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DIE CASTING CALCULATIONS

1. Wt of casting (gms)

2. Density(gms/cc): based on alloy used for casting. Al- 2.6 to 2.7; Zn- 7.8; Cu-9;

Mg- 1.7

3. Projected Area Casting : Surface Area (cm2)

4. Volume of Casting cm 3 : (Wt of Comp) / Density

5. Shot Weight = Wt of Casting + (Wt of Runner + Overflow) + Wt of Biscuits

Wt of Runner + Overflow – 10% of Wt of Casting

Wt of Biscuits – 20% of Wt of Casting

6. Gate Velocity (Vg) in m/sec (Refer Table 2)

7. Gate Thickness – Hg (mm) , Hg = n/3 – n/4 , n – thickness of casting

8. Volume of metal through gate : P (cm3)

. P = vol of casting + vol of overflow (10% of vol of casting)

9. Fill Rate (Q) cm3/sec

. Q = (P x 1000) / t ; t – fill time in milli sec’s

10. Gate area (Ag) (cm2)

. Ag = (Q) / (100 x Vg)

11. Gate Length – Lg (mm)

. Lg = ( Ag x 100 ) / Hg

12. Runner Area – Ar (cm2)

. Ar = 1.25 Ag – 1.6 Ag

13. 13 Runner Depth – D (mm)

D = (Ar / 1.6)(1/2) - (Ar / 2)(1/2)


14. Runner Width (W = 2D) (mm)

15. Locking Force – F (Metric Tonnes)

. F = ( A X P) / 1000

i. A – Projected Area (cm2)

ii. P – Specific injection pressure ( kg / cm2)

16. Machine Specification:- Select Machine based on the locking force.

17. Effective Plunger Stroke (cms) :– Maximum plunger stroke – 20/25 mm for

biscuits

18. Plunger Diameter – d (cm)

. Shot wt = Plunger Area x Eff. Plunger Stroke x 0.75 x 2.5 (gm)

. Shot wt = [ (Π X d2 ) / 4 ]x Eff. Plunger Stroke Plunger x 0.75 x 2.5 (gm)

. 4 x Shot wt = (Π X d2 ) x Eff. Plunger Stroke x 0.75 x 2.5 (gm)

. d2 = ( 4 x shot wt) / (Π X Eff. Plunger Stroke x 0.75 x 2.5)

. d= √ [ ( 4 x shot wt) / (Π X Eff. Plunger Stroke x 0.75 x 2.5) ]


TABLE I Specific Injection Pressure

Zn Al or Mg
Decorative Parts 100 – 200 – 400
200
Engineering Parts 200 – 400 – 600
300
Pressure Tight Parts 250 – 800 – 1000
400

TABLE II Gate Velocity Ranges

Thinnest Wall Thickness (mm) Gate Velocity Range (m/sec)


0 – 0.762 46 – 55
1.27 – 1.525 43 – 52
1.905 – 2.286 40 – 49
2.54 – 2.794 37 – 46
3.175 – 3.87 34 – 43
4.572 – 5.08 31 – 40
3.75 - Above 28 – 35
Use lower values for warmer dies and hot metals
Use higher values for colder dies and colder metals

TABLE III METAL & DIE TEMPERATURE

Alloy Metal Temperature Die Temperature


Zn Alloy 393 C (740 F) 393 C (740 F)
Mg Alloy 657 C (1215 F) 332 C (630 F)
Al Alloy 657 C (1215 F) 332 C (630 F)

Die Filling Time

For Zn, Al, Mg Alloys

Average Wall Thickness (mm) Max Die Filling Time (milli sec)
1 10 – 30
1.5 10 – 35
1.8 20 – 40
2.0 30 – 60
2.5 40 – 90
3 50 – 100
4 50 – 120
For higher values – fill time – 7ms for every 0.5mm wall thickness

For Brass

Average Wall Thickness (mm) Max Die Filling Time (milli sec)
1.5 20 – 25
1.75 25 – 30
2 25 – 35
2.5 30 – 40
3 35 – 45
4 40 – 50

Highest value apply for Al


Medium value apply for Zn
Lowest value apply for Mg

TABLE IV Gate Thickness

Wall Thickness (mm) Gate Thickness (mm)


Al Mg
0.75 – 1.5 0.5 – 0.8 0.5 – 0.6
1.5 – 2.5 0.8 – 0.6 – 0.85
1.25
2.5 – 4 1.25 – 0.85 – 1.35
1.6

Ejection System

Assuming ejecting area to be 4% of the area of the casting

Total Ejecting area = Projected area of Component X 4%

Area of selected Ejector Pin Diameter = A

Area of Ejector Pin = ( Π X A2 ) / 4

No of Ejector Pins Required = Total Ejection Area / Area of Ejection Pin