleba, xolo Tesalieli iazoni warmoSo- siT, qarTvelTa Soreuli warsuli ukavSirdeba im Zvel mosaxle-
biT pelazgia; Sdr., s.janaSia fiqrobs, rom arian-qarTvelTa me- obas, romelic evraziis centralur nawilSi - anatolia-
fis Ze azo - Tesalieli iazonis bundovani xsovna - sasper-ibere- kavkasiaSi cxovrobda.
bis eTnarqia (s.janaSia, 1952, gv.74-77)… kavkasieli "eTnarqebis Te- 2.1.2. mecnieruli mosazrebani
saliuri warmoSoba interess iwvevs imdenad, ramdenadac Tesalia qarTvelTa istoriuli samSoblos Sesaxeb samecniero lite-
pelazgebis buded aris miCneuli" (s.janaSia, 1943, gv.372-373; Tesa- raturaSi ramdenime mosazreba gvaqvs:
lieli gmiris - aqilevsisa da amiranis Sesaxeb ix. q.TuiTi, 1998).
Sdr., S.gabeskiria, 2003, gv.37: azo warmoSobiT qarTvelia, 2.1.2.1. migraciis (kavkasiaSi mosvlis) Teoria.
arian-qarTlelia. arian-qarTli aris mcire aziis samxreT-aRmo-
savleTSi, e.w. gvianxeTuri saxelmwifos teritoriaze cnobili qarTvelTa istoriuli sacxovrisi iyo qaldea/xalde/qarTu,
mxare, romlis centrsac qalaqi arani (Tanamedrove harani) romelic mdebareobda mcire aziaSi, Crdilo mesopotamiasa da
warmoadgenda; es mxare xaTebis uSualo memkvidre mesxebis kuT- tigros-evfratis saTaveebSi; qarTvelTa winaprebi amierkavkasia-
vnili teritoriaa (Sdr., zogi mecnieri xaTebis memkvidred qas- Si movidnen Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi (i.WavWavaZe, 1955,
qebs miiCnevs)… gv.113; iv.javaxiSvili, 1960, gv.412, 432-435; iv.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.28,
zogad StrixebSi Cven viziarebT S.gabeskirias varauds da da- 247-251). qarTvelebi amierkavkasiaSi mosulebad iTvlebian, agreT-
vZenT, azo xaTebis memkvidre mosxebis an qasqebis modgmisa SeiZle- ve, zogi berZnuli wyaros mixedviT; kerZod, dasavleT evropis ibe-
ba iyos (sakiTxi Semdgom kvlevas saWiroebs). ase rom, azosa da quj- riidan gadmosaxldnen aRmosavleTis iberiaSi - Savi zRvis aRmo-
farnavazis istoria qarTvelur tomTa Soris pirvelobisaTvis savleT sanapiroze (ix. zemoT).
brZolas unda asaxavdes… samecniero literaturaSi gvaqvs migraciis Teoriis dasabu-
Sdr.: m.fasmerisa da l.zgustas kvlevebis kvalad, m.androni- Tebis mcdelobac; magaliTisaTvis moviyvanT ivane javaxiSvilis
kaSvili fiqrobs, rom azo skviTur-alanuri warmomavlobis saku- msjelobas:
Tari saxelia da etimologiurad "Txas" ukavSirdeba (m. androni- "yvela qarTveli tomis samSoblo, rogorc viciT,
kaSvili, 1966, gv. 131); ix. agreTve, m.sanaZe, 2000, gv.40-45: azo ami- qaldia iyo (xazi Cvenia - t.f.); maSasadame, kavkasiaSi qarTvelebi
erkavkasiaSi gadmosaxlebuli im skviTebis beladia, romelTac iqidan unda mosuliyven... kavkasiis yvela uuZveles saflavSi na-
Zv.w. VII-VI saukuneebSi asureTisa da midiis sazRvarze Seqmnes povni Tavebis gazomvam daamtkica, rom Tavdapirvelad Cvens qveya-
skviTTa saxelmwifo - ariani (aria - indoelebis, sparselebis, mi- naSi TavgrZelebi anu dolixokefalebi cxovrobdnen; xolo ukve
dielebis, skviTebis, alanebis Tavdapirveli TviTsaxelwodeba); gansvenebulma prof. virxovma aRniSna, rom Tanamedrove qarTve-
"elinisturi xanis dasawyisSi samxreT kavkasiisa da maxlobeli lebi da somxebi gansakuTrebiT Tavmokleni anu braxikefalebi
aRmosavleTis gacnobisas, mosulma berZnebma aq aiTvises Tqmule- arian... kavkasias qarTvelebi Zv.w. IX saukunis Semdeg unda mo-
bebi azoze; azo iazonad gaiazres…". sdgomodnen" (iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv.28, 50-55).
azo/iazonis Tema calkea sakvlevi, aq ki SegviZlia, vTqvaT: Tanamedrove anTropologTa daskvniT, saqarTvelos terito-
riaze mosaxleobis uwyveti genetikuri erTianoba dasturdeba

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uZvelesi droidan dRemde; Tumca, kavkasiis anTropologiurma "dRevandel saqarTvelos teritoriaze winaelinistur xana-
tipebma SesamCnevi TandaTanobiTi transformacia ganicades: Si sxvadasxva araqarTveli modgmis tomi cxovrobda: "naTesavni
"calkeuli niSnebisa da tipebis (doloqokranulidan braqikra- igi loTis SvilTaganni, bunTurqni, honni..." (d.musxeliSvili,
nulis mimarTulebiT) cvlas sazogadod TandaTanobiTi gada- 1993, gv.341; ix., agreTve, iv.javaxiSvili, 1979, gv.236, 246: k.kekeli-
svlis xasiaTi hqonda" (ix. m.abduSeliSvili, 1964; m.abduSeliSvi- ZesTan polemika). "moqceva~ qarTlisa~s" safuZvelze, zogi mkvle-
li, 1971; l.biTaZe, 2002). vari Tvlis, rom bunTurqebi kavkasiis avtoqToni mosaxleobaa
vfiqrobT, "qarTlis cxovrebis" adreuli teqstis mcdari ga- (m.seidovi, 1969; i. zeireki, 2003).
geba gaxda erT-erTi impulsi/safuZveli saqarTveloSi qarTvel- ukanasknel periodSi bunTurqebis sakiTxs sagangebo werili
Ta araavtoqTonobis samtkiceblad; kerZod, "moqceva~ qarTli- miuZRvna g.alasaniam; sakiTxis detaluri istoriografiis Semdeg
sa~s" teqstSi vkiTxulobT: mkvlevari wers: "vfiqrobT, sworia im mkvlevarTa mosazreba, rom-
"pirvel odes aleqsandre mefeman naTesavni igi loTis Svil- lebsac d.baqraZis kvaldakval, es ambebi midiis xanaSi gadaaqvT,
Tani wariqcina da SeBadna igini kedarsa mas queyanasa, ixilna na- xolo qarTul wyaroebSi moxseniebul bunTurqebs skviTebad mi-
Tesavni sastikni bunTurqni, msxdomareni mdinaresa zeda mtkuar- iCneven"; xazarebi da bunTurqebi skviTebi arian (g.alasania, 2000,
sa mixueviT, oTx qalaqad da dabnebi maTi: sarkine, kaspi, urbnisi gv.23; m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.150).
da oZrxe da cixeni maTni: cixe~ didi sarkinisa~, ufliscixe~ kas- marTlac, logikuria, rom sparsTa mefe qaixosrosgan otebu-
pisa, urbnisisa da oZrBisa~. daukvirda aleqsandres"...(Satberdis li "Turqebi" skviTebTan gavaigivoT (m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.150; Sdr.,
krebuli, 1979, gv.320). Zveli aRmosavleTis xalxTa istoria, gv.526: "626-615 wlebs Soris
Sdr., bunTurqebTan dakavSirebiT, "qarTlis cxovrebaSi" vki- kiaxsari ara marto amarcxebs skviTebs da midiidan erekeba maT,
TxulobT: aleqsandrem "gardamovlna kavkasni da movida qarTlad aramed aerTianebs iranis mTel zegans"). savaraudoa, rom leonti
da povna yovelni qarTvelni uborotes yovelTa naTesavTa sju- mrovelis dros termini Turqi velur tomTa gaerTianebis saxe-
liTa. rameTu colqmrobisa da siZvisaTvis ara uCnda naTesaoba, lad ganzogadda da dRevandeli mniSvnelobiT gvian dakonkretda.
yovelsa suliersa Wamdes, viTarca mxecni da pirutyvni, romelTa rac Seexeba terminebis: Turqi/bunTurqi mimarTebas:
qcevisa warmoTqma uxm ars. da ixilna ra ese naTesavni sastikni "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, aleqsandres wina periodSi,
warmarTni, romelTa-igi Cuen bunTurqad da yivCayad uwodT, "yovelTa qarTvelTa" nebarTviT, mcxeTasTan axlos, mxolod qa-
msxdomareni mdinaresa mas mtkurisasa mixveviT, daukvirda ese laq sarkineSi dasaxlda sparsTagan otebuli Turqebis ZiriTa-
aleqsandres..."... di nawili: yovelTa qarTvelTa "inebes damegobreba maT Turq-
am konteqstSi yivCayebis xseneba saerTod gaugebrobaa; es xal- Ta, rameTu aqunda SiSi sparsTa, da SemweobisaTvis daimegobrnes
xi ar saxeldeba ax.w. I aTaswleulSic ki; rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, Turqni igi gamosxmulni, da ganiyvanes (/daanawiles) yovelTa qa-
isini mxolod Sedarebis konteqstSi arian naxsenebi XI-XII sauku- laqTa Sina. xolo umravlesni maTganni movides da poves adgili
neebis redaqtoris mier. ufro problemuria Turqebisa da bun- erTi mcxeTas dasavliT kerZo, kldeTa Soris gamokveTili, Rrma,
Turqebis sakiTxi. da moiTxoves adgili igi mcxeTelTa mamasaxlisisgan. misca da aRa-
"matiane qarTlisa~s" mixedviT, istorikosTa nawili fiq- Senes igi, moizRudes mtkiced da ewoda mas adgilsa sarkine"
robs, rom saqarTvelos amJamindel teritoriaze araqarTvelebi (gv.15, 18); Sdr., mcxeTelma mamasaxlisma xarkis safasurad zanavSi
(an araqarTvelebic) cxovrobdnen; mag.: daasaxla nabuqodonosor mefis mier "otebulni uriani" (gv.15-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

16); "moqceva~s" mixedviT, zanavSi saxldebian qaldevelTagan gamo- les qarTulSi msazRvreli win iyo (gvian damkvidrda postpozi-
sxmulni honni. samecniero literaturaSi miCneulia, rom honni ciuri wyoba); Sdr., mag.: keTili Rvino~, puris Wama~, ucxo-Tesli,
aq imave skviTebs gulisxmobs, xolo qaldevelni - sparselebs SuaRame, didZali, didfasi, erTSabaTi...(iv.imnaiSvili, 1957,
(g.araxamia, 1994; m.sanaZe, 2000). gv.556, 277, 229; a.SaniZe, 1976, gv.57-58).
qarTuli wyaroebis warmodgenili faqtebidan ar Cans, rom bunTurq- kompozitis amgvar etimologias amyarebs da kavka-
amierkavkasiaSi bunTurqebi avtoqTonebi arian. aseve, nakleb sa- siaSi TurqTa avtoqTonobis usafuZvlobas cxads xdis "qarTlis
rwmunoa, rom Zvel mematianeT ori termini (Turqni da honni) hqo- cxovrebisa" da "moqceva~ qarTlisa~s" teqstTa saTanado teqste-
nodaT skviTTa aRsaniSnavad. kvlevis am etapze ufro savaraudoa, bis Sepirispirebac:
rom skviTebs miemarTeba mxolod Turqi - velur tomTa zogadi miCneulia, rom "qarTlis cxovrebis" erT-erTi wyaroa "mo-
saxeli X-XI saukuneebis saqarTveloSi. qceva~ qaarTlisa~"; es ukanaskneli ki TiTqosda mxars uWers kavka-
samecniero literaturaSi sxvadasxvagvaradaa ganmartebuli siaSi TurqTa avtoqTonobisa da qarTvelTa migraciis Teorias.
termini bunTurqebi; kerZod (samecniero literaturis mimoxil- ZiriTad StrixebSi "qarTlis cxovreba" da "moqceva~ qar-
visaTvis ix. g.alasania, 2000, gv.21): Tlisa~" marTlac emTxveva erTmaneTs:
m.brose: pirvelyofili Turqebi - Sah-names Turanelebi, rom- bunTurqebi – saqarTveloSi aleqsandres mosvla - azos da-
lebic gandevna sparseTis mefe qaixosrom; e.TayaiSvili: bun- som- toveba - sarkines xangrZlivi omi... zustad meordeba frazebic
xurad Subis tars niSnavs; Sesabamisad, bunTurqi - Subosani Tur- ki, mag., "msxdomareni mdinaresa zeda mtkuarsa mixueviT" ("mo-
qi; n.mari, i.yifSiZe, m.andronikaSvili: bunTurqi - avtoqToni, qceva~ qarTlisa~") da "msxdomareni mdinaresa mas mtkurisasa mi-
adgilobrivi; l.meliqseT-begi: bunTurqi Secdomaa paleografi- xveviT" ("qarTlis cxovreba")...
ulad; iyo hun-Turqi; g.meliqiSvili: Tavdapirveli Turqi; z.an- ZiriTadi gansxvavebebia:
CabaZe: hunebi, kavkasieli Turqebi; v.gabaSvili: hunebi/gunebi; "qarTlis cxovreba": qarTli qarTvelTa qveyanaa; aq, qarTvel-
g.wulaia: avtoqToni Turqebi... Ta nebarTviT, devnili Turqebi kompaqturad dasaxldnen mxo-
Cveni azriT, termini bunTurqi msazRvrel-sazRvrulis Se- lod sarkineSi (sarkineSi dasaxlebuli Turqebi bunTurqebi
rwymiT warmoqmnili kompozitia: arian!); aleqsandres dros qarTvelebi da sxva araqarTvelebi
buni Turqi > bunTurqi, sadac buni niSnavs ZiriTad nawils, sarkineSi kompaqturad Casaxlebuli TurqebiviT velurebi
birTvs, mTavars (Sdr., il.abulaZe: buni - namdvili, mkvidri, arian.
Tumca, konteqstiT ufro ZiriTadi unda iyos; Sdr., m.androni- "moqceva~ qarTlisa~": qarTlSi pirvelad mosul aleqsan-
kaSvili, gv.297: bun - fuZe, ZiriTadi, saZirkveli): kompozitis dres bunTurqebi daxvdnen (rac sulac ar niSnavs TurqTa
Sinaarsi ki unda gavigoT, rogorc TurqTa ZiriTadi nawili: avtoqTonobas!); kerZod, maTi qalaqebi iyo: sarkine, kaspi (uflis-
mcxeTasTan axlos aleqsandrem mravlad naxa is Turqebi, romle- cixe), urbnisi, oZrxe... meored mosulma aleqsandrem isini daa-
bic kompaqturad dasaxldnen sarkineSi; Sdr.: danarCeni Turqe- marcxa da es qveyana azos Caabara.
bi/skviTebi qarTvelebma "ganiyvanes yovelTa qalaqTa Sina". wyaroTa urTierTkavSiri uTuoa! bun-TurqTa problemas na-
arqaul qarTulSi bunTurqis msgavsi msazRvrel-sazRvruli Tels mohfens warmodgenili teqstebis (fragmentebis) pirvela-
Tu kompoziti sxvac dasturdeba: iv.imnaiSvilis daskvniT, uZve- dobis garkveva:

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

"moqceva~ qarTlisa~"-s Satberduli variantis (WeliSur viT, oTx qalaqad, da dabnebi maTi" (aq sityvaforma mixveviT mZi-
xelnawers Sesavali - mokle istoriuli eqskursi - aklia) Sesa- meebiT aRar aris gamoyofili).
valSi dasaxelebuli e.w. bunTurqTa qalaqebi: sarkine, kaspi (uf- z.sarjvelaZis mier es adgili ganmartebulia, rogorc "miyo-
liscixe), urbnisi da oZrBe naxsenebia "qarTlis cxovrebaSic", lebiT"; miseuli teqsti ase gamoiyureba: "ixilna naTesavni sa-
oRond, amaTgan bolo sami sakuTriv qarTuli qalaqebia. "qar- stikni bunTurqni - msxdomareni mdinaresa zeda mtkuarsa, miyole-
Tlis cxovrebaSi" sxva qalaqebicaa: wunda, xerTvisi, Tuxarisi, biT/mixveviT oTx qalaqad" (z.sarjvelaZe, 1995); ganmarteba dausa-
Zveli mcxeTa, zanavi, rusTavi, samSvilde, xunani da sxva. mcxeTa buTebelia; Sdr., iqve, z.sarjvelaZis mierve savsebiT marTebula-
yvelaze ufro didi da cnobili qalaqi iyo da ratom ar axsenebs daa ganmartebuli sawyisi forma mixueva; kerZod: mixveva - mode-
mas "moqceva~s" avtori Tu redaqtori? bunebrivia, mcxeTis da- ba, mixveva; Sdr., moedo, daexvia.
arsebamde ver daiwereboda "moqceva~ qarTlisa~s" verc erTi daexvia (/moedo; Sdr., xvavi da gamoTqma: "buziviT exveoda")
wyaro... zmnisgan SeiZleba vawarmooT simravlis aRmniSvneli zmnisarTi
samecniero literaturaSi gabatonebulia Tvalsazrisi, rom mixveviT/mravlad/xvavierad, magram am zmnuri fuZisgan Tanamim-
"moqceva~s" Sesavali uZvelesi qarTuli wyaroa; vfiqrobT, amgvar devrobis/miyolebis (miyolebiT) aRmniSvneli zmnisarTi ver
midgomas mxars ar uWers bunTurqTa epizodebis Sepirispireba warmoiqmneba; Sesabamisad, erT sintagmad unda ganvixiloT msxdo-
"qarTlis cxovrebisa" da "moqceva~s" mixedviT; kerZod, rCeba STa- mareni mixveviT anu, msxdomareni mravlad/miyriT; Sdr., z.sa-
beWdileba, rom Cvenamde moRweuli "moqceva~s" Sesavali teqsti rjvelaZis azriT: mixveviT/miyolebiT oTxi qalaqi.
"qarTlis cxovrebis" adreuli redaqciis mokle da, amave dros, garda zemoTqmulisa, "moqceva~s" teqstis warmodgenili
damaxinjebuli variantia; warmovadgenT saTanado frazaTa teq- fragmentis meoreulobasa da saeWvoobas cxadyofs dasaxelebul
stologiur analizs: qalaqTa ganlagebac: oZrxe ar aris mtkvris xeobaSi, miT umetes, ur-
"cxovrebis" teqstSi sityvaforma mixveviT gulisxmobs mrav- bniss miyolebiT (Sdr.: "moqceva~ qarTlisa~" Seiqmna IX saukuneSi
lad; teqsti ase unda gavigoT: "ninos cxovrebis" safuZvelze, romelic, Tavis mxriv, daiwera VII sa-
aleqsandrem qarTlSi, mtkvris/mcxeTis gaswvriv (axlos) mrav- ukuneSi ucnobi avtoris mier; p.ingoroyva, l.janaSia, k.Tumanovi..).
lad naxa bunTurqebis msgavsi veluri qarTvelebi (gv.17: aleqsan- vfiqrobT, naTelia: qarTvelTa qristianobamdeli istoriis
drem "povna yovelni qarTvelni uborotes yovelTa naTesavTa gadmocemisas, "moqceva~s" avtori eyrdnoba "qarTlis cxovrebis"
sjuliTa. rameTu colqmrobisa da siZvisaTvis ara uCnda naTesao- adreul redaqcias - mis Sesaval nawils (Sdr., n.berZeniSvili,
ba..."). Sdr., "moqceva~s" teqstSi sityvaformis - "mixueviT" - Sina- 1990, gv.554-555); Cans, Sesavali nawili metad Semoklebulia da, ag-
arsi gaurkvevelia, ris gamoc am cnobili teqstis profesionali reTve, teqstis erTi monakveTis vergagebis gamo, Sinaarsic dama-
gamomcemlebi sxvadasxvanair punqtuacias iyeneben; Sdr.: xinjebulia. warmodgenili msjeloba kidev erTi faqtiT adastu-
ilia abulaZe, 1964, gv.81: "ixilna naTesavni sastikni bunTurq- rebs iv. javaxiSvilis daskvnas:
ni, - msxdomareni mdinaresa zeda mtkuarsa, mixueviT, oTx qalaqad, wm. ninos Satberdiseuli cxovreba Zveli cnobebis gadamu-
SavebiTaa Seqmnili da, amave dros, bevr siyalbes Seicavs (ix.
da dabnebi maTi".
iv.javaxiSvili, I, gv.226-227). "qarTlis cxovrebis" Sesaxeb Sdr.,
b.gigineiSvili, el.giunaSvili, 1979, gv.320: "ixilna naTesavni
m.sanaZis marTebuli daskvnac (m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.17, 26, 149): "qar-
sastikni bunTurqni, msxdomareni mdinaresa zeda mtkuarsa mixue-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

Tlis cxovrebis" vaxtang gorgaslamdeli nawili Sedgeba calkeu- mrovelis azriT! Sdr., m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.32), xazarebis STamomav-
li qronikebisa da "cxovrebisagan", romlebic sxvadasxva drosa da lebi arian osebi (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.12, 12-15).
sxvadasxva avtoris mier daiwera. Sesabamisad, sruliad umizezod amrigad, qarTlis cxovrebaSi warmodgenili termini bun-
iyo aqamde ugulebelyofili "qarTlis cxovrebis" anderZ-minawe- Turqi kompozitia: buni Turqi - birTvi (ZiriTadi nawili)
ri, romelic gvauwyebs, rom: "wigni ese qarTvelTa cxovrebisa vid- Turqebisa. Sesabamisad, axali welTaRricxvis IX-X saukuneebis
re vaxtangisamde aRiwereboda JamiT-Jamad"... qarTul enaSi velurTa aRmniSvneli termini Turqi miemarTeba
xazarul-skviTuri epizodis aRwerisas SedarebiT Tanamim- Zv.w. pirveli aTaswleulis Sua periodSi sparseTis mefe qiaxsa-
devruli da logikuria "qarTlis cxovreba"; mag., "qarTlis cxov- risgan (qaixosrosgan) gamodevnili skviTebis im ZiriTad jgufs,
rebis" teqstSi garkveviT weria, rom qarTlSi aleqsandres da-
romelic qarTvelebma kompaqturad daasaxles sarkineSi.
xvdnen yovelni qarTvelni, magram isini iyvnen warmarTebi, ur- Sdr.: kavkasiaSi Turqulenovani xazarebi pirvelad Cndebian
wmunoni, araqristianni (mematiane marTlmadideblobis apologe- ax.w. V saukuneSi, xolo yivCayebi - XI saukuneSi; Zv.w. VI-IV sauku-
ti beria!), da, amdenad, cudi qarTveli adamianebi; Sdr., aleqsan-
neebis xazarebi/"Turqebi" indoevropul enaze metyveli xalxia,
dres mosvlamde, Zv.w. VI saukuneSi, nabuqodonosoris dros qar-
xolo ax.w. X-XI saukuneebis xazarebi da Turqebi/bunTurqebi -
TlSi "Semokrbes ese uricxvni naTesavni": xazarebi (CrdiloeTi- Turqulenovani. "qarTlis cxovrebaSi", aseve, naTlad weria, rom
dan gadmosuli skviTebi), Turqebi (midiidan gamoqceuli skviTe- "Semdgomad ganyofisa enaTasa", e.i. odiTganve (erebis gaCenis-
bi), ebraelebi, berZnebi, asurelebi... swored xalxTa am aRrevis Tanave), kavkasiaSi daemkvidrnen iafetis STamomavalni - Targamo-
gamo "ipyres sjuli uborotesi yovelTa naTesavTasa. rameTu sis Zeni, maT Soris: qarTlosi, egrosi, kaxosi, herosi... droTa
colqmrobisaTvis ara uCndaT naTesaoba; yovelsa suliersa Wam- ganmavlobaSi sxva xalxebic Semoerivnen da, Sesabamisad, "iyvnes
des; saflavi ar iyo, mkudarsa SesWamdes" (gv.16)... aleqsandres qarTls esreT aRreul ese yovelni naTesavni, da izraxeboda qar-
Semosvlis drosac amave sityvebs imeorebs mematiane; qristiani Tlsa Sina equsi ena: somxuri, qarTuli, xazaruli, asuruli, eb-
avtori Tu redaqtori Zveli drois warmarT qarTvelebsa da rauli, berZnuli; maTgan farnavazma "ganavrco ena~ qarTuli da
araqarTvelebs adarebs Tavis TanamedroveTaTvis (XI-XII sauku- arRara izraxeboda sxua ena qarTlsa Sina Tvinier qarTulisa"
neebis) nacnob velurebs - Turqebsa da yivCayebs. (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.16, 26).
logikuria isic, rom teqstis momdevno nawilSi mematiane warmodgenil monakveTSi sxva faqticaa asaxuli:
CamoTvlis qarTlSi arsebul enebs (somxuri, qarTuli, xazaruli, "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, Targamosis modgma (iberiul-
asuruli, ebrauli, berZnuli; gv.16), magram maT gverdiT Turqul kavkasiuri xalxi da ara indoevropeli kimerielebi) cxovrobda
enas ar axsenebs: mcire aziasa da kavkasiaSi (sakiTxis istoriisTvis ix.m.sanaZe, 2001,
albaT, Zveli avtorisTvis xazaruli ena is skviTuria, romli- gv.166-167); e.i. istoriul qarTlSi ZirZveli mosaxleni Targamo-
Tac qaixosrosgan gamodevnili "Turqebic" (skviTebic) metyvele- sianni arian, magram droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvebic damkvidrdnen.
ben; xolo gviandeli redaqtorisa Tu leonti mrovelisTvis xaza- Cveni azriT, TargamosianTa da mosulTa integraciis procesi
rebi ukve Turqebi arian, Sesabamisad, misTvis xazarulSi moiazre- iberiul-kavkasiuri erTobisgan sabolood mijnavs qarTvelur
ba TurqTa/bunTurqTa enac (Sdr.: z.aleqsiZe, 1991, gv.83-84; g.ala- modgmas:
sania, 2000, gv.25 da m.sanaZe, 2001, gv.32); Sdr.: qarTlis cxovrebis kimerielebisa da skviTebis (e.w. bunTurqebis) amierkavkasia-
Zveli qronikebis avtor-redaqtorTa mixedviT (da ara leonti Si Semosvla SeiZleba davsaxoT iberiul-kavkasiuri erTobidan

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

qarTveluri enobriv-eTnikuri erTobis (kontinuumis) gamomij- siuri tipis enebis SereviT saTave daedo svanur enas; "TandaTan
vnis erT-erT bolo faqtorad: swored Zv.w. VI saukunidan xdeba svanuri ena CrdiloeTisaken, didi kavkasionis qedis mimarTule-
saerToqarTvelur koineSi skviTuri da sparsuli sityvebis didi biT gandevna momdevno migraciulma talRam, romelic pirvels
nakadis Semosvla (saTanado masalisaTvis ix., m.andronikaSvili, mohyva daaxloebiT cxra saukunis Semdeg;" am procesSi warmo-
1966; a. billi, 2003). aqve aRvniSnavT, m.sanaZis azriT, skviTTa (in- qmnilma metyvelebam "SemdegSi mogvca Zveli kolxeTis erT-erTi
doevropelTa) kavkasiaSi Semosvlamde (Zv.w. VII-VI saukuneebamde) ena - megrul-lazuri"; dasavleT mcire kavkasionis farglebSi da-
dRevandeli saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze (kaxeTis CaTvliT!) rCenili saerToqarTveluri enis dialeqtebi safuZvlad daedo
arsebobda protozanuri ena, romelsac, daefina ra skviTur-in- qarTul enas, romlis matareblebi, gansaxldnen ra dasavleTis
doevropuli metyveleba, imereTis, guriis, aWaris, imerxevis, mimarTulebiT, gansazRvrul teritoriaze daefinen kolxuri
tao-klarjeTisa da qarTl-kaxeTis teritoriaze warmoiqmna Cven- enis matarebelT, ris Semdegac moxda lazuri da megruli enebis
Tvis cnobili qarTuli - zanuri da skviTuri enebis "hibridi" ena warmoSoba; CrdiloeTiTa da Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT gadaadgi-
(mosazreba gamoiTqva CvenTan zepir saubarSi; Sdr., agreTve, m.sa- lebulma tomebma aqedan (amJamindeli aRmosavleT saqarTvelo-
naZe, 2001, gv.49-53). Cven ver gaviziarebT am TavisTavad saintereso dan - t.f.) gandevnes aRmosavlurkavkasiuri tipis enebze molapa-
mosazrebas: rake xalxi (T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.880-881; T.gamyreliZe,
saerToqarTvelur enobriv modelTan svanur-zanuri da sxva 2000, gv.184).
qarTveluri kiloebis mimarTeba cxadyofs, rom samwignobro qar- ra faqtebs Tu logikur argumentebs emyareba warmodgenili
TulisTvis amosavali ver iqneba e.w. protozanuri an protosva- hipoTeza?
nuri enobrivi modelebi (ix. qvemoT, 2.2.3.). samxreT amierkavkasiidan CrdiloeT amierkavkasiaSi e.w. "qar-
vfiqrobT, jerjerobiT ar Cans arc erTi myari sabuTi, vamtki- Tveluri migraciebi" 5000-4000 wlebis winaa navaraudevi (T.ga-
coT qarTvelTa araavtoqTonoba kavkasiaSi. myreliZe, 2000, gv.184), amdenad, anTropologiuri monacemebis
SeniSvna: qarTvelTa migraciis Teoriis sayrdenad ver gamodgeba, ase- garda, amdroindel sxva raime faqtebze ver vilaparakebT: arqau-
ve, megasTenes cnoba (georgika, I, gv.30) nabuqodonosoris mier libii-
li leqsikisa da toponimikuri monacemebis mixedviT Seqmnili sa-
dan (iberTa qveynidan) pontos zRvis marjvena mxares gadmosaxlebuli
iberebis Sesaxeb (Sdr., ufalma amave nabuqodonosoris xeliT dasaja Tuo varaudebi (romelTac sagangebod ganvixilavT aqve) faqte-
Tavisi rCeuli eri - ebraelebi). bad ver CaiTvleba, warmodgenili Teoriis dasasabuTeblad saWi-
ro anTropologiuri monacemebi ki ar arsebobs (ix. qvemoT).
2.1.2.2. amierkavkasiaSi avtoqTonobis Teoria T. gamyreliZisa da v .ivanovis argumentTagan aRsaniSnavia
ori: saerToqarTveluri enis sam enad daSlis dro da praenis
2.1.2.2.1. samxreTi amierkavkasia. T.gamyreliZisa da v.ivanovis
leqsikis mixedviT aRdgenili garemo (cxovrebis wesi).
mixedviT, qarTvelebi Tavidanve cxovrobdnen samxreT amierkavka-
ganvixiloT TiToeuli cal-calke:
siaSi, kerZod, mcire kavkasionis (mesxeT-javaxeTis regionis) cen-
traluri da dasavleTi nawilis mTianeTSi; Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi 2.1.2.2.1.1. qarTvelTa sami ena 4000-5000 wlis win?
aqedan samxreT kavkasiis dasavleT nawilSi (kolxeTis dablobis- XX saukunis meore naxevarSi enaTmecnier g.klimovis glo-
ken) ganxorcielda qarTveluri migraciebis pirveli talRa toqronologiuri meTodiT gamokvlevebis (romelic, Tavis mxriv,
(xazi Cvenia - t.f.); maTi metyvelebisa da damxvduri Crdilokavka- iyenebda svodeSis metad saTuo meTodologias) Semdeg samecnie-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

ro wreebSi myarad damkvidrda azri, romlis mixedviTac jer kidev vfiqrobT, uZveles qarTvelur ena-kiloTa raodenobis da-
5000-4000 wlis win arsebobda sami qarTveluri ena (Sesabamisad, sadgenad ufro gamosadegia wyaroebSi dadasturebuli tomebis
sami qarTveluri tomi: qarTi, zani, svani), romelTagan erT-erTi saxelTa ricxvi, vidre dRevandeli viTarebis Sesabamisad, amJamin-
- qarTuli - gabatonda kulturis enad (uTuod amgvarma midgomam deli svanebis, megrel-Wanebis Tu mesx-qarTlelebis "enebis" mi-
istorikosebis gamokvlevebSi gaaaqtiura terminebi: qarTizacia xedviT, 4000-5000 wlis winac davuSvaT mxolod sami qarTveluri
da qarTvelizacia, romlebic, pirvel rigSi, gulisxmobs sxva enobrivi erTeulis arseboba...
qarTveluri tomebis Caylapvas - "gaqarTebas"/"gaqarTvelebas"). friad saeWvoa qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa daSlis g.kli-
pirvel rigSi: ra safuZveli gvaqvs, rom marTlac qarTvelTa moviseuli TariRic, romelic emyareba leqsikur-statistikur
mxolod es sami tomi arsebobda Zv.w. II aTaswleulSi? meTodsa da sakuTar saxelTa etimologias (ix. qvemoT 2.2.3.).
Sdr.: "uZvelesi droidanve moyolebuli qarTvelebi mraval
tomad danawilebuli yofilan; qristes Semdeg istoriuli wya- 2.1.2.2.1.2. praenis leqsikis mixedviT aRdgenili garemo da
roebiT cnobili TiTqmis yvela tomi qristes winaT mravali sau- cxovrebis wesi. praenis mixedviT Zveli sacxovrisis Zieba sauku-
kunis manZilzec saistorio asparezze moqmedebda" (iv.javaxiSvi- neebis manZilze popularuli Tema iyo; qarTul sinamdvileSi am-
li, 1960, gv.401). xeTur, asiriul, urartul, berZnul-romaul-bi- gvari mcdeloba hqonda jer kidev ilia WavWavaZes Tavis polemiku-
zantiur, somxur da sxva ucxour wyaroTa CvenebiT, II aTaswleu- ri xasiaTis naSromSi: "ai, istoria" (i.WavWavaZe, 1987, gv.79).
lis dasasruls da I aTaswleulSi qarTveli tomebis istori- monaTesave enobrivi erTeulebisTvis amosavali enis (fuZee-
ul teritoriaze (Crdilo mesopotamiidan kavkasionamde regi- nis, praenis; Sdr.: protoena - winare ena, Tavdapirveli ena) Ziri-
onSi) cxovrobdnen qarTvelur ena-kavebze anu dialeqtebze mo- Tadi leqsika Tu dadgindeba (intensiuri Serevebis gamo, zogjer
laparake da, Sesabamisad, qarTvelurad miCneuli Semdegi tome- warumatebelia amgvari cdebi), marTlac, SesaZlebelia winaremo-
saxleobis sacxovrisisa da garesamyaros enobrivi xedvis warmo-
bi: muSqebi /mesxebi, diauxebi /taoxebi, kolaelebi, tibarene-
dgena, Sesabamisad - Zveli teritoriisa Tu kulturis savaraudo
bi, iberebi /saspeirebi, quTebi, koraqsebi, marebi, beqe~rebi,
saxis aRdgena.
haliZonebi /xalibebi, xaldebi /qaldebi, mosino~kebi /hepta-
bolo aTwleulebis manZilze Cvens sinamdvileSic gamoqvey-
kometebi, biZerebi, Zidritebi, makronebi /makrokefalebi, fa-
nda saerToqarTveluri "enobrivi xedvis" amsaxveli ramdenime
sianebi, melanqla~nebi, ekriktikes mcxovrebni /ekeqe~rebi, he-
gamokvleva (g.klimovi, 1964, gv.37; g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.339-340;
nioxebi, sanebi /Wanebi, sanigebi, lazebi, abazebi /obezebi, sva-
T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.880-882; m.qurdiani, 2002), romel-
nebi /misimielebi, suano-kolxebi, amarantebi, tuskebi, kaxebi,
Ta mixedviTac qarTvelTa winaprebis sacxovrisad Zv.w. IV-II aTas-
kuxebi, herebi, javaxebi, fxovelebi... (dawvrilebiT ix. zemoT).
wleulebis amierkavkasia da misi samxreTi regioni ivaraudeba; ma-
ris safuZvelze SeiZleba vamtkicoT, rom amdeni tomis me-
galiTad, mcenareebis (anwli, gvimra, vaSli, verxvi, marwyvi, msxa-
tyveleba mxolod sam an oTx enad dajgufdeba? miT umetes, enisa
li, soko, cacxvi, Zewna, wifeli, wyavi...), cxovelebis (arCvi, daTvi,
da kilos gamijvnis pirobiTobis viTarebaSi SeuZlebelia raime
kverna, Txa, vaci, orbi, melia...) da sxva saerToqarTveluri saxe-
iseTi daskvnis gamotana, romelic mxars dauWers 5000 wlis win
lebis rekonstruqciiT g. klimovi varaudobs, rom qarTveluri
qarTvelTa mxolod im sami enis arsebobas, romlebic TiTqosda
mosaxleoba III-II aTaswleulTa mijnaze kavkasiis miwa-wyalze cxov-
arseboben dResac.

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

robda (g.klimovi, 1964, gv.37; g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.339). davi paralelebi ivleba samxreT kavkasiis kulturasa da Zvel
warmodgenil problemas sagangebo werili uZRvna m.qurdian- kreta-mikenis kulturas Soris (saubaria qalis rolisa da da-
ma; samecniero literaturaSi dadgenili saerToqarTveluri mwerlobis uZvelesi - ieroglifuri - nimuSebis erTianobis Sesa-
leqsikis (zRva, tba, Rele, wyali... xevi, klde, gori, tye, tevri, xeb); b.kuftinis azriT (1941, gv.153), "TrialeTis yorRanTa
wvima, Tovli, gvalva, yinva, zvavi, Tbili... Zeli, naZvi, wifeli, wab- brwyinvale kultura ueWvelad ekuTvnis qarTvel tomTa winap-
li... Sveli, maCvi, eSvi... SaSvi, kakabi, CxarTvi, Zera, mercxali, To- rebs; garda amisa, Cven mier mopovebuli masala gvimtkicebs, rom
lia, tredi... Rorjo, Cxami...) safuZvelze igi askvnis: "saerToqar- samxreT kavkasiaSi arsebuli uZvelesi fesvebi qarTuli kultu-
Tveluri enis dialeqtebze metyveli tomebi cxovrobdnen, didi risa moqceuli yofila subaruli da xaTur-mcireaziuri eTniku-
kavkasionis samxreTi kalTebidan moyolebuli, samxreTiT sakmaod ri sistemebis urTierTzemoqmedebis zonaSi. es miT ufro sarwmu-
vrclad ganfenil teritoriaze, romelic srulad moicavda is- noa, rom qarTvelursa da Crdilokavkasiur enebs, garda adreve
toriuli saqarTvelos teritoriasac. CrdiloeTi sazRvari qar- SeniSnuli naTesaobisa elamur da xuri-mitanur enebTan (n.mari),
TvelTa pirvelsacxovrisisa iyo didi kavkasioni, dasavleT sa- agreTve aqvT mZlavri tendencia xaTuri enobrivi fenisaTvis da-
zRvars ki Savi zRva warmoadgenda" (m.qurdiani, 2002, gv.86). maxasiaTebeli prefiqsuli warmonaqmnebisadmi (r.blaixStaineri
kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT: warmodgenili avtorebis mier sa- da sxvebi)"; Sdr., agreTve: "qarTveli tomebi uZvelesi droidan
erToqarTveluri leqsikis mixedviT qarTvelTa winaprebis gare- cxovrobdnen saqarTvelos teritoriaze, amasTanave, safiqrebe-
mosa da eTnokulturis aRdgena sainteresoa, oRond, CvenTvis sa- lia, rom isini nawilobriv dRevandeli saqarTvelos farglebs
kamaToa maT mier navaraudevi dro (ix., aqve, 2.1.2.2.1.1. da 2.2.3.). gareTac mosaxleobdnen, kerZod, mcire aziis Crdilo-aRmosavleT
T. gamyreliZisa da v. ivanovis TeoriaSi sakamaToa, agreTve, raionebSi, samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis teritoriaze"
svanurSi Crdilokavkasiuri enebis substratis sakiTxi (gv.881); (g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.341-342).
Cveni azriT, svanur kiloebSi marTlac STambeWdavia Cerqezuli warmodgenili mosazreba ZiriTadad gaziarebulia Tanamed-
enobrivi fena (ix. s.janaSias gamokvlevebi), magram ufro logiku- rove samecniero literaturaSic:
ri iqneba, vilaparakoT superstratze da ara substratze; ker- "enaTmecnierebis, anTropologiis, arqeologiisa da istori-
Zod, mravali faqti arsebobs imis samtkiceblad, rom svanuri me- uli geografiis erToblivi monacemebis mixedviT, dRes sruliad
tyveleba arqauli qarTulis is ganStoebaa, romelsac intensiu- ucilobelia qarTvelTa winaprebis avtoqTonuroba kavkasiaSi..."
rad Semoeria moZme kavkasielTa enobrivi elementebi (ix. qvemoT). (d.musxeliSvili, 2002, gv.5).
Sdr., Tu T. gamyreliZisa da v. ivanovis azrs gaviziarebT, svanu- qarTvelebi avtoqTonebi arian im miwisa, romelzec amJamad
risTvis sayrdeni ena romelime Crdilokavkasiuri enaa... mkvidroben; m.qurdianis azriT, Tubalebisa da muSqebis qarTve-
lurobac ueWveli faqtia...” (m.qurdiani, 2002, gv.59-60, 86).
2.1.2.2.2. samxreTi kavkasia. centralur amierkavkasiaSi (sa- SeniSvna: n.berZeniSvilis azriT, "saqarTveloSi qarTvel tomTa
avtoqTonobis aRiarebiT unda davuSvaT araqarTvelTa avtoqTono-
mxreT kavkasiaSi) qarTvelTa avtoqTonobis Teoria argumentire-
bac; brZola am tomebs Soris da qarTuli tomebis gamarjveba"; es sada-
bulad pirvelad wamoayena b. kuftinma. misi azriT, "samxreTi kav- vo azri gaziarebulia d. musxeliSvilis mierac, kerZod, maTi azriT,
kasia warmoadgenda qarTveli xalxis samSoblosac da uZveles sa- qarTis tomis mier asimilirda Semdegi qarTveli Tu araqarTveli
mSoblosac" (b.kuftini, 1949, gv.14-16, 37). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom tomebi: bazalni, WarTalni, Trialni Tu Trelni, margvelni, kaspni,
b.kuftinis azriT, walkaSi aRmoCenili masalis mixedviT, STambeW- fxovelni, gogarni da sxva (ix. n.berZeniSvili, 1990, gv.363-364; d.musxe-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

liSvili, 2002, gv.5-6)... rogor mtkicdeba yvela am tomis (mag., skvna ver dasabuTdeba.
fxovelebis, margvelebis...) araqarTveluroba? s.janaSias koncefcia saTaves iRebs dibua de monpersesa da
fridrix homelis mosazrebebisgan; swored am koncefciaze da-
2.1.2.3. kavkasia-mcireaziaSi avtoqTonobis Teoria
yrdnobiT jer kidev 1881 wels dimitri baqraZe wers: „eWv gareT
akad. s.janaSiam 1940 wels enimkis moambeSi dabeWda koncefcia, unda gvqondes, rom xsenebul xalxT (tibarenni, mosiknni, makron-
romlis ZiriTadi debulebebi Sevida s. janaSias, iv.javaxiSvilisa ni, kolxni, iberni, albanni) namdvilad hWeriaT TiTqmis mTe-
da n.berZeniSvilis TanaavtorobiT 1943 wels gamoqveynebul "sa- li sivrce halisis mdinaridam moyolebuli vidre kavkaziis
qarTvelos istoriis" saskolo saxelmZRvaneloSi; s.janaSias kon- mTebamde... axla imaT qarTul STamomavlobaSi TiTqmis ar eWvneu-
ceptualuri sqema ase gamoiyureba:
loben" (d.baqraZe, 1881, gv.26).
"qarTvelebi warmoSobiT wina aziis Zvels mkvidr mosaxleo-
bas ekuTvnian"; uZveles xanaSi (daaxloebiT 5000-6000 wlis winaT) * * *
qarTvelTa winaprebi (xeTur-iberiuli gvartomobis xalxi) cxov- samuSao hipoTezad viRebT s. janaSias koncefcias; argumen-
robdnen wina aziaSi (mesopotamiidan kavkasionamde); isini aqedan tebis Ziebisas mis mosazrebas or nawilad warmovadgenT:
gavrceldnen samxreT evropasa (balkaneTis, apeninisa da pirineis a. Crdilo mesopotamia - anatolia - kavkasia: qarTvelTa
naxevarkunZulebze) da afrikis CrdiloeT sanapiroze. Semdeg ma- winaprebis sacxovrisi;
Ti sacxovrisi SeizRuda mcire aziiT; qarTvelTa uSualo winap- b. qarTvelTa winaprebis gavrceleba samxreT evropasa da
rebi arian xeTa-subarebi, romlebic ganfenilni iyvnen Crdi- xmelTaSua zRvis samxreT sanapiroze.
lo mesopotamiidan kavkasionamde; Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasa-
wyisidan qarTvelTa sacxovrisis centri TandaTanobiT inac- a. sxvadasxva Taobis mkvlevarTa naSromebis gaTvaliswinebiTa da
vlebs CrdiloeTisken (ix., agreTve: s.janaSia, 1952, gv.96-100; s.ja- enobriv struqturaTa (STambeWdavi leqsikuri paralelebi, Ziri-
naSia, 1987, gv.20-24, 44, 51). Tadi fonematuri struqtura, aglutinaciuroba, ergatiuli
h. klarkis, n.maris, iv.javaxiSvilisa da sxvaTa mosazrebebze konstruqcia...) SepirispirebiTi analiziT safuZveli gveZleva,
dayrdnobiT, TiTqmis analogiuri mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli s.janaSias kvalad, vivaraudoT:
emigrant mecniersa da sazogado moRvawes - revaz gabaSvils: Zv.w. Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebis kavkasiasa da axlo aRmosavleTSi
IV aTaswleulSi kavkasiidan sparseTis yuremde da indoeTidan
cxovrobdnen monaTesave winaaziur-kavkasiuri tomebi: xurite-
iberiis naxevarkunZulamde (espaneTi) mcxovrebi maRali kultur-
bi, xaTebi, kavkasielebi; pirveli didi gaerTianebebi Seqmnes: xu-
is mqone xalxi kavkas-qaldeur erT rasas warmoadgenda (r.gabaSvi-
ritebma - CrdiloeT SuamdinareTSi, xaTebma - centralur mcire
li, 2001, gv.18).
Cven mier damowmebuli naSromi mokle reziumea 1967 wels aziaSi/anatoliaSi; mogvianebiT, anatoliasa da kavkasiaSi (hali-
frangulad gamoqveynebuli vrceli Sromisa; jerjerobiT CvenTvis sis, Woroxis, mtkvris, rionis, evfratis, araqsis… xeobebSi)
misawvdomi ar aris r.gabaSvilis argumentebi, Sesabamisad, ver Canan: musxebi, qaSqebi, urartuelebi, kolxebi, daianelebi...
vimsjelebT maT Sesaxeb; aqve aRvniSnavT, rom r.gabaSvilis naSro- Tanamedrove lingvisturi kvlevebi safuZvels gvaZlevs, maT vuwo-
mis qarTul-inglisur mokle variantSi warmodgenili zogi da- doT "ergatiuli konstruqciis enis mqone xalxebi".

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

arqeologebi varaudoben, rom neoliTis manZilze dasavleTi da kerakis kulturebis samxreTiT gavrcelebis areali TiTqmis em-
centraluri amierkavkasia kulturulad (enobriv-eTnikurad) er- Txveva xuritebis adgilsamyofels, rac bunebrivad gvavaraudebi-
Tiani iyo (o.jafariZe, 1989, gv. 385-385; l.nebieriZe, 2001, gv. 9). nebs, rom xuritebi mtkvar-araqs-kirbeT-kerakis didi kulturis
Tanamedrove arqeologiuri ZiebebiT cnobilia, agreTve, rom Tanaavtorebi arian". aqve ix. l.vulis mosazrebis kritika, rome-
gviani eneoliTis amierkavkasiaSi gvaqvs ori kultura: sionisa (rom- lic kirbeT-kerakis kulturis Semoqmedad xeTebs miiCnevs.
lis identuri keramika dasturdeba odiSSi, anaseulSi, gurianTa- mtkvar-araqsis kulturis qmnadobis procesSi qarTveluri
Si) da Sulaver-SomuTefesa (l.nebieriZe, 2001, gv. 8-9; m.menabde, tomebis gverdiT sxva iberiul-kavkasiur tomebs ver xedavs o.jafa-
T.kiRuraZe, 2001, gv. 22; aqve, ix. masalebi sakiTxis istoriisaTvis). riZe, romelic Tvlis, rom Zv.w. IV-III aTaswleulebamde didi xniT ad-
sionis keramika mtkvar-araqsis kulturis substratad/saTaved re, Zv.w. VII-VI aTaswleulebSi daiSala iberiul-kavkasiuri enobriv-
miiCneva (m.menabde, T.kiRuraZe, 1981, gv. 23; m.menabde, T.kiRuraZe, eTnikuri erToba (o.jafariZe, 1998, gv. 118), Sesabamisad, mtkvar-
2001, gv. 21; l.nebieriZe, 2001, gv. 10). varaudoben, rom mtkvar-araqsis araqsis kulturis ZiriTadi Semoqmedni arian xuritulenova-
kulturis centria centraluri amierkavkasia, Tumca, zogi Tana- ni da qarTveluri tomebi (o.jafariZe, 1998, gv.183-185; agreTve:
medrove avtoris azriT, igi iSva aRmosavleT anatoliaSi. radio- g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.338 da T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.894,
naxSirbaduli meTodiT mtkvar-araqsis kultura TariRdeba Zv.w. IV sadac navaraudevia, rom am kulturis erT-erTi Semoqmedi SeiZ-
aTaswleuliT (daTariRebis dazustebisaTvis ix. g. qavTaraZe, 1983, leboda yofiliyo indoevropuli modgmac; Sdr., g.qavTaraZe: "es
gv. 88-96). sion-odiSis kulturis ganfenis areali winareqarTve- kultura imdenad erTgvarovania, rom ver iqneboda araerTgvaro-
luri (iberiul-kavkasiuri) tomebis gansaxlebis velia; Sesabamisad, vani mosaxleobis warmonaqmni. TviT Soreul regionebSi gavrce-
Tu ueWvelia sion-odiSisa da mtkvar-araqsis kulturebis geneturi lebisa da adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan Serwymis Semdegac ki inar-
kavSiri, savaraudoa, rom odiS-mtkvar-araqsis kulturis erT-erTi Cunebs Tavis ZiriTad maxasiaTeblebs"...mtkvar-araqsis kulturis
avtoria winareqarTveluri modgma. avtoris Sesaxeb Cveni msjeloba ix., qvemoT).
Sulaver-SomuTefes kultura msgavsia Zv.w. V-IV aTaswleu- gr. giorgaZe, 2002, gv.69: gasaTvaliswinebelia samecniero li-
lebis zemomesopotamiis halafis kulturisa (T. gamyreliZe, v. teraturaSi gamoTqmuli varaudi, "romlis mixedviT xuritebis
ivanovi, 1984, gv.891-892; o. jafariZe, 1998, gv.182-183). o.jafariZis gansaxlebis sazRvrebi Zv.w. IV aTaswleulis meore da III aTaswle-
azriT, mrgvali Senobis agebis tradicia da alizis arqiteqtura ulis pirvel naxevarSi teritoriulad emTxveva mtkvar-araqsis
arsebobas ganagrZobs mtkvar-araqsis kulturaSic; aqvea msjeloba kulturis gavrcelebis sazRvrebs, met-naklebad - aRmosavleT
tomTa moZraobis mimarTulebazec: xiTa da qviT mdidari amierkav- anatoliis adre brinjaos xanis kulturul areals. ufro damaje-
kasiisTvis moulodnelia alizis arqiteqtura; Sesabamisad, Su- rebelia xuritebis adreuli gansaxleba vanisa da urmiis tbebis
laver-SomuTefes kultura amierkavkasiaSi samxreTidan vrcel- regionSi. ar aris gamoricxuli varaudi, rom xuritebi Crdilo-
deba (o.jafariZe, 2001, gv. 84); Sdr. o.lorTqifaniZe, 1998, gv.183: eT mesopotamiis avtoqToni tomebi yofiliyvnen".
ramdenadac mtkvar-araqsis kultura "farTod vrceldeba samxre- axlo aRmosavleTis ZiriTadi (avtoqToni!) mosaxleobis mier
TiT, es SeiZleba metyvelebdes qarTveluri mosaxleobis garkveu- Seqmnili mtkvar-araqsis kulturis sazRvrebi moicavda kavkasias
li masis samxreTiT gadaadgilebaze". (dasavleTiT - samtrediamde), aRmosavleT anatolias, Crdilo-
Sdr., o.jafariZe, 2001, gv. 86-87: "mtkvar-araqsisa da kirbeT- dasavleT irans, aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTs, evropis na-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

wils, siria-palestinas (l.maxniki, 1972; o.jafariZe, 1976; g.avaliS- logiuri kategoriis moSla, rac, Cveni azriT, ukve Zv.w. II
vili, 1994; o.jafariZe, 2001...). "mtkvar-araqsis kultura uaRre- aTaswleulidan dasabams udebs iberiul-kavkasiuri enobrivi
sad Taviseburi movlenaa kavkasiis uZveles istoriaSi. arasodes, velisgan qarTveluris gamomijvnas.
arc adre da arc Semdgom, es teritoria kulturis mxriv ar yo- vfiqrobT, swored xuritul-xaTur-kavkasiur tomTa diver-
fila ase erTgvarovani. amitom swored kultura warmoadgens am genciisa da konvergenciis xangrZliv procesSi yalibdebian cno-
teritoriaze mosaxle xalxTa gamaerTianebel, udidesi mniSvne- bili muSqebi, qaSqebi, abeSlaelebi, urartuelebi, karduxebi,
lobis mqone Zalas. kulturaa maTi erTobis safuZveli da am er- sperebi, kolxebi, haliZonebi/xalibebi... mogvianebiT ki, Zv.w. I
Tobis gamomxatveli umTavresi niSani" (m.xidaSeli, 2003, gv. 82). aTaswleulis Sua periodSi am monaTesave tomTa sacxovrisis
am msjelobas mxars uWers musikaTmcodneTa daskvnac: n.maisuraZe, ganapira regionebSi maT erevian skviT-alanebi, armenebi da sxva
1989, gv.71: "kavkasia odesRac winaaziuri musikaluri kulturis mosuli tomebi; sayuradReboa:
arealSi Sedioda. mogvianebiT yalibdeba am kulturis kavkasiu- musikaluri teqstebis analizis Sedegebi mowmoben, rom osur
ri varianti, romlis warmoqmna kavkasiaSi mravalxmianobis Ca- (da, garkveulwilad, somxur - t.f.) musikalur enas safuZvlad
saxva-ganviTarebas ukavSirdeba". kavkasiuri substrati udevs (n.maisuraZe, 1989, gv.58).
axlo aRmosavleTis avtoqToni mosaxleobis erTgvarovnebis Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulSi mimdinare eTnosTa didi Serevebis Se-
Sesaxeb msjeloben anTropologebic: degebi aisaxa asurelebSic da urartuelebSic: "eniT semiti asu-
l.biTaZe, 2002, gv.156: "dermatoglifikuri da serelogiuri relebi anTropologiurad narev xalxs – semituri elementisa da
masalebis analizi aCvenebs saqarTvelos mosaxleobis mWidro kav- aziuri modgmis xuritebis Serevis produqts warmoadgenen...
Sirs winaaziur samyarosTan... istoriuli saqarTvelos mosaxle- urartuli panTeonis qalRmerT arubanis musasirSi Zv.w. VIII sau-
oba imTaviTve ekuTvnoda erT did anTropologiur plasts, rome- kuneSi moupovebia iranuli saxelwodeba bagmaSTu; es movlena mi-
lic Sedioda indo-xmelTaSuazRvispiruli rasis winaaziuri uTiTebs, rom xuri-urartul mosaxleobas Seeria iranuli tomi"
ganStoebis SemadgenlobaSi". (g.meliqiSvili, 1999, gv.29, 41).
kvlevis am etapze ufro logikuria, vTqvaT: gviani eneoliTis Zv.w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevridan kavkasiaSi lokalizebu-
amierkavkasiis adresamiwaTmoqmedo kulturis memkvidre mtkvar- li ergatiuli konstruqciis enis mqone xalxis erTi nawili -
araqsis kultura Seqmna ergatiuli konstruqciis enis/enebis qarTvelur-kavkasiuri modgma (kolxebi, mosxebi/muskebi, taoe-
mqone kavkasiur-xurituli modgmis xalxma. lebi, abaSebi/abazebi, Crdilokavkasielebi...) halisis, mtkvris,
Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi indoevropuli da sxva tomebis dawo- Woroxis, rion-yvirilis, enguris, liaxvis xeobebSi da Crdilo-
liT "ergatiuli konstruqciis enis mqone xalxi" iwyebs swraf kavkasiis nawilSi qmnis did kolxur-yobanur kulturas; ro-
divergencias. III-II aTaswleulTa mijnaze saqarTvelos terito- melsac, pirobiTad, SeiZleba vuwodoT aia-kolxeTis eTno-kul-
ria kulturaTa da eTnosTa mkveTri dinebebis Serevis velSi tura. albaT, nawilobriv, mis velSive Canan e.w. nairis qveynebi,
eqceva (Sdr., monaTesave enebs Soris arsebuli didi sxvaobis mi- centraluri kabadokiis aRmosavleT (da Crdilo-aRmosavleT) na-
zezi xSirad aris ara praenasTan didi xnis daSoreba, aramed in- wilSi mcxovrebi mesx/muSqebis, qaSqebis, tibarenebisa da sxva qar-
tensiuri Serevebic); savaraudoa, am periodidan iberiul-kavkasi- Tveluri tomebis sacxovrisebi. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa
uri enobrivi wris samxreTul variantSi iwyeba klasis morfo- T.miqelaZis daskvna:

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

"aias samefo win uswrebda kulxas gaerTianebas; amitom miTSi Semdgom periodSic, qarTveluri modgmis kulturul-politi-
oqros sawmisis Sesaxeb aietis samefos saxiT aisaxa daiaenis (igive kuri centrebi amave geografiul samkuTxedze moZraoben: ba-
aias) samefo, romelic jer kidev Zv.w. XII saukunis miwurulSia da- na/artanuji (aSoti, daviTi) - noqalaqevi/quTaisi - (bagrati/gi-
mowmebuli tiglaTfileser I warweraSi" (T.miqelaZe, 1974, gv.79- orgi) - Tbilisi (daviTi/Tamari)...
85); Sdr., daiaenis mefe 60 toms winamZRolobs; maT Soris arian kolxuri kulturis Semqmneli xalxis saxelmwifos ZiriTadi
Savi zRvis sanapiros tomebic; Sdr., agreTve: "argonavtikis uZve- ena, savaraudoa, iyo saerToqarTveluri koine/ena, romlis uSua-
les versiebSi, qveyana, sadac argonavtebma ilaSqres, berZnebisa- lo memkvidrea samwignobro qarTuli (ix.qvemoT).
Tvis aias saxeliT iyo cnobili, xolo ufro gvian ki – kolxidad b. mecnierebis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze rTulia, sa-
moixsenieba" (o.lorTqifaniZe, 1986, gv.32). bolood gadawyvetilad CaiTvalos samxreT evropisa (balkane-
savaraudoa, rom centralur da aRmosavleT anatoliaSic ar- Tis, apeninisa da pirineis naxevarkunZulebze) da afrikis Crdi-
qeologiurma Ziebebma kolxuri kulturis kvali aRmoaCinos; loeT sanapiros araindoevropeli mosaxleobisa da protoqar-
Sdr., ioseb flaviusis azriT, mosox/meSexebi kabadokiaSi arian; Tveluri xalxis (enebis) naTesaobis problema, Tumca, saamisod
amave azrs adastureben Tanamedrove mecnierebic, ix. n.xazaraZe, bevri sayuradRebo monacemi arsebobs; kerZod:
2000, gv.12: "hekateseuli da herodoteseuli mosxebi-mesxebi Zv.w. a. mtkvar-araqsis kulturis STambeWdavi elementebi dastur-
VI-V saukuneebSi kabadokiaSi, md. halisis (dRevandeli yizil-ir- deba ara mxolod aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi, aramed -
makis) auzSi mcxovrebi tomebis aRmosavleTiT mdebare terito- evropaSic: "centralur da aRmosavleT evropis rig kulturebSi
riaze binadrobdnen, dRevandeli tokat-yarahisar-giumuSxanes Zv.w. III aTaswleulis meore naxevarsa da Zv.w. II aTaswleulis pir-
sanaxebSi, xolo Zv.w. IV saukunis bolo meoTxedSi istoriul sa- vel naxevarSi (adreuneticis, glina III - Snekerbergi, belotiC-be-
mxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos regionSi (samcxe, javaxeTi, klarje- lacerkva da sxva) SeiniSneba msgavseba kavkasiis adrebrinjaos xa-
Ti, egri, SavSeTi, eruSeTi, tao, kola, artaani, basiani) Zlieri nis kulturasTan (l.maxniki). Tanac Tanxvdoma imdenad didia,
politikuri gaerTianeba Seqmnes, romlis samxreTi sazRvari dRe- rom is ver aixsneba konvergenciulobiT an savaWro kontaqtebiT.
vandel erzinjanTan gadioda; straboni am gaerTianebas "mosxebis albaT adgili hqonda mtkvar-araqsis kulturis matarebel tom-
qveyanas" (mosxikes) uwodebs, xolo "moqceva~ qarTlisa~s" avtori Ta SeRwevas kavkasiidan evropaSi" (g.avaliSvili, 1994, gv. 55). g.mi-
- arian-qarTls".
rcxulavasa da n.mircxulavas azriT, Zv.w. III aTaswleulis dasa-
davZenT:
wyisidan aRmosavleT evropis metalurgia mWidrod aris dakavSi-
logikuria, rom Zv.w. VII saukuneSi balkaneTidan samxreTis rebuli kavkasiasTan; am dros kavkasiaSic da evropaSic batonobs
gziT (Sdr.: herodotes mixedviT, Crdilokavkasiis uReltexile- dariSxaniani brinjao, Tumca ungreTSi Cans antimonianic. mas
bidan) kimerielebisa da skviTebis gamanadgurebeli Semosevis Sem-
karpatul-dunaispirul liTons uwodeben da aRniSnaven, rom
deg mesxur-kolxuri (mosxur-qaSquri) tomebis kulturulma cen-
formebi ZiriTadad mainc kavkasiuria. am periodSi da, SeiZleba
trma anatolia-kabadokiidan CrdiloeTiT gadmoinacvla: jer sa- cota ufro adrec, kavkasiaSic aris antimoniani brinjao - afxaze-
mxreT amierkavkasiaSi (TorTumSi? artanujSi? olTisSi?), Semdeg Tis dolmenebsa da saCxeris masalebSi. didia msgavseba Tixis
ki - Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebSi, ufliscixe-mcxeTasa da quTaisSi; Sdr.,
plastikaSic... unda aRiniSnos, agreTve, Crdilokavkasiuri
quj-farnavazis periodSi centri xdeba mcxeTa/Tbilisi, magram

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

mtkvar-araqsuli masalebis kavSirebi evropul masalebTan. es kav- xaTuri miTologiuri Tu sakulto sistemebis saerToobis Tema
Sirebi unda aixsnas jer kidev niko maris mier navaraudevi kavkasii- (samecniero literaturisa da sakiTxis mimoxilvisTvis ix.: g.qav-
dan meliTone iafeturi tomebis didi gadasaxlebiT (g.mircxu- TaraZe, 1985, gv.36-38; q.sixaruliZe, 2003; xelnaweri Sroma); mag.,
lava, n.mircxulava, 2001, gv.5). samecniero literaturaSi kavka- f.haasi askvnis, rom Tqmuleba oqros sawmisis Sesaxeb xaTuri
sia-evropis xazze tomTa gadaadgileba navaraudevia ori gziT: warmoSobisaa, xolo oqros sawmisis kulti gavrcelebuli iyo
kavkasia - aRmosavleT evropa - dasavleT evropa; kavkasia-mcire mTel wina aziaSi (o.lorTqifaniZe, 1986, gv.34).
azia - evropa (g.avaliSvili, 1994, gv. 55). orive mosazreba mxars Tanamedrove kulturologiur-anTropologiuri Ziebani sa-
uWers mtkvar-araqsis kulturis kavkasiur warmomavlobas, Tumca intereso Tanxvedras avlens uZveles kavkasiur-winaaziur da wina-
damatebiT kvlevas moiTxovs xalxTa gadasaxlebis mimarTulebis reberZnul miTebs Sorisac; mag., q.TuiTis azriT, homerosiseuli
sakiTxi. Tesalieli aqilevsi da qarTvelur-afxazur-osuri amirani bev-
b. ZiriTadad eTnologiur-kulturologiuri xasiaTis msje- ri ramiT hgvanan erTmaneTs (orive gmiris deda aris bunebis qal-
lobebis safuZvelze XIX-XX saukuneebSi specialistTa erTi na- RmerTi; qalRmerTi/deda mokvdav monadiresTan wveba gamoqvabul-
wili miiCnevda, rom Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebSi protoqarTveluri Si; orive gmiri SeiZleba iqces mTavari RmerTis metoqed; Svili
(protokavkasiuri) modgma "aRavsebda ara mxolod kavkasias, ara- udrood tovebs dedis saSos da, saerTod, dedis gareSe rCeba;
med indostanis naxevarkunZulis did nawils, xmelTaSuazRvis orive xdeba uZleveli meomari; orive Tavisi saxlis (oikosis) ga-
auzs, Crdilo da samxreT evropas, pirineebs, egeosis arqipelags reT, liminalur sivrceSi cxovrobs; orive gmirs amarcxebs Rmer-
da mcire azias" (z.gamsaxurdia, 1991, gv.27-29; aqve, ix.: v.humbol- Ti Suamavlis gamoyenebiT... amiranisa da aqilevsis ciklebi
dtis, n.maris, s.yauxCiSvilis, t.margvelaSvilis, a.losevis, o.nee- warmoadgenen erTsa da imave winaistoriul simboloTa mtevnis
raxeris, r. gordezianis da sxva mkvlevarTa mosazrebebis Sesaxeb). variantebs (q.TuiTi, 1998).
g.qavTaraZis kvlevam saintereso paralelebi warmoaCina minosuri Sdr., agreTve, q.TuiTis Semdegi sxva daskvna:
kretisa da anatoliis mosaxleobis pelazgebTan identifikaciis kavkasiis erebSi farTod gavrcelebulia nanadirevi, SeWmuli
TvalsazrisiT (g.qavTaraZe, 1985, gv.13-19); Sdr., pelazgebi arian da Semdeg gacocxlebuli jixvis xis beWis (proTezis) miTologi-
etruskTa winaprebi; etruskebi apeninis naxevarkunZulze modian uri motivi; mas paralelebi eZebneba evropaSic da aziaSic; ker-
dasavleTi mcire aziidan; Sdr.: berZnuli miTologiis mixedviT, Zod, es miTologiuri motivi SemorCenilia sami evraziuli qedis:
kolxidis mefe aieti pelazgia (a.uruSaZe, 1964, gv.16-17, 22-26: ber- alpebis, kavkasionisa da hidukuSis irgvliv mosaxle xalxebSi; es
Znuli wyaroebis mixedviT, kolxeTis mefe aieti korinTodanaa; faqti exmianeba amerikeli paleolingvistis - jon bengstonis mier
iasoni da medea korinToSi Cadian, rogorc TavianT samemkvidro navaraudevi makro-kavkasiuri uZvelesi enis (mosaxleobis, sadac
qveyanaSi, xolo medeas SviliSvili ilosi mermerosis Ze troas baskebic Sediodnen) arsebobis SesaZleblobis ideas (q.TuiTi,
omis dros korinTos patroni iyo). 1996). ar Cans SemTxveviTi, rom xis beWis miTologiuri motivis
samecniero literaturaSi aqtiurad ganixileba kavkasiuri mqone xalxebis enebi msgavsebas avlenen: iberiul-kavkasiuri, bas-
folklorul-eTnografiuli monacemebisa (oqros sawmisi, miTo- kuri da buruSuli enebi ergatiuli konstruqciisani arian. es
logiuri gmirebi, gveli/gvelveSapi, miwis rituali, saxlis saZir- faqtebi ar aris sakmarisi, am enaTa/eTnosTa saerTo warmomavlo-
kvlis Cayris rituali, batonebis/RvTaebebis gamxiaruleba...) da ba rom vamtkicoT, Tumca, faqtebi niSandoblivia... am konteq-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis...

stSivea saintereso qarTvel mkvlevarTa terminebi: protoqarTu- kuris naTesaobis sakiTxi ant.tovaris wignSi: "baskuri ena"; ker-
li, protoiberiuli (s.yauxCiSvili, z.gamsaxurdia), iberiul- Zod, leqsikuri paralelebis garda, arn. Ciqobavas azriT, basku-
kavkasiuri (iv.javaxiSvili, arn.Ciqobava...) da sxv., romlebic jon risa da iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis istoriul-genezisuri mimar-
bengstonis terminebze (makrokavkasiuri, sinokavkasiuri/denekav- Tebis amsaxveli saerTo struqturuli movlenebia: postpozici-
kasiuri) adrea Seqmnili da warmatebulad damkvidrebulic. uri msazRvrelis mimarTeba brunvis procesTan; ergatiuli
c. egeosuri, qarTvelur-kavkasiuri da mcireaziur-anatoli- brunva; zmnis pirovani, klasovani da klasovan-pirovani uRle-
uri enobrivi masalis siaxlove da am mimarTulebiT kvlevis per- ba; obieqtisa da subieqtis aRniSvna gardamaval zmnaSi; orga-
speqtiuloba aCvena r.gordezianma; kerZod, is askvnis: "egeosursa nuli da aRweriTi warmoebis xvedriTi wona; zmnis fuZis saxe-
da qarTvelur enebs Soris arsebobs garkveuli mimarTeba; es mi- luri buneba; gvaris kategoria; ergatiuli konstruqciis ar-
marTeba xSirad ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre amis warmodgena seboba sintaqsSi; saxelis gramatikuli klasis kategoria da
surs zogierT mecniers... muSaobis am mimarTulebiT gagrZelebam, semantikuri kategoria (vin? da ra ?) da sxva.
yvela iberiul-kavkasiuri enisa da xmelTaSua zRvis Zveli enebis baskur-kavkasiuri naTesaobis Sesaxeb faseuli msjelobebi
Rrma SedarebiTma analizma SeiZleba momavalSi mravali sayura- aqvT: n.mars, iv. javaxiSvils, k.ulenbeks, h.fogts, r.lafons, h.kin-
dRebo aRmoCenis winaSe dagvayenos" (r.gordeziani, 1970, gv.253); tanas, S.ZiZigurs, i.zicars, i.brauns, g.CantlaZes, n.sturuas, s.ga-
"qarTveluri da, saerTod, kavkasiuri masalis gaTvaliswineba sa- bunias... gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa i.zicarisa da i.braunis na-
vsebiT aucilebeli gaxdeba xmelTaSua zRvis iseT kulturaTa Se- Sromebi (problemis mimoxilvis Sesaxeb ix., agreTve, g.burWulaZe,
swavlisaTvis, romelnic dRemde amden amoucnob saidumlos inaxa- 2005, gv.196-202).
ven" (r.gordeziani, 1985, gv.170; problemis istoriisaTvis ix., ag- Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi sifrTxiliT ekide-
reTve, a.nemirovski, 1983, gv.80-82). bian winareqarTveluri samyarosa da winareberZnuli kulturis
d. n.marisa da arn.Ciqobavas azriT, ergatiuli konstruqciis igiveobis Temas; Tumca, specialistTa mier warmodgenili lin-
mqone baskuri da iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis (xalxebis) naTesa- gvistur-kulturologiur-istoriuli paralelebi marTlac Se-
iZleba iyos winareqarTvelur-kavkasiuri (aRmosavleT iberiu-
obac "uTuod dadebiTad wydeba" (n.mari, 1927; arn.Ciqobava, 1979,
li), pelazguri, etruskuli, baskuri da sxva Zveli enebis, Sesaba-
gv.302); Sdr., sxvadasxva enobrivi movlenis analizis Semdeg a.to-
misad, iberiuli modgmis xalxebis didi saerTo warsulis mam-
vari wers: "kavkasiuri enebi erTimeorisgan Rrmad gansxvavebul
tkicebeli (etruskul-pelazguri eTnosis mcireaziuri warmo-
Taviseburebebs amJRavneben, magram baskurTan naTesaoba arc erTi
mavlobis Sesaxeb ix.: r.gordeziani, 1970; a.nemirovski, 1983, gv.61;
maTganisTvis ar gamoiricxeba... baskur-kavkasiuri naTesaobis faq-
g.qavTaraZe, 1985 da sxv.). problema axali Taobis mkvlevars elis
ti, SemCneuli espaneli fitas mier da dadasturebuli Suxar-
(vinc arsebul codnas axleburi meTodiT Seajamebs).
dtis, trombetis, ulenbekis, diumezilis, boudas da lafonis mi-
amrigad, specialistTa kvlevebis Sedegebis mixedviT
er ufro sistemuri Seswavlis safuZvelze, aris aRmoCena, rome-
SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom qarTvelTa winaprebis Tavdapirveli
lic Zalze Soreuli da ucnobi warsulidan momdinare faqts
sacxovrisi iyo kavkasiac da mcire aziis erTi nawilic; Tumca,
gamoavlens..." (a.tovari, 1980, gv.33-35). baskur-qarTveluri enob-
rTulia sazRvrebis zustad gansazRvra. uZvelesi periodis
rivi siaxlovis maCvenebeli STambeWdavi paralelebia warmodgeni-
werilobiTi wyaroebis ararsebobis pirobebSi am mimarTulebiT
li a.tovaris naSromze darTul arn.Ciqobavas gamokvlevaSi - "bas-

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kavkasiur-qarTveluri eTnosis Tavdapirveli sacxovrisis... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

garkveuli informacia SeiZleba mogvces arqeologiurma Ziebebma, 2.1.3. winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da
isic im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki enaTa divergencia/interfernciis qarTvelur-kavkasiuri (iberiul-kavkasiuri)enobrivi veli;
daTariRebiT SesaZlebeli gaxdeba mocemuli eTnosis istoriisa winaaziur-kavkasiur monaTesave enaTa mimarTebis sqema
da arqeologiuri kulturis sinqronizeba.
samecniero literaturaSi gansxvavebuli mosazrebebia
mtkvar-araqsis kulturis Semoqmedi xalxis vinaobis Sesaxeb; ik-
veTeba problemisadmi damokidebulebis erTi saintereso aspeqti:
mtkvar-araqsis kulturis Semoqmedad Crdilokavkasiuri tomebi
naklebad moiazrebian:
o.jafariZe, 1998, gv.183: mtkvar-araqsis kulturis ZiriTadi
Semoqmedni arian kavkasiuri tomebi, upiratesad, xuritule-
novani da qarTveluri.
T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.894: mtkvar-araqsis kul-
turis Semqmnelni da matarebelni arian xurituli, samxreT-
kavkasiuri (qarTveluri) da indoevropeli eTnosebi...
Sdr.: rusi arqeologebis - e. krupnovisa da r.munCaevis - va-
raudiT, mtkvar-araqsis kulturis avtori SeiZleboda yofiliyo
iberiul-kavkasiuri enobriv-eTnikuri erToba (narkvevebi, I,
gv.337-338). am konteqstSi CvenTvis sainteresoa a.meies mosazreba,
kerZod, igi SesaZleblad miiCnevda Zv.w. V-IV aTaswleulebSi Ta-
namedrove kavkasiuri enebis, baskurisa da wina aziis zogi mkvdari
enis winapari enobrivi erTobis arsebobas (i.zicari, 1955, gv.52).
rogorc vxedavT, bolo periodis mkvlevarTa naSromebis
mixedviT mtkvar-araqsis kulturis Semoqmedia "samxreT kavkasiu-
ri" anu qarTveluri eTnosi: aRar Cans "iberiul-kavkasiuri eT-
nosi"; mizezi martivia:
maTi azriT, iberiul-kavkasiuri enobrivi erTobis arseboba
friad saeWvoa; an: Tuki arsebobda, Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulebSi igi
ukve daSlilia, Sesabamisad, am enis mflobeli xalxi ver iqneboda
"mtkvar-araqsis kulturis" Semoqmedi. sanimuSod mogvyavs g.meli-
qiSvilis mTavari argumenti (leqsikuri nasesxobebis Sesaxeb ix.
qvemoT):
g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.338: "Tundac rom vaRiaroT odesRac
iberiur-kavkasiuri erTobis arseboba, aseTis moTavseba Zv.w.

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

III aTaswleulSi SeuZlebelia", vinaidan III aTaswleulSi ukve aqvs qarTvelur, xunZur, afxazur-adiRur, bacbur-inguSur enebs,
arsebobda "iberiul-kavkasiuri" enebis calkeuli jgufebi (saer- xolo TanxmovanTa viTareba ukeT Semogvinaxa naxurma da qarTve-
ToqarTveluri, saerTodaRestnuri)... cnobili istorikosi am- lurma enebma;
gvar daskvnas akeTebs e.w. leqsikur-statistikuri meTodiT 2. fuZis umartivesi saxe istoriulad erTmarcvliani Cans;
g.klimovis mier "dadgenili" "qarTvelur enaTa" daSlis TariRis igi Sedgeboda Tanxmovnisa da determinatiuli sufiqsisgan. de-
safuZvelze. rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, amgvari gziT dadgenili dro terminatiuli sufiqsebi gamovlenilia qarTvelur, adiRur, da
enaTa arseboba/daSlisa metismetad saeWvoa da, Sesabamisad, dro- rig daRestnur enebSi;
is mocemul monakveTSi eTnosTa yofna/aryofnis dasturad ver 3. sqesis kategoria ucxoa yvela iberiul-kavkasiuri enisTvis;
gamodgeba. aq gamoiyofoda mamakacis, qalis, nivTis, cxovelis da sxva semanti-
Sdr, agreTve, o.jafariZe, 1976, gv.17-20, 93: kavkasiuri enobrivi kuri klasebi, romlebic morfologiuradac gamoixateboda saTa-
da kulturuli erToba ukve daSlilia Zv.w. V aTaswleulSi; III nado prefiqsebiT; Cans, klasebis mixedviT xdeboda brunebac da
aTaswleulSi ki sabolood Camoyalibebulia kavkasiis mosaxleo- uRlebac... mxolod amgvarad SeiZleba aixsnas saerTo morfolo-
bis ZiriTadi eTnikuri jgufebi... giuri inventaris arseboba saxelur da zmnur morfemebSi.
Cveni azriT, amgvari qronologiebi friad sakamaToa bevri mi- 4. iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi aglutinaciuria; pirveladia
zezis gamo (ix. qvemoT); Sdr.: arn. Ciqobavam kargad icoda i.diako- prefiqsacia, meoreulia sufiqsacia;
novis, g.klimovis, T.gamyreliZis, g.maWavarianisa da sxvaTa mosaz- 5. iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi moqmedebiTi gvari formdeba kau-
rebebi Tu argumentebi saerTokavkasiuris arsebobisa da saerTo- zativis mawarmoeblebiT;
qarTveluris daTariRebis Sesaxeb, magram iberiul-kavkasiuri er- 6. yvela cocxal iberiul-kavkasiur enaSi gvaqvs ergatiuli
Tobis drod is mainc varaudobda 3000 wlis winandel dros: konstruqciis winadadeba;
"iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi monaTesave enebia, maT warmoSoba 7. qarTvelur, afxazur-adiRur, naxur da Cerqezul enebSi
aerTianebT. es ZvelisZvel viTarebas gulisxmobs: savaraudod sa- mravlad vlindeba saerTokavkasiuri leqsika...
mi aTasi wlis winandels da, albaT, Zvel adgil-samyofels, kavka- "rac ufro Rrmad SeviWrebiT iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa isto-
siis samxreTiT mdebare miwa-wyals" (arn.Ciqobava, 1978, gv 253); Se- riaSi, miT ufro meti saerTo aRmoCndeba" (gv. 274).
sabamisad, Cveni fiqriT, saerToqarTveluris arseboba Zv.w. I arn.Ciqobava da iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis sko-
aTaswleulSi unda vivaraudoT; Sdr.: mkvlevarTa erTi nawili lis sxva warmomadgenlebi aTwleulebis manZilze qarTvelurTan
saerToqarTveluris arsebobas varaudobs Zv.w. IV-III aTaswleu- mimarTebiT warmatebiT ikvleven imierkavkasiis enebs; Sedegad
lebSi (ix.: v.ivanovi, T.gamyreliZe 1984, gv.880; m.qurdiani, 2003, gamovlenilia mravali leqsikuri paraleli; mag., qarTvelur-Cer-
gv.44 da sxv. ix. qvemoT 2.2.3.). qezuli leqsikuri paralelebis Sesaxeb ix. g.rogava, 1956; aqve sa-
araqarTulenovani mkiTxvelisTvis ucnobia arn.Ciqobavas is interesoa imis aRniSvnac, rom qarTveluri da afxazur-adiRuri
argumentebi da daskvnebi, romlebic ueWvels xdis iberiul-kavka- saerTo leqsikuri fondis arsebobas aRiarebs g.klimovic ki, ro-
siuri enebis naTesaobas (ix. "iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis melic iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis Teorias ar izia-
Sesavali", 1979); moviyvanT ramdenime debulebas: rebs, magram 40-mde aseT leqsikur erTeuls gamoyofs (g.klimovi,
1. iberiul-kavkasiur praenas axasiaTebda xmovanTa martivi da 1969); qarTul-afxazuri bgeraTfardobis Sesaxeb ix. q.lomTaTi-
TanxmovanTa rTuli sistema; xmovanTa uZvelesi viTareba daculi Zis gamokvlevebi (1977 da sxv.), agreTve, b.foCxua, 1974.

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mdidari samecniero literaturis mixedviT, iberiul-kavka- saerToqarTveluri sun-, sul-, *s…-en-, zan. S…-an-(d), Sur-,
siuri enebis erTiani leqsikuri fondis Sesaxeb sagangebod msje- svan. S…-em-  S…-en-, Sur-  Sul-; bacb. sa  sin Sdr.: mr. r. sin-
lobs b.foCxua; misi azriT, qarTvelursa da sxva iberiul-kavkasi-
bu~, CaCn. s›  sin (mr. r. sin-oS), as-ar "gasuliereba, gamxneveba",
ur enebs saerTo warmomavlobisa aqvT ZiriTadi leqsikuri fon-
dis mravali sityva; kerZod: deda, mama, coli, oboli... Tve, dRe, ing. s›  sin-, Øas-ar id; saerTonaxuri sin-  winarenaxuri *s…in-;
mze, yinavs, ca, zafxuli, samxari... barkali, bayvi, guli, idayvi, xunZ. s´un-t-, and. Sun-n-, boTl. Sa¹-, tind. hun-, bagv. hun-, kar. Su-,
marjvena, mkerdi, mxari, piri, ZuZu, wamwami, wveri, Wipi, tvini, fil- axvax. S…an- "dasunva"; winaredaRestnuri *s…-an-.
tvi, fxa, xeli, Zvali, muxli... guguli, mgeli, Rori, yvavi, Tagvi,
ciyvi, qaTami, matli, mweri, kalia, pepela, WianWvela, Zu, xvadi, saerToqarTveluri mos-: sa-mos-el-i, zan. (meg.) mos- "mosva",
berwi, RuRuni, xvixvini... dika, maxa, seli, yana, vaSli, msxali, svan. mas-; bacb. {merSi}: CaCn. merC‹  merSi: ing. merCi  merSi,
leRvi, kakali, soko, WinWari, anwli, ZeZvi... vin, man... sami, xuTi, winarenaxuri. mesr-i "sudara"; xunZ. musru, bejit. musru, did.
aTi, asi, cali, tyupi... didi, mrgvali, rbili, TeTri, yviTeli, musru, ruT. sˆr "samare", lak. suru…, arCib. soro "sudara", winare-
Txeli, Zveli, msxvili... Seazanzarebs, eSinia, wovs, wvavs, Wams, daRestnuri musr-u….
svams, susxavs, ustvens, fuvdeba, dgas, icinis, lokavs, goravs, ur-
saerToqarTveluri sel-i, zan. su(l-): svan. sˆl-; bacb. fsa "qe-
tyams, abams, qsovs, Tesavs, Weds... kedeli, yveli, Zmari, celi, jaWvi
da sxv. (b.foCxua, 1974, gv. 328-330; aqvea dasaxelebuli is iberiul- ri", CaCn. suos, ing. sos (redupl.) "особый вид ржи"  nax. *fsal-
kavkasiuri enebi, sadac warmodgenili sityvebi dasturdeba; saer- winarenaxuri b-sal; darg. susul, lak. sus, lezg. sil, Tab. sur-sul, aR.
To iberiul-kavkasiuri leqsikisTvis ix., agreTve, gr.giorgaZe, s‘lºsul-en, xin. sil-q, kriw. sil-sil, budux. sˆl-sˆl  winaredaRestnuri
2002, gv.91-93). *sul-.
iberiul-kavkasiuri enebisa Tu eTnosebis Sesaxeb arsebuli
Tanamedrove samecniero naSromebi ufro metad amyareben iberi- saerToqarTveluri ser-i "Rame", zan. ser-i; bacb. fsar-eh "gu-
ul-kavkasiur enaTa/xalxTa naTesaobis Teorias; kerZod, ukanas- Sin", fsar-lo "saRamo", CaCn. sar-ah–, ing. sar-–h, saÉr-Ée "saRamo",
kneli gamokvlevebis mixedviT, Crdilokavkasiur enebsa da qar- winarenaxuri fsar-  *s…ar; xunZ. son- "guSin", and. son, tind. soni,
Tvelurs Soris dgindeba regularuli da kanonzomieri bge-
axvax. Suni, arC. san-Gi, Tab. san "wuxel", xin. san, xvarS. hun-lÀ, hun-
raTSesatyvisobebic; kerZod, arn.Ciqobavas, g.rogavas, q.lomTa-
i-ja "guSin", darg. sa, wax. san-x½a, saerTodaRestnuri san-  wina-
TiZis, e.bokarevas, t.gudavas, s.xaidakovis, s.nikola~evisa da sxva-
Ta gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiT, m.Cuxuam 2001-2004 wlebSi gamoqvey- redaRestnuri *sar-.
nebul naSromebSi warmoadgina STambeWdavi qarTvelur-naxur- saerToqarTveluri *gus-: qs-ov-a *gs-ov-, zan. rS-*qS- 
daRestnuri saerTo masala: istoriul-SedarebiTi analizis Se-
*gS, svan. JiS-  *gus-; bacb. qes- *ges- "saqmianoba", CaCn. qÉes- 
degad gamovlinda ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis 500-ze meti erTeu-
li, romelic saerTokavkasiuri warmomavlobisaa; m.Cuxuas naSro- *ges-, qis- "naqsovi", ing. qes-  *ges-, qis- "tilo", winarenaxuri
mis Sesabamisad, aq davimowmebT leqsikur erTeulTa nawils *ges- (saqmianoba _ qsova; semantemaTa mimarTebisaTvis Sdr. svan.
(m.Cuxuas gamokvleva srulad ibeWdeba iberiul-kavkasiuri enaT- lˆC…min/luC…min 1. "gakeTebuli", 2. "moqsovili"); xunZ. be-s´-,
mecnierebis 35-e tomSi): and. beS´-, Rod. his´-i, axvax. gos´-ur, karat. qeS´-en/qerS´-en "moqso-

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

va", did. ri-S-a, hunz. re-S-a, darg. bu-S-es, lak. S´aS´-an  *q´aS´- buos-/ bas-, ing. bos-/bas-  winarenaxuri *ba-s…; xunZ. bo-x½-, and.
an, lezg. aru-S-un "darTva", ru-S-un "qsova". bu-S, yam. bu-h-, bagv. bi-S-, kar. bu-x…- "wasma", winaredaRestnuri
saerToqarTveluri *…s-: vs-eb-a, sa-vs-e, zan. o-fS-a/e-fS-a "sa- *bi-s…-.

vse", fS-af-a "vseba", mo-fS-a/go-fS-a, svan. g…eS-/g…S-  *…S-; bacb. saerToqarTveluri ne-st…-, st…-ir-i, st…-en-a, zan. S…it-in-,
se-fs- "berva", "afueba", CaCn. so-…s- "gavseba, afueba, duRili", mi-Svit-ia, svan. ne-Str-@l/ne-Sdr-@l (pl. tantum) "nestoebi"; bacb.
ChaGar su…s _ `Rvino duRs", ing. so-…s- "gaberva, afueba", Sdr. {Sot-}: CaCn. S~ed-ag/Sod-ag, qist. Sud-uq (ax.), ing. S…od-ilg
winarenaxuri de-…s-, *…s "gaberva"; xunZ. re-C´- "duGili", darg. "дудка", winarenaxuri *Set…  *set…; xunZ. hiSt-, axvax. S´it-, arCib.
ru-J-ir "duRili", lak. S´ar-an id, winaredaRestnuri *de-S-. S…it "stvena", winaredaRestnuri *sit…-.

saerToqarTveluri nems-: nemsi, aWar. lems-i, zan. lifS-i/liS-i saerToqarTveluri -s mic. br. niS., zan. -s: svan. -s; bacb. -s, CaCn.
*nimS-i; bacb. {urs}, CaCn. urs, ing. urs- winarenaxuri *nus; -s: ing. -s/-z erg. br. niS., winarenaxuri -s; darg. -s/-z, lezg. -z, aR. -s
xunZ. nus, and. besun, boTl. besun, Rod. besun, Wam. besu¹, tind., mic. br. niS., winaredaRestnuri -s.

bagv., kar. besun, axvax. me¹Su  meun (mr.r. meSuna), winaredaRes- saerToqarTveluri *s/h-as…: asuli, zan. osur-, svan. ha-
tnuri *nuseb "dana". suS/has…-iS; bacb. ~-oh, CaCn. ~-oç ~-oh, ing. ~-oç  *~-oh "qa-
liSvili", winarenaxuri *~-aS-  *~-as-; xunZ. ~-as/~-aSa, and. ~-
saerToqarTveluri s…el-i "Srati", zan. (megr.) S…en-i 
oSi, axv. ~-aSe, tind., Wam. ~-ah  ~-aSa, kar. ~-aSe, boTl. ~-eSi,
*S…ar-i "Txis qoni", svan. S…el "Srati"; bacb. Sar- "do", CaCn. Sar
bagv. ~-aS, Rod. ~-aSi, lezg. r-uS, Tab. r-iS, aR. r-uS, ruT. r-ˆS, wax.
"Srati, do", ing. S–r, saerTonaxuri S…ar  *sEal; xunZ. S´…ar,
~-ˆS, arC. d-iS-dur, sin. r-iSi "asuli", winaredaRestnuri ~-as- "qa-
boTl. S´ara, tind. S´ari, kar. S´are, Wam. s´ara "Srati, sEeli", wina- liSvili".
redaRestnuri s…al-e.
winareqarTveluri *v-as…-(ar): us…-ar-i (saba) "vaJiSvili";
saerToqarTveluri sof-: sof-el-i, m-sof-l-io, zan. (megr.) sof-, bacb. v-oh, CaCn. v-oç  *v-oh, ing. v-oç  *v-oh "vaJiSvili", wina-
svan. s…if- "moedani sofelSi", "safixvno"; bacb. fhe, CaCn. fha, ing. renaxuri *v-aS- *v-as-; xunZ. v-as/v-aSa, and. v-oSo, axv. v-aSa,
fh– "sofeli" *fSe  saerTonaxuri *s…e; and. hon, axvax. hani, tind., Wam. v-aha  v-aSa, kar. v-aSa, boTl. v-aSa, bagv., Rod. v-aSa,
kar. hana, tind. hana, darg. Si, lak. Sara- (valu), arCib. xor, lezg. did. uju /uji, darg. urSi, lak. ars, arC. v-iS-du "axalSobili vaJiSvi-
x‘r, aR. hur, zax. xi… "sofeli", xin. s…i; saerTodaRestnuri li", xin. Si "vaJi" winaredaRestnuri *v-as- (Sdr., qarTveluri
vaJ-i, romelic saerTokavkasiuri *vasu-/*Eas- fuZidan momdinare
*S…ani/*s…ani.
SeiZleba iyos da ara - nasesxebi; t.f.).
saerToqarTveluri *s…-: s…-e, s…-am- "wasma", "mosma", zan. saerToqarTveluri m-ze "mze", ze (zeze, ze-da, ze-viT), zan.
s…- "wasma", "mosma"; bacb. bos "feri", bas-lo Tasar "SeRebva", CaCn. bja (megr.)/mjora (yan.), ji(no) "ze/zeviT", svan. mij/mˆj, jib "zeviT";
bacb. {zu}, CaCn. z„‹  *z‹ "sxivi", ing. z„ˆ "sxivi", winarenaxuri zi id;

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xunZ., lak. i-z-an "встать", arC. bu-c-is, lezg. aƒ´…a-z-un, Tab. zu-J…- "Sno"; and. Su…-, boTl. s´u, Rod. Sub, Wam. hŒb/hub, bagv. hŒb,
uz, aR. Gu-z-as, ruT. lu-z-un, wax. ulu-z-ar-as "adgoma"; winaredaRes- tind. ho‡ob, kar. x½ohob, axvax. So "хорощий", saerTodaRestnuri
tnuri -z- "zesvla" (Sdr. qarT. ze, ze-v-iT, ze-da...). *Su-.
saerToqarTveluri *deSa/*ZeSa zan. diSqa/diSka, svan. zeq.  saerToqarTveluri Tq…en, Tq…en-i: zan. Tq…a(n), Tquan-i,
zeSq  deSq); bacb. dos, CaCn. dos/duos, ing. dos/doas "SeSa", winare- svan. sg@~; bacb. Su, CaCn. Su, ing. Suo, winarenaxuri *sT…en/S…en;
naxuri *doS(-a); xunZ. rox½ (rox½a) "tye", and. reSa, boTl. ruSa, xunZ. nuj, and. bis´il, boTl. biSTi, Rod. biT´e  biSTe, Wab. biT´(i) 
Rod. ruSa, bagv. roSa, kar. roSa, axvax. ruSa "xe", Wam. …rha/roSa, biSTi, tind. bis´a, bagv. biSTi, axvax. uSdi "Tqven", winaredaRestnu-
tind. roSa/roha, kar. (tokit.) rox½a "xe", "tye", lak. murx½ "xe", ri -*sT…-/S…-.
lezg., xin. viS@ "xe", winaredaRestnuri *doSa.. saerToqarTveluri *sT…-: sT…-el-i  rT…-el-i "Semodgoma";
saerToqarTveluri vaS-l-i/*vaSali, zan. uSq-ur-i/uSq-ir-i, svan. bacb. stab-o "Semodgoma", CaCn. {sTa…-}, ing. {sa…-},winarenaxuri
…isg-…  …iSg-… *…iSq-l; bacb. {aS}: CaCn. çaj: ing. çaj "vaSli", sTa…-; boTl. c´ib-uru, axvax. c´ib-era "zamTari", did. sebi, hunz.
winarenaxuri *vaS-; xunZ. eC, axvax. „eCe, kar. „eCi, tind. ØeCi, yam. sib-ar, lak. s´uvT  *sTu…, arCib. soT´-iƒ´ , Tab. C…ul, wax. cu…-al,
ØeS, hinux. iSi, hunz. e¹S, darg. „inc, lak. hivC, arC. anS, lezg. iC, xin. c´ˆv-aj (*cˆv-ar) "Semodgoma", winaredaRestnuri sTu…-.
Tab. veC/viC, aR. heC  veC, kriw. ~eC  veC, budux. ~eC  veC, saerToqarTveluri ZaG-l-i/*ZaR-al-i, zan. JoG-or-i; svan.
xin. mˆC  veC, ud. ¥S/¡S  veS, winaredaRestnuri *veS-. jeG/jeG-…; bacb. woK  woKa, CaCn. wuoKa; ing. woK– "jiqi", wina-
saerToqarTveluri Sen-/*S…-en-, Sen-i, zan. si(n), sqan-i, svan. renaxuri *ZoG(ar-)  woK-(ar-); xunZ. wirK, and. wirK, axvax. wiKo
sg@~, bacb. ho(n), CaCn. huo(n), ing. huo(n) "Sen", winarenaxuri "focxveri", lak. winiK/Wn@y…, winaredaRestnuri *ZiG-(or-) 
*S…en; xunZ. mun  …un * h…un, darg. hu, lezg. …ue  * wiK-(or).
h…un, ruT. Gu  hun, wax. Gu  hun, ud. Gun/un  hun, xin. saerToqarTveluri *deZ…-/ZeZ…: "ZeZvi", zan. (Wan.) danZ-i
…ˆ  h…ˆn, arCib. un  hun "Sen", saerTodaRestnuri *S…un-. *daZ…-i; bacb. {ZiZ}-, CaCn. ZiZ-– /ziz-–, ZiZ-ig "yvavili", ing. Ziz-–
saerToqarTveluri Sver-: u-Sver-i, svan. Sg…ir (zs.) /Sk…ir  *ZiZ-a; winarenaxuri *ZiZ-; xunZ. zaz "ekali", axv. jaja, darg.
(lnt.) "sircxvili"; bacb. eh-ar; ing. e-h-ar, winarenaxuri *e-har ZawZi/c´ac´e, lak. c´ac, lezg. c´aZ, Tab. ZaZa, aR. zaz, ruT. ziza, ud.
"sircxvili"; xunZ. sur-, and. sur-/suli, boTl. sur-, yam. sul  sur, cac, winaredaRestnuri *ZaZi (Sdr. adiR. ze*Ze).
tind. sur, kar. sur- (sure) "Sercxvena", axvax. Suli  Suri "sircxvi- saerToqarTveluri Z…al-i, zan. {Jol-}; svan. JiJ…  *J…iJ…il
li", winaredaRestnuri *Sur. (redupl.)  *J…il (Sdr., aWar. ZiZgva~/jijgva~ "Zvalmsxvili kaci"
saerToqarTveluri Su-: S…-en-i-s, Su-en-ier-i, Sn-o ( S…eno), - t.f.); bacb. {za(l)}, CaCn. sal/zal, ing. sa(l)  zal "nekni", winarenaxu-
zan. sq…-, o-sq-u{n} "Svenis", squ-a (Wan.)/ sq…-am-i (megr.) "lamazi", ri *Zal-; and. jala, boTl. jola, Wam. zala, "nekni", winaredaRestnuri
svan. sg…-, x-o-sgu-n "SeSvenis", ma-sg…-a "Sesaferisi", sg…-’n *Zal(a).

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

saerToqarTveluri Zu…-/Zuv-i, Zu, zan. Ju-a *Ju…-a, svan. saerToqarTveluri *cxarT…-/carTx… (Sdr., waTx-/wyaT-,
Ju{…}-a "Zukna"; bacb. jabo "Zroxa", CaCn. ja, ing. j–  vainax. *ja…o, barty-/bRart-...), CxarT…, "CxarTvi", svan. CxuruSt/Cxur…iSd 
winarenaxuri *Za…o "Zroxa",; xunZ. zi…u, and. zi…u boTl., Rod. *CxarST…; bacb. {SurTx}- (Sdr. qarT. SurTx-i), CaCn. SatKa(n), ing.
zini, Wam. zin, bagv. zin, tind., kar. zini, axvax. ji¹…o/jon "Zroxa", did. SurtK› "ласка", winarenaxuri *carTx…-  *CarTx…-; xunZ cat¾u,
zi~a, xvarSi. zi¹a, ruT. zer, wax. zer, kriw. zar, bud. zar, ud. Cur  and. sart¾u *cart¾u, yam. sat¾u  *cart¾u "ласка", saerTodaRes-
*Jur id; winaredaRestnuri *Zi…u "Zroxa". tnuri *cart¾…- (Sdr. bgeraTSesatyvisoba: qarTv. Tx: nax. Tx:
saerToqarTveluri ƒueza, zan. (megr.) xozo  *x…ajo (Sdr. daR. t¾).
afxaz. a-ƒ…aja); bacb. ƒaC—, CaCn. ƒ‰C–, ing. ƒaC– "sagzali", wina- saerToqarTveluri berw-i, zan. bury-i, svan. bruy; bacb. b„arw-
renaxuri *ƒaZ-e  ƒ‰J-e; xunZ. ƒuƒanCed, bej. xic, xvarS. xac, hinux. o¹, CaCn. b„arz-a¹  *b„arZ-an  *b„arw-on, ing. b„arZ-›  b„arw-
darg. halwa/h…alwa "блин", winaredaRestnuri *ƒ (…)a(l)Z-a. o¹ "jori", winarenaxuri *barw-on "jori"; xunZ. „orwen, boTl. „or-
saerToqarTveluri cal-i, carieli, cale, zan. (megr.) Cvara "cale" wen, Rod. „orwin, kar. „urwina, hin. hurwum, hunz. horwum/horwom
 *Cor-a, svan. h@r-i "carieli"; bacb. cha, CaCn. caç  caha, ing. "jori", winaredaRestnuri *borw-en  *horw-en.
caç/cha  caha "erTi", winarenaxuri cah-; xunZ. co, and. se-, axv. saerToqarTveluri w…-: "wva", zan. y…- "wva", svan. y-  *y…-;
Ce-, did. si-, darg. ca, lak. ca, lezg. sa-, Tab. sa-, aR. sa-, ruT. sa-, bacb. we, CaCn. wˆ/i, ing. wi "cecxli", winarenaxuri we; xunZ. wa, and.
wax. sa-, arC. os, xin. sa, ud. sa "erTi", saerTodaRestnuri *ca. wa~, axvax. Jari, bejit. wo, did. wi, xvarS. wa/wo  *w…a, darg. wa,
saerToqarTveluri *barc(x)-, farcx-i, zan. bucx/burcx-, svan. cxa lak. w…  *w…i, lezg. wa~, Tab. wa, aR. wa, ruT. wa~, wax.
"frCxili"; xunZ. furuc  *burc´u  *burc´u, and. rebc´u  *berc´u, wa/wa~, budux. wa, arCib. ow  *wo  *w…a, xin y@ "cecxli", wina-
bagv. berec´, boTl. ferc´u, Wam. bi~ac´a  birac´a, Rod. rec´i  be- redaRestnuri *w(…)a "wva, cecxli" (Sdr., qarTuli enis
rec´i, tind. bec´i/berec´, kar. bec´e/berc´e/ feric´, axvax. „ebec´e, did. aWaruli kilos wiwa~ "cecxli" bavSvis enaze - t.f.).
birus, hinux. berus, darg. duraZ, lezg. T‘rgz  d‘res, Tab. curc  saerToqarTveluri wK: ne-(r)-wK-…-i, wK-al-i, wK-l-ul-i, zan.
Turuc  d-uruc aR. duruc, wax. ve~ica  berca, ud. fenec´  b-erec´ le-yK-v-a/le-mJk-va, yK-ol- "wylva", svan. n@-SK-…  *ne-JK-…; bacb.
"kavi", winaredaRestnuri *b-erc-e "kavi". {wKal-Š}, CaCn. wK@l-a/wKel-a, ing. wK@l-› "mosqo siTxe", winarena-
saerToqarTveluri cic-i: cic-i-naTela, zan. (Wan.) CiC-i; bacb. xuri *wK-al-e; xunZ. h´aw´u, axvax. aw´i, Wam. haw´, bagv. ha¬… 
cic-a-‡o, CaCn. cac-/cafc-/cic-, ing. ciec-› "mweri", winarenaxuri *cic-; haw´…, did. nocu, xvarS. ~u¹cu  nucu, hunz. ~a¹cu  nacu  s.
xunZ. ic, and. reci/resu, axvax. reSe, kar. resa, bagv. res, boTl. resa, did. nawu "nerwyvi", lak. onwu  nowu "cingli", winaredaRes-
darg. hems, lak. nu…ca., Tab. sur, ruT. ~is, wax. ic, ud. c´ec´ "моль", tnuri na-w-… "nerwyvi".
winaredaRestnuri *cec (Sdr. somxuri cic "моль", rac romelime saerToqarTveluri wif-, *ma-w-(if)-e/ m-wif-e, zan. mo-ny-a,
iberiul-kavkasiuri enidan Cans nasesxebi). svan. mˆ-h-i  mˆ-y-i "mwife"; bacb. maw-r-i¹, CaCn. mierza/merZa 

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

maZ-r-i¹  maw-r-i¹, ing. merZ–  ma-r-i¹  *maw-r-i¹, winarenaxu- saerToqarTveluri w…-er-: w…er-i, zan. w…anJ/d-i  *y…aJ-
ri ma-w-r-in "gemrieli"; and. miw´a, boTl. miw´a, Wam. miw´ab, i  *y…ar-i, y…ar-, svan. (h)…er-e (h…er-  *y…er-) "wveri"; bacb.
bagv. miw´ab, kar. iw´ab, axvax. miw´a-dabu, lak. nawu-s´a, lezg. var- yan-ik, CaCn. y~en-ig/g, inguS. yien-g "nikapi", winarenaxuri *w…ar-
wi, xin. win "gemrieli", winaredaRestnuri mi-w-a "tkbili".  *y(…)an- "wveri"; darg. muwur, lak. yiri, lezg. C´uru  *yuru,
saerToqarTveluri *wov-: wova, zan. wu-  wov-, svan. wob- Tab. miJir  *miyir, aR. muJur  *muyur, arCib. moyor, ruT. miyri,
"wova"; bacb. wup-, CaCn. wub-, ing. wub "wova", winarenaxuri. *wuv-; wax. muyru, xin. miyeS  *miyej  *miyer "wveri", winaredaRestnu-
xunZ. w´un-k-, and. w´un-d-, axvax. w´un-, tind. c´u-~lÀa  w´u-~lÀa, ri *(mV)-*w…ar*w…ir "wveri"...
Wamal. w´un-a, bagv. w´un-, boTl. w´un-d-, lak. wup, arCib. wu-r-bos enaTmecnieruli kvlevis am etapze danamdvilebiT SeiZle-
ba iTqvas, rom saerToqarTveluri, saerTonaxur-daRestnuri
"wova", darg. wup-baryi, aR. sup-as  *wup-as, kriw. yu… ~eriJ,
da saerToafxazur-adiRuri leqsikis bazaze dgindeba kanon-
Zud. yuf-, saerTodaRestnuri *wuv-/wum-  wun. zomieri da regularuli bgeraTSesatyvisobani, rac saSuale-
saerToqarTveluri *wued-/w…eT-, w…eT-i, zan. y…aT- bas iZleva, aRdges saerTokavkasiuri leqsika da, Sesabamisad, iv.ja-
/w…aT-, svan. …d  h…id  y…ed "cvari, wveTi"; bacb. darw-, CaCn. vaxiSvilis, arn. Ciqobavas, i. cercvaZis, g. rogavas, q. lomTaTiZis,
derz/Z, ing. dar "wvimianoba", saerTonaxuri *darw- (*dawwina- d. imnaiSvilis, T. goniaSvilis, o. kaxaZis, e. lomTaZis, g. Tofuri-
as, g. burWulaZis, v. Sengelias, T. gvancelaZis, m. Cuxuas, c. bara-
renaxuri *wad; t.f.); xunZ. w´ad/wad, and. w´a, boTl. w´a~, Wam.
miZis, r. abaSias da mraval sxvaTa kvalad, seriozulad vimsjeloT
w´‰, bagv. w´a~, kar. w´a~, axvax. w´ari  w´adi "wvima", boTl., Rod. iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis Sesaxeb; Sdr., T. gamyreli-
w´ai  w´ari, lezg. stal  *wdal, Tab. wadal, aR. war, kriw. wadi Zisa da g. maWavarianis sayuradRebo msjelobac: "saerTo-qarTve-
"wveTi", "siTxe", winaredaRestnuri *wad. luri enobrivi tipi arqauli periodisa SeiZleba davaxasiaToT
saerToqarTveluri wod- "wodeba", "kiTxva", "saxeli", svan. Semdegi zogadi niSnebiT: (1) uaRresad rTuli konsonantizmi da
y…d-, li-y…d-i "SekiTxva"; bacb. weT "saxeli", "dideba", CaCn. ukiduresad martivi vokalizmi (monovokaluri sistema); (2) fo-
nologiurad relevanturi moZravi dinamikuri maxvili; (3) srul-
w~T´, ing. w~eT´, winarenaxuri *wed; did. wod-er-a/Jod-ir-a "gawo-
xmovnoba gviandeli srulmarcvlovnobis adgilze; (4) formawar-
deba (xelis)", hunz. wod-, hinux. wod-, lezg. yal, Tab. yal, aR. yal.
moebasa da sityvawarmoebaSi prefiqsaciis upiratesi roli su-
arCib. yaT "Tqma, metyveleba", winaredaRestnuri *wod "gawodeba", fiqsaciasTan SedarebiT. miRebuli modeli uaxloes tipologi-
"miwodeba". ur paralels poulobs mTis iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi, gansakuT-
saerToqarTveluri wen- "mowveva", Zv. qarT. wan-a  wen-a rebiT dasavlur-kavkasiur jgufSi" (T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani,
"wveuleba", "lxini", zan. (megr.) yan-af-a "mowveva, daZaxeba", Wan. 1965, gv. 470); "struqturul-tipologiuri niSnebi, romlebic
yan-d-a "qorwili, wveuleba", svan. her-  *yer-  yer- *yen- "da- qarTvelur enebs aaxloveben Crdilokavkasiur enebTan, uTuod
Soreul warsuls ganekuTvneba, maSin rodesac saerToqarTvelu-
bareba, gamoZaxeba"; xunZ. w´e, and. w´e, boTl. w´e, Wam. w´e…, bagv.
ri tipis indoevropuli niSnebi ufro gviandeli qronologiuri
wJe…, kar. wJe…, axvax. w´e…e "stumari", winaredaRestnuri we-
Srisaa" (g. maWavarianis am citatisa da arn. Ciqobavas komentare-
…-e "stumari". Sdr. adiR. xa-y› "stumari". bis Sesaxeb sagangebo msjeloba ix., T. gamyreliZe, 2000, gv. 28-29).

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

Cven ki davZenT: savsebiT marTebulia daskvna, rom arqauli qar- ciurad uSualo kavSirs avlens aRmosavlurqarTvelur, fSaur-
Tveluri ena ufro axlos unda yofiliyo sxva iberiul-kavka- xevsurul (fxour) simRerebTan (n.maisuraZe, 1989, gv.65-67; n.mai-
siur enebTan, vidre gviandeli, ramdenadac, Zv.w. I aTaswleulis suraZe, 2002, gv.245). Sdr., agreTve: qarTveluri sakravebi parale-
Sua periodSi indoevropel tomTa kavkasiaSi Semosvlis gamo qar- lebs poulobs ara mxolod afxazeTSi, zogadad, Crdilo kavkasia-
TvelurSi gaCnda STambeWdavi superstratuli indoevropuli Si, aramed, Zvel wina aziaSic (m.SilakaZe, 1970, gv.55-57); qarTuli
fena, romlis gamoc, savaraudoa, qarTveluri garkveulwilad da- simRerebis glosolaliebs paralelebi eZebneba afxazur da CeC-
emsgavsa/"daenaTesava" indoevropul enobriv models. arqauli nur simRerebSi (m.SilakaZe, 1999, gv.206).
tipologiuri igiveobis fonze iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi da- yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, qarTvelTa enobriv-
dasturebuli mravalricxovani da regularuli bgeraTSes- kulturul-eTnikuri warmomavlobis Sesaxeb Cveni mosazreba Sem-
atyvisobani, vfiqrobT, seriozul safuZvels unda iZleodes degnairad Camoyalibdeba:
amierkavkasiuri da imierkavkasiuri enebis naTesaobis samtk- winaaziur-kavkasiuri didi modgmisgan Zv.w. III aTaswleul-
iceblad. Si (mtkvar-araqsis II periodi) gamomijnul iberiul-kavkasiur
eris istoriis kvlevisas arsebiTia, aseve, xalxuri musikis kontinuumSi Zv.w. II aTaswleulis manZilze ufro Rrmavdeba
istoria (m.bromlei); am aspeqtiT, qarTuli sinamdvilisTvis sa- enakilokavuri danawevreba (enobrivi cvlilebani ganapiroba
yuradReboa n.maisuraZis msjeloba, romelic efuZneba ra sxva mo- eTnosTa Serevebmac):
mijnave dargebis mkvlevarTa (k.zaksi, i.xaSba, b.brliaevi, d.arayiS- enis cvalebis Sinagani kanonzomierebebidan gamomdinare, Tu
vili, S.aslaniSvili, i.kikviZe...) naSromebs, askvnis: mravalwaxnagovani Serevebis gamo, saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi ya-
iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis mflobeli xalxebis musikalu- libdeba mravali enobrivi erTeuli (ena/kilo), magram isini inar-
ri enebi momdinareoben kavkasiur-winaaziuri musikaluri fu- Cuneben amosaval ZiriTad lingvistur maxasiaTeblebs (fonematu-
Zeenidan. winaaziur samyarosTan mWidro kulturul-istoriuli ri struqtura, zmnis sirTule, ergatiuli konstruqcia...) da sa-
kavSirebi mJRavndeba qarTuli "iavnanas" melodiasa (romelic erTo warmomavlobis leqsikis nawils; Sesabamisad, ieroglifu-
eZRvneba neoliTis dasasrulidan arsebuli nayofierebis RvTae- ri damwerlobis wyalobiT cnobili kavkasiuri samyaros monaTe-
ba nanas)da winaaziuri musikaluri nimuSebis uZveles SreebSi". save winaaziuri enobrivi masala asaxulia rogorc Tanamedrove
intonaciur da harmoniul elementTa erTgvarovnoba, mravalxmi- qarTvelur, aseve, Cerqezul (afxazur-adiRur), naxur/CeCnur
anobis formebi, tipologiuri msgavseba ganviTarebis Semdgom da lekur enebSi; swored amitomaa, rom iberiul-kavkasiuri
procesSi da saerTo kavkasiuri musikalur-intonaciuri xasia- enebis calkeuli mkvlevarebi maTTvis kargad cnobili enis
Ti metyveleben kavkasiis teritoriaze odesRac erTiani musika- msgavsebas xedaven xeTur, xuritul, elamur Tu Sumerul eneb-
luri kulturis arsebobaze... "musikaluri masala mkafiod Si; Sdr., mag.: "vefxistyaosani" moicavs qristianul, miTologi-
warmoaCens qarTvelur tomTa gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas, mis ur, gmirul, aseve, XII saukunis istoriul da kulturul-eTnog-
wamyvan rols am kulturis Camoyalibebasa da Semdgom ganviTare- rafiul aspeqtebs; TiToeuli am dargis specialisti Tavisi kom-
baSi, romelic ZiriTadad kavkasiuri musikalur-intonaciuri da petenciis farglebSi iazrebs am genialur qmnilebas...
harmoniuli azrovnebis farglebSi mimdinareobda" (n.maisuraZe, kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT:
1989, gv.61-71; n.maisuraZe, 2002, gv.246); garda amisa, aqve dasabuTe- sxvadasxva iberiul-kavkasiuri enis specialisti Tavisi sa-
bulia, rom afxazuri musikaluri dialeqti/ena "melo-intona- kvlevi enisTvis damaxasiaTebel enobriv movlenas rom xedavs ro-

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

melime winaaziur enaSi, bunebrivia, vinaidan iberiul-kavkasiu- toliaSi, mogviano periodebis kabadokiis, pontos... teritori-
ri ojaxis enebi momdinareoben winaaziur-kavkasiuri uZvelesi ul velSi (Sdr., sxvadasxva drois dedaqalaqTa saxelebi: xaTu-
enobrivi erTobisgan: Sesabamisad, TiToeul iberiul-kavkasiur sa/boRazqoi; mazaka/masaxa) arsebuli xaTis Zlieri samefos saxel-
enas uTuod aRmoaCndeba raime saerTo rogorc Zvel winaaziur, mwifo ena - xaTuri ena, Sumerulisa da xuritulis msgavsad, er-
aseve, dRevandel sxva iberiul-kavkasiur enebTan. gatiuli konstruqciisa da aglutinaciuri tipis enaa; specia-
iberiul-kavkasiuri enobrivi velisgan sakuTriv qarTveluri listTa erTi nawilis varaudiT, igi enaTesaveba Tanamedrove qar-
enobrivi samyaros gamomijvna (rac, mag., aisaxa klas-kategoriebis Tvelur enas (qr.girbali, r.Smidt-brandti, S.gabeskiria...), meo-
moSliT) dawyebuli Cans kavkasiasa da anatoliaSi mZlavri indo- re nawilis azriT ki - afxazur-adiRur enebs (e.foreri, i.diako-
evropuli nakadis SemosvliT Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebis mijnaze; novi, v. ivanovi, i.dunaevskaia, m.Cuxua...).
mkveTri daSoreba ki savaraudoa Zv.w. I aTaswleulis manZilze, kerZod:
kerZod, skviT-kimerielTa da sparsuli modgmis tomTa Semoseve- Cerqezul-afxazur-adiRur ena-kiloebTan genetur naTesaoba-
bis dros; Cans, am Serevebs asaxavs osur-armenulSi arsebuli ze miuTiTebs: zmnis agebuleba, ergatiuli konstruqcia da zogi mo-
mZlavri iberiul-kavkasiuri substratuli da qarTvelurSi rfemis msgavseba (v.ivanovi; ix., agreTve, gr.giorgaZe, 2002).
arsebuli indoevropuli superstratuli fenebi. Sdr., zogi qarTvelur ena-kiloebTan genetur naTesaobas adasturebs:
specialistis azriT, qarTveluri ena aris narevi ena; masSi gamoi- ergatiuli konstruqcia, morfemaTa identuroba (mesame piris
yofa ori fena: dasavlur-kavkasiuri da indoevropuli (g.dee- niSnebi: h, s), kuTvnileba-warmomavlobis -el sufiqsi da la-/le-
tersi, 1957, 13-15; Sdr., T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, 1965, gv.35-378; prefiqsi da mravalricxovani leqsikuri paralelebi; mag., 2002
indoevropulidan nasesxebi fuZeebisaTvis ix.: m.andronikaSvili, wlis maisSi qarTvelologTa IV saerTaSoriso simpoziumze ("in-
1966; T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984; m.andronikaSvili, 1996). aqve ga- tegraciisa da dezintegraciis procesebi kavkasiaSi") wakiTxul
saTvaliswinebelia r.gordezianis daskvnac: "berZnul wyaroTa moxsenebaSi: "qarTvelur-anatoliur-egeosuri enobrivi parale-
monacemebi sxvadasxva egeosur gadmosaxlebaTa Sesaxeb kavkasiaSi lebis sakiTxisaTvis" robert Smidt-brantma, qr.girbalis kva-
gvianbrinjaos xanis ganmavlobaSi sinamdviles unda Seesabamebo- lad, xaTuri warmomavlobis sityvebad miiCnia didi, wvima, puri,
des. rogorc Cans, sxva faqtorebTan erTad, swored maTi Sedegi laparaki, smena, cxvari, Savi, cuva - Zu ("coli") da sxva; misi az-
unda iyos qarTvelur enaTa saboloo diferenciacia" (r.gorde- riT, xaTuri ena kavSirSia saerToqarTvelur enasTan. Sdr.,
ziani, 1985, gv.167); davazustebT, Cveni azriT, am gadmosaxlebeb- urartuli RvTaeba diduani, qarTv. didi da xaTuri didi...
sac SeiZleba daeCqarebina iberiul-kavkasiurisgan qarTvelu- warmodgenil masalas Sdr., agreTve: xaTuri RvTaeba arma qarTve-
ris gamomijvna (da ara "qarTvelur enaTa saboloo diferencia- luri – armazi da berZnuli – hermesi (berZnul panTeonSi herme-
cia") Sdr.: Crdilokavkasiur enebTan SedarebiT qarTveluri ena- si winareberZnuli - pelazguri (?) samyarodanaa SeTvisebuli).
kiloebi erTgvarovania. xaTurTan mimarTebiT sayuradReboa S.gabeskirias mraval-
zogad StrixebSi ganvixilavT iberiul-kavkasiuri da Zveli wliani kvlevis Sedegebi; misi azriT: enobrivi, arqeologiuri, mi-
winaaziuri enebis mimarTebas: Tologiuri da folkloruli masalis gaTvaliswinebiT dginde-
xaTuri da iberiul-kavkasiuri: ba, rom "xaTebi arian qarTvelTa winaprebi da Sesabamisad, xaTuri
Zv.w. XXIII saukunidan aTasi wlis manZilze centralur ana- ena aris winareqarTuli ena, romelic asaxulia indoevropul-xe-

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

Tur anu nesiturad daweril teqstebSi" (S.gabeskiria, 1998, v.iarceva, 1990; m.qurdiani, 2001; gr.giorgaZe, 2002). xurituli da
gv.29); xaTebis saxeli momdinareobs qarTi formisgan (S.gabeski- qarTveluri enebis naTesaobis varauds gamoTqvamdnen jer kidev
ria, 2003, gv.35). s.janaSia, arn. Ciqobava... am bolo periodSi gamoqveynda, agreTve,
xaTebis memkvidreni arian qaSqebi, am ukanasknelT ki afxazur- n.nozaZisa da m.qurdianis gamokvlevebi, sadac sayuradRebo da-
adiRur xalxTanac akavSireben da kolxebTanac (ix. gr.giorgaZe, skvnebia warmodgenili xuritul-qarTveluri enebis naTesaobis
2000; gr.giorgaZe, 2002, gv.95-106; (problemis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. samtkiceblad; kerZod, laparakia moqmedebiTi gvaris mimReobis
gr.giorgaZe, 2002, gv.89-93); Sdr.: qasqebi didi xnis manZilze eome- warmoebis, deponensebis, rezultatiuri droebis, zmnis poli-
bodnen mosul xeTebs. amave teritoriaze welTaRricxvaTa mijna- personalizmisa da TanxmovanTa harmoniuli kompleqsebis msgavse-
zec aqtiurad Canan qarTveluri tomebi; SemTxveviTi arc is Cans, ba-identurobasa da mravalricxovan leqsikur paralelebze
rom, qarTuli tradiciiT, kabadokieli wmindanebi qarTvelTa (n.nozaZis mosazrebis Sesaxeb ix. gr.giorgaZe, 2002, gv.74-76). sani-
uaxloes winaprebad miiCnevian (ix. z.gamsaxurdia, 1991, gv.37). muSod moviyvanT m.qurdianis daskvnas:
damowmebul literaturaSi sayuradRebo argumentebia "xuritulsa da urartuls TanxmovanTa pirveladi harmoniu-
warmodgenili rogorc xaTuri enisa da Cerqezulis (resp. afxa- li kompleqsebi axasiaTebT da igive maxasiaTebeli maTi fuZe-enis-
zur-adiRuris), aseve xaTurisa da qarTveluris geneturi siax- Tvisac rekonstruirdeba. TanxmovanTa harmoniuli decesiuri
lovis aspeqtiT; es ki iZleva safuZvels, vTqvaT: kompleqsebi am tipisa ar aris damaxasiaTebeli aRmosavlur-kavka-
xaTuri ena axlo monaTesavea saerTo iberiul-kavkasiuri siuri (naxur-daRestnuri) enebisTvis arc sinqroniaSi da arc di-
kontinuumisa; iberiel-kavkasieli xalxis ena-kiloebi xaTu- aqroniaSi - is ar rekonstruirdeba arc saerTo-naxur, arc saer-
ris paralelurad arsebobda da ramdenime aTeuli enis saxiT To daRestnur qronologiur doneze da, miT umetes, arc saer-
dRemdea Semonaxuli; Sesabamisad, bunebrivia, rom xaTurTan sazi- To-naxur-daRestnuri (aRmosavlur-kavkasiuri) fuZe-enis done-
aro enobriv-leqsikuri movlenebi Semogvinaxa rogorc Tanamed- ze. aseTi sistema principulad ucxoa aRmosavluri kavkasiuri
rove Cerqezul-afxazur-adiRurma, aseve qarTvelurma enobrivma enebisTvis. msgavsi sistema aRmosavluri enebidan mxolod qarTve-
samyarom. lur (samxreT-kavkasiur) enebSi gvaqvs sinqroniaSi da is diaqro-
xurituli da iberiul-kavkasiuri: niaSic aRdgeba saerTo-qarTveluri fuZe enis doneze" (m.qurdia-
Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebSi xuritulad molaparake xalxs Tavi- ni, 2001, gv.183-184; m.qurdiani, 2003, gv. 70-71).
si saxelmwifoebrivi warmonaqmnebi hqonda Crdilo mesopotamia- SeniSvna: Sdr.: mraval leqsikur erTeulTa garda, erTgvaria: qarTve-
Si; Zv.w. XVI saukunidan mis saxelmwifos erqva miTani, xolo Zv.w. luri da urartuli enebis brunvebis raodenoba (zogi brunvis yali-
bic ki emTxveva), ergativisa da zmnis gardamavloba-gardauvlobis mi-
IX-VI saukuneebSi - urartu.
marTeba, naTesaobiT brunvaSi dasmuli saxelis saSualebiT zedsar-
xurituli enac aglutinaciuri da ergatiulia. samecniero
Tavi saxelis warmoeba, nawilobriv zmnis sufiqsacia da sxv. (n.mari,
literaturaSi warmodgenilia mtkiceba xurituli da Crdilo- 1917, gv.131-135; g.meSCaninovi, 1927, gv.111-115; g.wereTeli, 1939, gv.9;
aRmosavleT kavkasiuri enebis naTesaobisa (i.brauni, g.klimovi, g.meliqiSvili, 1960, gv.53-60, 79).
i.diakonovi, s.starostini...); miuTiTeben xuritul da naxur-da- Cveni azriT, rogorc ukve zemoT gvqonda aRniSnuli, erTi
Restnur aTeulobiT saziaro leqsikur erTeuls da ganixilaven mxriv, xurituli enisa da naxur-daRestnuris, meore mxriv ki - xu-
morfologiur erTeulTa msgavsebas (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix.:

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri...

ritulisa da qarTveluris siaxlove, mimaTiTebelia yvela am enis debas, romelsac vefxistyaosnad gamosaxavdnen uZveles mcireazi-
(Sesabamisad, am enaTa mflobeli xalxebis) naTesaobisa: xuritu- ur (anu protoqarTul) misteriebsa da sakulto mRvimeebSi. aqe-
li da iberiul-kavkasiuri enobrivi erTeulebi erTmaneTis dan warmodga kapadokiur enaSi sityva "tarhuala", rac Zlevas, ga-
monaTesavea da xaTurTan erTad saTaves iRebs saerTo winaazi- marjvebas niSnavs. es fuZe pre-semituri, pre-indoevropul da pre-
ur-kavkasiur enobriv velSi. qamitur enebsa da kulturebs ukavSirdeba, xolo xeTurSi, sa-
samecniero literaturaSi, sul mcire, erTi saukunea, grZel- nskritSi, aqadurSi da sxva semitur qveynebSi, aseve sxva aRmosav-
deba diskusia calkeuli iberiul-kavkasiuri da Sumeruli ene- lur qveynebSi aqedan unda iyos gadmosuli" (z.gamsaxurdia, 1991,
bis naTesaobis realurobis Sesaxeb; bevri leqsikuri paralelia gv.242-245; ix., agreTve: r.gordeziani, 1970, gv.37; gr.giorgaZe, 2002,
gamovlenili Sumerulsa da qarTvelurSi (ix., mag., a.seisis, k.kra- gv. 84). m.Cuxuas azriT (2003, gv.73), sakuTar saxel tariels Sesa-
meris, i.karseTis, m.wereTlis, j.SaraSeniZis, h.fenrixis da mraval tyvisobebi eZebneba qarTvelur dialeqtebSic; kerZod, Sdr.; sa-
sxvaTa mosazrebebi da gamokvlevebi; literaturisaTvis ix.: mwignobro qarTuli tarieli - zan. toro/turu/torua (Sdr.:
arn.Ciqobava, 1979, gv.257-307; gr.giorgaZe, 2002, gv.22-27). kvlevis am Wan., taroni); svan. ter(e), tarE/terE...
etapze aRvniSnavT mxolod imas, rom am mimarTulebiTac metad pelazgur-etruskul-qarTveluri saerTo enobrivi STambeW-
perspeqtiulia mecnieruli kvleva-Zieba. davi masalaa warmodgenili agreTve r.gordezianisa (1970) da
qarTveluri ena-kiloebisa da winaaziur-egeosuri enebis g.qavTaraZis (1985) naSromebSi.
naTesaobis TvalsazrisiT sakiTxis istoria da saintereso masa- SeiZleba davaskvnaT: jer kidev XIX saukunis mkvlevarTa mier
la warmodgenilia r.gordezianis (1980, 1985), T. gamyreliZisa da navaraudev winareberZnul-winaaziur-qarTvelur-Crdilokavkasi-
v.ivanovis (gv.892-894) fundamentur naSromebSi, Tumca maT es masa- ur enobriv-eTnikur naTesaobas, romelic samecniero problemad
la nasesxobebad miaCniaT. aqcies n.marma, iv.javaxiSvilma, s.janaSiam, arn.Ciqobavam da sxvebma,
uTuod sayuradReboa, agreTve, z.gamsaxurdias dakvirvebebi; ufro da ufro meti argumenti uCndeba...
mag., misi azriT, "tar- fuZidan nawarmoebi uZvelesi saxelebi da kavkasiur-winaaziuri (axloaRmosavluri) enobriv-eTnikuri
toponimebi gvxvdeba jer kidev paleo-mediteranul da paleo-kav- erTobis divergenciis savaraudo qronologia, Cveni azriT, ase
kasiur (kolxur) samyaroSi. fuZe tar RvTaebis aRmniSvnelia da gamoiyureba:
misgan aris nawarmoebi uZvelesi mcireaziuri amindisa da Weqa-qu- Zv.w. VII-IV aTaswleulebi: axloaRmosavluri enobrivi samya-
xilis RvTaebebis saxelebi, romelTac vefxistyaosanebad gamosa- ro;
xavdnen uZvelesi sakulto mRvimeebis kedlebze (Sdr., SoTa rus- Zv.w. IV-II aTaswleulebi: iberiul-kavkasiuri, xurituli, xa-
Tvelis "vefxistyaosnis" mTavari gmiri - vefxistyaosani tarie- Turi... enobriv-kulturuli velebis warmoqmna-arseboba;
li). Taru egeosur-anatoliuri fuZea, elva-Weqis RvTaebis aR- Zv.w. I aTaswleuli: qarTveluri enobriv-eTnikuri samyaros
mniSvneli (aqedan momdinareobs qarTuli sityva "tarosi" - amin- CamoZerwva...
SeniSvna: vgulisxmobT, rom Sidaenobrivi divergenciis paralelu-
dis aRmniSvneli)... fuZe Tar paleomediteranuli, paleokavkasiu-
rad, yvela droSi mimdinareboda enaTa mravalwaxnagovani konvergen-
ri da mcireaziuri enobrivi samyarodan modis da warmoadgens mi- ciuli procesebi, romlebic pirdapirproporciulia eTnosTa Serevis
steriaTa sakralur sityvas, Teonims, RvTaebis saxels, kerZod, xarisxisa. Zvel Tu Tanamedrove kavkasiur da winaaziur enebSi (indo-
mcireaziur tarus, Weqa-quxilisa da amindis RvTaebis saxelwo- evropuli da semituri enebis CaTvliT) STambeWdavia superstratu-

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winaaziuri kulturuli samyaro da qarTvelur-kavkasiuri... kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeologiuri...

li, substratuli da adstratuli fenebi. 2.2. aietidan farnavazamde: kolxuri kultu-


Cveni msjelobis Sesabamisad, iberiul-kavkasiuri da
winaaziuri Zveli enebis mimarTebis amsaxveli sqema Semdegi saxiT ra";
warmosdgeba: kavkasiur-axloaRmosavluri
aietis qveynis SesaZlo oficialuri enis
enobrivi kontinuumi - saerToqarTveluri enis -
Teoriuli modeli da arsebobis dro
Sumeruli enobrivi xuritul-urartuli iberiul- xaTur-
veli enobrivi veli kavkasiuri pelazguri 2.2.1. kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeologiuri
enobrivi veli enobrivi veli monacemebis mixedviT

arqeologTa da eTnologTa Tanamedrove gamokvlevebi


saerToqarTveluri cxadyofs, rom brinjaos xanaSi dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTve-
koine
loSi Tvisobrivad erTgvari – Zeluri tipis monogamiuri dasax-
Sdr., m.Cuxuas sqema, romelic daibeWda 2003 wels gamoqveyne- lebebia; gansxvavebas qmnis mxolod nagebobaTa garegnuli forma,
bul naSromSi: "qarTvelur ena-kiloTa SedarebiTi leqsikoni"; am romelic Sepirobebulia klimaturi pirobebiT (p.buxraSvili,
sqemis mixedviT, winareiberiul-kavkasiuri (alarodiuli) enisgan 2003, gv.122-124, 199-207). II aTaswleulis Sua periodidan Woroxis
momdinareni arian: xeobasa da mtkvris zemowelSi ukve dasturdeba kolxuri kultu-
Sumerul-iberiul(qarTvelur)-etruskul-pelazguri ris elementebi; mag., yarsis muzeumSi daculia istoriuli
erToba, saqarTvelos provinciaSi - artaanis regionSi - napovni II aTas-
xaTur-afxazur-adiRuri erToba, wleulis Sua periodis kolxuri kulturis nimuSebi; analogiu-
huritul-urartul-naxuri erToba, ri masalaa centralur qarTlSic (ix. samTavros gvianbrinjao-ad-
lelegur-albanur-daRestnuri erToba, rerkinis keramikis identuri masala):
baskur-korsikul-kelt-iberiuli... erToba. i.gagoSiZisa da j.afaqiZis gamokvlevebma savsebiT daadastura
vfiqrobT, SeuZlebelia sxvadasxva jgufebad warmovidginoT, b.kuftinis mosazreba, rom Sida qarTlis arqeologiuri masala
erTi mxriv, xaTur-Cerqezuli, meore mxriv, qarTvelur-Sumeru- kolxuri kulturis organuli nawilia: "aTaswleulidan moyo-
li, mesame mxriv ki - huritul-naxur-albanur-daRestnuri; ro-
lebuli, taxtiZirisa da cxinvalis regionis arqeologiuri masa-
gorc teritoriuli, aseve, enobriv-kulturul-anTropologiu-
la mxolod kolxuri kulturis "filtraciiT" ver aixsneba; qar-
ri paralelebi ufro met safuZvels iZleva, calkeul enobriv er-
Tlis iberia uSualo monawilea didi kolxuri kulturisa" (i.ga-
Tobebad ganvixiloT:
goSiZe, 1964, gv.86; i.gagoSiZe, 1997; i.gagoSiZe, 2003; j.afaqiZe, 2002).
iberiul-kavkasiuri (aRmosavleTiberiuli),
xuritul-urartuli, al. ramiSvilis daskvniT, II aTaswleulis bolosa da I aTas-
Sumeruli, wleulis dasawyisSi kolxuri kultura farTodaa gavrcelebu-
xaTur-dasavleTiberiuli... li "mTeli Sida qarTlis teritoriaze", xolo "Tlis samarovan-
ze gamovlenili materialuri kultura, ZiriTadad, kolxur-yo-

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kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeologiuri... kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeologiuri...

banur samyarosTan Cans dakavSirebuli" (al. ramiSvili, 1999, niSandoblivia, rom muSqebis teritoria da istoriuli kaba-
gv.130). Sdr., agreTve: "II aTaswleulSi samxreT-dasavleT saqar- dokia erTmaneTs garkveulwilad faravs... logikurad daismeba
TveloSi dominirebs centralur-amierkavkasiuri kultura, mag- sakiTxi muSqebisa da kabadokielebis naTesaobis Sesaxebac (Sdr.,
ram I aTaswleulis dasawyisidan aq materialuri kulturis xasi- ioseb flaviusi: "mosoxebs axlaxan kabadokielebi ewodaT"). am
aTi mkveTrad icvleba da kolxuri elementebis safuZvelze ya- fonze, ukve sayuradRebo argumentad gamodgeba strabonis cnoba
libdeba" (v. liCeli, 1999, gv.106). mosxebis teritoriis gviandeli danawilebis Sesaxeb (welTaRri-
aqve, sayuradReboa m.abduSeliSvilis daskvna: uZvelesi cxvaTa mijnaze mosxebis qveynis erTi nawili aqvT kolxebs, meore -
periodidan rkinis xanis CaTvliT, saqarTvelos teritoriaze iberebs, mesame - armenielebs). mosxebis qveynisa da Zveli kolxeTis
mosaxleobis SedgenilobaSi raime arsebiTi Zvrebi ar identifikaciis, agreTve, levkoTeas taZris lokalizaciis
momxdara. amierkavkasiis monacemebis "msgavsi anTropologiuri sakiTxis mimoxilvisaTvis ix., a.ioseliani, 1973). vfiqrobT, muSqe-
tipi SeiniSneba, agreTve, kavkasiis qedis gadaRma, yobanis bis, mesxebis (mosxebis) da kolxebis igiveoba - qarTveluri
kulturis matareblebSi" (m.abduSeliSvili, 1987, gv. 27). warmomavloba udavoa (Sdr.: saTanado argumentebis gareSe, muS-
kolxur-yobanuri kulturis gavrcelebis mTel arealsa da qebs protoarmenebad Tvlis i.diakonovi; ix., i.diakonovi, 1985).
qronologiur sazRvrebs Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, SegviZlia vTqvaT, logikuria varaudi, rom kolxuri arqeologiuri kultura
rom kolxuri kulturis Semqmneli modgmis Tu saxelmwifos po- moicavda Zveli kolxas sazRvrebs (es kultura Seiqmna kolxas
litikur-kulturuli gavlenis Tavdapirveli veli moicavda saxelmwifoSi):
SavizRvispireTs sinopidan soWamde, Woroxis xeobas, mTel dasav- urartuli da asuruli wyaroebis mixedviT, II aTaswleulis
leT saqarTvelos, mtkvris zemowels mcxeTis CaTvliT, liaxvis meore naxevarsa da I aTaswleulis pirvel naxevarSi Savi zRvis sa-
xeobas da Crdilo kavkasiis nawils; Sesabamisad, naklebsarwmunoa
mxreT-aRmosavleT nawilSi arsebobda kolxas samefo, romlis sa-
mosazreba, rom Zv.w. V-IV saukuneebSi "unda gaevrcelebina Tavisi
mefo qalaqi Woroxis xeobaSi iyo ildamusa. i. javaxiSvilis, g. me-
Zalaufleba kolxur saxelmwifoebriobas aRmosavleT saqarTve-
liqiSvilis, g. imnaZisa da sxvaTa azriT, miuxedavad imisa, rom
lozec" (i.gagoSiZe, 1965, gv.87; Sdr., t.futkaraZe, 1999, gv.16;
kulxa/kolxa etimologiurad dakavSirebulia istoriul ko-
t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv.330-332; i.gagoSiZe, 2003, gv.95). Sdr.: istori-
ul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, varaudoben, rom kolxuri kulturis lasTan - erTi qarTveluri olqis saxelTan, igi mraval toms aer-
sazRvrebi moicavda II aTaswleulSi mcxovrebi qasqebis/musqe- Tianebda. samecniero literaturaSi n.maris mier dasmulia saki-
bis/mosxebis, Sesabamisad, Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebis mosxikes mosaxle- Txi ildamusasa da artanujis igiveobis Sesaxeb; am dakavSirebis
obis gansaxlebis teritoriasac mdinare halisis auzamde (n.xaza- damatebiT argumentad SeiZleba gamodges warmodgenili ori saxe-
raZe, 1984, gv.193); aqvea mtkiceba (gv.194), rom "zemo evfratispi- lis fonematuri msgavseba: TanxmovanTa faqtobrivad identuri
reTSi Zv.w. XII saukuneSi mosuli muSqebi, aseve Zv.w. X saukunis Semadgenloba da xmovanTa didi msgavseba (fonetikurad
bolo meoTxediT daTariRebul xarTafus luviur-ierogli- problemuria mxolod pirveli xmovnis sakiTxi)... aqve sayuradRe-
fur warwerebSi moxseniebuli musqebic organulad ukavSir- boa d.xaxutaiSvilis daskvna: kolxas SeqmnaSi arsebiTi roli
debian im regions, sadac, Zveli berZnuli werilobiTi wyaroe- unda Seesrulebina samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos, sadac rki-
bis mowmobiT, qarTveluri, saxeldobr, mosxur-mesxuri nis warmoebis centri iyo (d.xaxutaiSvili, 1995, gv.70-71). miCneu-
warmoSobis tomebi iyvnen gansaxlebuli"... lia, rom Woroxis xeoba metalurgiis centri iyo: "arsad saqar-

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kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeologiuri... kolxuri kulturis sazRvrebis sakiTxi arqeologiuri...

TveloSi ar aris aRmoCenili iseTi raodenobiT adreuli saxeo- romaelebis, sarmatebisa da alanebis aqtivobis Semdeg qristemde
bis culebis damamzadebeli yalibebi, rogorc aWaris teritoria- II saukunis dasasruls;
ze; saxeldobr, saqarTveloSi aRmoCenil yalibTagan 1/3 aWaraze - saqarTvelo Savi zRvis napirebze Camoyalibebul im
modis" (m.inaZe, 2000, gv.113). berZnul-skviTuri samyaros nawils warmoadgenda, romelic
arqeologTa daskvniT, gvianbrinjaosa da adrerkinis period- gansakuTrebulad ganviTarda swored evrazieli momTabareebis
Si (Zv.w. XIII-IX ss) dasavleT saqarTvelos dasavleT nawilSi sxva zegavlenis gamo...(a.billi, 2003, gv. 54-62).
arqeologiuri kulturaa da aRmosavleTSi sxva; amave dros a.billis am naSromSi gaanalizebulia saqarTveloSi
faqtia, adreqristianuli periodis CaTvliT, kolxuri kultura aRmoCenili adreuli samarxebis masalebi, magram saTanadod araa
STambeWdavadaa warmodgenili ara mxolod samxreT saqarTvelosa Seswavlili istoriuli saqarTvelos mTeli sivrce; garda amisa,
da dasavleT saqarTvelos Crdilo-aRmosavleT nawilSi (v.jafa- sakmarisad gaTvaliswinebuli ar aris berZnuli, asiriuli,
riZe, 2002), aramed qarTl-kaxeTis centralur nawilsa da Crdi- urartuli, qarTuli (da sxva) werilobiTi wyaroebi da arc qar-
lokavkasiSic ki (ix. zemoT). Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom Zv.w. II-I Tul samecniero literaturaSi arsebuli argumentirebuli
aTaswleulebis mijnaze qarTveluri modgmisa da kulturis cen- mosazrebebi. p.buxraSvilis marTebuli SeniSvniT, a.billis mier
tri ufro samxreTiTaa sagulvebeli, unda davuSvaT, rom kolxu- "momizezeba imisa, rom igi ar flobs qarTul enas, argumentad
ri kulturis gavrcelebis veli ZiriTadad emTxveva qarTvelur ar gamodgeba" (p.buxraSvili, 2003, gv. 63-66).
enobriv samyaros; Sdr., kolxur-yobanuri kulturis sazRvrebi: vfiqrobT, sakamaTo ar aris, rom Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebis
sinopi, yobani, biWvinTa (soWamdea kolxuri TeTris veli); Sdr., mijnidan kavkasiasa da Crdilo anatoliaSi arsebobs qarTveluri
leonti mroveli: qarTli - xunanidan vidre speris zRvamde... saxelmwifoebi; erT-erTi iyo aia/kolxa, romlis saxelsac
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleTi nawilis materialuri ma- argumentirebulad ukavSireben kavkasiaSi realurad arsebul
sala ufro SeiZleba asaxavdes qarTveluris monaTesave sxva tome- arqeologiur kulturas.
bis kulturas.
niSandoblivia: g.meliqiSvilis azriT, kolxi saerToqarTve-
lia, zogadqarTvelia (ix., narkvevebi, I, gv. 432); Sdr., agreTve:
m.inaZis (2001, gv.96-97) daskvniT, e.w. kolxuri skeptuxiebi ar iyo
tomobrivi gaerTianebebi; amgvarive avtonomiuri warmonaqmnebi
iyo qarTlSi; Sdr., farnavazis saxelmwifo amave (teritoriuli)
principiTaa dayofili saerisTavoebad (m.inaZe, 2002, gv.103).
kolxas Sesaxeb originaluri msjelobaa warmodgenili a.bil-
lis naSromSi (a.billi, 2003); moviyvanT mis ramdenime debulebas:
- kolxeTis samefos arseboba, rac qarTul samecniero
literaturaSi ganixileba rogorc faqti, wyaroebiT ar
dasturdeba;
- am regionSi pirveli qarTuli saxelmwifo yalibdeba

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kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

2.2.2. kolxuri kulturis Semqmneli ve, t.futkaraZe, 2002), magaliTad, gaWirdeba misi Semdegi debule-
eTnosis enis sakiTxi bis gaziareba: "zanurenovani kolxebi rionis qvemo welze ukve
III aTaswleulis dasawyisSi unda vivaraudoT" (T.miqelaZe,
arqeologiuri kultura TavisTavad arc erT enaze ar metyve- 1974, gv.72)...
lebs, amdenad, keramika Tu liTonis nawarmi raime mtkicebis saSu- 3000-5000 wlis win svanuris, zanur-qarTulisa da zanuris ar-
alebas ar iZleva; materialuri kulturis memkvidreobiTma xasi- sebobas Tanamedrove mecnierTa erTi nawilic varaudobs; moviy-
aTma mxolod garkveuli eTnokulturuli da politikuri velis vanT citatebs bolo periodis sami gamokvlevidan:
arsebobaze SeiZleba migvaniSnos. rogorc ukve iyo aRniSnuli, d.losaberiZe: Zv.w. IV aTaswleulis pirveli naxevari miCneu-
arqeologiuri kulturis Semqmneli xalxis enis xasiaTze warmo- li unda iqnas saerToqarTveluri enidan svanuri enis gamoyofis
dgena SeiZleba mogvces an konkretulma werilobiTma Zeglebma, an sawyis etapad; svanuri mosaxleoba gansaxlebuli iyo kolxeTis
lingvisturi analizis Sedegebma; kolxuri kulturis enis dadge- dablobze, xolo qarTul-zanuri erToba - rion-yvirilasa da
nis mcdelobisas lingvistebs ori tipis argumentebi mohyavT; qarTlis regionSi; "dasavleT saqarTvelosa da aRmosavleT sa-
ramdenad myaria isini? ganvixiloT TiToeuli cal-calke. qarTvelos dasavleT regionTa (mesxeTi, Sida qarTli) msgavsebas
samecniero literaturaSi kolxuri kulturis Semoqmedi adasturebs anTropologiuri monacemebic" (d.losaberiZe, 1992,
eTnosis Sesaxeb, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, pirveli mosazre- gv.230-231).
ba gamoTqva i.diakonovma: misi azriT, "kolxuri kultura Tavisi SeniSvna: d.losaberiZis TavisTavad saintereso gamokvleva enaTa di-
gavrcelebulobis mTel arealze, maT Soris, Crdilo-aRmosav- vergenciis dausabuTebel sqemas eyrdnoba: avtori ukritikod iRebs
leT SavizRvispireTSic da samxreT aRmosavleT ordumde dasav- glotoqronologiuri meTodiT miRebul metad saTuo Sedegebs da
lur-qarTul eTnoss ekuTvnis" (i.diakonovi, 1968, gv.120,106); eT- acxadebs, rom Zv.w. IV aTaswleulidan ukve arsebobda svanuri da qar-
nosis Sesaxeb gamoTqmul am varauds araviTari dasabuTeba ar ax- Tul-zanuri enebi; Sesabamisad, cdilobs, svanur da qarTul-zanur
lavs (amis Sesaxeb ix. T.miqelaZe, 1974, gv.74). aqve xazgasmiT aRvniS- "enaTa" mflobel "eTnikur erTobebs" moargos imdroindeli arqeo-
navT, rom i.diakonovis msjelobaSi ar Cans dasavlur-qarTuli eT- logiuri lokaluri variantebi, romlebic, sulac, geografiuli pi-
robebiT SeiZleba iyos gansazRvruli.
nosis calke erTeulad gamoyofis argumenti; SeiZleba vivarau-
doT, rom is eyrdnoba g.klimovis mier 1952 wels gamoTqmul mo- T.gamyreliZe: Zv.w. II aTaswleulis dasawyisSi ukve arsebob-
sazrebas, romlis mixedviTac saerToqarTvelur modgmas 40 sau- da megrul-lazuris winapari "zanuri" dialeqti, romelzedac
kunis win gamoeyo svanuri ena, xolo 28 saukunis win - zanuri ena. "tyavi" aRiniSneboda tyovi/tkovi sityvebiT; aia-qveynis mefe aie-
toponimiisa da arqeologiuri masalis analizis safuZvelze ti da misi memkvidreni... dasavlur-qarTul dialeqtze metyveleb-
T.miqelaZe Seecada i.diakonovis azris dasabuTebas; zanurisa da dnen, romlis dRevandeli gagrZelebaa CvenTvis cnobili megruli
svanuris gamoyofis daTariRebisas is daeyrdno g.deetersis, da lazuri (T.gamyreliZe, 1998, gv.3).
T.gamyreliZisa da g.maWavarianis azrs saerToqarTveluridan jer o.lorTqifaniZe: "iqmneba myari safuZveli mtkicebisaTvis,
svanuris, Semdeg ki zanuris gamoyofis Sesaxeb. arqeologiuri ma- rom arqeologiurad dadasturebuli Zv.w. II aTaswleulis meore
salis miseuli analizi faseulia, magram toponimTa irgvliv lin- naxevrisa da I aTaswleulis eTnokulturuli sistema ekuTvnis
gvisturi msjeloba bevr upasuxo kiTxvas tovebs, Sesabamisad, da- dasavleT saqarTvelos wamyvan eTnoss, romelsac berZeni da roma-
skvnebic metad saeWvoa (kritikuli analizi ix. qvemoT; ix., agreT- eli avtorebi moixsenieben saxelwodebiT: "kolxebi", xolo maT

- 264 - - 265 -
kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

qveyanas - kolxidad. kolxebi ki aRiarebulni arian dasavlurqar- kolxuri kulturis enis struqturis dadgenis Tvalsazri-
Tul eTnosad, romelTa ena - zanuri anu megrul-Wanuri ena siT, sayuradReboa qarTveluri samyarodan berZnulSi nasesxeb
warmoiqmna saerToqarTveluri fuZe enis diferenciaciis Sede- sityvaTa Cveneba:
gad" (o.lorTqifaniZe, 1999, gv.113)... TavisTavad cxadia, cnobili saukuneebis manZilze berZnulSi Sesuli qarTveluri topo-
arqeologis daskvna emyareba lingvistTa, kerZod, g.klimovisa da nimebi da eTnonimebi, rogorc wesi, saerToqarTveluri (resp. qar-
T.gamyreliZis mosazrebebs. Tuli samwignobro enis) fonematuri struqturis mixedviTaa
XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi samecniero literaturaSi Semu- warmodgenili; mag: hesiodes mier VIII saukuneSi dadasturebulia
Savda gansxvavebuli mosazrebac; kerZod, r.gordezianis azriT, faTisi (Sdr., foTi); III-I saukuneebSi gvaqvs: kutaiisi, sarapani-
legendaruli kolxeTis mosaxleobis didi nawili jer kidev ara- si (Sdr., Sorapani), ekre(a)tikes (egrisis) miwa, abazkoi (afxa-
diferencirebul qarTul-zanur enaze laparakobda; swored es zeTi), afSileTi, suani... (gansxvavebuli msjelobisaTvis ix. r.
enaa kolxeTis Sidaoficialuri ena (r.gordeziani, 1993, gv.38-39). gordeziani, 1993, gv.39, 48, 55, 61, 63). r.gordezianis mier warmo-
avtori am daskvnebs akeTebs termin fasisis analizis safuZvelze: dgenili masala, Cveni azriT, ufro adasturebs, rom Zv.w. I aTas-
hesiodes (VIII-VII s.s.) dros dadasturebuli "fasisi" aSkarad wleulis dasasruls berZnebisTvis cnobili iyo swored saerTo-
dRevandeli foTi ( faTi) toponimis eqvivalentia, e.i. "zanuri qarTveluri Tu samwignobro qarTuliseuli: faT-, quTais-, sa-
jer Camoyalibebuli ar iyo" - askvnis r.gordeziani (iqve gv.39). rapanis- da suan- formebi, rac gvavaraudebinebs, rom Zv.w. I aTas-
rogorc vnaxeT, kolxur-yobanuri kulturis gavrcelebis wleulis manZilzec, welTaRricxvaTa mijnazec da Semdegac, ber-
areali farToa; igi moicavs: Woroxis xeobas, mTel dasavleT sa- Znebs urTierToba hqondaT sisina a tipis (saerToqarTvelurisa
qarTvelos, mtkvris zemowels mcxeTis CaTvliT, liaxvis xeobas
da samwignobro qarTulis analogiuri) enis mqone qarTvelobas-
da Crdilo kavkasiis nawils; Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi aq bevri qarTve-
Tan. arsebobs e.w. TariRiani toponimic: Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua
lur-kavkasiuri tomi cxovrobda; bunebrivia, maT Tav-TavianTi
periodis centralur kolxeTSi sisina a tipis enis arsebobas
ena-kilo hqondaT. samwignobro enis ararsebobis pirobebSi Se-
adasturebs Zv.w. VII saukunis Semdeg daarsebuli qalaq quTaisis
uZlebelia, did arealze ganivrcos da xangrZlivi droiT uc-
vlelad SenarCundes erTi ena; mravali monaTesave dialeqturi saxelis qarTveluri variantebi (ix. qvemoT).
erTeulis pirobebSi iqmneba koine, romlis simyare damokidebu- mkvlevarTa erTi nawili varaudobs, rom argonavtTa xomal-
lia monaTesave tomTa urTierTobis xarisxze, saerTo saxelmwi- dis saxeli saerToqarTveluri egr- (egrisi) Ziris arg- zanuri
fos/kulturis siZlieresa da werilobiT fiqsaciaze. logiku- variantisgan momdinareobs, amdenadac, II aTaswleulSi zanuri
ria vifiqroT, rom farTod gavrcelebuli kolxuri arqeologi- arsebobdao - amtkiceben isini... xomald argos saxelis warmomav-
uri kulturis paralelurad arsebobda saerTokolxuri (qar- loba berZnulis mixedviTac aixsneba (Sdr., berZnuli qoronimi
Tveluri) enobrivi koine, romelsac pirobiTad saerToqarTve- argosi, an berZnuli saxeli argos - "uqmi"; Sdr., a.uruSaZis az-
luri ena SeiZleba vuwodoT. Cans, Zv.w. I aTaswleulis Sua peri- riT, argonavti - uqmi/moxetiale menave/mezRvauri (Sdr., T.ga-
odSi swored am saerToqarTveluri kontinuumis bazaze iqmneba myreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.908).
qarTveluri asomTavruli damwerloba (qarTveluri anbanis Seq- kolxuri kulturis enasTan dakavSirebiT zogadad mainc
mnis istoriis versiebisaTvis ix.: r.patariZe, 1980; T.gamyreliZe, unda ganvixiloT saerToqarTveluri enis Teoriuli modelis
1989; l.WilaSvili, 2005). sakiTxi.

- 266 - - 267 -
kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

rogorc wesi, monaTesave enobrivi (dialeqturi) erTeule- lurSive paraleluri variantebis arsebobiT (ix. arn.Ciqobavas,
bisTvis amosavali struqturis dadgena xdeba istoriul-Sedare- v.Tofurias, g.rogavas... gamokvlevebi; ix., agreTve: t.futkaraZe,
biTi meTodiT: realurad arsebuli enobrivi (fonematuri, mo- 1988; t.futkaraZe, 1996; m.Cuxua, 2003 da r.abaSias mier 2001-2004
rfologiuri, sintaqsuri, semantikuri) struqturebis Sepiris- wlebSi gamoqveynebuli naSromebi). ar aris gamoricxuli, saer-
pirebiTi analiziT aRadgenen saerTo (amosavali) enis Teoriul ToqarTvelur sityvaTa nawilis fonetikur-semantikuri ucvle-
models. qarTvelur sinamdvileSi rekonstruqciis proceduras loba zogjer ganpirobebuli iyos terminTa socialuri statu-
aiolebs TxuTmetsaukunovani werilobiTi Zeglebi da mravalri- siT; mag., saerToqarTveluri cxeni zanurSi pirvandeli formi-
cxovani, magram struqturulad erTgvari dialeqtebis arseboba Taa SemorCenili (g.rogava, 1960); ar dasturdeba mosalodneli
(dialeqtTa dajgufeba da zogadi daxasiaTeba ix. qvemoT); TiTqmis
*Cxani varianti. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom TanxmovanTagan bgeraTSesa-
ori saukunis manZilze qarTvelologTa didi RvawliT, qarTve- tyvisobebs gvaZlevs winaenismieri afrikatebi da spiranti bgere-
lur dialeqtTa SepirispirebiTi analizis safuZvelze dadgeni-
bi, rac am lingvistur erTeulTa sawarmoTqmo TaviseburebiT -
lia dialeqtTaSorisi bgeraTSesatyvisobebi da morfologiur-
lokaluri rigis labilurobiT - unda aixsnas.
sintaqsur-semantikuri mimarTebani; aRdgenilia praenis ramdeni-
axlaxan gamoqveynebul o.qajaias megrul leqsikonSi sityvaTa
me variantic; kerZod:
didi nawili samwignobro enisa da centraluri qarTveluri ki-
samecniero literaturaSi arsebobs mosazreba, rom saerTo-
loebis analogiuria (t.futkaraZe, e.dadiani, 2003); vfiqrobT, am
qarTveluri enis fonematuri struqturis Teoriuli modeli
konteqstSi ver gamodgeba samecniero literaturaSi arsebuli
ZiriTadad Suasibilanturi rigiTa da sonanti bgerebiT gan-
terminebi: bgeraTSesatyvisobaTa darRveva da sesxeba, vinaidan,
sxvavdeboda samwignobro qarTulisagan (T.gamyreliZe, g.maWava-
Tuki amden sityvaSia darRveva, an amdeni sityvaa "nasesxebi" sxva
riani, h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, m.qurdiani...). paralelurad, mra-
qarTveluri kiloebidan Tu samwignobro enidan, maSin sakuTriv
vali gamokvleva daiwera, sadac naCvenebia saerToqarTveluri
megruli kilos kuTvnileba raRa rCeba? Sesabamisad, ufro logi-
enisa da samwignobro qarTuli enis struqturuli (fonematu- kuria, vTqvaT:
ri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri, semantikuri) identuroba;
megrul metyvelebas ucvlelad Semonaxuli aqvs bevri sa-
kerZod, arn.Ciqobavas, g.rogavas, q.lomTaTiZis, v.Sengelias, erToqarTveluri sityvaforma; Sesabamisad, e.w. "bgeraTSesi-
T.gvancelaZis, m.Cuxuas da sxvaTa azriT, samwignobro qarTuls tyvebaTa darRvevis" asaxsnelad srulebiT ar aris aucilebeli,
daculi aqvs amosavali ZiriTadi struqturuli modelebi... saerToqarTvelurSi davuSvaT Suasibilanturi rigis arseboba.
warmodgenil mosazrebebs Soris ZiriTad gansxvavebas Suasi- Sesabamisad, saerToqarTvelurisTvis samwignobro qarTuli-
bilanturi rigisa da sonantebis arsebobis sakiTxi qmnis; amJa- sebri TanxmovanTa sistema unda aRvadginoT, rogorc amas varau-
mad Cvens mizans ar warmoadgens arsebuli polemikis mimoxilva (am dobda arn. Ciqobava.
problemis Sesaxeb male gamovaqveynebT calke gamokvlevas); aR- aseve, aSkarad damajerebelia g.maWavarianisa da T.gamyreli-
vniSnavT ki: Zis msjeloba saerToqarTvelurSi i/~ da u/E/v sonantebis da-
Cveni azriT, saerToqarTveluri Z, c, w, z, s sibilantebis Svebis Sesaxeb im damatebiT, rom i/~ da u/E/v sonantebi dResac
orgvari refleqsebi zanur-svanurSi logikurad ixsneba foneti- arsebobs TiTqmis yvela qarTvelur qvesistemaSi (msjelobisaTvis
kuri garemocviT, morfonologiuri SezRudviT, saerToqarTve- ix. t.futkaraZe, 1998).

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kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

samecniero literaturaSi sakamaToa agreTve qarTvelur ena- bunebrivi labiovelarizebuli bgerebis Sesaxeb arsebuli
kiloTa "daSlis" sqema; kerZod, g.deetersis, g.klimovis, T.gamyre- mdidari samecniero litaraturis mimoxilvasa da msjelobas
liZis, g.maWavarianis da sxvaTa azriT, saerToqarTvelurs jer calke warmovadgenT); Sdr.: Tanamedrove yvela qarTvelur kilo-
gamoeyo svanuri, Semdeg, zanur-qarTuli erToba daiSala zanur sa Tu samwignobro enaSic bgeraTa CamoTvlisas Tanxmovnebs da-
da qarTul enebad; arn. Ciqobavasa da q.lomTaTiZis varaudiT, sa- hyveba susti labialuri komponenti (Sdr., qarTveluri: a, bE, gE,
erToqarTvelurs jer gamoeyo zanur-svanuri "SiSina" Tanxmov- dE, e, E, zE, TE, i, kE, lE, mE, nE, o, pE... da rusuli: а, бе, ве, ге,
nuri variantebis mqone enobrivi erToba, Semdeg ki zanur-sva- де, е...). aqve sainteresoa cnobac, rom yoveli enis saartikulacio
nuri daiSala zanur da svanur enobriv erTeulebad (sakiTxis Cvevebi memkvidreobiTia (z.jafariZe, i.strelnikovi, 1981).
istoriisa da problemis mimoxilvisTvis ix. m.qurdiani, 1996). labiovelarizebul bgeraTa mezobloba Cans mizezi zanurSi
cnobilia: saerToqarTvelurTan mimarTebiT, TanxmovanTa er- saerToqarTveluri a-s zanur o-d qcevisa; kerZod, vfiqrobT, za-
Tgvari refleqsebi aqvT zanur da svanur kiloebs; Tuki davuS- nur dialeqtebSi saerToqarTveluri a-s nacvlad o-s warmoqmna
vebT, rom saerToqarTvelurs jer svanuri gamoeyo da 1000 wlis ganpirobebulia saerToqarTveluri a xmovnisa da mezobeli Tan-
Semdeg qarTul-zanuri daiSala qarTulad da zanurad, warmoud-
xmovnis labialuri komponentis SerwymiT: labializebuli Tan-
geneli faqti unda vaRiaroT: hipoTeturi qarTul-zanuri enis
xmovnis labialuri komponenti da momijnave a xmovani gvaZlevs
Tanxmovnebma zustad igive refleqsebi mogvca zanurSi, rac - sa-
o-s. aralabializebuli Tanxmovnis mezoblad arsebuli a o-s ar
erToqarTveluri enis Tanxmovnebma 1000 wlis win - svanurSi.
iZleva. swored am da sxva mizezebiT (ix. qvemoT) SeiZleba aixsnas
vfiqrobT, zanur-svanuri TanxmovanTa sistemis erTnairoba
is mravali "darRveva", roca saerToqarTveluri a zanur kiloeb-
mxars uWers zanuri da svanuri kiloebis Tanadroulobas.
Si ar iZleva o-s. analogiuri sqemiT unda mivudgeT saerToqar-
calke samsjeloa qarTveluri bgeraTSesatyvisobebis Camoya-
Tveluri e-s qarTvelur refleqsebs: e > a processac garkveuli
libebis (Tu darRvevebis) konkretuli mizezebis Ziebac:
fonetikuri garemocva apirobebs; Sdr.: dRe - dRa, mze - mJa, wnex-
gavrcelebuli varaudiT, zanur-svanuri bgeriTi refleqsebi
- Winax-... magram: nemsi/lemsi (aWar.) - lemSi/lefSi (zan.), verZi -
warmoiqmna "warmoTqmis ukan gadaweviT" (arn.Ciqobava); amgvari
erji, Sveli - sqveri/msqveri; e-s ucvleloba umlautiT ver aixsne-
mosazrebis safuZvels iZleva Z > j, j > jg, a > o, e > a tipis
ba, vinaidan igive bolokiduri i xmovani gvaqvs mraval sxva Se-
regularuli procesebi.
qarTvelur enobriv velSi bunebrivia labiovelarizaciis mTxvevaSi, Tumca mainc gvaqvs saerToqarTv. e > zan. a procesi
procesi (Sdr., sxva enebSi aqtiuria palatalizacia, nazaliza- (Tesli/Tasi, mozveri/mozari, kveri/kvari... Sdr., h.fenrixi, z.sa-
cia...); cnobilia, rom saerToqarTvelur TanxmovanTa gansxvavebu- rjvelaZe, 1990 da sxv.)... aqve sainteresoa imis aRniSvnac, rom Tuki
li refleqsebi zanur-svanur formaTa mxolod erT nawilSi das- davuSvebT saerToqarTv. e zan. a bgeraTSesatyvisobis regula-
turdeba; kerZod, Z, c, w, z, s, j, C, W, J, S sibilantebi mxolod saer- rulobas, maSin zanur kiloebSi pirveladi e xmovani saerTod ar
ToqarTvelur fuZeTa erT nawilSi iZleva bgeraTSesatyvisobebs unda gvqondes...
(meore nawilSi ucvleli rCeba). vfiqrobT, am SemTxvevebSi za- labiovelarizebul bgeraTa mezobloba Cans mizezi saerTo-
nur-svanuri refleqsebis warmoqmna unda aixsnas saerToqarTve- qarTveluri e-s depalatalizaciisa svanurSi (e.w. ukana mimarTu-
lurSive labiovelarizebuli bgerebis arsebobiT (Crdilokavka- lebis umlauti): saerT.qarT. e > svan. @/a; labiovelaruli bgeris
siuri enebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli da saerToqarTvelurisTvisac gavleniT palatalizaciis xarisxis kleba sxva SemTxvevebSic Sei-

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kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

niSneba; mag., T.gamyreliZem daadgina ugamonakliso wesi (T.gamyre- mezobloba sxva iberiul-kavkasiur monaTesave enobriv erTeuleb-
liZe, 2000, gv.27-28): zanurSi saerToqarTveluri S gvaZlevs sq Sic xmovanTa gansxvavebul refleqsebs apirobebs; mag., afxazurSi
kompleqss, Tuki mas bagismieri v/E mosdevs: SEeli > *SqEeri > o xmovani poziciuri warmoSobisaa; igi miRebulia a xmovnisgan
sqEeri, SaSEi > zesqEi... Cveni azriT, am SemTxvevaSic wyvilbagis- E-s, an labializebuli sxva bgeris a-ze gavleniT (q.lomTaTiZe,
mieri bgeris gavleniT moxda wina Tanxmovnis depalatalizacia. 1976, gv.49); "rig nasesxeb sityvaSi gamsesxebeli enis o xmovnis ad-
zanurSi ganxorcielebuli e > a procesis mizezic labialur gilas mosalodneli Ea kompleqsis nacvlad gvxvdeba a, Tuki o-s
komponentsa da sityvis struqturis cvlilebis sxva aspeqtTan win uZRvis bagismieri, SiSina da zogi sxva bgera (q.lomTaTiZe,
(sxva bgeris kleba aCerebs e > a process?) mimarTebiTaa saZiebeli; 1976, gv.51) da sxva.
sakiTxi Semdgom kvlevas iTxovs. warmodgenil sakiTxze msjelobisas arsebiTia, gaviazroT
zanur-svanurSi saerToqarTvelur ukananunismier Tanxmov- isic, rom mocemul monaTesave enobriv erTeulebs Soris foneti-
nebs velaruli bgera uviTardebaT: j > jg, C > Cq, W > Wy; am SemTxve- kur-gramatikuli sxvaobis maRali xarisxi SeiZleba Sepirobebu-
vebSi amosavali Cans saerToqarTveluri labiovelarizebuli li iyos ara mxolod am erTeulTa adreuli divergenciiT (pra-
bgera; Sdr., SemTxveviTi ar Cans, rom yvela qarTvelur kiloSi enidan adreul etapze gamoyofiT), aramed sxva mizezebiTac; ker-
gvaqvs velarul da labialur komponentTa variantuli gamovle- Zod, cvlilebani SeiZleba gamoewvia eTnosTa intensiur Sere-
na: waTx-/wyaT-, barty-/bRart-, balR-/bRar-, bRert-/berty-; vebs: kompaqturi gadasaxlebebi Tu Camosaxlebebi apirobebs su-
xvlik-/slikv-, kvic-/kicv-, burT-/birTv-, Cxikv-/Cxvik-, Rawv- perstratul an substratul movlenebs, Sesabamisad, orive Se-
/Rvanw-, da Tval-/Tol-, qveyana/qoyana tipis monacvleobani (t. mTxvevaSi, stimuli eZleva swraf da kanonzomier fonetikur
futkaraZe, 1996); garda amisa, saerToqarTvelurSive harmoniuli procesebs; aqve, Sdr., T.uTurgaiZe, 1998, gv. 62: "imis mixedviT, Tu
romeli ena imarjvebs Serevis dros, ganarCeven substratul, su-
kompleqsebisa (winaenismieri xSuli+ukanaenismier spiranti) da
perstratul da adstratul SemTxvevebs. Serevis yvela saxeo-
iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi labializebuli bgerebis arseboba sa-
baSi moqmedebs enaTa Serevis erTi da igive kanonzomierebani"
fuZvels iZleva davuSvaT, rom qarTveluri dialeqturi bgeri-
(mag., qarTuli da naxuri enebis Serevebis amsaxveli masala ix.
Ti refleqsebi asaxavs saerToqarTvelurSive mimdinare vela-
T.uTurgaiZe, 1966, gv. 12).
rizacia-labializaciis aqtiur procesebs (qarTvelur enobriv
sakuTriv qarTvelur sinamdvileSi:
velSi velarizacia-labializaciis Sesaxeb vrclad ix. t.futka- Cveni azriT, sarwmunoa, rom dRevandeli svanuri kiloebis me-
raZe, 1998). tad gansxvavebuloba saerToqarTveluri enobrivi modelisgan
Sdr.: palatalizebuli Tanxmovnebis mezoblobaSi gvaqvs Sepirobebulia ara svanuris siZveliT, aramed kavkasionis kalTeb-
delabializaciis procesic: ukananunismieri palatalizebuli ze sxva iberiul-kavkasiur, Turqul da alanur tomTa xSiri mi-
Tanxmovnebis mezoblad saerToqarTveluri (an zanuri) o ganic- graciebiT; am procesebma qarTveluri enis svanur mikrosistemeb-
dis delabializacias: oci > eCi, Rori > (Roji >) Reji (Sdr., Si stimuli misca mravalferovan fonetikur procesebs. svanTa
T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, 1965, gv.167)... saerToqarT. war-, zan. metyvelebaSi didia superstratul movlenaTa kvali fonematur
Wor- > *Wel- > Wil- (Sdr., m.Cuxua, 2003, gv.354; xmovanTa Sesatyvi- struqturasa da morfologiur inventarSic ki; mag., sakuTriv
sobebis Sesaxeb ix., agreTve, qvemoT: 2.2.3.). qarTveluri warmomavlobis ar Cans: palatalizebuli xmovnebi,
labialur, labializebul Tu palatalizebul TanxmovanTa -em, -SE/-ES brunvis niSnebi da sxv. Sdr., agreTve, Cerqezuli Cans

- 272 - - 273 -
kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

svanuri ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis iseTi sityvebi, rogoricaa: Si, ar unda ganxorcielebuliyo l > r procesi (Sdr.: mamali/mu-
muryvam "koSki", C@J "cxeni", mus "Tovli", uCxa "wvima", lemesg "ce- muli, bali/buli, msxali/msxuli...): "bolokiduri *l-s r-Si gada-
cxli", Rol~aq "cxvari, verZi", fayv "qudi" da sxv. samecniero li- svlis albaToba megrul-WanurSi matulobis imis mixedviT, Tu
teraturis mimoxilvisa da msjelobisaTvis ix.: s.janaSia, 1959, ramdenad uaxlovdeba fonetikuri TvalsazrisiT *l-s winamavali
gv.81-124; agreTve, t. futkaraZe, 1998. superstratuli danaSrevis elementi Tanxmovnur elements" (gv. 79). aq msjelobis gagrZeleba
garda, svanurSi mimdinare aqtiuri fonetikuri procesebis mize- ori gziT SeiZleba: Tafl-/vaSl- tipis sityvebSi amosavlad gvaqvs
ziT STambeWdavadaa Secvlili sakuTriv qarTveluri warmomav- sonanti, romelic gaxmovanda zanurSi (swored am daSvebis mixed-
lobis formebic (ix., n. maris, a. SaniZis, arn. Ciqobavas, v. Tofu- viT, T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani da sxvebi saerToqarTvelurSi
rias, m. qaldanis, g. rogavas, z. WumburiZis, T. gamyreliZis, g. maWa-
aRadgenen m, n, r, l sonantebs), anda, saerToqarTvelurSive un-
varianis, t. gudavas, T. SaraZeniZis, k. gaguas, a. onianis, i. Cantla-
da davuSvaT -l-/-r-/al-/ar-... sufiqsebis variantuloba: qar-
Zis, q. TuiTis, r. babluanis, g. gazdelianis, r.Wkaduas,
Tvelur kiloTa nawilsa da samwignobro enaSi gabatonda oden-
r.saRlianis da mraval sxvaTa naSromebi); axlaxan am Temas safuZ-
Tanxmovniani varianti, xolo zanur kiloSi - xmovniani, romelmac
vliani gamokvleva uZRvna m. Cuxuam (2003).
amrigad, Cveni azriT, saerToqarTveluri enis (agreTve, sa- megrulsa da Wanur kiloebSi transformaciiT mogvca -or-/-ol-.
mwignobro qarTulisa da Tanamedrove qarTveluri dialeqtebis) sayuradReboa isic, rom Svel-, gvel-, mgel- tipis fuZeebSi Tavda-
ZiriTadi fonematuri struqtura Semdegi saxiT warmoidgineba: pirveli l a-sTan SedarebiT viwro e-s mezoblad ar iZleva r-s (aq
Tanxmovnebi: b, f, p, d, T, t, Z, c, w, z, s, j, C, W, J, S, g, q, k, R, x, B, is ufro aRsaniSnavia, rom s.qarTv. e zanurSi ar gvaZlevs a-s l >
y, h, m, n, r, l (winaenismier bgerebs SeiZleba hqondeT labiovela- r procesis gamo). marcvlovani sonantebis rekonstruqciis saTu-
rizebuli alofonebic); oobis TvalsazrisiT agreTve niSandoblivia: rogorc wesi, T.ga-
xmovnebi: a, e, o (Sdr., T.gamyreliZe, 1989, gv.126; misi azriT, myreliZisa da g.maWavarianis mier sonantebad CaTvlili m, n, r, l
zemoT warmodgenili bgeriTi sistema mxolod arqauli qarTu- Tavkidur poziciaSi ar iZleva xmovnian refleqsebs; es faqtic
lisTvis iyo damaxasiaTebeli); Tafl-, ZaRl-, matl- tipis fuZeebSi sonori (da ara sonanti!) l-s
sonantebi: i/~, u/E/v. sufiqsobas uWers mxars. aSkaraa: warmodgenil sam varauds Soris
T. gamyreliZis, g. maWavarianis, h. fenrixisa da sxvaTa azriT, (srulxmovniani formis reduqcia sakuTriv qarTulSi; saerTo-
saerToqarTvelur sonantTa rigSi aRdgeba m, n, r, l fonemebic. qarTvelurSi sonanti r, l, n, m fonemebis daSveba; qarTvelur ki-
T. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis Sromatevadi kvlevis Sedegebis loebSi -l-/ar- paraleluri sufiqsebis arseboba) ufro naklebi
Sesaxeb sxvagan gveqneba msjeloba; sonantebTan dakavSirebiT ki aq winaaRmdegobani axlavs mesames.
aRvniSnavT: ZiriTadad, arqaul samwignobro (saeklesio) qarTuls emTxve-
profesional specialistTa mier xangrZlivi kvleviT dadge- va rogorc saerToqarTveluri enis brunvisa da mwkrivis mo-
nili wesebi saSualebas gvaZlevs, axleburad SevxedoT bevr prob- rfologiuri kategoriebi, aseve, saxeluri da zmnuri paradig-
lemas; mag., T. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis daskvniT (gv. 74-83), mebi (morfologiuri kategoriaa mwkrivi, brunva; bruneba da uR-
ZaRl-, matl-, Tafl- tipis formebs ver miviCnevT saerToqarTve- leba formaTa paradigmaa; ix. t.futkaraZe, 1997; Sdr., W.qiria,
luri *ZaRal-, *matal-, *Tafal- arqetipebis reducirebul vari- 2003); kerZod, qarTvelur dialeqtTa SepirispirebiT Cans, rom
antebad (ix., ar.Ciqobava, 1942, gv. 106-107), vinaidan, aseT SemTxveva- amosavali saerToqarTveluri modelebia Semdegi ZiriTadi saxe-

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kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

luri da zmnuri struqturebi (TvalsaCinoebisaTvis zogan maga- myofadi - zmniswini+piris niSani+Temis niSani (da-v-xat-av,
liTebi mogvyavs erT-erTi dasavlurqarTuli - megruli - dialeq- do-v/f-xant-un-q; da-m-xat-av, do-m/f-xant-un-q).
tidanac; saerToqarTveluri enis rekonstruqciis principebis, uwyveteli - piris niSani+fuZe+od/d (v-xat-av-d-i, v/f-xant-
qarTvelur dialeqtTa zogadi daxasiaTebisa da qronologiis Se- un-d-i; m-xat-av-d-i, m/f-xant-un-d-i).
saxeb ix. qvemoT): xolmeobiTi - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe+od/d (da-v-xat-
av-d-i, do-v/f-xant-un-d-i; da-m-xat-av-d-i, do-m/f-xant-un-d-i).
saxelis formawarmoebis ZiriTadi yalibebi: awmyos kavSirebiTi - piris niSani+fuZe+od/d+mwkrivis ni-
saxelobiTi (fuZe, fuZe+i/0): kac, kac-i, koC-i... Sani (v-xat-av-d-e, v/f-xant-un-d-a/e; m-xat-av-d-e, m/f-xant-un-d-a/e).
moTxrobiTi (fuZe, fuZe+0/nawevari/nawilaki): TviTon, abraam, myofadis kavSirebiTi - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe
kac-man, koC-q... +od/d+mwkrivis niSani (da-v-xat-av-d-e, do-v/f-xant-un-d-a/e; da-
micemiTi (fuZe+s/as/an): kac-s, koC-s/ko-s... m-xat-av-d-e, do-m/f-xant-un-d-a/e).
naTesaobiTi (fuZe+is/iS/in): kac-is, koC-iS... usruli wyvetili - piris niSani+fuZe+mwkrivis niSani (v-
mimarTulebiTi (fuZe+isa/iSa): kac-isa, koC-iSa... xat-e, v/f-xant-i; m-xat-e, m/f-xant-i).
daniSnulebiTi (fuZe+isad/iSoT/iSd): kac-isad, koC-iSoT... sruli wyvetili - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe+mwkrivis
moqmedebiTi (fuZe+iT): kac-iT, koC-iT... niSani (da-v-xat-e, do-v/f-xant-i; da-m-xat-e, do-m/f-xant-i; ga-v-i-
viTarebiTi (fuZe+ad/oT/d): kac-ad, koC-o(T)... gone, megr. ge-v-gon-i, Sdr., aWar. ge-v-gon-e).
II usruli kavSirebiTi - piris niSani+fuZe+mwkrivis niSani
saxelis sityvawarmoebis ZiriTadi yalibebi: (v-xat-o, v/f-xant-a/e, m-xat-o, m/f-xant-a/e).
fuZe+sufiqsi (kac-ur-i; koC-ur-i), prefiqsi+fuZe (na-tex-i, II sruli kavSirebiTi - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe+mwkri-
no-tex-i), prefiqsi+fuZe+sufiqsi (m-xatv-ar-i, ma-xant-al-i)... vis niSani (da-v-xat-o, do-v/f-xant-a/e, da-m-xat-o, do-m/f-xant-a/e)
zmnuri formawarmoebis ZiriTadi yalibebi (saeklesio Sdr. xmovanprefiqsiani zogi zmnuri yalibi:
mwerlobis enaSi daculia ufro Zveli viTareba, magram qarTve- I - piris niSani+fuZe+Temis niSani/0 (m-i-xat-av-s, m-i-xant-u;
luri kiloebis Tvisobrivi erTianobis saCveneblad nimuSebi mo- v-u-xat-i-var, v-u-xant-u-q).
gvyavs Tanamedrove saliteraturo enisa da megruli kilos I pi- II - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe+Temis niSani/0 (da-m-i-xat-
ris mixedviT, qarTveluri kiloebis monacemebis SepirispirebiTi av-s, do-m-i-xant-u; da-v-u-xat-i-var, do-v-u-xant-u-q).
analizisaTvis ix. b.jorbenaZe, 1995, gv.217-227): III - piris niSani+fuZe+mwkrivis niSani (m-e-xat-a, m-i-xant-u-
samw. qarT.: wer-s - iwers - iwereba; megruli: Warun-s - iWa- d-u; v-e-xat-o, v-u-xant-u-d-i).
IV - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe+mwkrivis niSani (da-m-e-
runs - i-War-u…
xat-a, do-m-i-xant-u-d-u; da-v-e-xat-o, do-v-u-xant-u-d-i).
samw. qarT.: a-Tes-v-in-eb-s; megruli: o-Tas-af-u-an-s... V - piris niSani+fuZe+(od/d+)mwkrivis niSani (m-e-xat-o-s,
am SemTxvevebSic amosavali Cans samwignobro qarTulisaTvis m-i-xant-u-d-a-s; v-xat-od-e, v-u-xant-u-d-a).
damaxasiaTebeli variantebi; Sdr., agreTve, zmnuri sxva formebi: VI - zmniswini+piris niSani+fuZe+(od/d+)mwkrivis niSani
awmyo usruli - piris niSani+fuZe+Temis niSani/0 (v-xat-av, (da-m-e-xat-o-s, do-m-i-xant-u-d-a-s; da-v-xat-od-e, do-v-u-xant-u-
v/f-xant-un-q; m-xat-av, m/f-xant-un-q). d-a)...

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kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi kolxuri kulturis enis sakiTxi

aqve SeiZleboda mogvetana saeklesio qarTuli enisTvis dama- Tanamedrove qarTvelTa sametyvelo erTeulTagan saerTo-
xasiaTebeli e.w. xolmeobiTi formebi, magram, ramdenadac aRmo- qarTvelurs ufro uaxlovdeba samwignobro qarTuli da masTan
savluri mTis kiloebis garda sxva qarTvelur dialeqtebSi amgva- axlos myofi centraluri kiloebi (kaxuri, qarTluri, imeru-
ri formebi ar dasturdeba, maTi aq dasaxelebisgan Tavs vikavebT. li...); saerToerovnuli enis velisgan daSorebam, ucxoenovanma
miT umetes, warmodgenili yalibebic sakmarisia saerToqarTve- gavlenebma da sxva mizezebma saerToqarTvelursa da samwignob-
luris enobrivi saxis warmosadgenad... ro qarTuls met-naklebad daaSora svanuri, zanuri, fxouri,
winadadebis agebulebis TvalsazrisiTac, samwignobro qar- heruli, fereidnuli da sxva kiloebi; am dialeqtebSi leqsi-
Tulisa da qarTvelur dialeqtTa Cvenebac msgavsia; kerZod, mar- kur sesxebebTan erTad intensiuri fonetikuri da morfologiu-
tivi winadadebis struqtura agebulia koordinaciis principis ri procesebi ganviTarda; Sesabamisad, ganapira kiloebSi bevri
mixedviT (koordinaciis principisaTvis ix. arn.Ciqobava, 1968). enobrivi movlena SedarebiT gvianaa warmoqmnili. SeiZleba iT-
amosaval viTarebad, am SemTxvevaSic, samwignobro qarTulis vari- qvas: zanur-svanuri Tu fxouri kiloebi saerToqarTvelurTan
anti unda davigulvoT. mimarTebiT ufro bevr enobriv siaxles Seicavs, vidre qarTlu-
SeniSvna: male gamoqveyndeba wigni "qarTveluri dialeqtologia" ri an imeruli; mag., xmovanTa sistemis, brunvebisa da sxva enobrivi
(t.futkaraZe, e.dadiani), sadac ufro vrclad da sabuTianadaa faqtebis mixedviT, balszemouri kilo ufro "axalia", vidre
warmodgenili saerToqarTveluri, sakuTriv qarTuli da zanur-sva-
nuri masalis sistemuri erTgvaroba. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom gamosaqvey-
kaxuri kilo. miuxedavad imisa, rom svanurs SenarCunebuli aqvs
neblad vamzadebT qarTul-qarTveluri zmnis axal paradigmas, sadac xanmetoba da kaxurs ara, ZiriTadi fonematuri da gramatikuli
zmnis formacvalebis or ZiriTad sqemadaa ganxiluli: aRmqmeli su- movlenebis TvalsazrisiT, kaxurs ufro meti arqaizmi (saerTo-
bieqtis yalibi (m-Sia, minda, miyvars, mixatavs...) da moqmedi subi- qarTvelurTan saerTo!) aqvs Semonaxuli, vidre balszemours;
eqtis yalibi (v-xat-av, da-v-xatav, da-v-xat-e...). kerZod, saerToqarTvelurTan mimarTebiT svanur kiloebSi
saerToqarTveluri enobrivi koines bazaze Camoyalibebu- gviandelia: palatalizebuli xmovnebi, "gadaweris wesebiT"
li zogadqarTveluri saxelmwifo (Tu tomTaSorisi) ena arse- (T.gamyreliZe, 1968), ukana mimarTulebis umlautiT (m.qaldani)
bobas agrZelebs samwignobro qarTulis saxiT; Sesabamisad, misi da sxva transformaciebiT (ix. mag., m.Cuxua, 2003) saxeSecvlili
gavleniT, qarTvelTa centraluri kiloebis intensiuri cvaleba formebi, brunvaTa jer jidev Camouyalibebeli, e.w. narevi sistema
ar xdeba, xolo ganapira kiloebi, istoriuli Sidaenobrivi cvli- da sxva. aqve gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom qarTuli (qarTvelu-
lebebisa da mezobel enaTa gavlenis xarisxis mixedviT, met-nakleb ri) enis centraluri kiloebi, ganicdian ra samwignobro enis
transformacias ganicdis; kerZod, dasavlurqarTveluri (zanur- aqtiur mravalsaukunovan gavlenas, garkveulwilad adaptir-
svanuri) dialeqturi variantebis erTi nawili, saukuneebis man- debian axal saliteraturo normebTan, rac qmnis maTi axalwar-
Zilze Crdilokavkasiuri enebis gavleniT, metad icvleba da iqmne- moqmnilobis efeqts.
ba svanuri kiloebi. jer berZen-bizantielTa, Semdeg ki Turqul kolxuri enisa da kulturis saerToqarTveluroba
tomTa gavleniT, seriozul cvlilebebs ganicdis zanuri kilos dadasturdeba, an uariyofa saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis
samxreTuli kilokavebi. Turqulis gavleniT icvleba, agreTve: drois Sesaxeb argumentirebuli msjelobiT.
heruli, taouri, imerxeuli da sxva (es procesebi dawvrilebiT
ganxiluli gvaqvs wignSi: "qarTveluri dialeqtologia").
msjeloba sxva mimarTulebiTac SeiZleba ganvaviTaroT:

- 278 - - 279 -
saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

2.2.3. saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro Tadi leqsikuri fondidan iReben 100 an 200 sityvas da maTi cvli-
lebebis koeficientis mixedviT adgenen enaTa diferenciaciis
saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis drois Sesaxeb samecniero
dros...
literaturaSi sxvadasxva mosazrebaa:
winaswarve aRvniSnavT, rom es meTodi ver iTvaliswinebs enis
iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa istoriuli qronologiis Tvalsaz-
leqsikis cvlis sixSiris xarisxs intensiuri adstratuli gavle-
risiT, CvenTvis sayrdeni varaudi gamoTqmuli aqvT k.bergslands,
nebis an sametyvelo kodTa superstratuli, Tu substratuli Se-
h.fogtsa da arn.Ciqobavas:
revebis pirobebSi; agreTve, cnobili faqtia, rom enis cvlilebis
k.bergslandi, h.fogti: hipoTeturi saerToqarTveluri ena
tempi sxvadasxva epoqaSi sxvadasxva SeiZleba iyos; amdenad, leqsi-
"Zveli welTaRricxvis bolo aTaswleulSi unda movaTavsoT"
kur-statistikuri meTodi Tanamedrove lingvistikaSi did ndo-
(k.bergslandi, h.fogti, 1972, gv. 255);
bas ver poulobs. amJamad aris mcdelobebi, Seiqmnas am meTodis
arn.Ciqobava: "iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi monaTesave enebia, maT
gaumjobesebuli variantebi, magram Tundac ramdenime saukunis
warmoSoba aerTianebs. es ZvelisZvel viTarebas gulisxmobs; sava-
win mimdinare sametyvelo kodTa Serevis xarisxis (Sesabamisad,
raudod, sami aTasi wlis winandels (Sesamabisad, saerToqar-
enobriv cvalebaTa xasiaTis) gansazRvris SeuZlebloba amgvar va-
Tveluri navaraudevia Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi - t.f.), da, albaT,
raudebs mtkicebulebebad ver aqcevs (glotoqronologiis meTo-
Zvel adgil-samyofels, kavkasiis samxreTiT mdebare miwa-wyals. am
dis kritikisaTvis ix.: k.bergslandi, h.fogti, 1972; d.kristali,
enaTa ganviTareba sxvadasxva gziT warimarTa; ara erTs sxva enas 1989, gv.331; t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv.327; T.gvancelaZe, 2004 da sxv.).
gadahyrian; saukuneTa manZilze araerTi dialeqti Tu ena warmo- leqsikur-statistikuri meTodiT qarTvelur enaTa daSlis
qmnila Tu gamqrala/gaTqvefila sxva enaSi. amitom gasakviri is ki pirveli daTariReba 100-sityviani sacdeli siis mixedviT ekuT-
ar aris, rom iberiul-kavkasiur enebs "gasaocari nairgvaroba" vnis g.klimovs; misi azriT, saerToqarTvelurisgan svanuris gamo-
axasiaTebs, aramed is, rom fonetika-morfologia-sintaqsSi (ase- yofa daiwyo II aTaswleulis, xolo zanurisa - I aTaswleulis da-
ve, leqsikaSic) niSandoblivi saerTo Tvisebebi SerCeniaT"
sawyisSi (g.klimovi, 1952, gv.119). amave meTodiT, oRond 200-si-
(arn.Ciqobava, 1979, gv.253); Sdr., mkvlevarTa erTi nawili saerTod
tyviani siiT, qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa divergencia daaTa-
uaryofs iberiul-kavkasiur erTobas da saerToqarTveluri enis
riRes T.gamyreliZem da g.maWavarianma; maTi kvlevis Sedegebis mi-
arsebobis drod varaudobs Zv.w. V-IV aTaswleulebs (6-7 aTasi xedviT, saerToqarTvelurs svanuri gamoeyo Cvens welTaRricxva-
wlis winandel dros). amgvari mosazrebebi saTaves iRebs enaTa mde X saukuneSi, xolo qarTul-zanuri divergencia moxda wel-
daTariRebis e.w. glotoqronologiuri meTodis Sedegebidan TaRricxvaTa mijnaze (T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, 1965, gv.17). aSka-
da sityvaformaTa mcdari analizidan; raa, rom erTi da imave meTodiT miRebulia ori sxvadasxva (1000
kerZod: wliani sxvaobis mqone!) Sedegi.
a. glotoqronologiuri anu leqsikur-statistikuri meTo- mogvianebiT, 1984 wels, v.ivanovisa da T.gamyreliZis mier
di SemuSavebulia amerikeli lingvistebis - moris svodeSisa da gamoqveynebul fundamentur SromaSi - "indoevropuli ena da in-
robert lizis mier gasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebSi. am meTodiT doevropelebi" - saerToqarTveluri enis daSlis axali qrono-
momuSave specialistebs sjeraT, rom yvela enaSi ZiriTadi leq- logiaa SemoTavazebuli; igi gameorebulia T.gamyreliZis mier
sikuri fondis cvalebis siCqare TiTqmis erTgvaria drois 1998 wels gamoqveynebul statiaSi - "kolxeTis mosaxleobis eT-
grZel monakveTSi; Sesabamisad, mkvlevrebi monaTesave enaTa Ziri- nikuri vinaoba anu ra enaze metyvelebda aieti". am gamokvle-

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

vebSi ukve uaryofilia leqsikur-statistikuri analiziT miRe- qarTulSi ki igi dasturdeba; Sdr.: tba - tb-or-i; sur-i (vanis
buli daskvna da qarTvelur enaTa daSlis TariRad miCneulia Zveli saxeli), sur-eb-i da mdinaris saxeli - sul-or-i. "qarTlis
4000-5000 wlebis winandeli periodi; kerZod, svanuris gamoyofa cxovrebisa" da vaxuStis monacemebze daydrnobiT, lingvistTa mi-
ivaraudeba III aTaswleulis dasawyisSi, zanurisa ki - Zv.w. II aTas- er koj- fuZisaTvis amosavlad miCneulia koJ-; am fuZis ZiriTadi
wleulSi (T. gamyreliZe, v. ivanovi, 1984, gv. 909; T. gamyreliZe semantikaa "magari da amaRlebuli adgili". koJori/koJrebi (go-
1998, gv.3; ix., agreTve, z. sarjvelaZe, 2000, gv. 27, sadac zanuris ar- ra, mTa) dadasturebulia saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi (T.goniaS-
sebobis mamtkiceblad miCneulia prokopi kesarielTan damowme- vili, 1937, gv.128-129; g.bedoSvili, 2001, gv.206; Sdr., m.gegeSiZe,
buli moxirisi: aq, ratomRac, s CaTvlilia maincdamainc qarTvelur 1966, gv.190-209, sadac aris sqematuri mtkiceba, rom kojorisTvis
S-d); amgvari koreqtireba ZiriTadad moxda saerToindoevropu- amosavalia rko jvari). qarTul kiloebSi dasturdeba amosavali
lidan saerToqarTvelurSi nasesxebi fuZeebis daSvebisa da sityvaformebic: koJi/koJe (imer. leCx.) - "amaRlebuli qviani ad-
tyav- fuZis Sesatyvisad zanuri tyov- variantis aRdgenis sa- gili" da koJi/koJri (aWar.) - "magari warmonaqmni kanze". vfiqrob,
fuZvelze, rac, Cveni azriT, aseve sakamaToa (ix. qvemoT). naTelia, rom koJ-/koj- Ziri saerToqarTveluri monacemia da ara
glotoqronologiuri meTodiT miRebuli daskvnebi, ro- mxolod svanuri.
gorc vxedavT, Tavad maTi avtorebisTvisac ki ukve aRaraa sarwmu- aseve sakamaToa, Zvel berZnul wyaroebSi dadasturebuli fa-
no, istorikosTa didi nawili ki amgvar qronologias eyrdnobo- sisi sityvis amosavlad svanuri faSd davsaxoT (da am gziT "davaZ-
da da eyrdnoba (Tumca gvaqvs gamonaklisic; Sdr., mag., k. ficxela-
veloT" svanuri metyveleba), vinaidan faT amosavali sityvis ka-
uri 1973, gv.193).
nonzomieri svanuri Sesatyvisi faSd ver mogvcems faSid/faSad
b. saerToqarTveluris daTariRebisaTvis ver gamodgeba verc
variantebs (Sdr., T.miqelaZe, 1974. gv.11; g.meliqiSvili, 1959 gv.61);
sityvaTa saeWvo analiziT miRebuli daskvnebi; mag., T.miqelaZe
Sdr., rogorc wesi: qarTv. T svan. Sd; qarTuli Txili - svan.
fiqrobs, rom Crdilo amierkavkasiaSi qarTvelebi avtoqToni mo-
Sdix; qarT. daTvi - svan. daSdu; qarT. xuTi - svan.
saxleoba ar aris (ix.: T.miqelaZe, 1974); amierkavkasiaSi jer movid- xuSd/ÍoxÍiSd.
nen svanebi Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi - 5 000 aTasi wlis win; e.i. misi az- toponimTa da nasesxeb sityvaTa saeWvo lingvisturi analizis
riT, am dros ukve arsebobda svanuri ena!), Semdeg - megrel-Wanebi, Semdeg cnobili arqeologi T.miqelaZe kategoriulad askvnis:
bolos ki - sakuTriv qarTebi. am mosazrebis sabuTad T.miqelaZes svanurenovani mosaxleoba samxreTidan movida - "protoxeTu-
miaCnia qarTlSi dadasturebuli "svanuri" toponimi "kojori". ri wiaRidan gamovida" (T.miqelaZe, 1974, gv.19); protoxeTebTan
svanur metyvelebaSi koj kldes niSnavs; koj- ki T.gamyreliZisa da kontaqtebis dros svanuri ukve mowyvetili iyo saerToqarTve-
lur wres da damoukideblad arsebobda" (iqve, gv.20)... Sesabami-
g.maWavarianis mier qarTuli klde fuZis Sesatyvisadaa miCneuli.
sad, svanuris gamoyofis TariRia Cvens welTaRricxvamde me-3
saenaTmecniero literaturaSi koj- da klde fuZeTa identu-
aTaswleuli, xolo zanuri ena Camoyalibebulad CaTvlilia Zv.w.
roba gaziarebuli ar aris (ix. h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, 1990); ko- II aTaswleulSi: "sruliad udavoa, rom liTonis nawarmica da ke-
jor- sakuTriv qarTulis kuTvnilebacaa, kerZod, araferi uSlis ramikuli produqciac, romelic gamoyenebaSia samxreT-aRmosav-
xels, rom koj- saerToqarTvelur Zirad CavTvaloT (j Sesatyvi- leT SavizvispireTSi da dasavleT saqarTveloSi Zv.w. II-I aTas-
sobas ar iZleva g.maWavarianis mier dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad); wleulebSi, zanurenovan eTnikur erTobas ekuTvnis..." (T.miqela-
miT umetes, -or- sufiqsis arseboba svanur niadagze ver aixsneba, Ze, 1974, gv.75,19)...

- 282 - - 283 -
saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

T.gamyreliZem da v.ivanovma qarTuli tyav- fuZis zanur vari-  Tu bolomarcvliseuli a-s momdevnod dakargulia Tan-
antad aRadgines tyov- varianti, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mikenuri xmovani, a ucvleli rCeba (winamavali Tanxmovnis
ko-vo sityvis amosavlad iqna navaraudevi. labializebis xarisxis miuxedavad):
uZveles berZnulSi - mikenurSi - es sityva tyavis mniSvnelo- Zama  jima (Sdr., jimalefi)
biT II aTaswleulis dasawyisidan dasturdeba (T.gamyreliZe,
da  da (Sdr., dalefi)
v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.908-909). saerToqarTveluridan berZnulSi si-
tyvebis sesxeba gamoricxuli ar aris, bunebrivia, mosalodnelia mama  muma (Sdr., qarT. mam-al-i, zan. mum-ur-i)
kidec, magram tyav-fuZis kov-Tan dakavSirebas saeWvos xdis za- deda  dida (Sdr., qarT. ded-al-i. zan.dad-ul-i)...
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, lazursa da megrul-
nurSi tyov- fuZis realurad arsebobis sakiTxi.
Si dRes arsebuli tyeb- "tyavi" fuZe saerToqarTveluridan mo-
saerToqarTvelur a-s zanurSi ramdenime kanononzomieri
mdinare Tavdapirvel zanur variantad unda CaiTvalos (Sdr., ag-
refleqsi udasturdeba; xSir SemTxvevaSi a ucvleli rCeba,
reTve, m.qurdiani, 2003 gv. 46); berZnuli koas istoria ki sakvle-
transformaciis ZiriTadi saxe ki aris
saerToqarTveluri a - zan. o: via; Cven saeWvod gveCveneba misi kavSiri qarTul tyav- formasTan
da, miT umetes, legendarul oqros sawmisTan...
kaci - koCi, da - do, cxra (cxara) - Cxoro...
axlaxan gamoqveynda m.qurdianis statia (m.qurdiani, 2003), sa-
vvaraudobT, rom zanurSi a > o process apirobebs winamavali
dac aris mcdeloba, damtkicdes, rom megrul-Wanuri metyveleba
labializebuli Tanxmovani.
arsebobda jer kidev Sumerebis dros (!).
 Tu Zireuli a-s momdevnod bagismieri spiranti dastur- SeniSvna: prof. m.qurdiani iziarebs iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis na-
deba, a-s labializacia ferxdeba da a  e: Tesaobis Teorias. misi azriT, raki Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi ukve arse-
ZarRvi  jerRvi bobda zanuri, saerToqarTveluri savaraudoa Zv.w. V-IV aTaswleu-
lebSi; aseT SemTxvevaSi, rodisRa unda yofiliyo saerTokavkasiuri
arCvi  ercqemi ena? Zv.w. VIII-VII aTaswleulebSi? e.w. nostratul enaTa ojaxis da-
tyavi  tyebi Svebis msgavsad, aseTi Soreuli naTesaobis Teoria varaudis sfe-
ros ver gascildeba, vinaidan kvlevis amJamindeli meTodebis mixed-
SaSvi  zesqvi... (Sdr.: tba/taba - toba).
viT, aravis SeuZlia zustad Tqvas, kavkasiasa da wina aziaSi konkre-
 Tu a-s momdevno bagismieri spiranti ikargeba, an igi gada- tulad rogori struqturis ena arsebobda Zv.w. VII-VI aTaswleu-
dis u xmovanSi, maSin a o u (Sdr., t.gudavas wesi): lebSi; metic, mecnierTaTvis met-naklebad cnobili enobriv-eTni-
kuri erTobebi yalibdeba adre brinjaos xanidan - Zv.w. IV aTaswleu-
daTvi  doTi  TunT
lidan; bolo gamokvlevebiT, qalaquri tipis dasaxlebebi ivaraude-
Tagvi  Togi  mTugi ba Zv.w. IX-VIII aTaswleulebSi (neoliTuri revoluciis Semdeg),
mayE(al)i  moy  muyi magram mecnierebis amJamindeli miRwevebis safuZvelze SeuZlebelia
naTlad ganisazRvros 10 000 wlis winandeli enobriv-eTnikuri
qacvi  qoci  quci...
suraTi.
Sdr.:
enaTa istoriis daTariRebisas samecniero literaturaSi
cacxvi  cocxu  ducxu farTod gamoiyeneba enobrivi kontaqtebis amsaxveli sesxebis faq-
naZvi  noZu  nuZu... tebi. es meTodi warmatebulia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca na-

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

Tladaa garkveuli konkretuli enobrivi masalis warmomavloba vfiqrobT, rogorc qarTvelurisTvis, aseve Sumerulisa
da gamoricxulia mocemuli sityvis (morfemis) kuTvnileba mesa- Tu xaTurisTvis amosavali varianti unda veZioT Zvel kavkasi-
me, ufro Zveli enisadmi. m.qurdianis statiaSi meTodi sworadaa ur-winaaziur enobriv velSi...
SerCeuli (2003, gv.44-51), magram gaWirdeba dasaxelebul sityvaTa sakamaToa, agreTve, m.qurdianis msjeloba aqaduri gurpis-
miCneva maincdamainc megrul-Wanur an svanur formebad; miT ume- u/gursip ("samxedro aRWurvilobis raRac nawili spilenZisa-
tes, saeWvoa, zanuridan Sumerulsa da xeTurSi, xolo svanuridan
gan") sityvisTvis amosavlad zanuri gurpij- (gulis piri) kompo-
saerToiranulSi sesxebis mtkiceba; kerZod:
zitis miCneva: zanur kiloebSi r > j procesi ase Zveli ver iqneba;
m.qurdianis azriT, Sumerulma zanurisgan isesxa "vaSli": zan.
garda amisa, msgavsi logikiT, araferi uSlis xels, aqaduri for-
uSquri > *huSqur > hEaSqur > haShur (m.qurdiani, 2003, gv.46). aq
misTvis amosavlad saerToqarTveluri kompozitic dagvesaxa
auxsnelia u > Ea procesi; garda amisa, amgvarive logikiTa da fo-
(qarTveluri enobrivi samyarosTvis bunebrivi r/l da s/r
netikuri cvlilebis sxva gzis daSvebiT SegviZlia vamtkicoT, rom
monacvleobis daSvebiT)... aseve iTqmis m.qurdianis mier warmo-
Sumeruli varianti momdinareobs saerToqarTveluri *EaSal-
formidan: dgenil sxva dakavSirebazec: xeTuri iSTam-ana/Tumm-an "yuri" da
*EaSal- > *aSol- > *haShol- / *haShur-: dasaSvebia bilabia- qarTv. *sTami/sTumi "yuri", Sdr.: sa-sTum-al-i; saerToiranuli
luri E komponentis gadaadgileba: E...a > o (Sdr., qarTvelur ki- *azi-dahaaka da qarTv. *asTakEi "xvliki" (m.qurdiani, 2003, gv.48-
loebSi dadasturebuli paraleluri formebi: fetE-/fút-, 51); aqve SevniSnavT, rom saerToqarTveluri arqetipi daadgina da
eqEs-/úqs-, Tok-/TekE, fur-/firE...) da xmovanTa fSvinvieri Semar- misTvis sxva iberiul-kavkasiur enebSi Sesatyvisi fuZeebi daZebna
Tva; Sumerul sityvaSi SeiZleba gamovyoT vaS- fuZe da -ur- su- m.Cuxuam; misi azriT, es saerTokavkasiuri fuZe nasesxebi aqvs ber-
fiqsic; Sdr.: saerToqarTvelur *vaSl-/*vaS-al- fuZes Sesatyvi- Znuls (m.Cuxua, 2000, gv.54-55).
sebi daeZebna CeCnur-inguSurSi da daRestnur enebSi; Sesabami- Zv.w. II aTaswleulis I naxevarSi sakuTriv qarTulis, zanuri-
sad, m.Cuxuam saerTonaxur formad aRadgina *vaS-, xolo saerTo- sa da svanuris cal-calke arsebobis damtkicebas cdilobs d.mus-
daRestnur variantad - *veS- (m.Cuxua, 2004). saerTokavkasiuri sa- xeliSvilic; kerZod, is msjelobas agebs cxvar-/cxovreba da me-
varaudo forma Cans vaS- Ziri. fuZis mawarmoebeli (determinan- cxvareoba sityvebisa "TrialeTis arqeologiuri kulturis" mi-
ti) qarTveluri -l-/al- sufiqi unda iyos saerToindoevropul- marTebaze (d.musxeliSvili, 2002, gv.6): "mecxvareoba cxovrebis
Si arsebul *Samlu fuZeSi: EaS-l- > *SaE-l- > Samlu (Sdr., sinonimad mxolod Sua brinjaos xanaSi SeiZleboda gamxdariyo;
T.gamyreliZe, v. ivanovi, 1984, gv.641-642, 881). garda amisa, xaTur ramdenadac cxovreba sakuTriv qarTuli enis leqsikur fonds
enaSi arsebobs SaEaT "vaSli" sityva (gr.giorgaZe, 2002, gv.90; S.ga- ganekuTvneba, unda davaskvnaT, rom Sua brinjaos xanis e.w. "Tria-
beskiria, 1998, gv.28; S.gabeskirias azriT, saerToqarTveluri leTis kulturis" matarebeli tomebi, ZiriTadad, marTlac,
*EaSal- fuZe asaxulia xaTur SaEaT formaSi; mosazreba gamoiT- aRmosavlel-qarTveli tomebi unda yofiliyvnen". pativcemul
qva 2004 wlis 13 noembers CvenTan zepir saubarSi). Crdilokavkasi- mkvlevars unda gaeTvaliswinebina, rom saerToqarTvelurSic aR-
uri vaS- da qarTveluri vaS-l- formebis Sepirispireba gvavara- dgeba cxovar- fuZe, romlisTvisac amosavalia cxov-/cxoE- Ziri,
udebinebs, rom xaTurSi momxdaria E/S bgeraTa metaTezisi vfiqrobT, sicocxlis semantikiT (Sdr., saerToqarTv. cxovari,
(adgilSenacvleba), fuZeSi ki gamosayofia -aT sufiqsi. samwign. qarT. cxovari/cxvari, zan. Sxuri/Cxuri/mCxuri); amave

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

Zirs eyrdnoba sityvebi: cxov-el-i ("cocxali"), cxov-n-eb-a, ma- martivebuli laTinuri anbanis mixedviT) da berZ. eks; qarTvelu-
cxov-ar-i... yvela am formis sayrdeni Ziri unda iyos -cx-, rome- ri fuZis xmovani segmenti/prefiqsi Cans berZnulSi da ara - saer-
lic SeiZleba gamoiyos cx-en- da co-cx-al- (*so-cx-al-/*ho-cx- ToindoevropulSi; vfiqrobT, aSkaraa: Tuki qarTvelurSi sesxe-
al-; Sdr., m.Cuxua, 2003, gv.338-339) fuZeebSic; fuZeTa mimarTebisa- ba moxda indoevropuli enisgan, logikuria davuSvaT, rom es enaa
Tvis ix.: arn.Ciqobava, 1938; z.sarjvelaZe, h.fenrixi, 1990; m.Cuxua, Zveli berZnuli da ara - saerToindoevropuli (Sdr.: saerToqar-
2003 (qarTv. cxvar-/cxovreba da xaTur zar-/zari- fuZeebis seman- TvelurSi berZnulidan sesxeba SesaZlebelia mxolod Zv.w. II-I
tikur-formobrivi mimarTebis Sesaxeb ix., g.qavTaraZe, 1985, gv. aTaswleulebSi; es dro eTanxmeba saerToqarTvelurisTvis Cven
120-121). mier navaraudev dros). ar gamoiricxeba eqvs- fuZis saerTokavka-
logikuria, davaskvnaT, rom, Tu maincdamainc, g.klimovis kva- siurobac; yvela SemTxvevaSi, paralelurad gansaxilvelia saer-
lad, cxovreba sityva mecxvareobis semantikiT gvinda davtvir- ToqarTveluri da ZvelberZnuli variantebi, rac am erTeulTa
Tanadroulobazec miuTiTebs.
ToT (risi aucilebloba sulac ar dgas), cxovar- > cxovreba mi-
uRel- (salit.qarTv. uReli, zan. uRu, svan. uREa), saerTo-
marTeba saerToqarTvelurSic SegviZlia davuSvaT, xolo cxov-
rebis ZiriTad semantikad sicocxle ufro unda aRvadginoT (da ind. iukom "uReli", xeT. iukan, Zv.ind. yuga, berZ. ζυγου/ugo (Sdr.,
ara mecxvareoba). rus. иго)... formobrivad (sityvis struqturis mixedviT) qarTve-
Zv.w. IV aTaswleulSi saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis lur formasTan ufro axlosaa g Tanxmovniani fuZe; Sesabamisad,
dasamtkiceblad nasesxebi masalaa gaanalizebuli T.gamyreliZi- indoevropul enas Tu nasesxebi ara aqvs es fuZe iberiul-kavkasi-
sa da v.ivanovis mier; maTi daskvniT, mtkvar-araqsis kulturis fo- uri enobrivi velidan (ix. qvemoT) da ueWvelad dadgeba saerTo-
rmirebis periodSi gverdigverd arsebobdnen saerToindoevropu- qarTvelurSi uR-/uRo fuZis sesxebis sakiTxi, msesxebel enad un-
li, saerToqarTveluri da saerTosemituri enebi, rasac cxad- da davuSvaT Zveli berZnuli (an wina aziis romelime) ena.
yofs saerToindoevropulidan saerToqarTvelurSi nasesxebi tef-/Tb- (salit.qarTv. gan-v-tef/vaTbob/Tbili, zan. vot-
Semdegi leqsika (masalas moviyvanT Tanamedrove qarTuli vari- ibua/tibu "vaTbob/Tbili", svan. li-tb-i-d-e/xotbida/tebdi
antebis mixedviT): beravs, brge, goni/Seigen/Seigno, devs/vdeb, eq- "gaTboba/gauTbia/Tbili"), saerToind. *tep-, Zv.ind. tapah, Zv.iran.
vsi, eSvi, Tixa, Txa, kbens, krefs, matli, mkerdi, rgavs/alagebs, sis-
tap, osur. tavun "Tboba", osur. tevd "Tbili", berZn. te(r)mos, laTin.
xli, tef-/Tbili, upe/ube, qmari, Soba (T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi,
tepidus... niSandoblivia, rom Zvel indoevropul enebSi warmodge-
1984, gv. 877-879). dasaxelebuli masala sam jgufad SeiZleba
nili fuZe a gaxmovanebiTaa, Sesabamisad, logikuria m.andronikaS-
warmovadginoT:
a. qarTveluri leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic masalob- vilis daskvna: "qarTuli Ziri tef- Tavisi fonetikuri ieriT
rivad ufro axloa ara saerToindoevropul, aramed romelime yvelaze axlos dgas am indoevropuli fuZis osur formasTan"
indoevropuli (dadasturebuli) enis fuZesTan, Sesabamisad, (1966, gv. 109). sakuTriv qarTveluri (svanuri) enisTvis bunebrivi
isini gacilebiT gviandel nasesxobebad SegviZlia miviCnioT; maga- segmentaciiT ar xerxdeba d-s axsna teb-d- fuZeSi, amitom, vfi-
liTad, Sdr: qrobT, rom svan. tebd- formisaTvis amosavali SeiZleba iyos
eqvs- (salit. qarTv. eqvsi, zan. amSvi/anSi, svan. usgEa), saer- osur-alan. tevd (> *tefd- > tebd-). Cveni azriT, ufro naklebwi-
Toind.: seks (aqac da qvemoTac indoevropuli Zirebi mogvyavs ga- naaRmdegobrivia qarTv. tef-/Tb-, osur-alan. tep- da berZnul-la-

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

Tinuri tep- Zirebis paralelurad ganxilva, vidre qarTvelur da saerToqarTveluri: gen-/gon- "mogoneba," "goneba"; iCq. gan, ing.
saerToindoevropul enaTa monacemebis Tanadroulad miCneva. ga(n), bacb. gua¹ "Kureba, xedva"...(imierkavkasiuri enebis masala mogva-
mkerd- (samwign. qarTv. mkerdi, zan. kidiri, svan. muWEed/mu- woda m.Cuxuam).
Wod), berZn. kardia, roman. kradie... samecniero literaturaSi saka- saerToqarTveluri *berZ-/EerZ-i; zan. (megr.) erJ-i  *varJ-i;
bacb. borw, CaCn. burZ/z, ing. borZ "mgeli", winarenaxuri borZ; xunZ.
maToa saerToindoevropulSi gulis aRsaniSnavad *kert- fuZis aR-
baw  *barw, and. bowo, axv. baya, boTl., Rod., Wam., bagv. tind. ba-
dgena (Sdr., T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv. 800); garda amisa, Tan-
wa, kar. bawe, lak. barw, darg. bec "mgeli", winaredaRestnuri
xmovanTa Semadgenlobis mixedviT, qarTvelur formasTn ufro ax-
*barZ.
losaa realurad dadasturebuli berZnuli sityva, vidre hipo-
saerToqarTveluri: *daƒal- "Txa"; and. rixa ← *dixan, Sdr.: axvax.
Teturi saerToindoevropuli fuZe.
i¹xa, boTl. rixa, yam. inxa/rixa "cxvari"...
aqve davZenT, rom dausabuTebeli da saeWvoa, agreTve, saerToqarTveluri *Zax-/*Zaƒ-: *Zax-il-i/*Zax-el-i/sax-el-i, saxe, zan.
qarTv. ber-/ber-av-s formis saerToindoevropuli warmomavloba Joxo, svan. jaxe "saxe"; afx. abaz. a-x½Z "saxeli", iCq. xaZ-, ing, xaZ-, ba-
(berva leqsemis qarTuli warmomavlobis Sesaxeb ix., m.androni- cb. xaw "gagoneba, smena"...
kaSvili, 1966, gv. 173). saerToqarTveluri *kel-: keloba "koyloba" (saba) Sdr., aWar. kel-av-s
b. leqsikuri erTeulebi, romelTa qarTveluri warmomav- "koylobs"; iCq. ing. {ka…}, bacb. k"av-e¹ "koyli", k"av- "koyloba"...
loba ufro sarwmunoa, vidre - indoevropuli; Sdr.: saerToqarTveluri *krab: "krefa"; xunZ. bakar-, and. bakar-, bej. bova-
kben- (salit.qarTv. kbens/kbili, zan. kib-ir-an-s/kib-ir-i; Sdr., kol- "Sekreba, собрать"...
saerToqarTveluri *matal-/matli "yia"; afx., abaz. a-maT "gveli", hunz.
qarTv. kib-e), saerToind.: kemb- "gaxeva, kbena", keb-/kep- "yba, piri, beti "yia", bej. farti, lezg. b‘t-r‘y, Tab. bit, lak. ~ati "yia, gveli"...
Wama" da kombo "kbili"; T.gamyreliZisa da v.ivanovis mier am for- saerToqarTveluri *oTx: "oTxi", saerTonaxuri ~aTxu "eqvsi", aG. ~ar-
maTa amosavlad miCneulia kemb- "gaxeva" (iqve, gv. 815, 879); Sdr., xid, ruT. rixud "eqvsi"...
Wamis/kbilis mniSvnelobiT indoevropul enebSi ZiriTadia et- saerToqarTveluri *…ara/*ar…a/*…r…a/rua "rva", megr. bruo
/dan-/dent- ZiriTadi fuZe. vfiqrobT, saerToindoevropuli kemb- (<*…r…a), svan. ara, "rva"; iCq. barh, ing. barh, bacb. barl" "rva"; darg.
"gaxeva" fuZisgan qarTveluri kb-/kib- "kbena/kbili" gamoyvana berh-al id...
problemuria; miT umetes, rTuli dasamtkicebelia saerTo- saerToqarTveluri *si-sx-li; afx.abaz. a-Sa¶ "sisxli"; Sdr., xeTuri eSxar-
indoevropulidan saerToqarTvelurSi sesxeba. Cveni azriT, qar- /iSxar- "sisxli" (gr.giorgaZe, 1999, gv. 63).
Tveluri zmnisTvis amosavalia qarTvelur-kavkasiuri kib- fuZe saerToqarTveluri *Se…/S…-: "Soba", "Sveba"; afx. abaz. a-Sa…-ra
(kib-e*kib-), romelmac mogvca *kib-en-s > kbens da kib-il-i > kbi- "goyebis daKra", saerTonaxuri da-lÀ- "gaCena"...
li/kibiri variantebi. saerToqarTveluri *qom-: "qmari", "vajkaci", zan. qom-oJ-i "qmari",
g. fuZeebi, romlebic dasturdeba sxva iberiul-kavkasiur qom-ol-i "vajkaci"; saerTonaxuri *qom-on "mamri, xvadi"...
enebSic; Sesabamisad, ufro bunebrivi iqneba, erTmaneTs Sevupi- saerToqarTveluri *bas…-/fes…-: fes…-i, fos-o  fesv-i: zan.
rispiroT da erT qronologiur doneze ganvixiloT am jgufis si-
fos-i/fosv-i; bacb. -na-fs-or "Ziri", CaCn. {-no-Es-ar}, ing. -{no-Es-–r},
tyvaTa saerTokavkasiuri da saerToindoevropuli arqetipebi
winarenaxuri na-bes…-ar; xunZ. bosen "bude", and. beSon, boTl. be-
(da ara - saerToqarTveluri da saerToindoevropuli); Sdr.:

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

Sen, Rod. beSen, bigv. behu¹, kar. berx½…an, axvax. beS…ani "bude, iberiul-kavkasiuri masala.
logini", Wam. beha¹, tind. bex…a¹/beh…a¹ "logini, bude", winared- aqve aRvniSnavT:
aRestnuri *bes…-ani. enaTa divergenciis paralelurad mimdinareobda mezobel
enaTa urTierTgavlenebisa da mravalmxrivi konvergenciis
saerToqarTveluri *lag-: "lageba", zan. login- "dalageba"; "logini"; iCq.
menga, ing. m@ng‹"logini"... procesebi, Sesabamisad, uZveles fenebSi enobrivi movlenebis
erTgvarobis (msgavsebis) dadasturebisas gaWirdeba mtkiceba,
saerToqarTveluri *ber: "Seberva, berva"; xunZ. fun-, and. fud-, bagv.
genetur naTesaobasTan gvaqvs saqme Tu sesxebasTan.
furi "daberva", "qari"...
saerToqarTveluri *uGel-: "uGeli"; afx. {a-G…a} sitKvaSi a¶-c°a-
G…a-ra "xariT xvna", saerTonaxuri d-uK, lezg. vik, wax. oq, arC. otK... ***
momavali Ziebebi sxva qarTvelur-kavkasiuri warmomavlobis saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis droze garkveuli infor-
Zirebsac gamoavlens (aseTi Cans, mag., gvari; Sdr., n.mgelaZe, 2004, macia SeiZleba mogvces qarTvelur kiloebSi arsebulma im si-
gv. 87); saerToqarTvelur-naxur-daRestnuri diB- "Tixa" fuZis tyvebma, romelTa saerToqarTveluri arqetipi nasesxebia da Se-
Sesaxeb ix. m.Cuxua, 2003, gv.93... saZlebelia sesxebis daTariRebac; magaliTad, vfiqrobT, saerTo-
faqtia isic, rom warmodgenili leqsikis did nawils Sesa- qarTvelurSive arsebuli sparsulTan ziari zogi sityvafor-
tyvisebi gaaCnia indoevropul enebSic. SesaZloa, aseTi fuZeebi ma Zv.w. VI saukunes ver gaSordeba (Sesabamisad, ufro adre gamo-
momdinare iyos, sulac, savaraudo e.w. nostratuli kontinuu- iricxeba sakuTriv zanur-svanuri enobrivi erTeulebis arsebo-
misgan. Tuki amgvari makroerToba saerTod arsebobda, maSin mis- ba); aseTebi Cans: zari, kuarTi, tye, Zewkvi, wiT-s/wiT-eli... di-
gan momdinared unda miviCnioT iberiul-kavkasiuri kontinuumi di albaTobiT, warmodgenili formebi sparsuli warmomavlobi-
da ara mxolod sakuTriv saerToqarTveluri (b.foCxua SesaZleb- saa an sparsulis gziTaa Semosuli (saTanado msjelobisaTvis ix.
lad miiCnevs qarTvelurTan erTad nostratul enebSi ganxilul m.andronikaSvili, 1966); ar gamoiricxeba isic, rom m.andronikaS-
iqnas mTis iberiul-kavkasiuri enebic; ix. b.foCxua, 1974, gv. 341; vilis mier sparsulad miCneuli zogi fuZe Zveli winaaziuri, an
Sdr., iliC-svitiCi, 1967). savaraudo sqemaa: saerTokavkasiuri enebidan modiodes sparsulSic da qarTvelur-
nostratuli kontinuumi > iberiul-kavkasiuri enobrivi Sic; mag., m.andronikaSvili sparsul-skviTur nasesxobebad miiC-
erToba (aseve: indoevropuli, semitur-qamituri, draviduli,
nevs verZ-, zax-/Zax- (Zaxi-li), fesv-, zam-, kel- fuZeebs, Tumca,
uraluri...) > qarTveluri enobrivi erToba (aseve: afxazur- maT Sesatyvisebi eZebnebaT sxva iberiul-kavkasiur-winaaziur
adiRuri, naxuri, daRestnuri)... garkveulwilad am Tvalsazriss enebSic (masala ix. zemoT); samagaliTod ganvixilavT zam- Zirs:
dauWers mxars jon kolarusos kvlevis Sedegebic: mis naSromSi zam-:
warmodgenilia leqsikuri paralelebi dasavleT Crdilokavkasi- saerToqarTveluri *zam- "weli", "dro": za-fxul-i, zam-Tar-
ur da indoevropul winare enebs Soris (j.kolaruso, 2003, gv. 41- i, zan. zo-Tonji, svan. zo-mxa/za~-maxe "weli+axali"; bacb. So (*jo):
61; ix., agreTve, q.TuiTis mimoxilva afxazur-adiRuri da indoev-
CaCn. S…o (*jo): ing. Su ( Suo *jo) "weli", winarenaxuri
ropuli enebis naTesaobis kvlevis istoriis Sesaxeb; q.TuiTi,
2003, gv. XIV-XV); vfiqrobT, ufro logikuria, am SemTxvevaSic *zo*jo; xunZ. zo-b "ca", "weli", and. zubu, tind. zebu, boTl. zi…u,
Tanadroulad miviCnioT saerTo indoevropuli da saerTo Rod. zibu, darg. zab "wvima", lezg. s´a-…/c´a-… "ca", Tab. Za-…, aR.

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

Za-…, xin. Zo  *za-…, kriw. za-…, budux. za-… "weli", winareda- luridan/iberiul-kavkasiuridan misi sesxeba semiturSi (saida-
Restnuri *za-b (b nivTTa gr. kl. niS.)... nac Sevida sparsulSic), dasaSvebia Ram- Ziris momdinareoba sxva,
ufro Zveli enobrivi kontinuumidan. yovel SemTxvevaSi, aSkaraa
Sdr.: zam-an "dro", "sezoni", "saaTi" (qarTv. Jam-i), romelic
qarTvelur-arameul-sparsul fuZeTa uSualo urTierTkavSiri,
dadasturebulia: arameulSi, ebraulSi, arabulSi, TurqulSi;
rac Zv.w. I aTaswleuls ver gascildeba.
Sdr. saSualsparsuli - zam/zamistan "zamTari"; qarTul zamTar-
SeniSvna: sagangebo kvlevas saWiroebs somxurSi arsebuli qarTvelu-
fuZeSi *Tar- Tovlis aRmniSvneli fuZe Cans (Sdr.m.andronikaSvi- ri leqsikac; aRniSnulia, rom misi erTi nawili axlosaa zanur fuZe-
li, 1966, gv.321-322; h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, 1990), ramdenadac, igi- ebTan. ramdenadac somxurSi arsebiTia qarTvelur-kavkasiuri sub-
ve za- fuZe gamoiyofa zafxul- kompozitSic: za-fx-ul-i, sadac strati, savsebiT SesaZlebelia, e.w. "zanur" formaTa warmoqmna av-
za- aRniSnavs "dros", "sezons", xolo fx-/*fax- - mzes, mzis Tvals; xsnaT saerToqarTveluris (an armenebis damxvduri romelime sxva qar-
Tveluri tomis metyvelebisTvis damaxasiaTebel) formaTa tran-
Sdr.: fax-/fx- - Tvali (fax-ur-i; i.CantlaZe, 2004); laz. mafxa
sformaciiT; mosalodnelia, agreTve, gviandeli (qristianuli lazi-
(mowmendili ca), svan. mefxe (mowmendili ca), fxiani, fxizeli, kis droindeli) nasesxobani uSualod lazuridan (somxurSi
zan. fxoni, xevs. fxre ("Ria"), svan. li-fxer ("gaxsna"), qarTv. mx- sakuTriv lazuri formebis Sesaxeb ix., mag., i.SilakaZe, 1983).
el-a (m.Cuxua, 2003)... vfiqrobT, m.andronikaSvilis, T.gamyreliZis, v.ivanovis,
Sdr.: za-mTari - dro (sezoni) Tovlisa; d.musxeliSvilis, m.qurdianis da sxva avtorTa mier sainteresod
za-fxuli - dro (sezoni) gaxsnili cisa (anu: mzis Tvalisa; gaanalizebuli leqsikuri paralelebi mainc ver iZleva damajere-
Sdr., svan. imfxKl - ca ixsneba, idarebs). bel daskvnas saerToqarTveluri enis Zv.w. V-III aTaswleulSi ar-
am TvalsazrisiT, sainteresoa, agreTve, sityvaforma Ramis is- sebobis Sesaxeb; kerZod, amgvari sakamaTo masalis mixedviT ver da-
toria: m.andronikaSvils is miaCnia sparsul nasesxobad, magram, vadgenT saerToqarTveluri Tu sakuTriv qarTuli enebis arsebo-
n.barTaias azriT, qarTulSi arabulidanaa Semosuli. vfiqrobT, bis dros; garda amisa, rekonstruirebuli da aradokumentirebu-
ramdenadac Zvel qarTul teqstebSive dasturdeba Rame sityvis- li enebis savaraudo leqsikuri bazis mixedviT aseT Soreul
gan warmoqmnili sxva leqsikuri erTeulebi (saRamo, naRveli < droSi rTulia dadgindes: sesxebasTan gvaqvs saqme (romeli mimar-
*naRmeli < *na-Ram-el-i, Ramori/Ramura, meRamuri, RamismBmobari, TulebiTaa nasesxebi?) Tu saerTo warmomavlobasTan.
RamiT, maradRame, mRamiobi, naRamevi, saRamuri, siRame, daRameba, sagangebod aRvniSnavT, rom mecnierebisTvis dRemde cnobil
eTnikur erTobebTan dakavSirebuli uZvelesi didi saxelmwifo-
SuaRame...) da qarTvelur dialeqtebSic gvaqvs kanonzomieri Sesa-
ebrivi warmonaqmnebi Zv.w. IV aTaswleulidan dasturdeba; garda
tyvisi (Ruma), Rame saerToqarTvelur monacemad unda davsaxoT
amisa, Zv.w. III aTaswleulSi navaraudevi msoflios yvela ena ukve
(amosaval formad unda vigulvoT *Rame); Sdr., arabulSi misi mkvdaria, xolo aRdgenili praenebis (miT umetes, protoenebis)
mniSvnelobebia: dafarva, danaRvlianeba, bneli, burusiT moculi; struqtura mniSvnelovnad (arsebiTad!) gansxvavdeba Tanamedrove
dardi, mwuxareba; sicxe, papanaqeba...); Sesabamisad, logikuria, da- enebisgan; Tuki Sumerebis dros zanuris, svanuris Tu qarTulis
vuSvaT: arsebobas davuSvebT, gamodis, rom msoflioSi arsebul enaTagan
saerToqarTvelurSi Rame Tuki nasesxebia, igi Semosulia 5000 wlis manZilze mxolod qarTuli, svanuri da megrul-Wanuri
arameulidan an asiriulidan; ar gamoiricxeba arc saerToqarTve- "enebi" inarCuneben TavisTavadobas, rac aralogikuria:

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saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro

msoflioSi ar arsebobs didi samwerlobo tradiciis mqo- mna SedarebiT gviandeli kolxida (centriT - dasavleT saqar-
ne enac ki, romelsac 50 saukunis ganmavlobaSi SeenarCunebinos Tvelos teritoriaze: naqalaqevi, vani, quTaisi); samxreT-aRmo-
Tavisi ZiriTadi saxe; miT umetes, aseTi ver iqneba umwerlobo savleT da aRmosavleT nawilSi - diaoxi da sxv.
tomobrivi ena Tu kilo. 1000 wlis manZilzec ki mxolod did sa- azos, qujisa da farnavazis dros nawilobriv aRdga erTiani
mwerlobo tradicias SeuZlia, Seanelos enis mniSvnelovani saqarTvelo centriT - mcxeTaSi; farnavazma saqarTvelo dayo sa-
cvlilebis procesi; 4000-5000 wlian Tvisobriv ucvlelobaze ki, mTavroebad, SemoiRo damwerloba saerTo qarTveluri enis baza-
vfiqrobT, laparakic zedmetia. enaTa daTariRebis Sesaxeb msje- ze, gamoacxada saxelmwifo religia (am dros cal-calke ar arse-
lobisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT samwerlobo tradiciis mqone da bobda iberia da kolxeTi; Sdr., g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.422).
umwerlobo enebis asakis tipologia: Tuki awmyodan gavadevnebT Sesabamisad, dRevandel lazTa, megrelTa, imerxevelTa, mesx-
Tvals amJamindel enebs, aRmoCndeba, rom werilobiTi tradiciis Ta, kaxTa, svanTa, herTa, fxovelTa da sxva qarTveluri modgmis
enebis umravlesoba ver gadaSordeba 2000 weliwads; miT umetes, TemTa didi winaprebi: miTebSi gadasuli aietic da medeac, mogvi-
Zneli dasajerebelia, rom umwerlobo enebma Tavi SeinarCunes anebiT, azonic, qujic, farnavazic, qarTamic, rostamic, gorgasa-
5000-6000 wlis manZilze. lic, leonic, Wyondidelebic da iovane petriwic oficialurad
enobriv erTeulTa Cven mier warmodgenili analizi da msje- saerToqarTvelur, an mis struqturul adekvat, zogadqarTul
loba mxars uWers saerToqarTveluris daSvebas ufro Zv.w. pir- samwignobro enaze metyvelebdnen, werdnen da, rac mTavaria, er-
vel aTaswleulSi; Sesabamisad, iberiul-kavkasiuri erTobis ar- Toblivad qmnidnen ramdenime aTaswlovan qarTvelur (mosxur-
seboba savaraudebelia Zv.w.IV-II aTaswleulebSi (Sdr.: v.ivanovi, kolxur-iberiul) kulturas.
T.gamyreliZe, 1984, gv.880; m.qurdiani, 2003, gv.44 da sxv.).
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT:
II aTaswleulis dasasruls qarTveluri tomebi moicavdnen
aRmosavleT da samxreT SavizRvispireTs (soWidan sinopemde),
mtkvris xeobis did nawils da Woroxis xeobas mTlianad; tomTa-
Sorisi oficialuri ena unda yofiliyo saerToqarTveluri
enobrivi modelis mqone ena - sisina a tipis ena (da ara: ararsebu-
li qarTis tomis ena, zanuri, Teoriulad navaraudevi zanur-qar-
Tuli ena an sxva romelime enobrivi erTeuli). am saerToqarTve-
lurma modgmam Seqmna Zveli wyaroebiT cnobili saxelmwifo
aia/kolxa da arqeologiuri kvlevebiT aRmoCenili kolxuri
kultura, romlis erT-erTi ZiriTadi regioni iyo istoriu-
li kolas mxare (aqedanaa nawarmoebi kolxa: kol-a/i > kol-x-a).
savaraudoa, es saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba moicavda e.w. nai-
ris qveynebis nawils. Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi es saxel-
mwifo ramdenime nawilad iSleba: dasavleT nawilSi warmoiq-

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qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo

2.3. qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo; qceva~ qarTlisa~":


aleqsandrem azos "miuboZa mcxeTa~ sajdomad da sazRvari da-
23 saukunis winandeli saqarTvelos udva mas hereTi, da egris wyali, da somxiTi da mTa~ crolisa~"
saxelmwifo ena da qarTvelTa dialeqtebi; (Satberdis krebuli, 1979, gv.320). Zveli qarTuli wyaroebidan
qarTveluri damwerloba Cans, rom amave azos dros qarTvelTa saxelwifos saxeli iyo qar-
Tli (RvTaeba qarTis/xaldis xalxis qveyana).
saberZneTis daqvemdebarebas qarTveloba didxans ver Seguebia:
2.3.1. istoriuli realiebi
berZenTa Sinaareulobis Jams (diadoxosebis brZola), qarTu-
li saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT, mcxeTis mamasaxlisis - uflo-
Zv.w. pirveli aTaswleulis Sua periodSi, urartus dacemis
sis STamomaval samaras - memkvidre farnavazma da egrisis erisTav-
Semdeg istoriuli kolxeTis aRmosavleTi da samxreT-aRmosavle-
ma qujim, Crdilokavkasiel moZmeTa daxmarebiT, daamarcxes ber-
Ti nawili sparseTis xelSi gadadis (me-19 satrapia), samxreT-Savi-
Znuli orientaciis azos jarebi da, faqtobrivad, didi kolxeTis
zRvispireTi nawili (Semdgomi pontos samefo) berZnebs uWiravT,
sazRvrebSi aRadgines sruliad qarTlis saxelmwifos damouki-
xolo darCenili "mcire kolxeTi" - qarTuli wyaroebis qarTli debloba. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos mefis uflebis Sesaxeb
(dasavleTi qarTli - egrisi da aRmosavleTi qarTli - qarTl-ka- msjeloba sainteresodaa warmodgenili mematianis mier; kerZod,
xeT-kuxeT-hereTi, samxreTi qarTli - mesxeTi), xarks uxdis ra mefobis erT-erTi pretendenti - quji - eubneba meores - farna-
sparseTs, nominalurad inarCunebs damoukideblobas. vazs:
Zv.w. IV saukuneSi aleqsandre makedonelis mier sparseTis da- "Sen xar Svili TavTa maT qarTlisaTa, da Sen gmarTebs uf-
marcxebis Semdeg, qarTvelebs miecaT erTiani saxelmwifos - sru- loba Cemi" (e.i. vinaidan qarTvelTa Soris gamorCeuli gvaris
liad qarTlis - aRdgenis SesaZlebloba. qarTvelTa mefis statu- STamomavali xar, Cven, yvelani - sxva qarTvelebi - Sen unda dage-
si miiRo berZenTa mier daniSnulma azom; azo warmoSobiT samxre- morCiloTo)... erTiani qarTlis mefe farnavazma saxelmwifo rva
Ti mesxeTidan/kabadokiidan Cans (v.goilaZe, 1991, gv.52; n.xazaraZe, did saerisTavod dayo. "qarTlis cxovrebis" es monakveTi sainte-
2001, gv.394). "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, misi sataxto qalaqi resoa saqarTvelos maSindeli sazRvrebis TvalsazrisiT:
gaxda mcxeTa; azos mmarTvelobas daeqvemdebara aRmosavleT sa- sruliad qarTlis aRdgenis Semdeg "egris wyals quemoT da-
qarTveloc (gviandeli mcire iberiac), egrisic, mosxikes terito- rCa berZenTa, rameTu mkAdrTa mis adgilisaTa ara inebes gan-
riac da Crdilo kavkasiis nawilic ki (osni, lekni da xazarni) - dgoma berZenTa. maSin farnavaz misca da~ TAsi ovsTa mefesa co-
berZenTa proteqtoratis qveS erT saxelmwifod gaerTianda lad, da meore da~ TAsi misca qujis colad. da misca qujis que-
qarTvelur tomTa didi nawili (Woroxis, mtkvris zemowelis, yana egris wyalsa da rions Sua, zRviTagan mTamde, romelsa Si-
ior-alaznis, aragvis, rion-engurisa da kodor-klisuris xeobe- na ars egrisi da suaneTi, da daamtkica igi erisTavad mun. da
bi). SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom berZnebis interesSi Sedioda kav- man quji aRaSena cixe-goji.
kasionis uReltexilebis kontroli da azos amitomac aarCevines maSin farnavaz uSiS iqmna yovelTa mterTa TvisTagan da mefe
mcxeTa dedaqalaqad. iqmna yovelsa qarTlsa da egursa zeda. da ganamravlna yovelni
mBedarni qarTlosianni, ganawesna erisTavni rvani da spaspeti.
qarTlis sazRvrebs daaxloebiT amgvaradve gansazRvravs "mo-
erTni gagzavna margvis erisTavad, da misca mciriT mTiTgan,

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qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo

romel ars lixi, vidre zRuadmde, rions zemoT (yvela variant- lazebi cxovroben.
Si ikiTxeba "vidre zRuamde"; Sdr.: s.yauxCiSviliseuli gaswore- amgvarad, qarTvel mematianeTa Txroba amowmebs, rom Zveli
ba). da amanve farnavaz aRaSenna orni cixeni, Sorapani da dimna. kolxeTis did nawilSi isev aRdga qarTvelTa saxelmwifo (Sdr.,
da gagzavna meore kaxeTisa erisTavad, da misca aragviTagan anania jafariZe, 1994, gv.62: kolxeTis samefos wiaRSi safuZveli
vidre hereTamde, romel ars kaxeTi da kuxeTi. eyreboda erTian qarTul saxelmwifos Zv.w. VI-IV saukuneebSi).
mesame gagzavna xunanisa erisTavad, da misca berdujis mdi- saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enad farnavazma gamoacxada qarTuli
nariTgan vidre tfilisamde da gaCianTamdis, romel ars garda- ena, romelic, rogorc zogadqarTuli Tu tomTaSorisi ena, yve-
bani. la qarTveluri tomisTvis erTnairad iyo misaRebi. saistorio
meoTxe gagzavna samSAldis erisTavad, da misca skvireTisa wyaro, aseve, farnavazs miawers qarTuli mwignobrobis anu anba-
mdinariTgan vidre mTamde, romel ars taSiri da aboci. nis Seqmnas ("qujis orientacia, Seqmniliyo erTiani saqarTvelo,
mexuTe gagzavna wundis erisTavad, da misca fanvariTgan SeuZlebelia mogvIianebiT SeTxzuliyo. farnavazis reformis-
vidre Tavadmde mtkurisa, romel ars javaxeTi da kola da ar- tul moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebul, Cveni azriT, realistur faq-
taani. tebs, mematiane ver gamoigonebda"; g.qavTaria, 2000, gv. 28).
meequse gagzavna oZrBis erisTavad, da misca taSiskariTgan lingvistur-kulturologiuri kvlevis Tanamedrove etapze
vidre arsianTamdis, nostis TaviTgan zRuamdis, romel ars sa- sakmao safuZveli gvaqvs, vTqvaT:
mcxe da aWara. farnavazis dros qarTvelur tomebs hqondaT saerToqarTve-
meSAde gagzavna klarjeTis erisTavad, da misca arsianiTgan luri (zogadqarTuli) enobrivi koine, romelsac saxelmwifo
zRuamde. da merve, quji, iyo erisTavi egrisisa. enis funqcia hqonda; Sdr., mematiane wers: "da arRara izraxebo-
xolo erTi daadgina spaspetad da misca tfilisiTgan da
da sxua ena qarTlsa Sina Tvinier qarTulisa"; Sdr., imave mema-
aragATagan vidre tasiskaramde da fanvaradmde, romel ars Si-
tianis azriT, farnavazamdel qarTlSi qarTulTan erTad Tana-
da-qarTli. da ese spaspeti iyo Semdgomadve winaSe mefisa,
arsebobda: somxuri (anu urartulis memkvidre ena – t.f.), xaza-
mTavrobiT ganagebdis yovelTa erisTavTa zeda. xolo amaT
erisTavTa queSe, adgilTa da adgilTa, ganaCinna spasalarni da ruli, asuruli, ebrauli da berZnuli; xazgasmiT aRsaniSnavia
aTasisTavni, da maT yovelTagan movidoda xarki sameufo da sae- isic, rom aq saerTod ar aris saubari arc calkeul qarTvelur
risTavo"... (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.24-25). tomTa enebsa Tu dialeqtebze da arc Crdilokavkasiur enobriv
am vrcel amonaridSi Cven yuradRebas mivaqcevT farnavaz-qu- erTeulebze.
jis saxelmwifos gaerTianeba-aRdgenis nebayoflobiT xasiaTs Zvel RvTaebaTa sakiTxis mimoxilva cxadyofs, rom am perio-
(JamTaaRmweris xedva zog specialists gulubryviloba hgonia): dis saqarTveloSi SenarCunebulia mcireaziur sxva monaTesave
egris wyals quemoTa mxareSi - Crdilo-dasavleT saqarTve- xalxebTan kulturuli erToba; Sdr.: .gr.giorgaZe, 1985, gv.156:
loSi mcxovrebma qarTvelobam ar ineba (!) berZnebisgan gandgoma "qarTuli warmarTuli RvTaebebis sameuli tipur mcireaziur
da isev berZenTa proteqtoratis qveS darCa... Zveli qarTveli RvTaebebs ganasaxierebda: armazuli triada daaxloebiT Zv.w. III
mematianis azriT, es mxarec egrosis wilia, xolo gviandeli saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi "Seqmna" axladwarmoqmnili qarTlis
CanarTis mixedviT - afSil-afxazeTi. romauli wyaroebis cnobiT, saxelmwifos pirvelma mefem - farnavazma Zvel mcireaziul mo-
welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze am adgilebSi (dioskuriis midamoebSi) delTan mimsgavsebiT; Cans, aseTi "modeli" arsebobda anatoliaSi

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qujisa da farnavazis saqarTvelo qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxelmwifo

ara marto xeTur-xuritul xanaSi, aramed - momdevno periodSic 2.3.2. qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli
(Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi), rodesac xeTur-xurituli kulturisa da saxelmwifo enis fonematuri modelis sakiTxi
religiis tradiciebi jer kidev ar iyo gamqrali aRmosavleT mci-
re aziaSi". arqauli qarTuli samwignobro enis fonematur struqtura-
ix., agreTve, v.goilaZe, 1991, gv.52: "moqceva~ qarTlisa~"-Si ar- ze msjelobisas arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWeba asomTavrul anbans,
vinaidan qarTuli damwerlobis msgavsi srulyofili anbanuri
sebuli cnobiT, gacisa da gas kerpebi aleqsandre makedonelis mi-
sistemis Seqmna SeuZlebelia enis bgeriTi Sedgenilobis zusti
er qarTlis mmarTvelad dadgenilma azom arian-qarTlidan
analizis gareSe.
gadmoitana"; xeTebis samefos dedaqalaq xaTusas (axlandeli bo-
droTa ganmavlobaSi qarTuli anbanis asoTa moxazuloba
Razqoi) "samefo WiSkarze" arsebuli RvTaeba xacis gamosaxuleba gamravalferovnda (asomTavruli, nusxuri, mxedruli), magram
da iqve aRmoCenil lursmul warwerebSi amave RvTaebis aRweri- enis fonematur struqturaSi arsebiTi cvaleba ar momxdara;
loba identuria armazuli gacis qarTuli aRwerilobisa; Sesaba- garda amisa, Zveli qarTveli ucnobi mwignobrebis mier Tavidanve
misad, vfiqrob, "arian-qarTli kapadokiaa, xolo azos mamis sagam- iseTi sizustiT iyo dadgenili qarTveluri enis sametyvelo
geo teritoria mcire aziaSia saZiebeli". bgerebi, rom Tanamedrove mecnierebis miRwevebis fonzec ki
SeniSvna: istorikosTa nawili ndobiT ar ekideboda "qarTlis cxov- idealuria arqauli qarTulis fonemaTa da grafemaTa
rebis" cnobebs; Tanamedrove gamokvlevebi ufro da ufro amyarebs jer
Sefardeba.
kidev 1919 wels mari broses mier Tavis ukanasknel "memuarebSi" gamo-
qarTuli saistorio tradicia, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, qar-
Tqmul azrs: "qarTlis cxovreba qarTvel tomTa uZvelesi istoriisa-
Tuli samwignobro enisTvis anbanis Seqmnas farnavazis saxels
Tvis savsebiT sandoa; kidev metic, qarTul matianeTa cnobebi sandoa
ara mxolod kavkasiis tomTa istoriis Sesaxeb, aramed wina aziis is- ukavSirebs. samecniero literaturis erT nawilSi gaziarebulia
toriisaTvisac" (a.baramiZe, 1986, gv.116). amgvari pozicia; meore nawilSi qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis TariRi
sarwmuno Cans amgvari varaudic: gadaweulia Zv.w. VII saukuneSi, zogi mkvlevris azriT ki, qarTu-
miTridateebis ponto da kabadokia ZiriTadad qarTveluri li anbani Seiqmna qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxade-
bis Semdeg (literaturis mimoxilvisTvis ix. r.patariZe, 1980;
tomebiT dasaxlebuli qveynebi iyo, magram qarTvelur saxelmwi-
T.gamyreliZe, 1989). Cven ar gamovricxavT SesaZleblobas, rom qar-
fod imitom ver daimkvidres Tavi, rom iq saxelmwifo ena da da-
Tuli anbanis ZiriTadi modeli Seiqmna farnavazis dros, rome-
mwerloba ar iyo qarTuli; Sdr., saqarTveloSi ponto-kabadoki-
lic, mogvianebiT, qristianuli literaturis Targmnis period-
idan arian mosuli azoc, wminda ninoc da kabadokieli wminda mame-
Si, berZnuli anbanis gavleniT "dazustda" - daemata qarTulisa-
bic; maT aq egulebodaT TavianTi naTesavebis ZiriTadi sacxovri-
Tvis ucxo ramdenime aso-niSani (Ä, uÂ...).
si. saqarTveloSi wminda giorgis gamorCeuli Tayvaniscema eTni- erT saintereso garemoebas miaqcia yuradReba episkoposma
kuri fesvebiTac SeiZleba iyos motivirebuli. anania jafariZem; misi azriT, anbani qristianobis Semosvlis Sem-
deg rom Seqmniliyo, am qristianul Rvawls uTuod aRniSnavdnen
qarTveli mematianeni, ramdenadac, rogorc wesi, isini sasuliero
moRvaweni iyvnen (a.jafariZe, 1994, gv.90). amave dros, faqtia isic,
rom qristianobamdeli qarTuli warwerebi ar aris Semonaxuli,
Tumca, nekresis warwerebis msgavsad, kidev ra siurprizs gvimza-

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qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxelmwifo qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxelmwifo

debs axali aRmoCenebi, ufalma uwyis... xatavad Seqmnes; mogvianebiT ki, berZnulis analogiiT ukana rigis
romel periodSi Seqmniladac ar unda vivaraudoT qarTuli bagismieri xmovnisTvis SemoRebuli digrafis (uÂ) damkvidrebis
anbani, aSkaraa, rom igi zustad asaxavs TanxmovanTa, sonantTa da Semdeg, igi ui/Ei segmentis simbolod damkvidrda; O/Ei qarTul-
xmovanTa saerToqarTvelur sistemas; garda amisa, gvaqvs sakmarisi Si fonema ar iyo, amitomac  niSnis gamoyenebaSi garkveuli aRre-
argumentebi, vamtkicoT, rom qarTuli asomTavrulis Semoqmedi vebi damwerlobam Tavidan ver aicila, Tumca, rogorc xanmeti
uTuod icnobda rogorc finikiur, aseve berZnul anbanur siste- teqstebis analiziT Cans, Â (vie) ZiriTadad ui (da ara Ei/vi) kom-
mas; swored am konteqstSia saintereso erTi garemoeba: pleqss Seesabameboda...
finikiurSi gamoixateboda E da ~ bgerebi, xolo berZnulSi - Cvens mosazrebas amyarebs ramdenime garemoeba:
u da i; qarTul damwerlobaSi Tavidanve gvaqvs oTxive bgeris a) qristianuli kanonikuri wignebis Targmnisas mTargmneli
fardi aso-niSani; vfiqrobT, rom asomTavrulis v swored wyvil- valdebuli iyo, mkacrad daecva dedanTan Sesabamisoba; gamomdina-
bagismier umarcvlo bgeras gamoxatavda da ara kbilbagismier spi- re aqedan, berZnuli anbanis mixedviT xdeboda damwerlobis "ga-
rants (dawvrilebiT ix. t.futkaraZe, 1998). warmodgenili ori marTva"... Sdr., swored am mizeziT TiTqmis uaryofil iqna goTu-
sonantis oTxive alofoni aisaxeboda agreTve runul da, gamomdi- ri runuli warmarTuli xasiaTis anbani (T. gamyreliZe, 1989,
nare aqedan, axal goTur damwerlobaSi, romelic Zveli goTuri- gv.100)... savaraudoa, qristianobis Semdeg msgavsi reforma qarTu-
sa da berZnuli uncialuri damwerlobisagan Seiqmna (goTurisa lSic moexdinaT, romlis erT-erTi Sedegic iyo berZnulis mibaZ-
da uncialuri berZnulis mimarTebisaTvis ix. T. gamyreliZe, 1984, viT digramis SemoReba u bgerisaTvis da 23-e grafemis damkvidre-
gv.101; agreTve, r.patariZe, 1980, gv. 137); goTurisave E niSnis saxe- ba O/ui/Ei kompleqsis aRsaniSnavad.
li emTxveva qarTuli v (vini) niSnis saxelwodebas; SeiZleba da- b) uÂ-s ricxviTi mniSvnelobis uqonlobis axsna berZnulis
vuSvaT, rom goTuri anbanis Semqmnels an qarTuli anbanic edo analogiiT nakleb logikuria; imave goTurSi digramis nacvlad
win, an qarTulic da etruskul-goTuric am niSans finikiurisgan monograma gvaqvs, romelsac sakuTari ricxviTi mniSvnelobac aqvs.
iReben... qarTuli anbanis Semoqmedma abruptivTa (p, t, w, W, k, y) garda,
SeniSvna: runuli damwerloba saTaves iRebs etruskulisa- berZnulisagan gansxvavebul kidev 12 sametyvelo bgeras (E, ~, J,
gan; Tu gaviTvaliwinebT imasac, rom zogi mkvlevari etrus-
kuls saerToqarTvelur enasTan akavSirebs, sainteresod
R, C, c, z, q, p, j, h) mouZebna originaluri aso-niSani, srulyo ri-
SeiZleba dadges zogi sxva sakiTxic. cxviTi mniSvnelobebis sistema, berZnulisaTvis bunebrivi da qar-
sayuradReboa: qarTulSi, finikiuris analogiiT, v/E-s Sesa- TulisaTvis ucxo me-16 aso-niSnis adgilas qarTulisaTvis dama-
bamisi niSani gamoxatavs 6 ricxviT mniSvnelobas, goTurSi ki, ber- xasiaTebeli sonantis umarcvlo alofonis - ~-s grafema Casva,
Znulis msgavsad, 400-s Seesabameba; goTuri u-s asoniSani me-16 ad- amiT ganasxvava ra ~ da i alofonebi... anbanis Semqmnelis genia-
gilzea da 70 aRniSnavs; qarTulSi am adgilas o zis. luri Wvretisa da Rrmad mecnieruli analizis fonze auxsnelia,
rac Seexeba u sonantis marcvlovan variants: erTi mxriv, qarTuli digramis da Sesabamisi berZnuli pirvel-
berZnulSi, Tavdapirvelad, 23-e aso-niSani u-s Seesabameboda; wyaros sruli grafikuli erTgvaroba, meore mxriv ki, misiT mar-
mogvianebiT mas daakisres O-s aRniSvna da u-sTvis digrafi Semoi- cvlovani da umarcvlo variantebis gamoxatva...
Res; 23-e niSnis ricxviTi mniSvnelobaa 400. aSkaraa, rom digrama amovardnilia qarTuli anbanTSemoqme-
Cveni azriT, ganviTarebis amgvarive gza unda gaevlo qarTu- debis procesidan, rac mis gviandelobaze unda metyvelebdes;
li asomTavrulis 23-e niSan Â-sac, igi Tavdapirvelad u-s gamosa- garda amisa, Tuki qarTuli asomTavruli anbani qristianobis Sem-

- 304 - - 305 -
qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxelmwifo qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxelmwifo

degaa Seqmnili berZnulis analogiiT, amdeni gansxvavebuli bgeri- Seiqmna, kbilbagismierad gaazrebul iqna gvian Sua saukuneebSi
saTvis grafemis Semqmnel qarTvel anbanTSemoqmeds ratom gau- laTinuri enis gramatikebis gavleniT (Sdr., Tu enaSi gvaqvs
Wirdeboda qarTul enaSi ase intensiurad gamoyenebuli bagismie- labiodentaluri mJReri fonema v, im enebSi vlindeba yru f
ri spiranti Tanxmovnisa da bagismieri xmovnis grafikuli gamij- fonemac). Cveni azriT, Zveli qarTulis kuali, leku, SexuabT...
vna, maTTvis originaluri grafemebis Seqmna maSin, roca ganasxvava tipis formebSi sruli xmovania aRniSnuli da ara E. es ukanaskne-
ufro rTulad gasamijni /i/ da /~/? li ivaraudeba qva, qveli, yveli, wyvili, xvale, pirveli, svla... ri-
g) qarTuli anbanis grafemebi saocari simyariT gamoirCevian gis sityvebSi. qristianuli kanonikuri Zeglebis qmnadobis mogvi-
aRsaniSnisa da aRmniSvnelis mimarTebis TvalsazrisiT; gamonak- ano periodebSi avtorebi aqtiurad cdilobdnen u alofonis Se-
liss qmnis mxolod u sonanti fonemis alofonTa gamoxatva (iSvi- sabamisi rTuli grafemis Secvlas isev  an u martivi niSniT...
aTad SemCneulia i/~ grafemebis monacvleobac; imnaiSvili, 1982, d) ana dedofliseuli "qarTlis cxovrebis" xelnaweris avto-
gv.117), kerZod, mkvlevarTa mier dadgenilia, rom v gamoxatavs E/v ri zogi v-s Tavze wertils svamda (iv. javaxiSvili, 1949, gv.137); ma-
alofonebs;  niSani u/E/Ei (da ara ui-s), xolo u - u/E-s (saki- riam dedofliseul xelnawerSi am adgilas u gvaqvs (yueli); an-
Txis istoriisaTvis ix., agreTve, k. danelia, z. sarjvelaZe, 1997)... ton kaTalikosma E aso-niSani SemoiRo... Cveni azriT, amis axsna
Tumca, am dros ara gvaqvs zusti kriteriumi, gavarkvioT, mag., Semdegnairad SeiZleba: antonis dros qarTuli anbanis v niSniT
SexuabT formaSi igi marcvlovan bgeras aRniSnavda Tu umar- gamoxatuli bgera laTinuris gavleniT ukve kbilbagismieradaa
cvlos (ak.SaniZis varaudi Tanamedrove qarTulis Cvenebas efuZ- gaazrebuli... ar aris gamoricxuli, rom antonma E SemoiRo sa-
neboda! ix. ak. SaniZe, 1976, gv.20); agreTve, Zvel qarTulSi baZEa, kuTriv u-sgan miRebuli umarcvlo variantis aRsaniSnavad;
xatEa tipis sawyisebSi v grafema gvaqvs; rogorc anton kaTali- sakiTxi Semdgom Ziebas saWiroebs (ix. anton kaTalikosi, 1885;
kosi Tvlis, aq E bgera unda igulisxmebodes... sxva magaliTebis gv.116-117; 285-286).
moyvanac SeiZleba... amgvarad, finikiur da berZnul anbanur sistemaTa gamocdi-
SeniSvna: samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia varaudi, lebis safuZvelze Seqmnil qarTul asomTavrul damwerlobaSi
rom Zvel qarTulSi u grafema, SesaZloa, mxolod marcvlovan aisaxeboda saerToqarTveluris Tu arqauli qarTulisTvis dama-
bgeras aRniSnavda; mogvianebiT E-Ti gamoixateboda u-s reduq-
xasiaTebeli sonanti fonemebis alofonebic. am garemoebis gamo
ciiT miRebuli E/v (T.Jordania, 1889, gv.11-12; v. Tofuria,
finikiur da sakuTriv berZnul sistemebTan SedarebiT, qarTuli
1979, gv.164; m. kobaiZe, 1990, gv.150)...
anbani ufro srulyofilad gamoiyureba; Sdr.: finikiuri anbani
vfiqrobT, sonantis alofonTa gamoxatvaSi arsebuli ryeva
ZiriTadad konsonantur fonemebs gamoxatavda; xmovani fonemebis
swored digramis SemoRebam gamoiwvia; manamde v-s Seesabamebo-
damatebiT berZnulma gaaumjobesa sametyvelo bgerebis gamoxatvis
da wyvilbagismieri E alofoni, xolo  niSans - marcvlovani
sistema, qarTul anbanSi ki sonant fonemaTa alofonebic aisaxa...
varianti. kbilbagismieri spiranti anbanSi ar gamoixateboda,
vfiqrobT aSkaraa:
vinaidan igi qarTulisTvis arabunebrivia (t.futkaraZe, 1998,
saerToqarTvelursa da arqaul qarTulSi navaraudevi yvela
gv.71-75); labiodentaluri Tanxmovani ar iyo finikiurSi da arc
fonema da i da u sonantTa alofonebic (i/~, u/E) TiTo grafemi-
qarTuli anbanis safuZvlad navaraudev berZnul klasikur anban-
Taa dadasturebuli asomTavrul anbanSic da mxedrulSic; Sesa-
Si; qarTuli anbanis me-6 aso-niSani, romelic Tavidan
bamisad, sruli safuZveli gvaqvs, vTqvaT, rom saerToqarTvelu-
wyvilbagismieri spirantis (sonantis alofonis) gamosaxatavad
risa da samwignobro qarTulis fonematuri struqturebi igive-

- 306 - - 307 -
qarTuli anbani da farnavazisdroindeli saxelmwifo Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro

obrivi monacemebia. qarTvelTa metyvelebaSi sxva enobriv (fonetikur, morfonolo-


giur, morfologiur...) procesebTan erTad ganxorcielda Tan-
2.3.3. Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa xmovanTa da xmovanTa palatalizacia (da sxva movlenebi), ramac
Camoyalibebis dro saTave daudo svanTa dialeqtebis warmoqmnas.
cnobilia, rom monaTesave enobriv sistemebs Soris arsebuli
dialeqtebis warmoqmnis dinamika Cven ase warmogvidgenia: bgeraTSesatyvisobani istoriulad Camoyalibebuli movlenaa
Tanamedrove dialeqtebi yalibdeba samwignobro enisa (oficia- (msjelobisaTvis ix. v.Sengelia, 1999). saerTo enobrivi sistemis-
luri enis, koines) da zepiri metyvelebis mudmivi urTierTgavle- gan dialeqturi variantebis formireba xangrZlivi fonetikuri
nis pirobebSi (zepiri metyveleba SeiZleba arc iyos samwignobro procesebis Sedegia, amdenad, logikuria, davuSvaT, rom amosava-
enis monaTesave enobrivi erTeuli; e.w. gadafarvis kriteriumis li fonemis kanonzomieri da regularuli dialeqturi bgeriTi
Sesaxeb ix. i.gosensi); istoriuli kiloebi ki warmoiqmneba saerTo variantebi erT istoriul-qronologiur monakveTSi Camoyalib-
enis divergenciiTa da mezobeli enobrivi erTeulebis gavleniT. da; mag., saerToqarTveluri *s fonemisgan zanur-svanuri S-s
rogorc wesi, samwignobro enis gavlena metia politikur warmoqmnis procesi erTdroulad ganxorcielda suani > Soni,
da religiur centrTan axlos myofi mosaxleobis metyve- asi > oSi sityvebSi, kac-is > koC-iS formantSic da quTaisis sa-
lebaze; gamomdinare aqedan, mosalodnelia, rom meti cvaleba ga- kuTari saxelis kargad cnobil qarTvelur variantebSic: quTai-
nicadon ganapira dialeqtebma, miT umetes, ganapira regionebSi si/quTeisi/quTeSi/quT@S.
metia mezobeli xalxebis enaTa Tu wes-CveulebaTa gavlenebi. na- drois romel monakveTSi unda ganxorcielebuliyo es fone-
Tqvamis sailustraciod mravali faqtis moyvana SeiZleba; sanimu- tikuri procesi?
Sod davasaxelebT palatalizebuli xmovnebis arsebobas ganapira zanur-svanuri dialeqturi wris Camoyalibebis TariRis zeda
qarTvelur (svanur, herul da, nawilobriv, fxour, mesxur da za- zRvris dasadgenad sayuradRebo argumentebs iZleva qalaq quTa-
nur) dialeqtebSi... isis istoria da misi saxelis variantTa istoriuli mimarTeba:
samecniero literaturaSi saerToqarTveluri enisgan dia- samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom qu-
leqtTa gamoyofis drosa da Tanamimdevrobis Sesaxeb azrTa didi Taisis saxeli Seiqmna saerToqarTveluri enis doneze (a.uruSaZe,
sxvadasxvaobaa: rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, ufro logikuri 1993, gv.33; a.oniani, z.sarjvelaZe, 1971, gv.174 ; g.gabunia, 1973, gv.
da argumentirebulia mosazreba, romlis mixedviTac saerToqar- 23). marTlac, quTaisis saxelis variantebSi warmodgenili bge-
Tvelurisgan samwignobro enis formirebis paralelurad Camoi- raTSesatyvisobebi ver gaCndeboda am dasaxlebuli punqtis daar-
nakvTa ori ZiriTadi dialeqturi wre: e.w. sisina Tanxmovnebiani sebamde; amdenad, logikuria, davuSvaT, rom warmodgenili qar-
dialeqtebi: qarTlur-kaxur-mesxur-fxour-heruli kiloe- Tveluri variantebi Camoyalibda quTaisis daarsebis Semdeg; Se-
bi da e.w. SiSina Tanxmovnebiani dialeqtebi: zanur-svanu- sabamisad, quTaisis istoriisa da misi saxelis nairsaxeobaTa mi-
ri kiloebi; droTa ganmavlobaSi, SiSina kiloebis erT nawilSi marTebis mixedviTac SeiZleba davazustoT zanur-svanuri dia-
sxva enobriv cvlilebebTan erTad, rig SemTxvevebSi, ganxorciel- leqtebis formirebis sawyisi periodi.
da a-s labializacia o-d da e-s depalatalizacia; Sedegad mivi- quTaisis daarsebis dro. quTaisis istorias mravali naSro-
ReT Tanamedrove zanuri dialeqtebi. Crdilokavkasiel eTnosTa mi mieZRvna. quTaisSi pirveli arqeologiuri aRmoCenis avtorad
mezoblad mcxovreb SiSina zanur-svanur kiloze molaparake samecniero literaturaSi aRiarebulia cnobili qarTveli sazo-

- 308 - - 309 -
Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro

gado moRvawe giorgi wereTeli (g.wereTeli, 1882). quTaisis "qvey- sxva SemTxvevaSi ar saxeldeba (l.sanikiZe, 1971; a.uruSaZe, 1993,
nis" teritoriaze sxvadasxva dros arqeologiur gaTxrebs awar- gv.44; g. gabunia, 1973, gv.29). odnav gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi
moebdnen: r.Smidti, l.kozlovski, g.nioraZe, p.Wabukiani, m.ivaSen- hqonda s.yauxCiSvils (s.yauxCiSvili, 1969). r.gordeziani ar gamo-
ko, b.kuftini, n.kilaZe-berZeniSvili, l.musxeliSvili, g.lomTaZe, ricxavs aia-sa da kutaias igiveobas, magram sakiTxs dasabuTebu-
l.jiqia, o.lorTqifaniZe, m.nioraZe, v.liCeli, v.jafariZe, g.kvir- lad ar miiCnevs (r.gordeziani, 1993, gv.46).
kvelia, o.lanCava, g.isakaZe... Zv.w. VII-VI saukunidan moyolebuli, quTaisi metad dawinau-
arqeologiuri masalis Seswavlis safuZvelze quTaisis isto- rebuli da cnobili qalaqia, kolxeTis dedaqalaqia, amdenad, lo-
riaSi ganviTarebis ramdenime ZiriTadi periodia gamoyofili: gikuri iyo, antikur periodSi apolonios rodosels daeSva, rom
1. Zv.w. VIII-IV saukuneebi - qalaqis dafuZnebisa da dawinau- miTuri aia igive kutaia iyo; Sesabamisad, 1000 wlis winandeli ai-
rebis periodi; etisa da iazonis gamiTebuli ambis Txrobisas bunebrivia quTai-
2. Zv.w. IV-ax.w. IV saukuneebi - qalaqis dakninebis, anu e.w. sis moxsenieba saberZneTis uZveles qalaqebTan erTad. kvlevis Ta-
"bneli" periodi; namedrove etapze, ramdenime mizezis gamo, upirveles problemad
3. IV-V saukuneebi - quTaisis, rogorc egrisis mTavari qala- Cven swored aietis samkvidrosa da kutaias igiveoba gvesaxeba;
qis, aRorZinebis periodi; kolxas dedaqalaqi Woroxis xeobaSia Tu rionis?
4. VI-VII saukuneebi - quTaisi kargavs politikur priori- mecnierTa erTi nawili (n.mari, g.meliqiSvili, T.miqelaZe,
tets; 1974, gv.84 da sxv.) varaudobs, rom istoriuli kolxas dedaqalaqi
5. VIII-X saukuneebi - quTaisis xelaxali aRmavloba egris- - aietis rezidencia - iyo samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi (arta-
afxazeTis dedaqalaqobidan - sruliad saqarTvelos de- nujSi); Sesabamisad, iazoni movida ara rionis, aramed Woroxis xe-
daqalaqobamde (sakiTxis istoriisa da bibliografiisa- obaSi;
Tvis ix. o.lorTqifaniZe, 1994 da o.lanCava, 1996). aqve sayuradReboa isic, rom Zv.w. XV-X saukuneebis kolxuri
quTaisis Sesaxeb gamoqveynebulia ori monografia: 1960 brinjaos cnobil ganZTagan ufro meti samxreT-dasavleT saqar-
wels daibeWda vladimer CakvetaZis "quTaisis istoriidan" da TveloSia aRmoCenili, vidre dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoria-
1962, 1989 wlebSi - vaxtang jaoSvilis "quTaisi"; 1994 wels gamoi- ze (T.miqelaZe, 1974, gv.40); sakuTriv quTaisis teritoriaze (go-
ca mniSvnelovani samecniero krebuli: "quTaisi uZvelesi droi- razec da rionis pirasac) mikvleuli masala ki Zv.w. pirveli aTas-
dan XIII saukunemde"; warmodgenil gamokvlevebSi sarwmunodaa wleulis VIII saukunes ar scildeba.
miCneuli arqeologebis mier miRebuli daskvnebi quTaisis daar- adgilis zusti gansazRvriT, "qarTlis cxovrebaSi" quTaisi
sebis Sesaxeb. pirvelad ax.w. VIII saukunidan dasturdeba (o.lorTqifaniZe,
quTaisis daarsebis drosTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs gansxva- 1994, gv.20), qarTul sabuTebSi ki - XI saukunidan (T.yauxCiSvili,
vebuli mosazreba, kerZod, l.sanikiZis, a.uruSaZis, g.gabunias da 1994, gv.33). berZnul wyaroebSi 11 saukuniT Zveli, kerZod, Zv.w. III
sxvaTa azriT, quTaisi warmoiqmna Zv.w. meore aTaswleulis Sua pe- saukunis damowmeba gvaqvs. ufro adreuli wyaroebi sando loka-
riodSi; kerZod, l.sanikiZes argumentad mohyavs is faqti, rom lizacias ar gvaZleven.
apolonios rodoseli "argonavtikaSi" kutaias moixseniebs mxo- kolxas dedaqalaqis Sesaxeb SegviZlia vimsjeloT mdinare fa-
lod im qalaqTa gverdiT, romlebic arsebobdnen Zv.w. meore aTas- zisis mixedviT, magram, Zv.w. III saukunidanve moyolebuli, fazi-
wleulidan; "argonavtikaSi" antikuri periodis "axali" qalaqebi sad moixsenieba Woroxic, rionic da kidev, yubanic da araqsic (sa-

- 310 - - 311 -
Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro

kiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. m.berZniSvili, 1969, gv.89 da g.grigolia, quTaisis saxelis warmodgenili mravali varianti xuT Ziri-
1994, gv.49-50, 55); Woroxic sanaosno mdinare iyo (arTvinamde) da Tad jgufad warmodgeba: 1.kota/kuta, 2.kutaia, 3. kuTaiisi/quTa-
rion-yvirilac (Sorapnamde)... berZnuli wyaroebiTve, zRvidan ai- isi/ quTeisi/quTeSi/quT@S, 4.quTaTi, 5.quTaTisi/quTaTusi...
etis qalaqamde manZili 55 km ar aRemateba, rac saZiebel qalaqad amaTgan sainteresoa mesame jgufi, sadac toponimis qarTvelur va-
ufro artanujs gvavaraudebinebs (ix. g.meliqiSvili, 1954; Sdr. o. riantebSi ueWvelad dasturdeba s/S bgeraTSesatyvisoba.
lorTqifaniZe, 1966); Tumca, Woroxis kalapotidan artanujamde - toponim quTaisis etimologia. toponim quTaisis ramdenime
TurTumis msgavsad maRali mTebiT dacul xeobaTa Sesayar etimologia arsebobs; mas qva/qua sityvasTan akavSirebdnen d.me-
qalaqamde - 10-15 km manZilze SeuZlebelia naviT mgzavroba. RvineTxucesiSvili, v.CakvetaZe (1960, gv.55), v.jaoSvili (1989,
sakiTxi Semdgom kvlevas iTxovs. gv.57). g.Jordanias mixedviT, quTaisi darqmeulia misi amgebis sa-
quTaisis aRmocenebis drois TvalsazrisiT, jerjerobiT, uf- xelis - quTaTis - mixedviT. n. balanCivaZis azriT, "albaT arse-
ro sarwmunod arqeologTa daskvnebi migvaCnia: danamdvilebiT bobda kutas gvari Tu tomi, romlis saxeli miuRia quTaiss". qa-
SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom quTaisis saqalaqo cxovreba dawyebulia Zve-
laqis etimologias quTas gvars ukavSirebs g.eliavac. g.gabunias
li welTaRricxvis VIII-VI saukuneebSi (o.lorTqifaniZe, 1988;
(g.gabunia, 1996, gv.244; g.gabunia, 1999, gv.97-99) varaudiT, quTaisi
o.lorTqifaniZe, 1994; o.lanCava, 1996).
SeiZleba miRebuli iyos kompozit quT-aia-sgan; mkvlevari ar
quTaisis saxelis variantebi. istoriul wyaroebSi quTai-
gamoricxavs SesaZleblobas, rom saxelwodeba aia-quTaia-quTaTi-
sis saxelis aTze meti variantia dadasturebuli, kerZod, 1993
si dakavSirebuli iyos qarTveli xalxis eTnogenezisis proble-
wels gamoqveynebul akaki uruSaZis gamokvlevaSi: "quTaisi ber- masTan; kerZod, an erT-erTi mTavari qarTveluri eTnarqis, an ci-
Znul da romaul wyaroebSi" damowmebulia: ur mnaTobTa Zvelkolxuri RvTaebis saxeli iyos.
kutaia, kute (likofroni, Zv.w. III s.),
arc erTi avtoris mosazrebas sarwmuno lingvisturi dasa-
kutaiisi (apolonios rodoseli, Zv.w. III s.),
buTeba ar axlavs...
kuteisi ("orfikuli argonavtika", ax.w. IV s.),
mecnierTa erTi nawili toponimis fuZes araqarTveluri
kuta (stefane bizantieli, ax.w. VI s.),
warmomavlobisad miiCnevs; kerZod: n. mari da s.kakabaZe afxazur
kotiaioni/ko~taioni, kutaisi, kutatisi, kutatusi ["ase eZaxi-
an lazebi"] (prokopi kesarieli, ax.w. VI s.),
q˚Ta ("sofeli") sityvas ukavSireben; i.jiSkariani - arCibul qu-
kotaisi (agaTia sqolastikosi, ax.w.VI s.)... Tas ("qali"), k.hani da a.uruSaZe SesaZleblad Tvlian, amosavlad
a.uruSaZis dakvirvebiT, "damowmebul yvela formaSi Tavda- berZnuli kutos "tyavi" davsaxoT (am da sxva mosazrebebis mimo-
pirveli da amosavalia kut/quT Ziri, romlis u xmovans kanonzo- xilvisTvis ix. v.CakvetaZe, 1960, gv.49-55; a.uruSaZe, 1993, gv.42-43 da
mierad enacvleba o, o~, oE xmovnebi" (a.uruSaZe, 1993, gv.31). m.inaZe, 1994, gv.64).
VII saukunis e.w. somxur anonimur "geografiaSi" quTaisis aR- Cveni azriT, quTaisis qarTuli warmomavloba eWvs ar iwvevs.
saniSnavad gamoyenebulia kota forma. aseve, qarTveluri variantebis SepirispirebiT aSkaraa, rom uZve-
"qarTlis cxovrebaSi" da sxva werilobiT ZeglebSi CvenTvis lesi forma da qalaqis oficialuri saxelwodebaa quTaisi;
saintereso qalaqis saxelis ramdenime varianti gvidasturdeba: ucxour wyaroebSi qalaqis saxeli qarTveluri arealidanaa Se-
quTaTisi, quTaTi, quTaisi; qarTvelur dialeqtebSi ki damowme- Tvisebuli. quTaTi SedarebiT gvian Seqmnili dialeqturi (zanu-
buli gvaqvs: quTeisi, quTeSi da quT@S. ri) forma Cans. SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom quTaTisi/quTaTusi am

- 312 - - 313 -
Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro

ori formis kontaminaciiTaa warmoqmnili (Sdr., a.oniani, z.sa- zRvris dadgenis TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa welTaRricxvaTa mi-
rjvelaZe, 1971, gv.174). jnisdroindeli berZnuli cnobebi lazebis, svanebisa da suano-
svanuri quT@S formis warmoqmnis Semdegi gza unda vivarau- kolxebis arsebobis Sesaxeb; mag., klavdios ptolemaiosis (100-178)
doT: quTaisi > *quTa-iS-i > quT@-iS/quT@S (Sdr., a.oniani,z.sa- cnobiT, bzifidan rionamde cxovroben lazebi, manralebi, ekrik-
rjvelaZe, 1971, gv174); zanuri quTeSi ki Semdegnairadaa miRebu- tikes qveynis mcxovrebni... maT CrdiloeTiT cxovroben aqa~ebi,
li: quTaisi > quTeisi/quTeiSi > quTeSi. kerketebi da suanokolxebi (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.160); Sdr., le-
quTaisis saxelis yvela variantis morfologiuri analizi ontisTvis egrisi da suaneTi zogjer sinonimebia...
(gansakuTrebiT svanuri quT@S < *quTa-Si < *quTa-iS-i) mxars dRes rTulia msjeloba, Tu konkretulad ra saxisa iyo am
uWers toponimis fuZed quTa-s (berZnuli formiT: kota/ko~ta) tomTa metyveleba; naklebadaa savaraudo, rom welTaRricxvaTa
ganxilvas. mijnaze lazur-megruli ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo CvenTvis cno-
p.ingoroyvas azriT, SemTxveviTad ar unda CaiTvalos is gare- bil lingvistur sazRvrebSi, Tumca zanur-svanuri dialeqturi
moeba, rom erTmaneTs emTxveva jiqeTSi mdebare "Zveli lazikis" wris formirebis procesi uTuod dawyebulia.
Temis saxelwodeba (quTasi/qoTaSi) da amJamindel qalaq quTaisis
saxeli. a.uruSaZis azriT, amave fuZes SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes ***
qsenofontes mier dasaxelebuli erT-erTi qarTvelur-kolxuri dasavlurqarTveluri (SiSina) dialeqturi wris Camoyalibe-
satomo saxeli ko~tebi (a.uruSaZe, 1993, gv.32); amgvari azri gamo- ba, vfiqrobT, SeiZleba daukavSirdes or istoriul movlenas:
Tqmuli aqvs T.yauxCiSvilsac (T.yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.59). _ Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasasruls qarTveluri tomebiT dasax-
vfiqrobT, ko~tebi formisTvis amosavalia *quTebi; Sdr., VI sau- lebuli teritoria ramdenime samefodaa warmodgenili (ponto,
kunis moRvawis, prokopi kesarielis cnobiT, Zvelad quTaiss lazika, iberia...); sxvadasxva saxelmwifoebriv velSi moqceva
ko~taioni erqva; m.inaZis mixedviT ki, quT- fuZiani saxeli kolx- aferxebs qarTveluri modgmis TemTa (eTnografiul jgufTa)
Ta miwas, mxares aRniSnavda (m.inaZe, 1994, gv.64). aseve, ar gamoiri- kulturul Tanacxovrebas; samxreT da dasavleT saqarTveloSi
cxeba, rom warmodgenili quT- fuZe momdinareobdes xaT-/qaT- ufro knindeba qarTuli/qarTveluri samwignobro-oficialuri
fuZisgan: xaT/qaT > quT (a-s labializaciiT). enis statusi, Sesabamisad, aqtiurdeba zepiri metyvelebisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli fonetikuri movlenebi. vfiqrobT, am periodi-
amgvarad, quTaisis saxelis lingvisturi analiziT aSkaraa,
dan saerToqarTveluri enis aRmosavlur variantSi gvaqvs pala-
rom toponimSi warmodgenilia quT-/quTa Ziri da -is saerToqar-
talizebuli bgerebis mqone sparsuli enis gavlena (Zv.w. II sauku-
Tveluri formanti. ramdenadac, arqeologiuri monacemebis mi-
neSi mtkvar-araqsis auzSi mZlavroben sparsuli tomebi), dasav-
xedviT, qalaqi quTaisi daarsebulia Zveli welTaRricxvis VIII-
lur-qarTvelur zepir metyvelebaSi ki piriqiT: aqtiurdeba wi-
VI saukuneebSi, bunebrivia, unda davuSvaT, rom -is saerToqar- naenismieri labiovelarizebuli bgerebisgan velarizebuli har-
Tveluri formantis zanur-svanuri varianti -iS/-S da, Sesabami- moniuli kompleqsebis (Jg, Sq, jg, Cq, Wk...) warmoqmna, labiovela-
sad, zanur-svanuri dialeqtebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli konso- rizebul Z, c, w, z, s bgerebisgan j, C, W, J, S fonemebis formireba.
nanturi sistema Camoyalibda Zveli welTaRricxvis pirveli Semdgom etapze dasavleT saqarTvelos baris mosaxleobis
aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi. metyvelebaSi momijnave TanxmovanTa labialuri komponentis mona-
Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa formirebis drois qveda

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Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro Tanamedrove qarTvelur dialeqtTa Camoyalibebis dro

wileobiT xorcieldeba a > o, e > a gadabgereba; mTis mosaxleobis nis gareSe Cveni saxelmwifos rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT
metyvelebaSi xmovanTa labializaciis process aferxebs (da nawilSi mcxovreb mosaxleobas qarTvelebs uwodeben (xazi,
cvlis) palatalizacia, romelic axasiaTebs svaneTis mosazRvre aqac da qvemoTac, Cvenia – t.f.)... sxvadasxva qarTuli tomebis er-
Crdilokavkasieli xalxebis enebs; Sdr.: Tian xalxad gadaqcevas xeli uTuod imanac Seuwyo, rom saxelmwi-
qarTveli mematianis cnobiT, mefe saurmagma Tavisi xelisuf-
fos Camoyalibebis dros qarTuli fuZeenis daSlis xarisxi didi
lebis gansamtkiceblad Crdilo kavkasiidan gadmoasaxla "kavkasis
ar iyo. tomebis enebi axlos iyvnen erTmaneTTan; qarTebis, zane-
naTesavTa naxevarni, da romelnime maTganni warCinebul yvna, sxua-
bisa da svanebis enebi, cxadia, am ori aTas xuTasi wlis win erTma-
ni dasxna mTiuleTs - didoeTidan vidre egrisamde, romeli ars
suaneTi" (q.c., 1955, gv.27). droTa ganmavlobaSi qarTvelurma mo- neTis mimarT dialeqtebs warmoadgendnen. isini damoukidebel
dgmam CamosaxlebulTa asimilacia moaxdina, magram Crdilokavka- enebad (? - t.f.) Camoyalibdnen Semdgom, safiqrebelia, mas Semdeg,
sielTa dialeqtebi (Tu enebi), Cans, ukvalod ar dakargulan: ma- rac farnavazis mier Seqmnili saxelmwifo daiSala - vaxtang gor-
Ti superstratuli kvali aSkarad Cans svanTa dialeqtebis fone- gasalis Svilebis dros" (Sdr., svanurs Zveli qarTuli enis dia-
matur struqturaSi palatalizebuli xmovnebis (dawvrilebiT leqtad ganixilavs T.mibCuani; ix., 1993, gv.464).
ix. t.futkaraZe, 1998), saxelis paradigmaSi e.w. ormagi brunvebisa Tanamedrove qarTvelur kiloTa (zanur, svanur, fxour...)
da Crdilokavkasiuri tipis ergativis, leqsikuri nasesxobebisa Camoyalibebis drois TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa enobriv mona-
da svanTa metyvelebis zogi sxva Taviseburebis saxiT. cemTa SepirispirebiTi analizic; ganvixilavT ramdenime faqts:
zanur-svanuri kiloebis formirebis drosTan dakavSirebiT qarTvelur kiloebs samwignobro enis msgavsi brunvaTa siste-
sainteresoa, aseve, Tbilisis istoria: Tavidanve zogadqarTve- ma aqvT; sxvaoba dasturdeba ergativis gaformebisa da nar-Tania-
luri Rirebulebis mqone am qalaqs qarTvelur dialeqtebSi Sesa- ni mravlobiTis TvalsazrisiT:
tyvisobebi ara aqvs. samecniero literaturaSi miCneulia, rom -man/-ma/-m forman-
zanuri da svanuri enobrivi erTeulebis warmoqmnis dasru- tiani moTxrobiTi saxelobiTTan erTad gvianaa Camoyalibebuli
lebis dadasturebul TariRad SeiZleba miviCnioT daviT da kon- (msjelobisa da sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. T.uTurgaiZe, 1986,
stantines wamebis dro: nawarmoebSi gvxvdeba toponimi Wyondidi gv.16-22). arqaul samwignobro enaSi ergativi warmodgenilia
(warmomavlobis saxeli - Wyondideli); Sdr.: berZnul-bizantiur saxelis fuZiT (abraam), me, Sen, Cven, Tqven, man, maT, vin, TviTon
Tu qarTul wyaroebSi manamde dadasturebuli toponimebi sisi- nacvalsaxelebiT, an man nawevriani yalibiT (kac-man); svanur ki-
na tipis enis models mihyvebian. loebSi e.w. adiRuri tipis ergativia gabatonebuli, xolo zanur
gorgaslis Semdeg dawyebuli saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebri- kiloebSi ergativs awarmoebs -q segmenti, romelic, Cveni azriT,
vi ngreva arabobam daasrula: sarwmuno Cans, rom swored am peri- megrul, raWul, taour, imerxeul da sxva qarTvelur kiloebSi
odSi dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriebze sabo- farTod gavrcelebuli qe/qi/qo/qve/ki/xo/ho nawilakis naSTia:
lood Camoyalibda ori didi dialeqturi wre: megrul-lazur- qo/qve/qe dadasturebiTi nawilaki droTa ganmavlobaSi Seer-
Wanur-svanuri da imerul-qarTl-kaxur-mesxur-herul-fxour- wya zog SemTxvevaSi saxelur fuZes, zogan ki - zmnis pirian for-
Takveruli; Sdr., a.jafariZis saintereso msjeloba (1994, gv.65): mas; kerZod, iq sadac mosalodnelia dadasturebiTi nawilakis
"Cveni mematianeni aTaswleulTa manZilze yovelgvari yoyma- povniereba, magram saxeluri fuZe saxelobiTi brunvis formiTaa

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(awmyosa da myofadis formebi pirvelsa da meore pirSi), zmnur rigi (b > E/v?). arqauli tipis ergatiuli konstruqciisa da piris
formas -q sufiqsad miuerTda, sxva SemTxvevaSi ki - saxelur fu- niSnebis e.w. inversiis Sesaxeb sxvagan gveqneba sagangebo msjeloba.

Zes. amosaval konstruqciad vvaraudobT: kac qo/qve dauZaxa > faqtia: saxelobiTis Tavdapirveli forma erTnairi gvaqvs
yvela qarTvelur kiloSi (fuZe+i / fuZe+e), e.i. misi formireba
koCq duZaxu...
SeniSvna: sakiTxis istoriisaTvis: q.lomTaTiZes mxolod megru- momxdaria zanur-svanuri wris kiloebis Camoyalibebamde. aqve
li zmnebis I da II pirSi arsebuli -q sufiqsi miaCnia qo dadastu- vityviT, rom zog kiloSi saxelobiTis i formantis dakargva ix-
rebiTi nawilakis naSTad (q.lomTaTiZe, 1946, gv. 133); T.maxarob- sneba maxvilis zemoqmedebis gamo bolokiduri xmovnis mokvecis
liZis azriT ki, megruli ergativis -q da megruli zmnebis -q masa- tendenciiT (ix. mag. a.arabuli, 1981, gv.120-124). logikuri Cans da-
lobrivad erTi da igivea: orive momdinareobs koC- fuZis pirveli skvnac, rom: -ma/-q niSnebiani ergativis formebi samwignobro
Tanxmovnisgan (T.maxarobliZe, 2005, gv. 46-56).
enasa da zanur kiloebSi warmoqmnilia zanur-svanuri dialeq-
vfiqrobT, aSkaraa, rom iberiul-kavkasiuri specifikuri
turi wris gamomijvnis Semdeg (Sdr., i.imnaiSvili, 1961, 641-642).
brunvis - ergativis -man da -q nawilakebiani variantebi Camoyalib-
T.gvancelaZis varaudiT, samwignobro qarTulis nar-Taniani
da zanur-svanuri kiloebis formirebis Semdeg, xolo svanur ki-
mravlobiTi, xucesi da zanuri kiloebis uCaSi saSualebas unda
loebSi adiRuri tipis ergativis damkvidrebis dro SeiZleba da-
iZleodes, zanuris gamoyofis drod ganvsazRvroT ax.w. V sauku-
ukavSirdes welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze kavkasiis xalxebis did Camo-
ne; kerZod, xucesi asaxavs xanmetobis periods, xolo uCaSi – hae-
saxlebas; gamomdinare aqedan, logikuria, rom amJamindeli
metobisas (azri gamoTqmulia zepiri saubris dros). igive x- pre-
ergativis Camoyalibebis drod vivaraudoT ax.w. I aTaswleuli.
fiqsia svanur xoSa "ufrosi", "didi" sityvaSi (x-ucesi/uCaSi/x-
aqve aRvniSnavT, rom iberiul-kavkasiurSi, saerToqarTvelur-
oSa sityvebSi xanmetobis x- prefiqsi gamoyo a.SaniZem; ix. g.roga-
sa da arqaul qarTulSic arsebobda ergativi, romelic orgva-
va, 1956, gv. 293).
rad gamoixateba:
warmodgenil mosazrebebTan mimarTebaSia gasaazrebeli xan-
saerToqarTveluri warmomavlobis ergatiul (aranominati-
ur, araakuzatiur) konstruqciaSi aRmqmel subieqts warmoad- metobis problema da saerToqarTv. sa – zan. o Sesatyvisobis sa-
kiTxic:
gens saxeluri/nacvalsaxeluri fuZe, an micemiTSi dasmuli saxe-
_ svanur da fxour kiloebSi garkveuli modificirebiT
li (e.w. Zveli ergativi?), romelsac zmnur formaSi Seesabameba: m,
piris niSnad dRemdea SemorCenili e.w. xanmetobis droindeli
g-, s-/h-/x-, gv- piris niSnebi: mindis, mSiis, mwyuris, mwads, mi-
x- prefiqsi:
yvars... rogorc wesi, am tipis zmnebi uZvelesi formaciisani arian
ax.w. V-VII saukuneebis qarTuli xanmeti teqstebis normis
(arn.Ciqobava, 1948, gv.5); Sdr.: istoriul ergatiul konstruqci-
msgavsad, svanurSi x- piris niSani daculia xmovniT dawyebul
aSi moqmed subieqts warmoadgens saxeluri/nacvalsaxeluri fu- zmnebTan subieqtur meore da obieqtur mesame pirSi (x-iSxi "iw-
Ze, an -man/qe nawilakdarTuli saxeli (axali ergativi), romelsac vi", x-asyi "akeTeb", x-atbide "aTbob"... x-alat "uyvars", x-ahEdi
zmnur formaSi Seesabameba: v-, s-/h-, -s, -a, -en, -es... "aZlevs", x-agdi "sZinavs"...). igive x- prefiqsi unda gamoiyos pirve-
SeniSvna: orive rigis niSnebi gvevlinebian rogorc realuri obieq-
li piris x+E- segmentSi (sakiTxis istoriisa da msjelobisaTvis
tis, aseve realuri subieqtis gamomxatvelad; maTi ganawileba Sepi-
ix.: g.rogava, 1956; m.suxiSvili, 1986; n.maWavariani, 1986), kerZod,
robebuli Cans zmnuri semantikiT: aRmqmel subieqts gamoxatavs m-s
rigi (ufro arqauli warmoSobisa: me > m), xolo moqmed subieqts - v-s saerToqarTvelurisa da samwignobro qarTulis msgavsad, svanur

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kiloebSic pirveli piris niSania E/v, romelic arabagismieri mkvlevarTa nawili fiqrobs, rom xanmetoba da haemetoba sakuT-
xmovnebis win daculia ucvlelad, bagismieri bgerebis mezoblad riv qarTuli enis or kilos asaxavs).
ikargeba, xolo TanxmovniT dawyebul zmnebSi Semonaxulia infiq- gasarkvevi rCeba amosavali fonemis sakiTxi:
sis saxiT (msgavsi distribucia Cveulebrivia sxva qarTvelur ki- fonetikuri procesebis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT, logikuri
loebSic). rac Seexeba x+E- segmentis x-s: logikuri Cans, davuS- Cans arn.Ciqobavasa da g.rogavas Tvalsazrisi s-s uwinaresobis Se-
vaT: saxeb. nivTis klas-niSani s, rogorc g.rogava varaudobda, fone-
x- pirveli piris zmnur formaSi arsebuli iribi obieqtis ni- tikur niadagze gvaZlevda h-sa da x-s Soris gardamaval bgeras
Sania; droTa ganmavlobaSi, svanur formebSi xE- erTian morfe- (arn.Ciqobava, 1944; g.rogava, 1956). Cans, samwignobro enis stan-
mad gadaazrianda da sxva SemTxvevebSic ganzogadda; gviandeli dartizaciis Zvel etapebze zogi literaturuli skola piris
analogiuri movlenaa -nar- da -neb- e.w. rTuli sufiqsebis warmo- niSnad h-s azogadebda, zogi skola ki – x-s; saboloo normad ki
qmnac (t.futkaraZe, 1986). damkvidrda zmnuri fuZis dasawyisis Sesabamisi bunebrivi fone-
h/x/s (< sa-/ra-) prefiqsisaTvis amosavali Cans klas-katego- tikuri variantebi: bagismierebTan da ukanaenismierebTan - h, wina-
riis niSnoba (arn.Ciqobava, 19