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THE BOILER OPERATORS HANDBOOK SECOND EDITION Premier12 re. NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL FUEL EFFICIENCY SERVICE LTD Graham & Trotman Graham & Trotman Limited Kiuwer Academic Publishers Group Sterling House 101 Philip Drive 66 Wilton Road Assinippi Park London SW1V 1DE Norwell, MA 02061 UK USA ISBN 1 85333 285 2 © National Industrial Fuel Efficiency Service Ltd, 1959, 1969, 1981, 1989 First published in 1959 as the New Stoker's Manual and in 1969 as The Boiler Operators Handbook Revised first edition published in 1981 by Graham & Trotman Limited Reprinted 1985 Second edition 1989 Reprinted 1991 British Library and Library of Congress CIP data Is available from the publisher. This publication is protected by international copyright law. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Computer typeset in Times 2 New Roman by Microgen (UK) Ltd, Welwyn Garden City, Herts. Printed and bound in Great Britain by Bell & Bain Ltd, Glasgow Chapter | CONTENTS List_of Figures viii Listof Tables 4.||.|1—1 CK Foreword Acknowledgements xi xii Fuels in Common Use Chapter 2 Liquid Fuels. Gaseous Fuels. Coal. Calorific Value. Si h. Moi Talk Combustion ll Chapter 3 Combustion in practice. Burning oil. Gas burning. Combustion of coal on a grate. Flames. Flame type. Sulphur corrosion. Water and Steam 23 Chapter 4 Steam raising. Definition of terms. Water. Priming. Bumping. Foaming. Carry-over. Effects of scale. Corrosion. Water treatment systems. Blowd Ht boilers. P ear Feed water and treatment. Boiler Efficiency and Heat Transfer 37 Boiler thermal efficiency. Gross or higher calorific value, Heat losses. Heat loss in flue gases. Air supply. Dirty heat transfer surfaces. Unburned fuel loss. Radiation and other losses. tiny efficiency, Heat transfer, Boiler heat recovery plant. On line cleaning. General fuel efficiency ithin the boiler